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105th Congress                                                   Report
 2d Session             HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES                105-455



 March 19, 1998.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed


  Mr. Young of Alaska, from the Committee on Resources, submitted the 

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 3113]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Resources, to whom was referred the bill 
(H.R. 3113) to reauthorize the Rhinoceros and Tiger 
Conservation Act of 1994, having considered the same, report 
favorably thereon without amendment and recommend that the bill 
do pass.

                          Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of H.R. 3113 is to reauthorize the Rhinoceros 
and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994.

                  Background and Need for Legislation

    During the 103rd Congress, the Rhinoceros and Tiger 
Conservation Act was enacted in an effort to help conserve the 
dwindling populations of rhinos and tigers living in the wild. 
While these species had once been prolific throughout Asia and 
Africa, during the past two decades they have suffered a 
tremendous population decline because of competition for land, 
human population growth, loss of habitat, and poaching. This 
occurred despite the fact that all populations of rhinoceros 
and tiger have been listed as endangered in the United States 
and by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered 
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since the mid-1970s.
    At this time, it is estimated that there are about 11,000 
rhinos left in the wild. This is a significant decrease from 
the 65,000 rhinos in 1970. Of the five species of rhinoceros--
black, white, Indian, Javan, and Sumatran--only the population 
of white rhinos shows any sign that it has stabilized or may be 
increasing in numbers in Southern Africa.
    In 1987, the members of CITES voted to extend its worldwide 
ban on rhinoceros horn, urged the destruction of any 
stockpiles, and instructed all countries to stop all trade in 
rhino products. This international edict has been largely 
ignored. Rhino horn is still consumed as a pain medication in 
powdered form in China, Taiwan, and Korea; and it is used as 
decorative handles for ceremonial daggers in Yemen. As the 
population of rhinos has declined, the price of rhino horn has 
skyrocketed. In fact, African rhino horn can be worth as much 
as $10,000 per kilogram and the rarer Asian rhino horn up to 
$60,000 per kilogram.
    In terms of tigers, the likelihood of their long-term 
survival is even more bleak. In fact, three subspecies Bali, 
Caspian, and Javan are already extinct and a fourth 
subspecies--South China--is on the brink of extinction with a 
population of only about 20 animals. According to the Cat 
Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union, there are 
only about 5,000 tigers living in the wild. This is a massive 
decline from the 100,000 tigers that existed at the turn of the 
    Nearly 60 percent of the world's surviving tigers, or about 
3,750 animals, live in 21 forest reserves in India. However, 
despite strict government protection, about one tiger is killed 
every day in India.
    Although agricultural and commercial logging have destroyed 
large amounts of tiger habitat, illegal hunting or poaching has 
had the most dramatic impact. Tigers are killed for their fur 
and most body parts. Tiger bone has been an ingredient in 
traditional Chinese medicines since at least 500 A.D. and its 
use is firmly established in several Asian cultures. In 
addition, traditional uses have been identified for almost 
every tiger body part, and tiger meat is considered a delicacy 
by some Chinese.
    Tiger bone powders, wines, and tablets are used to combat 
pain, kidney and liver problems, rheumatism, convulsions, and 
heart conditions. In 1991, one-third of the world's Siberian 
tigers were killed to satisfy the demand for their bones and 
other parts. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), a 
tiger pelt can be worth up to $15,000 and tiger bones can sell 
for over $1,400 per pound.
    Most of the illegal trade in tiger parts occurs within the 
Asian continent. Burma, Cambodia, India, Laos, the Peoples 
Republic of China, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam 
have all been identified as having serious poaching and 
consumption problems. In fact, according to CITES, South Korea 
has imported 10,500 pounds of tiger bone in the last six years. 
During the same period, China has reportedly exported more than 
78 tons of tiger bones, which represents about 5,600 tigers--
more than what may be alive today.
    In an effort to try to stop poaching and conserve 
endangered rhinos and tigers, Congress enacted the Rhinoceros 
and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994. This landmark legislation, 
Public Law 103-391, established the Rhinoceros and Tiger 
Conservation Fund and authorized the Congress to appropriate up 
to $10 million each year for conservation projects approved by 
the Secretary of the Interior. This Fund is authorized until 
September 30, 2000.
    The 1994 law establishes specific criteria that each 
project must satisfy to qualify for Federal assistance, limits 
the amount of administrative costs to three percent of the 
Fund, gives priority to those projects that demonstrate an 
ability to match or exceed the amount of grant money with 
private funds, and allows individuals to donate money directly 
to the Fund to assist in the conservation of rhinos and tigers.
    Since its enactment, Congress has appropriated $1 million 
to the Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Fund. The Department 
of the Interior has funded 31 conservation projects to assist 
rhinos and tigers at a Federal cost of about $585,000.
    To date, the Service has funded 16 rhino projects, 7 tiger 
projects, and 8 projects that will benefit both species. These 
projects have included: an adopt-a-warden program in Indonesia; 
aerial monitoring of the Northern white rhinoceros in Zaire; 
establishment of a community rhino scout program for the 
survival of the black rhino populations in Kenya; investigation 
of poaching and illegal trade in wild tigers in India; a tiger 
community education program in Indonesia; and training of staff 
and surveys of four black rhino populations in the Selous Game 
Reserve in Tanzania. The sponsors of these projects, who are 
likely to match the grants with private funds, include the 
Friends of Conservation, African Rhino Specialist Group, 
International Rhino Foundation, the Minnesota Zoo Foundation, 
Wildlife Protection Society of India, and WWF.
    Based on the success of the African Elephant Conservation 
Fund, the hope is that these grants will make a positive 
difference in the international fight to conserve rhinos and 

                            Committee Action

    H.R. 3113 was introduced by the Chairman of the Resources 
Committee, Congressman Don Young (R-AK), on January 27, 1998, 
and referred to the Committee on Resources. Within the 
Committee, the bill was referred to the Subcommittee on 
Fisheries Conservation, Wildlife and Oceans. The fundamental 
goal of H.R. 3113 is to extend the authorization of the 
Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Fund until September 30, 
    On February 5, 1998, the Subcommittee on Fisheries 
Conservation, Wildlife and Oceans conducted a hearing on H.R. 
3113. Testimony was heard from the Honorable Bruce Babbitt, 
Secretary, Department of the Interior; Dr. Terry Maple, 
President and CEO, Zoo Atlanta; Ms. Kathryn Fuller, President, 
WWF; Ms. Dorene Bolze, Senior Policy Analyst, Wildlife 
Conservation Society; Dr. John Seidensticker, Curator of 
Mammals, National Zoological Park; Mr. Richard M. Parsons, 
Director, Department of Wildlife Conservation and Governmental 
Affairs, Safari Club International; and Dr. Thomas Foose, 
Program Director, International Rhino Foundation. In his 
testimony, Secretary Babbitt stated that ``the Rhinoceros and 
Tiger Conservation Fund has gotten off to an excellent start 
over the past three years. The job has only just begun, 
however. There is much work to do and no shortage of committed 
partners seeking our help in Africa and Asia.'' At the same 
hearing, Dr. Terry Maple said that ``like the African Elephant 
Conservation Fund, this Fund is designed to be a `quick-strike' 
in assisting conservation organizations on the front lines of 
saving these animals from extinction.'' Finally, Ms. Kathryn S. 
Fuller testified that ``funding from the Rhinoceros and Tiger 
Conservation Fund is a critical complement to the support 
already coming for rhino conservation from other private and 
public sources.''
    On February 12, 1998, the Subcommittee on Fisheries 
Conservation, Wildlife and Oceans considered H.R. 3113 in a 
markup session and ordered it favorably reported, without 
amendment, to the full Committee on Resources by voice vote. On 
March 11, 1998, the full Resources Committee met to consider 
H.R. 3113. No amendments were offered and the bill was ordered 
favorably reported to the House of Representatives by voice 

            Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    With respect to the requirements of clause 2(l)(3) of rule 
XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives, and clause 
2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
the Committee on Resources' oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the body of this report.

                   Constitutional Authority Statement

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 3113.

                        Cost of the Legislation

    Clause 7(a) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs which would be incurred in carrying out 
H.R. 3113. However, clause 7(d) of that rule provides that this 
requirement does not apply when the Committee has included in 
its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the bill 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
under section 403 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

                     Compliance With House Rule XI

    1. With respect to the requirement of clause 2(l)(3)(B) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives and 
section 308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, H.R. 
3113 does not contain new budget authority, spending authority, 
credit authority, or an increase or decrease in revenues or tax 
    2. With respect to the requirement of clause 2(l)(3)(D) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
Committee has received no report of oversight findings and 
recommendations from the Committee on Government Reform and 
Oversight on the subject of H.R. 3113.
    3. With respect to the requirement of clause 2(l)(3)(C) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives and 
section 403 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the 
Committee has received the following cost estimate for H.R. 
3113 from the Director of the Congressional Budget Office.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, March 16, 1998.
Hon. Don Young,
Chairman, Committee on Resources, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 3113, the 
Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Reauthorization Act of 1998.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Deborah Reis.
                                              James L. Blum
                                   (For June E. O'Neill, Director).

H.R. 3113--Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Reauthorization Act of 

    Summary: H.R. 3113 would reauthorize, through fiscal year 
2004, annual appropriations to the Rhinoceros and Tiger 
Conservation Fund at the existing authorization level of up to 
$10 million. the current authorizations expire after fiscal 
year 2000. The Secretary of the Interior uses this fund 
primarily to help finance research and conservation programs 
overseas. From its inception in 1994, the fund has received 
appropriations totaling $1 million.
    Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 3113 would result in additional 
discretionary spending of $12 million over the 2001-2003 
period. The legislation would not affect direct spending or 
receipts; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures would not apply. 
H.R. 3113 does not contain any intergovernmental or private-
sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act 
of 1995 (UMRA), and would have no impact on the budgets of 
state, local, or tribal governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The 
authorizations specified by the bill are the same as the 
current authorization level but are significantly higher than 
the $200,000 to $400,000 that has been appropriated in each of 
the last few years. For purposes of this estimate, CBO assumes 
that the entire amounts authorized by H.R. 3113 would be 
appropriated for each fiscal year through 2004. Outlay 
estimates are based on historical spending patterns for this 
program. The estimated budgetary impact of H.R. 3113 is shown 
in the following table. The costs of this legislation fall 
within budget function 300 (natural resources and environment).

                                                                  By fiscal years, in millions of dollars--     
                                                              1998     1999     2000     2001     2002     2003 
                                        SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION                                       
Spending Under Current Law:                                                                                     
    Authorization Level \1\...............................    (\2\)       10       10        0        0        0
    Estimated Outlays.....................................    (\2\)        1        4        6        6        3
Proposed Changes:                                                                                               
    Estimated Authorization Level.........................        0        0        0       10       10       10
    Estimated Outlays.....................................        0        0        0        1        4        7
Spending Under U.S. 3113:                                                                                       
    Estimated Authorization Level \1\.....................    (\2\)       10       10       10       10       10
    Estimated Outlays.....................................    (\2\)        1        4        7       10       10
\1\ The 1998 level is the amount appropriated for that year. The 1999 and 2000 levels are the amounts authorized
  under current law.                                                                                            
\2\ Less than $500,000                                                                                          

    Pay-as-you-go considerations: None.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 3113 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would have no impact on the budgets of 
state, local, or tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Deborah Reis.
    Estimate approved by: Robert A. Sunshine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                    Compliance With Public Law 104-4

    H.R. 3113 contains no unfunded mandates.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3 of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):



    There are authorized to be appropriated to the Fund 
$100,000,000 for each of [fiscal years 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 
and 2000] fiscal years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 
2004 to carry out this Act, to remain available until expended.