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105th Congress                                            Rept. 105-480
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 2d Session                                                      Part 2
_______________________________________________________________________


 
             FREEDOM FROM RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION ACT OF 1998
                                _______
                                

  May 8, 1998.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

_______________________________________________________________________


    Mr. Archer, from the Committee on Ways and Means, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 2431]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Ways and Means, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 2431) to establish an Office of Religious 
Persecution Monitoring, to provide for the imposition of 
sanctions against countries engaged in a pattern of religious 
persecution, and for other purposes, having considered the 
same, report an amendment, but without recommendation on the 
bill as amended.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
 I. Introduction.....................................................15
        A. Purpose and Summary...................................    15
        B. Background............................................    15
        C. Legislative History...................................    16
II. Explanation of the Bill..........................................17
        A. Denial of Foreign Tax Credits.........................    17
        B. Prohibitions on Imports from Sudan....................    17
        C. Exception for the Importation of Certain Agricultural 
            Products.............................................    18
III.Vote of the Committee............................................19

IV. Budget Effects of the Bill.......................................19
        A. Committee Estimates of Budgetary Effects..............    19
        B. Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures.................    19
        C. Cost Estimate Prepared by the Congressional Budget 
            Office...............................................    19
 V. Other Matters To Be Discussed Under the Rules of the House.......23
        A. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations......    23
        B. Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the 
            Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.........    23
        C. Constitutional Authority Statement....................    24
VI. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............24

  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:
  

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Freedom From Religious Persecution Act 
of 1998''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

  (a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Governments have a primary responsibility to promote, 
        encourage, and protect respect for the fundamental and 
        internationally recognized right to freedom of religion.
          (2)(A) Since its inception, the United States Government has 
        rested upon certain founding principles. One of those 
        principles is that all people have the inalienable right to 
        worship freely, which demands that religion be protected from 
        unnecessary government intervention. The Founding Fathers of 
        the United States incorporated that principle in the 
        Declaration of Independence, which states that mankind has the 
        inalienable right to ``life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
        happiness'', and in the United States Constitution, the first 
        amendment to which states that ``Congress shall make no law 
        respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the 
        free exercise thereof''. Therefore, in accordance with this 
        belief in the inalienable right of freedom of religion for all 
        people, as expressed by the Declaration of Independence, and 
        the belief that religion should be protected from government 
        interference, as expressed by the United States Constitution, 
        the Congress opposes international religious persecution and 
        believes that the policies of the United States Government and 
        its relations with foreign governments should be consistent 
        with the commitment to this principle.
          (B) Numerous international agreements and covenants also 
        identify mankind's inherent right to freedom of religion. These 
        include the following:
                  (i) Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human 
                Rights states that ``Everyone has the right to freedom 
                of thought, conscience and religion; this right 
                includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and 
                freedom, either alone or in community with others and 
                in public or private, to manifest his religion or 
                belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance''.
                  (ii) Article 18 of the Covenant on Civil and 
                Political Rights declares that ``Everyone shall have 
                the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and 
                religion . . .'' and further delineates the privileges 
                under this right.
                  (iii) The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms 
                of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion 
                and Belief, adopted by the United Nations General 
                Assembly on November 25, 1981, declares that ``religion 
                or belief, for anyone who professes either, is one of 
                the fundamental elements in his conception of life . . 
                .'' and that ``freedom of religion and belief should 
                also contribute to the attainment of the goals of world 
                peace, social justice and friendship among peoples and 
                to the elimination of ideologies or practices of 
                colonialism and racial discrimination''.
                  (iv) The Concluding Document of the Third Follow-Up 
                Meeting of the Organization for Security and 
                Cooperation in Europe commits states to ``ensure in 
                their laws and regulations and in their application the 
                full and effective exercise of the freedom of thought, 
                conscience, religion or belief''.
          (3) Persecution of religious believers, particularly Roman 
        Catholic and evangelical Protestant Christians, in Communist 
        countries persists and in some cases is increasing.
          (4) In many countries and regions thereof, governments 
        dominated by extremist movements persecute non-Muslims and 
        religious converts from Islam using means such as ``blasphemy'' 
        and ``apostasy'' laws, and such movements seek to corrupt a 
        historically tolerant Islamic faith and culture through the 
        persecution of Baha'is, Christians, and other religious 
        minorities.
          (5) The extremist Government of Sudan is waging a self-
        described religious war against Christians, other non-Muslims, 
        and moderate Muslims by using torture, starvation, enslavement, 
        and murder.
          (6) In Tibet, where Tibetan Buddhism is inextricably linked 
        to the Tibetan identity, the Government of the People's 
        Republic of China has intensified its control over the Tibetan 
        people by interfering in the selection of the Panchen Lama, 
        propagandizing against the religious authority of the Dalai 
        Lama, restricting religious study and traditional religious 
        practices, and increasing the persecution of monks and nuns.
          (7) In Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, formerly the 
        independent republic of East Turkistan, where the Muslim 
        religion is inextricably linked to the dominant Uyghur culture, 
        the Government of the People's Republic of China has 
        intensified its control over the Uyghur people by 
        systematically repressing religious authority, restricting 
        religious study and traditional practices, destroying mosques, 
        and increasing the persecution of religious clergy and 
        practitioners.
          (8) In countries around the world, Christians, Jews, Muslims, 
        Hindus, and other religious believers continue to be persecuted 
        on account of their religious beliefs, practices, and 
        affiliations.
          (9) The 104th Congress recognized the facts set forth in this 
        section and stated clearly the sense of the Senate and the 
        House of Representatives regarding these matters in approving--
                  (A) House Resolution 515, expressing the sense of the 
                House of Representatives with respect to the 
                persecution of Christians worldwide;
                  (B) S. Con. Res. 71, expressing the sense of the 
                Senate with respect to the persecution of Christians 
                worldwide;
                  (C) H. Con. Res. 102, concerning the emancipation of 
                the Iranian Baha'i community; and
                  (D) section 1303 of H.R. 1561, the Foreign Relations 
                Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.
          (10) The Department of State, in a report to Congress filed 
        pursuant to House Report 104-863, accompanying the Omnibus 
        Consolidated Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208) set 
        forth strong evidence that widespread and ongoing religious 
        persecution is occurring in a number of countries around the 
        world.
  (b) Purpose.--It is the purpose of this Act to reduce and eliminate 
the widespread and ongoing religious persecution taking place 
throughout the world today.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

  As used in this Act:
          (1) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the Office of Religious Persecution Monitoring established 
        under section 5.
          (2) Legislative day.--The term ``legislative day'' means a 
        day on which both Houses of Congress are in session.
          (3) Persecuted community.--The term ``persecuted community'' 
        means any religious group or denomination whose members have 
        been found to be subject to category 1 or category 2 
        persecution in the latest annual report submitted under section 
        6(a) or in any interim report submitted thereafter under 
        section 6(c) before the next annual report.
          (4) Persecution facilitating products.--The term 
        ``persecution facilitating products'' means those crime 
        control, detection, torture, and electroshock instruments and 
        equipment (as determined under section 6(n) of the Export 
        Administration Act of 1979) that are directly and substantially 
        used or intended for use in carrying out acts of persecution 
        described in paragraphs (5) and (6).
          (5) Category 1 persecution.--The term ``category 1 
        persecution'' means widespread and ongoing persecution of 
        persons on account of their religious beliefs or practices, or 
        membership in or affiliation with a religion or religious group 
        or denomination, whether officially recognized or otherwise, 
        when such persecution--
                  (A) includes abduction, enslavement, killing, 
                imprisonment, forced mass relocation, rape, crucifixion 
                or other forms of torture, or the systematic imposition 
                of fines or penalties which have the purpose and effect 
                of destroying the economic existence of persons on whom 
                they are imposed; and
                  (B) is conducted with the involvement or support of 
                government officials or agents, or pursuant to official 
                government policy.
          (6) Category 2 persecution.--The term ``category 2 
        persecution'' means widespread and ongoing persecution of 
        persons on account of their religious beliefs or practices, or 
        membership in or affiliation with a religion or religious group 
        or denomination, whether officially recognized or otherwise, 
        when such persecution--
                  (A) includes abduction, enslavement, killing, 
                imprisonment, forced mass relocation, rape, crucifixion 
                or other forms of torture, or the systematic imposition 
                of fines or penalties which have the purpose and effect 
                of destroying the economic existence of persons on whom 
                they are imposed; and
                  (B) is not conducted with the involvement or support 
                of government officials or agents, or pursuant to 
                official government policy, but which the government 
                fails to undertake serious and sustained efforts to 
                eliminate, being able to do so.
          (7) Responsible entities.--The term ``responsible entities'' 
        means the specific government units, as narrowly defined as 
        practicable, which directly carry out the acts of persecution 
        described in paragraphs (5) and (6).
          (8) Sanctioned country.--The term ``sanctioned country'' 
        means a country on which sanctions have been imposed under 
        section 7.
          (9) United states assistance.--The term ``United States 
        assistance'' means--
                  (A) any assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act 
                of 1961 (including programs under title IV of chapter 2 
                of part I of that Act, relating to the Overseas Private 
                Investment Corporation), other than--
                          (i) assistance under chapter 8 of part I of 
                        that Act;
                          (ii) any other narcotics-related assistance 
                        under part I of that Act or under chapter 4 or 
                        5 of part II of that Act, but any such 
                        assistance provided under this clause shall be 
                        subject to the prior notification procedures 
                        applicable to reprogrammings pursuant to 
                        section 634A of that Act;
                          (iii) disaster relief assistance, including 
                        any assistance under chapter 9 of part I of 
                        that Act;
                          (iv) antiterrorism assistance under chapter 8 
                        of part II of that Act;
                          (v) assistance which involves the provision 
                        of food (including monetization of food) or 
                        medicine;
                          (vi) assistance for refugees; and
                          (vii) humanitarian and other development 
                        assistance in support of programs of 
                        nongovernmental organizations under chapters 1 
                        and 10 of that Act;
                  (B) sales, or financing on any terms, under the Arms 
                Export Control Act, other than sales or financing 
                provided for narcotics-related purposes following 
                notification in accordance with the prior notification 
                procedures applicable to reprogrammings pursuant to 
                section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961; and
                  (C) financing under the Export-Import Bank Act of 
                1945.
          (10) United states person.--The term ``United States person'' 
        means--
                  (A) any United States citizen or alien lawfully 
                admitted for permanent residence into the United 
                States; and
                  (B) any corporation, partnership, or other entity 
                organized under the laws of the United States or of any 
                State, the District of Columbia, or any territory or 
                possession of the United States.

SEC. 4. APPLICATION AND SCOPE.

  The responsibility of the Secretary of State under section 5(g) to 
determine whether category 1 or category 2 persecution exists, and to 
identify persons and communities that are subject to such persecution, 
extends to--
          (1) all foreign countries in which alleged violations of 
        religious freedom have been set forth in the latest annual 
        report of the Department of State on human rights under 
        sections 116(d) and 502(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
        1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151n(d) and 2304(b)); and
          (2) such other foreign countries in which, either as a result 
        of referral by an independent human rights group or 
        nongovernmental organization in accordance with section 5(e)(2) 
        or otherwise, the Director has reason to believe category 1 or 
        category 2 persecution may exist.

SEC. 5. OFFICE OF RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION MONITORING.

  (a) Establishment.--There shall be established in the Department of 
State the Office of Religious Persecution Monitoring (hereafter in this 
Act referred to as the ``Office'').
  (b) Appointment.--The head of the Office shall be a Director who 
shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate. The Director shall receive compensation at the rate of 
pay in effect for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 
of title 5, United States Code.
  (c) Removal.--The Director shall serve at the pleasure of the 
President.
  (d) Barred From Other Federal Positions.--No person shall serve as 
Director while serving in any other position in the Federal Government.
  (e) Responsibilities of Director.--The Director shall do the 
following:
          (1) Consider information regarding the facts and 
        circumstances of violations of religious freedom presented in 
        the annual reports of the Department of State on human rights 
        under sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act 
        of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151n(d) and 2304(b)).
          (2) Make findings of fact on violations of religious freedom 
        based on information--
                  (A) considered under paragraph (1); or
                  (B) presented by independent human rights groups, 
                nongovernmental organizations, or other interested 
                parties, at any stage of the process provided in this 
                Act.
         When appropriate, the Director may hold public hearings 
        subject to notice at which such groups, organizations, or other 
        interested parties can present testimony and evidence of acts 
        of persecution occurring in countries being examined by the 
        Office.
          (3) On the basis of information and findings of fact 
        described in paragraphs (1) and (2), make recommendations to 
        the Secretary of State for consideration by the Secretary in 
        making determinations of countries in which there is category 1 
        or category 2 persecution under subsection (g), identify the 
        responsible entities within such countries, and prepare and 
        submit the annual report described in section 6.
          (4) Maintain the lists of persecution facilitating products, 
        and the responsible entities within countries determined to be 
        engaged in persecution described in paragraph (3), revising the 
        lists in accordance with section 6(c) as additional information 
        becomes available. These lists shall be published in the 
        Federal Register.
          (5) In consultation with the Secretary of State, make policy 
        recommendations to the President regarding the policies of the 
        United States Government toward governments which are 
        determined to be engaged in religious persecution.
          (6) Report directly to the President and the Secretary of 
        State, and coordinate with the appropriate officials of the 
        Department of State, the Department of Justice, the Department 
        of Commerce, and the Department of the Treasury, to ensure that 
        the provisions of this Act are fully and effectively 
        implemented.
  (f) Administrative Matters.--
          (1) Personnel.--The Director may appoint such personnel as 
        may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Office.
          (2) Services of other agencies.--The Director may use the 
        personnel, services, and facilities of any other department or 
        agency, on a reimbursable basis, in carrying out the functions 
        of the Office.
  (g) Responsibilities of the Secretary of State.--The Secretary of 
State, in time for inclusion in the annual report described in 
subsections (a) and (b) of section 6, shall determine with respect to 
each country described in section 4 whether there is category 1 or 
category 2 persecution, and shall include in each such determination 
the communities against which such persecution is directed. Any 
determination in any interim report described in subsection (c) of 
section 6 that there is category 1 or category 2 persecution in a 
country shall be made by the Secretary of State.

SEC. 6. REPORTS TO CONGRESS.

  (a) Annual Reports.--Not later than April 30 of each year, the 
Director shall submit to the Committees on Foreign Relations, the 
Judiciary, Appropriations, and Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of 
the Senate and to the Committees on International Relations, the 
Judiciary, Appropriations, and Banking and Financial Services of the 
House of Representatives a report described in subsection (b).
  (b) Contents of Annual Report.--The annual report of the Director 
shall include the following:
          (1) Determination of religious persecution.--A copy of the 
        determinations of the Secretary of State pursuant to subsection 
        (g) of section 5.
          (2) Identification of persecution facilitating products.--
        With respect to each country in which the Secretary of State 
        has determined that there is either category 1 or category 2 
        persecution, the Director, in consultation with the Secretary 
        of Commerce, shall identify and list the items on the list 
        established under section 6(n) of the Export Administration Act 
        of 1979 that are directly and substantially used or intended 
        for use in carrying out acts of religious persecution in such 
        country.
          (3) Identification of responsible entities.--With respect to 
        each country in which the Secretary of State has determined 
        that there is category 1 persecution, the Director shall 
        identify and list the responsible entities within that country 
        that are engaged in such persecution. Such entities shall be 
        defined as narrowly as possible.
          (4) Other reports.--The Director shall include the reports 
        submitted to the Director by the Attorney General under section 
        9 and by the Secretary of State under section 10.
  (c) Interim Reports.--The Director may submit interim reports to the 
Congress containing such matters as the Director considers necessary, 
including revisions to the lists issued under paragraphs (2) and (3) of 
subsection (b). The Director shall submit an interim report in the case 
of a determination by the Secretary of State under section 5(g), other 
than in an annual report of the Director, that category 1 or category 2 
persecution exists, or in the case of a determination by the Secretary 
of State under section 11(a) that neither category 1 or category 2 
persecution exists.
  (d) Persecution in Regions of a Country.--In determining whether 
category 1 or category 2 persecution exists in a country, the Secretary 
of State shall include such persecution that is limited to one or more 
regions within the country, and shall indicate such regions in the 
reports described in this section.

SEC. 7. SANCTIONS.

  (a) Prohibition on Exports Relating to Religious Persecution.--
          (1) Actions by responsible departments and agencies.--With 
        respect to any country in which--
                  (A) the Secretary of State finds the occurrence of 
                category 1 persecution, the Director shall so notify 
                the relevant United States departments and agencies, 
                and such departments and agencies shall--
                          (i) prohibit all exports to the responsible 
                        entities identified in the lists issued under 
                        subsections (b)(3) and (c) of section 6; and
                          (ii) prohibit the export to such country of 
                        the persecution facilitating products 
                        identified in the lists issued under 
                        subsections (b)(2) and (c) of section 6; or
                  (B) the Secretary of State finds the occurrence of 
                category 2 persecution, the Director shall so notify 
                the relevant United States departments and agencies, 
                and such departments and agencies shall prohibit the 
                export to such country of the persecution facilitating 
                products identified in the lists issued under 
                subsections (b)(2) and (c) of section 6.
          (2) Prohibitions on u.s. persons.--(A) With respect to any 
        country in which the Secretary of State finds the occurrence of 
        category 1 persecution, no United States person may--
                  (i) export any item to the responsible entities 
                identified in the lists issued under subsections (b)(3) 
                and (c) of section 6; and
                  (ii) export to that country any persecution 
                facilitating products identified in the lists issued 
                under subsections (b)(2) and (c) of section 6.
          (B) With respect to any country in which the Secretary of 
        State finds the occurrence of category 2 persecution, no United 
        States person may export to that country any persecution 
        facilitating products identified in the lists issued under 
        subsections (b)(2) and (c) of section 6.
          (3) Penalties.--Any person who knowingly violates the 
        provisions of paragraph (2) shall be subject to the penalties 
        set forth in subsections (a) and (b)(1) of section 16 of the 
        Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 16 (a) and (b)(1)) 
        for violations under that Act.
          (4) Effective date of prohibitions.--The prohibitions on 
        exports under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall take effect with 
        respect to a country 90 days after the date on which--
                  (A) the country is identified in a report of the 
                Director under section 6 as a country in which category 
                1 or category 2 persecution exists,
                  (B) responsible entities are identified in that 
                country in a list issued under subsection (b)(3) or (c) 
                of section 6, or
                  (C) persecution facilitating products are identified 
                in a list issued under subsection (b)(2) or (c) of 
                section 6,
        as the case may be.
  (b) United States Assistance.--
          (1) Category 1 persecution.--No United States assistance may 
        be provided to the government of any country which the 
        Secretary of State determines is engaged in category 1 
        persecution, effective 90 days after the date on which the 
        Director submits the report in which the determination is 
        included.
          (2) Category 2 persecution.--No United States assistance may 
        be provided to the government of any country in which the 
        Secretary of State determines that there is category 2 
        persecution, effective 1 year after the date on which the 
        Director submits the report in which the determination is 
        included, if the Secretary of State, in the next annual report 
        of the Director under section6, determines that the country is 
engaged in category 1 persecution or that category 2 persecution exists 
in that country.
  (c) Multilateral Assistance.--
          (1) Category 1 persecution.--With respect to any country 
        which the Secretary of State determines is engaged in category 
        1 persecution, the President shall instruct the United States 
        Executive Director of each multilateral development bank and of 
        the International Monetary Fund to vote against, and use his or 
        her best efforts to deny, any loan or other utilization of the 
        funds of their respective institutions to that country (other 
        than for humanitarian assistance, or for development assistance 
        which directly addresses basic human needs, is not administered 
        by the government of the sanctioned country, and confers no 
        benefit on the government of that country), effective 90 days 
        after the Director submits the report in which the 
        determination is included.
          (2) Category 2 persecution.--With respect to any country in 
        which the Secretary of State determines there is category 2 
        persecution, the President shall instruct the United States 
        Executive Director of each multilateral development bank and of 
        the International Monetary Fund to vote against, and use his or 
        her best efforts to deny, any loan or other utilization of the 
        funds of their respective institutions to that country (other 
        than for humanitarian assistance, or for development assistance 
        which directly addresses basic human needs, is not administered 
        by the government of the sanctioned country, and confers no 
        benefit on the government of that country), effective 1 year 
        after the date on which the Director submits the report in 
        which the determination is included, if the Secretary of State, 
        in the next annual report of the Director under section 6, 
        determines that the country is engaged in category 1 
        persecution or that category 2 persecution exists in that 
        country.
          (3) Reports to congress.--If a country described in paragraph 
        (1) or (2) is granted a loan or other utilization of funds 
        notwithstanding the objection of the United States under this 
        subsection, the Secretary of the Treasury shall report to the 
        Congress on the efforts made to deny loans or other utilization 
        of funds to that country, and shall include in the report 
        specific and explicit recommendations designed to ensure that 
        such loans or other utilization of funds are denied to that 
        country in the future.
          (4) Definition.--As used in this subsection, the term 
        ``multilateral development bank'' means any of the multilateral 
        development banks as defined in section 1701(c)(4) of the 
        International Financial Institutions Act (22 U.S.C. 
        262r(c)(4)).
  (d) Denial of Visas.--No consular officer shall issue a visa to, and 
the Attorney General shall exclude from the United States, any alien 
who the Director determines carried out or directed the carrying out of 
any act of category 1 or category 2 persecution.
  (e) Relationship to Other Provisions.--The effective dates of the 
sanctions provided in this section are subject to sections 8 and 11.
  (f) Duly Authorized Intelligence Activities.--The prohibitions and 
restrictions of this section shall not apply to the conduct of duly 
authorized intelligence activities of the United States Government.
  (g) Effect on Existing Contracts.--The imposition of sanctions under 
this section shall not affect any contract that is entered into by the 
Overseas Private Investment Corporation before the sanctions are 
imposed, is in force on the date on which the sanctions are imposed, 
and is enforceable in a court of law on such date.
  (h) Effect of Waivers.--Any sanction under this section shall not 
take effect during the period after the President has notified the 
Congress of a waiver of that sanction under section 8 and before the 
waiver has taken effect under that section.

SEC. 8. WAIVER OF SANCTIONS.

  (a) Waiver Authority.--Subject to subsection (b), the President may 
waive the imposition of any sanction against a country under section 7 
for periods of not more than 12 months each, if the President, for each 
waiver--
          (1) determines--
                  (A) that the national security interests of the 
                United States justify such a waiver; or
                  (B) that such a waiver will substantially promote the 
                purposes of this Act as set forth in section 2; and
          (2) provides to the Committees on Foreign Relations, Finance, 
        the Judiciary, and Appropriations of the Senate and to the 
        Committees on International Relations, the Judiciary, and 
        Appropriations of the House of Representatives a written 
        notification of the President's intention to waive any such 
        sanction.
The notification shall contain an explanation of the reasons why the 
President considers the waiver to be necessary, the type and amount of 
goods, services, or assistance to be provided pursuant to the waiver, 
and the period of time during which such a waiver will be effective. 
When the President considers it appropriate, the explanation under the 
preceding sentence, or any part of the explanation, may be submitted in 
classified form.
  (b) Additional Information.--In the case of a waiver under subsection 
(a)(1)(B), the notification shall contain a detailed statement of the 
facts particular to the country subject to the waiver which justifies 
the President's determination, and of the alternative measures the 
President intends to implement in order to achieve the objectives of 
this Act.
  (c) Taking Effect of Waiver.--
          (1) In general.--Subject to paragraph (2), a waiver under 
        subsection (a) shall take effect 45 days after its submission 
        to the Congress, or on the day after the 15th legislative day 
        after such submission, whichever is later.
          (2) In emergency conditions.--The President may waive the 
        imposition of sanctions against a country under subsection (b) 
        or (c) of section 7 to take effect immediately if the 
        President, in the written notification of intention to waive 
        the sanctions, certifies that emergency conditions exist that 
        make an immediate waiver necessary.
  (d) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that in order to 
achieve the objectives of this Act, the waiver authority provided in 
this section should be used only in extraordinary circumstances.

SEC. 9. MODIFICATION OF IMMIGRATION POLICY.

  (a) Credible Fear of Persecution Defined.--Section 235(b)(1)(B)(v) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1225(b)(1)(B)(v)) (as 
amended by section 302 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant 
Responsibility Act of 1996; Public Law 104-208; 110 Stat. 3009-582) is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
                        ``Any alien who can credibly claim membership 
                        in a persecuted community found to be subject 
                        to category 1 or category 2 religious 
                        persecution in the most recent annual report 
                        sent by the Director of the Office of Religious 
                        Persecution Monitoring to the Congress under 
                        section 6 of the Freedom From Religious 
                        Persecution Act of 1997 shall be considered to 
                        have a credible fear of persecution within the 
                        meaning of the preceding sentence.''.
  (b) Training for Certain Immigration Officers.--Section 235 of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1225) (as amended by section 
302 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act 
of 1996; Public Law 104-208; 110 Stat. 3009-579) is amended by adding 
at the end the following:
  ``(d) Training on Religious Persecution.--The Attorney General shall 
establish and operate a program to provide to immigration officers 
performing functions under subsection (b), or section 207 or 208, 
training on religious persecution, including training on--
          ``(1) the fundamental components of the right to freedom of 
        religion;
          ``(2) the variation in beliefs of religious groups; and
          ``(3) the governmental and nongovernmental methods used in 
        violation of the right to freedom of religion.''.
  (c) Asylum.--Section 208 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 
U.S.C. 1158) (as amended by section 604 of the Illegal Immigration 
Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996; Public Law 104-208; 
1110 Stat. 3009-690) is amended by adding at the end the following:
  ``(e) Special Rules for Religious Persecution Claims.--
          ``(1) Procedures upon denial.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In any case in which the Service 
                denies or refers to an immigration judge an asylum 
                application filed by an alien described in the second 
                sentence of section 235(b)(1)(B)(v), or any care in 
                which an immigration judge denies such an application 
                on the ground that the alien is not a refugee within 
                the meaning of section 101(a)(42)(A), the Service shall 
                provide the alien with the following:
                          ``(i) A written statement containing the 
                        reasons for the denial, which shall be 
                        supported by references to--
                                  ``(I) the most recent annual report 
                                sent by the Director of the Office of 
                                Religious Persecution Monitoring to the 
                                Congress under section 6 of the Freedom 
                                From Religious Persecution Act of 1997; 
                                and
                                  ``(II) either--
                                          ``(aa) the most recent 
                                        country report on human rights 
                                        practices issued by the 
                                        Secretary of State; or
                                          ``(bb) any other report 
                                        issued by the Secretary of 
                                        State concerning conditions in 
                                        the country of which the alien 
                                        is a national (or, in the case 
                                        of an alien having no 
                                        nationality, the country of the 
                                        alien's last habitual 
                                        residence).
                          ``(ii) A copy of any assessment sheet 
                        prepared by an asylum officer for a supervisory 
                        asylum officer with respect to the application.
                          ``(iii) A list of any publicly available 
                        materials relied upon by an asylum officer as a 
                        basis for denying the application.
                          ``(iv) A copy of any materials relied upon by 
                        an asylum officer as a basis for denying the 
                        application that are not available to the 
                        public, except Federal agency records that are 
                        exempt from disclosure under section 552(b) of 
                        title 5, United States Code.
                  ``(B) Credibility in issue.--In any case described in 
                subparagraph (A) in which the denial is based, in whole 
                or in part, on credibility grounds, the Service shall 
                also provide the alien with the following:
                          ``(i) The statements by the applicant, or 
                        other evidence, that were found not to be 
                        credible.
                          ``(ii) A statement certifying that the 
                        applicant was provided an opportunity to 
                        respond to the Service's position on the 
                        credibility issue.
                          ``(iii) A brief summary of such response, if 
                        any was made.
                          ``(iv) An explanation of how the negative 
                        determination on the credibility issue relates 
                        to the applicant's religious persecution claim.
          ``(2) Effect in subsequent proceedings.--
                  ``(A) Use at option of applicant.--Any material 
                provided to an alien under paragraph (1) shall be 
                considered part of the official record pertaining to 
                the alien's asylum application solely at the option of 
                the alien.
                  ``(B) No effect on review.--The provision of any 
                material under paragraph (1) to an alien shall not be 
                construed to alter any standard of review otherwise 
                applicable in any administrative or judicial 
                adjudication concerning the alien's asylum application.
          ``(3) Duty to submit report on religious persecution.--In any 
        judicial or administrative proceeding in which the Service 
        opposes granting asylum to an alien described in the second 
        sentence of section 235(b)(1)(B)(v), the Service shall submit 
        to the court or administrative adjudicator a copy of the most 
        recent annual report submitted to the Congress by the Director 
        of the Office of Religious Persecution Monitoring under section 
        6 of the Freedom From Religious Persecution Act of 1997, and 
        any interim reports issued by such Director after such annual 
        report.''.
  (d) Annual Report.--Not later than January 1 of each year, the 
Attorney General shall submit to the Director an annual report that 
includes the following:
          (1) With respect to the year that is the subject of the 
        report, the number of applicants for asylum or refugee status 
        whose applications were based, in whole or in part, on 
        religious persecution.
          (2) In the case of such applications, the number that were 
        proposed to be denied, and the number that were finally denied.
          (3) In the case of such applications, the number that were 
        granted.
          (4) A description of developments with respect to the 
        adjudication of applications for asylum or refugee status filed 
        by an alien who claims to be a member of a persecuted community 
        that the Director found to be subject to category 1 or category 
        2 religious persecution in the most recent annual report 
        submitted to the Congress under section 6.
          (5) With respect to the year that is the subject of the 
        report, a description of training on religious persecution 
        provided under section 235(d) of the Immigration and 
        Nationality Act (as added by subsection (b)) to immigration 
        officers performing functions under section 235(b) of such Act, 
        or adjudicating applications under section 207 or 208 of such 
        Act, including a list of speakers and materials used in such 
        training and the number of officers who received such training.
  (e) Admission Priority.--For purposes of section 207(a)(3) of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, an individual who is a member of a 
persecuted community that the Director found to be subject to category 
1 or category 2 religious persecution in the most recent annual report 
submitted to the Congress under section 6, and is determined by the 
Attorney General to be a refugee within the meaning of section 
101(a)(42)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, shall be 
considered a refugee of special humanitarian concern to the United 
States. In carrying out such section, such an individual shall be given 
priority status at least as high as that given to any member of any 
other specific group of refugees of special concern to the United 
States.
  (f) No Effect on Others' Rights.--Nothing in this section, or any 
amendment made by this section, shall be construed to deny any 
applicant for asylum or refugee status (including any applicant who is 
not a member of a persecuted community but whose claim is based on 
religious persecution) any right, privilege, protection, or eligibility 
otherwise provided by law.
  (g) No Displacement of Other Refugees.--Refugees admitted to the 
United States as a result of the procedures set forth in this section 
shall not displace other refugees in need of resettlement who would 
otherwise have been admitted in accordance with existing law and 
procedures.
  (h) Period for Public Comment and Review.--Section 207(d) of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
  ``(4)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, prior to each 
annual determination regarding refugee admissions under this 
subsection, there shall be a period of public review and comment, 
particularly by appropriate nongovernmental organizations, churches, 
and other religious communities and organizations, and the general 
public.
  ``(B) Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to apply subchapter 
II of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, to the period of review 
and comment referred to in subparagraph (A).''.

SEC. 10. STATE DEPARTMENT HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTS.

  (a) Annual Human Rights Report.--In preparing the annual reports of 
the State Department on human rights under sections 116(d) and 502B(b) 
of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151n(d) and 2304(b)), 
the Secretary of State shall, in the section on religious freedom--
          (1) consider the facts and circumstances of the violation of 
        the right to freedom of religion presented by independent human 
        rights groups and nongovernmental organizations;
          (2) report on the extent of the violations of the right to 
        freedom of religion, specifically including whether the 
        violations arise from governmental or nongovernmental sources, 
        and whether the violations are encouraged by the government or 
        whether the government fails to exercise satisfactory efforts 
        to control such violations;
          (3) report on whether freedom of religion violations occur on 
        a nationwide, regional, or local level; and
          (4) identify whether the violations are focused on an entire 
        religion or on certain denominations or sects.
  (b) Training.--The Secretary of State shall--
          (1) institute programs to provide training for chiefs of 
        mission as well as Department of State officials having 
        reporting responsibilities regarding the freedom of religion, 
        which shall include training on--
                  (A) the fundamental components of the right to 
                freedom of religion, the variation in beliefs of 
                religious groups, and the governmental and 
                nongovernmental methods used in the violation of the 
                right to freedom of religion; and
                  (B) the identification of independent human rights 
                groups and nongovernmental organizations with expertise 
                in the matters described in subparagraph (A); and
          (2) submit to the Director, not later than January 1 of each 
        year, a report describing all training provided to Department 
        of State officials with respect to religious persecution during 
        the preceding 1-year period, including a list of instructors 
        and materials used in such training and the number and rank of 
        individuals who received such training.

SEC. 11. TERMINATION OF SANCTIONS.

  (a) Termination.--The sanctions described in section 7 shall cease to 
apply with respect to a sanctioned country 45 days, or the day after 
the 15th legislative day, whichever is later, after the Director, in an 
annual report described in section 6(b), does not include a 
determination by the Secretary of State that the sanctioned country is 
among those in which category 1 or category 2 persecution continues to 
exist, or in an interim report under section 6(c), includes a 
determination by the Secretary of State that neither category 1 nor 
category 2 persecution exists in such country.
  (b) Withdrawal of Finding.--Any determination of the Secretary of 
State under section 5(g) may be withdrawn before taking effect if the 
Secretary makes a written determination, on the basis of a 
preponderance of the evidence, that the country substantially 
eliminated any category 1 or category 2 persecution that existed in 
that country. The Director shall submit to the Congress each 
determination under this subsection.

SEC. 12. SANCTIONS AGAINST SUDAN.

  (a) Extension of Sanctions Under Existing Law.--Any sanction imposed 
on Sudan because of a determination that the government of that country 
has provided support for acts of international terrorism, including--
          (1) export controls imposed pursuant to the Export 
        Administration Act of 1979;
          (2) prohibitions on transfers of munitions under section 40 
        of the Arms Export Control Act;
          (3) the prohibition on assistance under section 620A of the 
        Foreign Assistance Act of 1961;
          (4) section 2327(b) of title 10, United States Code;
          (5) section 6 of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act Amendments, 
        1978 (22 U.S.C. 286e-11); and
          (6) section 527 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, 
        and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (as contained in 
        Public Law 105-118);
shall continue in effect after the enactment of this Act until the 
Secretary of State determines that Sudan has substantially eliminated 
religious persecution in that country, or the determination that the 
government of that country has provided support for acts of 
international terrorism is no longer in effect, whichever occurs later.
  (b) Additional Sanctions on Sudan.--Effective 90 days after the date 
of the enactment of this Act, the following sanctions (to the extent 
not covered under subsection (a)) shall apply with respect to Sudan:
          (1) Prohibition on financial transactions with government of 
        sudan.--
                  (A) Offense.--Any United States person who knowingly 
                engages in any financial transaction, including any 
                loan or other extension of credit, directly or 
                indirectly, with the Government of Sudan shall be fined 
                in accordance with title 18, United States Code, or 
                imprisoned for not more than 10 years, or both.
                  (B) Definitions.--As used in this paragraph:
                          (i) Financial transaction.--The term 
                        ``financial transaction'' has the meaning given 
                        that term in section 1956(c)(4) of title 18, 
                        United States Code.
                          (ii) United states person.--The term ``United 
                        States person'' means--
                                  (I) any United States citizen or 
                                national;
                                  (II) any alien lawfully admitted into 
                                the United States for permanent 
                                residence;
                                  (III) any juridical person organized 
                                under the laws of the United States; 
                                and
                                  (IV) any person in the United States.
          (2) Prohibitions on united states exports to sudan.--
                  (A) Prohibition on computer exports.--No computers, 
                computer software, or goods or technology intended to 
                manufacture or service computers may be exported to or 
                for use of the Government of Sudan.
                  (B) Regulations of the secretary of commerce.--The 
                Secretary of Commerce may prescribe such regulations as 
                may be necessary to carry out subparagraph (A).
                  (C) Penalties.--Any person who violates this 
                paragraph shall be subject to the penalties provided in 
                section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 
                U.S.C. App. 2410) for violations under that Act.
          (3) Prohibition on new investment in sudan.--
                  (A) Prohibition.--No United States person may, 
                directly or through another person, make any new 
                investment in Sudan that is not prohibited by paragraph 
                (1).
                  (B) Regulations.--The Secretary of Commerce may 
                prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry 
                out subparagraph (A).
                  (C) Penalties.--Any person who violates this 
                paragraph shall be subject to the penalties provided in 
                section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 
                U.S.C. App. 2410) for violations under that Act.
          (4) Aviation rights.-- 
                  (A) Air transportation rights.--The Secretary of 
                Transportation shall prohibit any aircraft of a foreign 
                air carrier owned or controlled, directly or 
                indirectly, by the Government of Sudan or operating 
                pursuant to a contract with the Government of Sudan 
                from engaging in air transportation with respect to the 
                United States, except that such aircraft shall be 
                allowed to land in the event of an emergency for which 
                the safety of an aircraft's crew or passengers is 
                threatened.
                  (B) Takeoffs and landings.--The Secretary of 
                Transportation shall prohibit the takeoff and landing 
                in Sudan of any aircraft by an air carrier owned, 
                directly or indirectly, or controlled by a United 
                States person, except that such aircraft shall be 
                allowed to land in the event of an emergency for which 
                the safety of an aircraft's crew or passengers is 
                threatened, or for humanitarian purposes.
                  (C) Termination of air service agreements.--To carry 
                out subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Secretary of State 
                shall terminate any agreement between the Government of 
                Sudan and the Government of the United States relating 
                to air services between their respective territories.
                  (D) Definitions.--For purposes of this paragraph, the 
                terms ``aircraft'', ``air transportation'', and 
                ``foreign air carrier'' have the meanings given those 
                terms in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
          (5) Prohibition on promotion of united states tourism.--None 
        of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available by any 
        provision of law may be available to promote United States 
        tourism in Sudan.
          (6) Government of sudan bank accounts.--
                  (A) Prohibition.--A United States depository 
                institution may not accept, receive, or hold a deposit 
                account from the Government of Sudan, except for such 
                accounts which may be authorized by the President for 
                diplomatic or consular purposes.
                  (B) Annual reports.--The Secretary of the Treasury 
                shall submit annual reports to the Congress on the 
                nature and extent of assets held in the United States 
                by the Government of Sudan.
                  (C) Definition.--For purposes of this paragraph, the 
                term ``depository institution'' has the meaning given 
                that term in section 19(b)(1) of the Act of December 
                23, 1913 (12 U.S.C. 461(b)(1)).
          (7) Prohibition on united states government procurement from 
        sudan.--
                  (A) Prohibition.--No department, agency, or any other 
                entity of the United States Government may enter into a 
                contract for the procurement of goods or services from 
                parastatal organizations of Sudan, except for items 
                necessary for diplomatic or consular purposes.
                  (B) Definition.--As used in this paragraph, the term 
                ``parastatal organization of Sudan'' means a 
                corporation, partnership, or entity owned, controlled, 
                or subsidized by the Government of Sudan.
          (8) Prohibition on united states appropriations for use as 
        investments in or trade subsidies for sudan.--None of the funds 
        appropriated or otherwise made available by any provision of 
        law may be available for any new investment in, or any subsidy 
        for trade with, Sudan, including funding for trade missions in 
        Sudan and for participation in exhibitions and trade fairs in 
        Sudan.
          (9) Prohibition on cooperation with armed forces of sudan.--
        No agency or entity of the United States may engage in any form 
        of cooperation, direct or indirect, with the armed forces of 
        Sudan, except for activities which are reasonably necessary to 
        facilitate the collection of necessary intelligence. Each such 
        activity shall be considered as significant anticipated 
        intelligence activity for purposes of section 501 of the 
        National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 413).
          (10) Prohibition on cooperation with intelligence services of 
        sudan.--
                  (A) Sanction.--No agency or entity of the United 
                States involved in intelligence activities may engage 
                in any form of cooperation, direct or indirect, with 
                the Government of Sudan, except for activities which 
                are reasonably designed to facilitate the collection of 
                necessary intelligence.
                  (B) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States 
                that no agency or entity of the United States involved 
                in intelligence activities may provide any intelligence 
                information to the Government of Sudan which pertains 
                to any internal group within Sudan. Any change in such 
                policy or any provision of intelligence information 
                contrary to this policy shall be considered a 
                significant anticipated intelligence activity for 
                purposes of section 501 of the National Security Act of 
                1947 (50 U.S.C. 413).
The sanctions described in this subsection shall apply until the 
Secretary of State determines that Sudan has substantially eliminated 
religious persecution in that country.
  (c) Multilateral Efforts To End Religious Persecution in Sudan.--
          (1) Efforts to obtain multilateral measures against sudan.--
        It is the policy of the United States to seek an international 
        agreement with the other industrialized democracies to bring 
        about an end to religious persecution by the Government of 
        Sudan. The net economic effect of such international agreement 
        should be measurably greater than the net economic effect of 
        the other measures imposed by this section.
          (2) Commencement of negotiations to initiate multilateral 
        sanctions against sudan.--It is the sense of the Congress that 
        the President or, at his direction, the Secretary of State 
        should convene an international conference of the 
        industrialized democracies in order to reach an international 
        agreement to bring about an end to religious persecution in 
        Sudan. The international conference should begin promptly and 
        should be concluded not later than 180 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act.
          (3) Presidential report.--Not less than 210 days after the 
        date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit 
        to the Congress a report containing--
                  (A) a description of efforts by the United States to 
                negotiate multilateral measures to bring about an end 
                to religious persecution in Sudan; and
                  (B) a detailed description of economic and other 
                measures adopted by the other industrialized countries 
                to bring about an end to religious persecution in 
                Sudan, including an assessment of the stringency with 
                which such measures are enforced by those countries.
          (4) Conformity of united states measures to international 
        agreement.--If the President successfully concludes an 
        international agreement described in paragraph (2), the 
        President may, after such agreement enters into force with 
        respect to the United States, adjust, modify, or otherwise 
        amend the measures imposed under any provision of this section 
        to conform with such agreement.
          (5) Procedures for agreement to enter into force.--Each 
        agreement submitted to the Congress under this subsection shall 
        enter into force with respect to the United States if--
                  (A) the President, not less than 30 days before the 
                day on which the President enters into such agreement, 
                notifies the House of Representatives and the Senate of 
                the President's intention to enter into such an 
                agreement, and promptly thereafter publishes notice of 
                such intention in the Federal Register;
                  (B) after entering into the agreement, the President 
                transmits to the House of Representatives and to the 
                Senate a document containing a copy of the final text 
                of such agreement, together with--
                          (i) a description of any administrative 
                        action proposed to implement such agreement and 
                        an explanation as to how the proposed 
                        administrative action would change or affect 
                        existing law; and
                          (ii) a statement of the President's reasons 
                        regarding--
                                  (I) how the agreement serves the 
                                interest of United States foreign 
                                policy; and
                                  (II) why the proposed administrative 
                                action is required or appropriate to 
                                carry out the agreement; and
                  (C) a joint resolution approving such agreement has 
                been enacted, in accordance with section 8066(c) of the 
                Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1985 (as 
                contained in Public Law 98-473 (98 Stat. 1936)), within 
                30 days of transmittal of such document to the 
                Congress.
        For purposes of applying such section 8066(c), any reference in 
        such section to ``joint resolution'', ``resolution'', or 
        ``resolution described in paragraph (1)'' shall be deemed to 
        refer to a joint resolution described in subparagraph (C) of 
        this paragraph.
          (6) United nations security council imposition of same 
        measures against sudan.--It is the sense of the Congress that 
        the President should instruct the Permanent Representative of 
        the United States to the United Nations to propose that the 
        United Nations Security Council, pursuant to Article 41 of the 
        United Nations Charter, impose measures against Sudan of the 
        same type as are imposed by this section.
  (d) Additional Measures and Reports; Recommendations of the 
President.--
          (1) United states policy to end religious persecution.--It 
        shall be the policy of the United States to impose additional 
        measures against the Government of Sudan if its policy of 
        religious persecution has not ended on or before December 25, 
        1998.
          (2) Report to congress.--The Director shall prepare and 
        transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the 
        Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on 
        or before February 1, 1999, and every 12 months thereafter, a 
        report containing a determination by the Secretary of State of 
        whether the policy of religious persecution by the Government 
        of Sudan has ended.
          (3) Recommendation for imposition of additional measures.--If 
        the Secretary of State determines that the policy of religious 
        persecution by the Government of Sudan has not ended, the 
        President shall prepare and transmit to the Speaker of the 
        House of Representatives and the Chairman of the Committee on 
        Foreign Relations of the Senate on or before March 1, 1999, and 
        every 12 months thereafter, a report setting forth such 
        recommendations for such additional measures and actions 
        against the Government of Sudan as will end that government's 
        policy of religious persecution.
  (e) Definitions.--As used in this section:
          (1) Government of sudan.--The term ``Government of Sudan'' 
        includes any agency or instrumentality of the Government of 
        Sudan.
          (2) New investment in sudan.--The term ``new investment in 
        Sudan''--
                  (A) means--
                          (i) a commitment or contribution of funds or 
                        other assets, or
                          (ii) a loan or other extension of credit,
                that is made on or after the effective date of this 
                subsection; and
                  (B) does not include--
                          (i) the reinvestment of profits generated by 
                        a controlled Sudanese entity into that same 
                        controlled Sudanese entity, or the investment 
                        of such profits in a Sudanese entity;
                          (ii) contributions of money or other assets 
                        where such contributions are necessary to 
                        enable a controlled Sudanese entity to operate 
                        in an economically sound manner, without 
                        expanding its operations; or
                          (iii) the ownership or control of a share or 
                        interest in a Sudanese entity or a controlled 
                        Sudanese entity or a debt or equity security 
                        issued by the Government of Sudan or a Sudanese 
                        entity before the date of the enactment of this 
                        Act, or the transfer or acquisition of such a 
                        share or interest, or debt or equity security, 
                        if any such transfer or acquisition does not 
                        result in a payment, contribution of funds or 
                        assets, or credit to a Sudanese entity, a 
                        controlled Sudanese entity, or the Government 
                        of Sudan.
          (3) Controlled sudanese entity.--The term ``controlled 
        Sudanese entity'' means--
                  (A) a corporation, partnership, or other business 
                association or entity organized in Sudan and owned or 
                controlled, directly or indirectly, by a United States 
                person; or
                  (B) a branch, office, agency, or sole proprietorship 
                in Sudan of a United States person.
          (4) Sudanese entity.--The term ``Sudanese entity'' means--
                  (A) a corporation, partnership, or other business 
                association or entity organized in Sudan; or
                  (B) a branch, office, agency, or sole proprietorship 
                in Sudan of a person that resides or is organized 
                outside Sudan.
          (5) Sudan.--The term ``Sudan'' means any area controlled by 
        the Government of Sudan or by any entity allied with the 
        Government of Sudan, and does not include any area in which 
        effective control is exercised by an entity engaged in active 
        resistance to the Government of Sudan.
  (f) Waiver Authority.--The President may waive the imposition of any 
sanction against Sudan under paragraph (2) or (8) of subsection (b) of 
this section for periods of not more than 12 months each, if the 
President, for each waiver--
          (1) determines that the national security interests of the 
        United States justify such a waiver; and
          (2) provides to the Committees on Foreign Relations, Finance, 
        the Judiciary, and Appropriations of the Senate and to the 
        Committees on International Relations, the Judiciary, and 
        Appropriations of the House of Representatives a written 
        notification of the President's intention to waive any such 
        sanction.
The notification shall contain an explanation of the reasons why the 
President considers the waiver to be necessary, the type and amount of 
goods, services, or assistance to be provided pursuant to the waiver, 
and the period of time during which such a waiver will be effective. 
When the President considers it appropriate, the explanation under the 
preceding sentence, or any part of the explanation, may be submitted in 
classified form.
  (g) Duly Authorized Intelligence Activities.--The prohibitions and 
restrictions contained in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (7) of 
subsection (b) shall not apply to the conduct of duly authorized 
intelligence activities of the United States Government.

SEC. 13. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  (a) In General.--Subject to subsections (b) and (c), this Act and the 
amendments made by this Act shall take effect 120 days after the date 
of the enactment of this Act.
  (b) Appointment of Director.--The Director shall be appointed not 
later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.
  (c) Regulations.--Each Federal department or agency responsible for 
carrying out any of the sanctions under section 7 shall issue all 
necessary regulations to carry out such sanctions within 120 days after 
the date of the enactment of this Act.

                            I. INTRODUCTION

                         A. Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 2431, the ``Freedom From Religious Persecution Act of 
1998,'' as introduced, was referred to the Committee on 
International Relations and sequentially referred to the 
Committees on Ways and Means, the Judiciary, Banking, and 
Rules, for a period of time ending not later than May 8, 1998. 
The stated purpose of H.R. 2431 is to reduce and eliminate 
religious persecution taking place throughout the world. 
Section 12 of the bill imposes additional sanctions on Sudan.
    As reported by the Committee on International Relations, 
the bill contains one provision relating to the Internal 
Revenue Code and several provisions relating to import 
sanctions against Sudan that fall within the jurisdiction of 
the Committee on Ways and Means.

                             B. Background

    As reported by the Committee on International Relations, 
H.R. 2431 would establish an Office of Religious Persecution 
Monitoring in the Department of State headed by an Office 
Director. The bill would charge the Office Director with 
reporting on violations of religious freedom presented in the 
State Department's annual Human Rights Report and with making 
findings of fact relating to violations of religious freedom 
based on information presented by the Department of State, 
independent human rights groups, non-governmental 
organizations, and other interested parties.
    Section 4 of the bill would require the Secretary of State 
to make annual determinations whether or not ``category 1 or 
category 2 persecution'' exists in each foreign country that is 
either: (a) a foreign country in which alleged violations of 
religious freedom have been described in the latest State 
Department Human Rights Report; or (b) a foreign country in 
which the Office Director has reason to believe that category 1 
or category 2 persecution may exist.
    The bill would define a ``Category 1 persecution'' as 
widespread and ongoing persecution of persons because of their 
religious beliefs or practices or membership in or affiliation 
with a religion or religious denomination when such persecution 
includes: abduction, enslavement, killing, imprisonment, forced 
mass relocation, rape, crucifixion or other forms of torture, 
or the systematic imposition of fines or penalties that have 
the purpose and effect of destroying the economic existence of 
persons on whom they are imposed, and (2) is conducted with the 
involvement or the support of government officials or its 
agents or as part of official government policy.
    ``Category 2 persecution'' would have the same elements as 
category 1 persecution, except it would not be conducted with 
the involvement or support of government officials or agents, 
or pursuant to official government policy, but in circumstances 
where the government, being able to undertake serious and 
sustained efforts to eliminate the persecution, fails to do so.
    Countries subject to these determinations would be subject 
to various trade sanctions including: denial of U.S. foreign 
assistance, denial of visas, and prohibitions on exports and on 
U.S. support for multilateral development bank assistance. The 
bill would also provide preferential immigration treatment for 
aliens claiming to be victims of religious persecution, as 
opposed to other human rights abuses. The bill would not 
include import sanctions against religious persecution.
    Sanctions in the bill would be automatic. Depending on 
whether the country is classified as a category 1 or category 2 
country, the sanctions would be effective 90 days after 
enactment and one year after enactment, respectively. The 
President may waive sanctions only if he determines and 
certifies to Congress that such a waiver is justified by the 
national security interests of the United States, or that such 
a waiver will substantially promote the purposes of the Act. 
The waiver would not permit the President to take into account 
foreign policy considerations other than religious persecution 
or national security interests. Waivers would be for one year 
only and must be country specific.
    Section 12 would provide that the sanctions currently in 
place against Sudan because of Sudan's designation as a state 
sponsor of terrorism would remain in place until the government 
of Sudan has substantially eliminated religious persecution, or 
until that government is no longer designated as a state 
sponsor of terrorism, whichever is later. In addition, the bill 
would impose statutory sanctions on Sudan including: a 
prohibition on exports to and imports from Sudan, a prohibition 
on financial transactions with the government of Sudan, a 
prohibition on new investment in Sudan, a prohibition on 
flights to and from Sudan, a prohibition on the promotion of 
U.S. tourism in Sudan, a prohibition on U.S. depository 
institutions holding deposits from the government of Sudan, and 
a prohibition on U.S. government procurement from Sudan. The 
bill would also urge the President to pursue multilateral 
measures against Sudan.
    The President would be able to waive the prohibition on 
exports of computers to Sudan and the prohibition of 
appropriations for any trade subsidy, if he determined that the 
national security interests of the U.S. justify such a waiver 
and notified Congress of his intent to waive these sanctions. 
Other sanctions, including those imposed under section 12, 
would not be subject to waiver.
    Finally, section 13 of the bill contains an exception from 
sanctions for the importation of gum arabic from Sudan.

                         C. Legislative History

    H.R. 2431, the ``Freedom From Religious Persecution Act of 
1998,'' was introduced by Rep. Wolf on September 8, 1997 and 
referred to the Committee on International Relations, and in 
addition, to the Committees on Ways and Means, the Judiciary, 
Banking and Rules. On March 24, 1998, the Committee on 
International Relations ordered H.R. 2431 favorably reported. 
(See H. Rept. 105-480, Part 1.)
    On October 23, 1997 the Subcommittee on Trade held a 
hearing on the use and effect of unilateral trade sanctions. 
Testimony was received from the Administration and private 
sector witnesses. On March 26, 1998 the Subcommittee on Trade 
requestedwritten public comment on H.R. 3465, a bill to provide 
for an exemption of gum arabic from Executive Order 13067, which was 
introduced by Mr. Menendez on March 16, 1998. No submissions were 
received in response to this notice.
    On May 6, 1998, the Committee on Ways and Means met to 
consider H.R. 2431 and approved by voice vote an amendment in 
the nature of a substitute which was offered by Chairman 
Archer. The amendment struck all provisions within the 
jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means from the bill. 
The Committee ordered H.R. 2431 reported without recommendation 
by voice vote.

II. EXPLANATION OF PROVISIONS WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF THE COMMITTEE 
                           ON WAYS AND MEANS

                    A. Denial of Foreign Tax Credits

Present law

    Section 901(j) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the 
``Code'') denies a foreign tax credit for taxes paid to certain 
proscribed countries that meet designated criteria, including a 
foreign country such as Sudan which has been designated by the 
Secretary of State as providing support for acts of 
international terrorism.

Explanation of provision

    The bill as reported from the Ways and Means Committee 
deletes section 12(a)(7) of the bill as reported from the 
International Relations Committee, which had included section 
901(j) of the Code among certain sanctions imposed on Sudan 
that are required to remain in effect after enactment of the 
Act until: (1) the Secretary of State determines that Sudan has 
substantially eliminated religious persecution, or (2) the 
determination that Sudan has provided support for acts of 
international terrorism is no longer in effect, whichever 
occurs later. That provision effectively would have expanded 
section 901(j) to deny foreign tax credits for taxes paid to 
Sudan in certain cases in which Sudan does not substantially 
eliminate religious persecution, but has ceased supporting acts 
of international terrorism. The bill did not amend the Code to 
reflect this expansion of section 901(j) in the case of Sudan. 
As amended by this Committee, the bill has no effect on section 
901(j).

Reasons for change

    The Committee determined that it was appropriate to strike 
provisions of the bill as reported from the International 
Relations Committee which were within the jurisdiction of the 
Ways and Means Committee.

          B. Prohibition on Imports from Sudan (Sec. 12(b)(2))

Present law

    Because the Secretary of State has designated Sudan as a 
state sponsor of terrorism, numerous laws, such as the Anti-
terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (P.L. 104-208) and 
the Arms Export Control Act, constrain trade and bilateral 
assistance between the United States and Sudan. In addition, 
Executive Order 13067 of November 4, 1997, imposed a 
comprehensive trade and investment embargo on Sudan under the 
International Emergency Economic Powers Act. Major economic 
sanctions covered by the Executive Order include a ban on: (1) 
all imports into the United States of any goods or services of 
Sudanese origin; (2) all financial transactions; (3) all 
exports and reexports to Sudan; and (4) U.S. depository 
institutions accepting, receiving, or holding deposit accounts 
for the Government of Sudan.
    Under E.O. 13067, the President, and by delegation the 
Secretary of the Treasury, has discretion to issue regulations 
and licenses to implement the Sudan embargo.

Explanation of provision

    The bill as reported by the Committee on Ways and Means 
strikes section 12(b)(2), which would have prohibited the 
importation into the United States of any article which is 
grown, produced, manufactured by, marketed, or otherwise 
exported by the Government of Sudan. Under the bill as reported 
by the Committee on Ways and Means, the President's current 
ability to lift or modify the current ban on imports from Sudan 
at his discretion by Executive Order would remain unchanged.

Reason for change

    In light of the comprehensive embargo in effect pursuant to 
Executive Order 13067, the Committee believes a statutory 
import ban is unnecessary at this time. The Committee's view is 
that a statutorily imposed import ban would undermine the 
President's ability to respond effectively to a changed 
government or circumstances in Sudan in the future.
    A number of the economic sanctions included in H.R. 2431, 
as reported by the Committee on International Relations, are 
covered under the embargo imposed by Executive Order 13067, and 
in some cases, the prohibitions in the Executive Order are 
wider than those that would have been imposed by the bill. 
Specifically, the import prohibition proposed in the 
International Relations bill, which would have affected only 
articles exported by the government of Sudan, would have been 
narrower than the import ban imposed under the Executive Order, 
which prohibits the import of any Sudanese-origin goods and 
services. The statutory ban, however, would not have permited 
any licensing of individual transactions as under the Executive 
Order.

C. Exception for the Importation of Certain Agricultural Products (Sec. 
                                  13)

Present law

    The President has exercised his authority under the 
International Emergency Economic Powers Act to issue licenses 
under Executive Order 13067 in order to allow the importation 
of several shipments of gum arabic that were under contract at 
the time the embargo was imposed.

Explanation of provision

    The bill as reported by the Committee on Ways and Means 
strikes section 13 which would have provided that no provision 
of law may restrict the importation of gum arabic from Sudan 
during a calendar year if, during the preceding calendar year, 
a supply of that commodity in unprocessed form from other 
countries of equal quality to that cultivated in Sudan is not 
available in sufficient supply to meet United States 
requirements.

Reason for change

    The Committee notes that the President has executive 
authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act 
and the Executive Order to lift the ban on imports of gum 
arabic entirely, or on a case by case basis, if such action is 
in the national interest. The effect of the Committee's 
amendment is to restore the status quo with respect to imports 
of gum arabic.

            III. VOTE OF THE COMMITTEE IN REPORTING THE BILL

    In compliance with clause 2(l)(2)(B) of rule XI of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, the following statement 
is made concerning the votes of the Committee on Ways and Means 
in its consideration of the bill H.R. 2431:

                       Motion to Report the Bill

    The bill, H.R. 2431, as amended, was ordered reported, 
without recommendation, by voice vote, with a quorum present.

                     IV. BUDGET EFFECTS OF THE BILL

               A. Committee Estimates of Budgetary Effect

    In compliance with clause 7(a) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the following statement is made 
concerning the effects on the budget of the bill H.R. 2431, as 
reported: The Committee agrees with the cost estimate furnished 
by the Congressional Budget Office set forth below.

                B. Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with clause 2(l)(3)(B) of rule XI of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, the Committee states 
that the bill as reported by the Committee on Ways and Means, 
which strikes all provisions within the Committee's 
jurisdiction, contains no new tax expenditures or change in 
revenues, but does contain new direct spending attributable to 
immigration examinations in the base bill.

      C. Cost Estimate Prepared by the Congressional Budget Office

    Pursuant to clause 2(l)(3)(C) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, requiring a cost estimate 
prepared by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the 
following report prepared by CBO is provided:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                       Washington, DC, May 8, 1998.
Hon. Bill Archer,
Chairman, Committee on Ways and Means,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 2431, the Freedom 
From Religious Persecution Act of 1998.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contacts are Joseph C. 
Whitehill and Mark Grabowicz.
            Sincerely,
                                          Paul Van de Water
                                   (For June E. O'Neill, Director).
    Enclosure.

               congressional budget office cost estimate

H.R. 2431--Freedom From Religious Persecution Act of 1998

    Summary: H.R. 2431 would create an Office of Religious 
Persecution Monitoring to monitor and to report on violations 
of religious freedom throughout the world. The bill would 
impose restrictions on trade or aid, deny visas, and levy 
sanctions on countries that are found to support or tolerate 
religious persecution. In particular, the bill would impose 
additional sanctions on Sudan. Finally, the bill would make 
certain changes to policies governing the admission of refugees 
and those seeking asylum into the United States.
    H.R. 2431 would affect direct spending, and thus pay-as-
you-go procedures would apply. The bill would impose additional 
costs on the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) by 
requiring it to increase documentation for certain cases in 
which it denies an application for asylum or refers the case to 
an immigration judge. CBO estimates that such costs would total 
about $5 million a year. We expect that these costs would be 
paid from a budget account funded by user fees and would 
therefore constitute direct spending. In addition, the changes 
in policies governing asylees and refugees could affect direct 
spending in certain benefit programs, but CBO does not expect 
that such costs would be significant.
    The bill would also increase discretionary spending, 
assuming the appropriation of the necessary funds. Based on 
information from the Department of State, CBO estimates that 
the Office of Religious Persecution Monitoring would cost about 
$600,000 a year.
    H.R. 2431 contains no intergovernmental mandates as defined 
in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) and would 
not have a significant impact on the budgets of state, local, 
or tribal governments. The bill would impose new private-sector 
mandates, as defined by UMRA, but CBO cannot determine whether 
the total costs of mandates resulting from sanctions against 
countries that engage in religious persecution would exceed the 
statutory threshold set by UMRA ($100 million in 1996, adjusted 
annually for inflation) in any one year.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 2431 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this bill would fall within budget functions 150 
(international affairs) and 750 (administration of justice).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By fiscal years, in millions of dollars--        
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                        1998      1999      2000      2001      2002      2003  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 DIRECT SPENDING                                                
                                                                                                                
Spending Under Current Law for Immigration                                                                      
 Examinations:                                                                                                  
    Estimated Budget Authority......................       750       800       750       750       750       750
    Estimated Outlays...............................       750       800       750       750       750       750
Proposed Changes:                                                                                               
    Estimated Budget Authority......................         0         5         5         5         5         5
    Estimated Outlays...............................         0         5         5         5         5         5
Spending Under H.R. 2431 for Immigration                                                                        
 Examinations:                                                                                                  
    Estimated Budget Authority......................       750       805       755       755       755       755
    Estimated Outlays...............................       750       805       755       755       755       755
                                                                                                                
                                        SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION                                       
                                                                                                                
Estimated Authorization Level.......................         0         1         1         1         1         1
Estimated Outlays...................................         0         1         1         1         1         1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: The estimate assumes enactment of H.R. 
2431 by September 30, 1998, and subsequent appropriation of the 
estimated authorizations.

Direct spending

    H.R. 2431 would require the INS to increase documentation 
for certain cases in which it denies an application for asylum 
or refers the case of an immigration judge. Based on 
information from the General Accounting Office and the INS, CBO 
estimates that the costs to the INS would be about $5 million a 
year. We anticipate that the additional outlays would be paid 
from an account funded by user fees charged by the agency and 
would be classified as direct spending. It is possible that the 
INS eventually could offset this increase in spending by 
raising its adjudication fees, but CBO has no basis for 
predicting when or if any changes in fees would occur.
    H.R. 2431 would also make certain changes to policies 
governing the admission of refugees and asylees into the United 
States. These changes could potentially affect direct spending 
for certain benefit programs (notably Supplemental Security 
Income, Food Stamps, and Medicaid) because many such individual 
collect benefits under those programs, but CBO does not expect 
that these costs would be significant.
    Under current law, applicants who can demonstrate a well-
founded fear of persecution on account of religion (or race, 
nationality, membership in a particular social group, or 
political opinion) already qualify for asylee or refugee 
status. The Department of State, which monitors the human 
rights situation around the world, has developed profiles of 
the varieties of religious persecution prevalent in various 
countries, and those profiles are used by the Department of 
Justice in adjudicating claims of asylum. Applicants for 
refugee or asylee status from countries such as Sudan and Iraq 
already have a very high probability of being granted admission 
into the United States. H.R. 2431 would continue to require 
that applicants establish a well-founded fear of persecution 
and would not grant automatic admission to anyone who merely 
assets such claim on the basis of religion.
    The bill would, however, exempt certain people who claim 
religious persecution from the expedited removal procedures 
that now apply to other aliens who arrive without proper 
documents and would make it more arduous for the government to 
document its denial of such claims during subsequent 
adjudications. It would also provide for a period of public 
review and comment on the proposed ceiling for the next year's 
refugee admissions, a ceiling that is now set by the President 
after consultation with key Congressional committees. Those 
procedural changes raise the possibility that the bill would 
lead the government to admit more refugees or grant more claims 
for asylum. After consulting with the Department of Justice and 
the Department of State, CBO concludes that the number of 
additional people granted refugee or asylee status is likely to 
be quite small.

Spending subject to appropriation

    The bill would require the creation of an Office of 
Religious Persecution Monitoring within the Department of 
State. Based on information provided by the department, CBO 
estimates that operating the office would require about five 
personnel, including the director, and would cost $600,000 per 
year.
    CBO estimates that the restrictions on foreign assistance 
required by the bill would not have a significant budgetary 
impact. The United States provides little assistance to the 
governments of countries suspected of supporting or tolerating 
religious persecution. In addition, the bill provides for many 
exemptions and waivers.
    Pay-as-you-go considerations: The Balanced Budget and 
Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 specifies procedures for 
legislation affecting direct spending and receipts. Because the 
bill would result in additional direct spending by the INS, 
these pay-as-you-go procedures would apply. The following table 
shows the projected changes in direct spending for fiscal years 
1998 through 2008. For purposes of enforcing pay-as-you-go 
procedures, only the effects in the current year, the budget 
year, and the succeeding four years are counted.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       By fiscal years, in millions of dollars--                
                                     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007  2008
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Changes in outlays..................      0      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      
Changes in receipts.................                                                                            
(10)Not applicable                                                                                              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Estimated impact on State, local, and tribal governments: 
H.R. 2431 contains no intergovernmental mandates as defined in 
UMRA and would not have a significant impact on the budget of 
state, local, or tribal governments.
    Estimated impact on the private sector: H.R. 2431 would 
impose new private-sector mandates, as defined by UMRA, on U.S. 
exporters who sell to countries identified as engaging in 
religious persecution. In addition, the bill would extend 
mandates that currently prohibit nearly all economic relations 
with Sudan. Because the precise prohibitions against exports 
relating to religious persecution would be determined at a 
later date, CBO cannot estimate whether the direct costs of 
mandates in the bill would exceed the statutory threshold 
established in UMRA.
    Section 7 would prohibit exports to identified responsible 
entities within a country that has been determined to carry out 
religious persecution and exports of products that facilitate 
persecution, depending on the specific findings of the 
Secretary of State. Because we have no basis for predicting 
what the Secretary's findings would be, CBO cannot estimate the 
direct costs to the private-sector of these provisions.
    Section 12 would extend current sanctions against Sudan. 
Because existing sanctions ban virtually all economic relations 
with Sudan, CBO estimates that the provisions of this section 
would not impose significant additional cost on private-sector 
entities.
    Previous CBO estimate: On April 1, 1998, CBO prepared an 
estimate for H.R. 2431 as ordered reported by the House 
Committee on International Relations. This estimate reflects 
the amendments to the sanctions on Sudan made by the House 
Committee on Ways and Means and incorporates additional 
information on the cost to the INS of the proposed changes to 
immigration policy.
    Estimate prepared by: Impact on the Federal Budget: Joseph 
Whitehill prepared the estimate of costs to the State 
Department; Kathy Ruffing prepared the estimate of the impacts 
on entitlement programs; and Mark Grabowicz prepared the 
estimate of costs to the Department of Justice.
    Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Pepper 
Santalucia.
    Impact on the Private Sector: Elliot Schwartz.
    Impact on Revenues: Hester Grippando.
    Estimate approved by: Robert A. Sunshine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

     V. OTHER MATTERS TO BE DISCUSSED UNDER THE RULES OF THE HOUSE

          A. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    With respect to subdivision (A) of clause 2(l)(3) of rule 
XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives (relating to 
oversight findings), the Committee concludes that the actions 
taken in this legislation are appropriate given its oversight 
of international trade matters.

    B. Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the Committee on 
                    Government Reform and Oversight

    With respect to subdivision (D) of clause 2(l)(4) of rule 
XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives (relating to 
oversight findings), the Committee advises that no oversight 
findings or recommendations have been submitted to this 
Committee by the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight 
with respect to the provisions contained in H.R. 2431.

                 C. Constitutional Authority Statement

    With respect to clause 2(l)(4) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, relating to Constitutional 
Authority, the Committee states that the Committee's action in 
reporting the bill is derived from Article 1 of the 
Constitution, Section 8 (``The Congress shall have power to lay 
and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the 
debts and to provide for * * * the general Welfare of the 
United States * * *), and the 16th amendment to the 
Constitution.

       VI. CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW MADE BY THE BILL, AS REPORTED

    The bill was referred to this committee for consideration 
of such provisions of the bill as fall within the jurisdiction 
of this committee pursuant to clause 1(s) of Rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives. The charges made to 
existing law by the amendment reported by the Committee on 
International Relations are shown in the report filed by that 
committee (Rept. 105-480, Part 1).