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105th Congress                                            Rept. 105-554
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 2d Session                                                      Part 1
_______________________________________________________________________


 
                  NATIONAL DROUGHT POLICY ACT OF 1998
                                _______
                                

                  May 22, 1998.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Shuster, from the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 3035]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 3035) to establish an advisory 
commission to provide advice and recommendations on the 
creation of an integrated, coordinated Federal policy designed 
to prepare for and respond to serious drought emergencies, 
having considered the same, report favorably thereon with an 
amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.
  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``National Drought Policy Act of 1998''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

  Congress finds that--
          (1) the United States often suffers serious economic and 
        environmental losses from severe regional droughts and there is 
        no coordinated Federal strategy to respond to such emergencies;
          (2) at the Federal level, even though historically there have 
        been frequent, significant droughts of national consequences, 
        drought is addressed mainly through special legislation and ad 
        hoc action rather than through a systematic and permanent 
        process as occurs with other natural disasters;
          (3) there is an increasing need, particularly at the Federal 
        level, to emphasize preparedness, mitigation, and risk 
        management (rather than simply crisis management) when 
        addressing drought and other natural disasters or emergencies;
          (4) several Federal agencies have a role in drought from 
        predicting, forecasting, and monitoring of drought conditions 
        to the provision of planning, technical, and financial 
        assistance;
          (5) there is no single Federal agency in a lead or 
        coordinating role with regard to drought;
          (6) State, local, and tribal governments have had to deal 
        individually and separately with each Federal agency involved 
        in drought assistance; and
          (7) the President should appoint an advisory commission to 
        provide advice and recommendations on the creation of an 
        integrated, coordinated Federal policy designed to prepare for, 
        mitigate the impacts of, respond to, and recover from serious 
        drought emergencies.

SEC. 3. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSION.

  (a) Establishment.--There is established a commission to be known as 
the National Drought Policy Commission (hereinafter in this Act 
referred to as the ``Commission'').
  (b) Membership.--
          (1) Composition.--The Commission shall be composed of 16 
        members. The members of the Commission shall include--
                  (A) the Secretary of Agriculture, or the designee of 
                the Secretary, who shall chair the Commission;
                  (B) the Secretary of the Interior, or the designee of 
                the Secretary;
                  (C) the Secretary of the Army, or the designee of the 
                Secretary;
                  (D) the Secretary of Commerce, or the designee of the 
                Secretary;
                  (E) the Director of the Federal Emergency Management 
                Agency, or the designee of the Director;
                  (F) the Administrator of the Small Business 
                Administration, or the designee of the Administrator;
                  (G) two persons nominated by the National Governors' 
                Association and appointed by the President, of whom--
                          (i) one shall be the governor of a State east 
                        of the Mississippi River; and
                          (ii) one shall be a governor of a State west 
                        of the Mississippi River;
                  (H) a person nominated by the National Association of 
                Counties and appointed by the President;
                  (I) a person nominated by the United States 
                Conference of Mayors and appointed by the President; 
                and
                  (J) six persons, appointed by the Secretary of 
                Agriculture in coordination with the Secretary of the 
                Interior and the Secretary of the Army, who shall be 
                representative of groups acutely affected by drought 
                emergencies, such as the agricultural production 
                community, the credit community, rural and urban water 
                associations, Native Americans, and fishing and 
                environmental interests.
          (2) Date.--The appointments of the members of the Commission 
        shall be made no later than 60 days after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act.
  (c) Period of Appointment; Vacancies.--Members shall be appointed for 
the life of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not 
affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner as the 
original appointment.
  (d) Initial Meeting.--No later than 30 days after the date on which 
all members of the Commission have been appointed, the Commission shall 
hold its first meeting.
  (e) Meetings.--The Commission shall meet at the call of the chair.
  (f) Quorum.--A majority of the members of the Commission shall 
constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings.
  (g) Vice Chair.--The Commission shall select a vice chair from among 
the members who are not Federal officers or employees.

SEC. 4. DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION.

  (a) Study and Report.--The Commission shall conduct a thorough study 
and submit a report on national drought policy in accordance with this 
section.
  (b) Content of Study and Report.--In conducting the study and report, 
the Commission shall--
          (1) determine, in consultation with the National Drought 
        Mitigation Center in Lincoln, Nebraska, and other appropriate 
        entities, what needs exist on the Federal, State, local, and 
        tribal levels to prepare for and respond to drought 
        emergencies;
          (2) review all existing Federal laws and programs relating to 
        drought;
          (3) review State, local, and tribal laws and programs 
        relating to drought that the Commission finds pertinent;
          (4) determine what differences exist between the needs of 
        those affected by drought and the Federal laws and programs 
        designed to mitigate the impacts of and respond to drought;
          (5) collaborate with the Western Drought Coordination Council 
        and other appropriate entities in order to consider regional 
        drought initiatives and the application of such initiatives at 
        the national level;
          (6) make recommendations on how Federal drought laws and 
        programs can be better integrated with ongoing State, local, 
        and tribal programs into a comprehensive national policy to 
        mitigate the impacts of and respond to drought emergencies 
        without diminishing the rights of States to control water 
        through State law and considering the need for protection of 
        the environment;
          (7) make recommendations on improving public awareness of the 
        need for drought mitigation, prevention, and response and on 
        developing a coordinated approach to drought mitigation, 
        prevention, and response by governmental and nongovernmental 
        entities, including academic, private, and nonprofit interests; 
        and
          (8) include a recommendation on whether all Federal drought 
        preparation and response programs should be consolidated under 
        one existing Federal agency and, if so, identify such agency.
  (c) Submission of Report.--
          (1) In general.--No later than 18 months after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, the Commission shall submit a report 
        to the President and Congress which shall contain a detailed 
        statement of the findings and conclusions of the Commission, 
        together with its recommendations for such legislation and 
        administrative actions as it considers appropriate.
          (2) Approval of report.--Before submission of the report, the 
        contents of the report shall be approved by unanimous consent 
        or majority vote. If the report is approved by majority vote, 
        members voting not to approve the contents shall be given the 
        opportunity to submit dissenting views with the report.

SEC. 5. POWERS OF THE COMMISSION.

  (a) Hearings.--The Commission may hold such hearings, sit and act at 
such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence 
as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the purposes of this 
Act.
  (b) Information From Federal Agencies.--The Commission may secure 
directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the 
Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act. 
Upon request of the chair of the Commission, the head of such 
department or agency shall furnish such information to the Commission.
  (c) Postal Services.--The Commission may use the United States mails 
in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments 
and agencies of the Federal Government.
  (d) Gifts.--The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or 
donations of services or property.

SEC. 6. COMMISSION PERSONNEL MATTERS.

  (a) Compensation of Members.--Each member of the Commission who is 
not an officer or employee of the Federal Government shall not be 
compensated for service on the Commission, except as provided under 
subsection (b). All members of the Commission who are officers or 
employees of the United States shall serve without compensation in 
addition to that received for their services as officers or employees 
of the United States.
  (b) Travel Expenses.--The members of the Commission shall be allowed 
travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates 
authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 
of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular 
places of business in the performance of services for the Commission.
  (c) Detail of Government Employees.--Any Federal Government employee 
may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement, and such 
detail shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or 
privilege.
  (d) Administrative Support.--The Secretary of Agriculture shall 
provide all financial, administrative, and staff support services for 
the Commission.

SEC. 7. TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION.

  The Commission shall terminate 90 days after the date on which the 
Commission submits its report under section 4.

                          purpose and summary

    The purpose of H.R. 3035, the ``National Drought Policy Act 
of 1998,'' is to establish a Commission to report to the 
President and Congress on ways to coordinate and improve 
drought management policies. The bill establishes a National 
Drought Policy Commission, to be composed of Federal, State, 
local and private sector representatives. Commission members 
are to provide advice and recommendations on the creation of an 
integrated, coordinated Federal policy designed to prepare for 
and respond to serious drought emergencies. The Commission 
terminates 90 days after submitting its report and 
recommendations to the President and Congress.

                  background and need for legislation

    The nation lacks a coordinated, integrated approach to 
drought management. In many respects, drought presents one of 
the most challenging dilemmas for policy makers, managers and 
citizens. it can be both pervasive and covert, moving slowly 
yet steadily into an entire region. This ``creeping 
phenomenon'' also differs from other natural hazards, such as 
tornadoes or flashfloods, in that it lacks any precise or 
universally accepted definition, seldom results in structural 
damage, and can linger for lengthy periods of time in affected 
areas. The result is that, compared to other disasters, drought 
often receives minimal attention in advances or uncoordinated, 
delayed responses. Drought, like other types of disasters, 
tends to prompt a crisis management, rather than risk 
management, approach.
    Drought also has the potential to inflict enormous damage 
and suffering equal to or greater than other forms of natural 
disasters. For example, the Great Plains drought of the 1930's 
which gave the nation the Dust Bowl, is considered one of the 
most significant events of this century. More recent droughts 
have caused substantial and far reaching suffering, and 
indicate that droughts can hit any region of the country. From 
1950 to 1954, the Southwest and Southern Plains suffered a 
severe drought resulting in the death of millions of cattle and 
forcing hundreds of ranchers to ship their livestock to other 
regions of the country. In the early 1960s, a drought affected 
the Northeast for several years and from 1975 to 1977 a lack of 
winter snowfall resulted in extreme drought conditions in the 
West.
    The worst drought since the days of the Dust Bowl struck 
the Midwest and parts of the Southeast in 1988. It caused 
serious damage to grain crops and livestock, slowed economic 
development, and placed severe strains on the natural 
environment. The Federal Government responded with nearly $5 
billion in disaster relief. However, the total economic losses 
to agriculture, energy, transportation, and recreation/tourism 
associated with the 1988 drought were estimated at nearly $40 
billion.
    In response to the need for a more integrated and proactive 
approach to drought management, Representative Joe Skeen (New 
Mexico) introduced H.R. 3035 on November 12, 1997. The 
introduced bill was a companion to S. 222, which the Senate 
passed on November 12, 1997.

      discussion of committee bill and section-by-section analysis

Section 1. Short title

    Section 1 identifies the short title of the Act as the 
``National Drought Policy Act of 1998.''

Section 2. Findings

    Section 2 makes findings regarding the serious economic and 
environmental losses from severe regional droughts and the need 
for a Federal strategy to respond to such emergencies. The 
findings also identify the need for coordination among Federal 
agencies and State, local and tribal governments to respond to 
drought emergencies and to emphasize preparedness, mitigation, 
and risk management.

Section 3. Establishment of the Commission

    Section 3 establishes a National Drought Policy Commission 
composed of 16 members, including the Secretary of Agriculture, 
the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of the Army, the 
Secretary of Commerce, the Director of the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency, the Administrator of the Small Business 
Administration, two persons nominated by the National 
Governors' Association, one person nominated by the National 
Association of Counties, one person nominated by the United 
States Conference of Mayors, and six persons representing 
groups acutely affected by drought emergencies, such as the 
agricultural production community, the credit community, rural 
and urban water association, Native Americans, and fishing and 
environmental interests.
    The Committee anticipates that Federal agency members will 
consult with other appropriate Federal agencies, such as the 
Environmental Protection Agency, that have interests in various 
aspects of drought management. The Committee also intends the 
Commission to have balanced representation with respect to 
geographic regions.
    The Secretary of Agriculture will chair the Commission. The 
Committee anticipates the Secretary of Army, acting through the 
Corps of Engineers, the Secretary of the Interior, and the 
Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to play 
major roles in the Commission's deliberations. The Commission 
is to select a vice chair from among the members who are not 
Federal officers or employees.

Section 4. Duties of the Commission

    Section 4 requires the Commission to conduct a thorough 
study and submit a report to the President and Congress on 
national drought policy within 18 months.
    The study and report must: determine the need at the 
Federal, State, local and Tribal levels to prepare for and 
respond to drought emergencies; review Federal laws and 
programs related to drought; review pertinent State, local and 
Tribal laws and programs relating to drought; determine the 
differences between the identified needs and the Federal laws 
and programs designed to address such needs; consider regional 
drought initiatives; and, make recommendations with respect to 
integration with ongoing programs, improving public awareness, 
developing a coordinated approach to drought mitigation, and 
consolidating Federal drought preparation and response 
programs.
    In order to accomplish its duties in the most effective and 
balanced manner, the Commission is directed to consult and 
coordinate with drought management experts and organizations 
throughout the nation.
    The Commission is also directed to review the findings and 
recommendations contained in and materials referenced by the 
Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission in its Final 
Report released in 1998, particularly the report ``Improving 
Drought Management in the West.''

Section 5. Powers of the Commission

    Section 5 provides the Commission with the authority to 
hold hearings, take testimony and receive evidence. The 
Commission also has the authority to obtain information 
directly from Federal agencies, use the United States mails in 
the same manner as agencies of the Federal Government, and 
accept, use, and dispose of donations of services or property.

Section 6. Commission personnel matters

    Section 6 addresses Commission personnel matters by 
providing that members of the Commission shall not be 
compensated for service on the Commission, but may receive 
eligible travel expenses. Federal Government employees may be 
detailed to the Commission. Financial, administrative, and 
staff support services for the Commission are to be provided by 
the Secretary of Agriculture.

Section 7. Termination of the Commission

    Section 7 requires the Commission to terminate 90 days 
after it submits its report.

                                hearings

    On January 28, 1998, the Water Resources and Environment 
Subcommittee held a hearing on ``Disaster Mitigation'' and 
related issues. Testimony was presented by, among others, 
Representative Joe Skeen (New Mexico); Director James L. Witt, 
Federal Emergency Management Agency; Dr. John H. Zirschky, 
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works); Mr. Joseph F. 
Myers, National Emergency Management Association; Mr. Scott 
Faber, American Rivers; and, Dr. Donald A. Wilhite, University 
of Nebraska. Written comments of the Department of Agriculture 
and the Western Governors' Association were also submitted.

                        committee consideration

    On March 26, 1998 the Subcommittee on Water Resources and 
Environment adopted an amendment in the nature of a substitute 
offered by Representative Sherwood L. Boehlert (NY) and 
favorably reported the amended bill by a unanimous voice vote. 
The amendment made technical and clarifying changes; added two 
non-federal members to the Commission to represent rural and 
urban water users and fishing and environmental interests; 
emphasized the need for disaster preparedness and mitigation, 
increased public education, and coordination between public and 
private sectors; enhanced the Commission's consideration of 
environmental issues and impacts; and provided more flexibility 
regarding the participation of other parties and entities in 
the Commission's proceedings.
    On May 6, 1998, the Committee ordered the bill, as amended, 
reported by voice vote.

                             rollcall votes

    Clause 2(l)(2)(B) of rule XI requires each committee report 
to include the total number of votes cast for and against on 
each roll call vote on a motion to report and on any amendment 
offered to the measure or matter, and the names of those 
members voting for and against. There were no recorded votes 
taken in connection with ordering H.R. 3035 reported. A motion 
by Mr. Boehlert to order H.R. 3035, as amended, reported to the 
House, was unanimously agreed to by voice vote, a quorum being 
present.

                        cost of the legislation

    Clause 7 of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives does not apply where a cost estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 has been timely submitted prior to the filing of the 
report and is included in the report. Such a cost estimate is 
included in this report.

                     compliance with house rule xi

    1. Pursuant to clause 2(l)(3)(A) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, oversight findings and 
recommendations have been made by the Committee as reflected in 
this report.
    2. With respect to the requirement of clause 2(l)(3)(B) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives, and 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee 
references the report of the Congressional Budget Office 
included below.
    3. With respect to requirement of clause (2)(l)(3)(C) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
Committee has received no report of oversight findings and 
recommendations from the Committee on Government Reform and 
Oversight on the subject of H.R. 3035.
    4. With respect to the requirement of clause 2(l)(3)(C) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives and 
section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the 
Committee has received the following cost estimate for H.R. 
3035 from the Director of the Congressional Budget Office.

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, May 11, 1998.
Hon. Bud Shuster,
Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of 
        Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 3035, the National 
Drought Policy Act of 1998.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contacts are Gary Brown 
and David Hull.
            Sincerely,
                                             James L. Blum,
                                   (for June E. O'Neill, Director.)
    Enclosure.

               CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE COST ESTIMATE

H.R. 3035--National Drought Policy Act of 1998

    Summary: H.R. 3035 would establish an advisory commission 
to provide advice and recommendations to the President and the 
Congress on the creation of an integrated federal policy 
designed to prepare for and respond to drought emergencies. The 
commission would submit a report recommending a national 
drought policy within 18 months of enactment of the bill. The 
Secretary of Agriculture would provide all financial, 
administrative, and staff support services for the commission.
    CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 3035 would cost 
between $500,000 and $1 million over the 1999-2003 period, 
assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts. H.R. 3035 
would not affect direct spending or receipts; therefore pay-as-
you-go procedures would not apply. The legislation contains no 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) and would impose no 
costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: CBO estimates 
that implementing H.R. 3035 would result in new spending 
subject to appropriation of less than $500,000 in each of 
fiscal years 1999 and 2000 and that the total cost of 
implementing the bill would be between $500,000 and $1 million. 
Those costs would be subject to appropriation of the necessary 
amounts.
    Basis of estimate: For purposes of this estimate, CBO 
assumes that (1) H.R. 3035 is enacted by the beginning of 
fiscal year 1999, (2) commissioners are appointed within two 
months of enactment, (3) the commission submits its report with 
its recommendations for a national drought policy in fiscal 
year 2000, (4) the commission ceases to exist within three 
months after submitting the report, and (5) all amounts 
estimated to be authorized by the bill are appropriated.
    The commission would consist of 16 members, including six 
federal officers representing the Departments of Agriculture, 
the Interior, the Army, and Commerce, the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency, and the Small Business Administration. The 
other 10 (nonfederal) members would nominated by the Secretary 
of Agriculture and by state, county, and city associations.
    CBO anticipates that requiring federal officers to sit on 
the commission and detailing federal employees to the 
commission would collectively create a need for additional 
staff and overtime compensation at the affected agencies. The 
commission would incur additional cost for travel and per diem 
expenses of its members, communications, supplies, printing and 
other general expenses. We estimate that the total cost of 
temporarily replacing individuals assigned to the commission 
and the general expenses of the commission would require new 
spending subject to appropriation of less than $500,000 a year 
for 1999 and 2000.
    The six federal officials that would serve on the 
commission would be compensated by their employing agency while 
performing commission business (but could not receive 
compensation in addition to that received in connection with 
their normal positions). The 10 nonfederal members of the 
commission would be reimbursed only for travel expenses, 
including per diem in lieu of subsistence while away from home 
or their regular place of business.
    Pay-as-you-go considerations: None.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 3035 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would impose no costs on state, local, or 
tribal governments.
    Previous CBO estimate: On November 7, 1997, CBO provided an 
estimate for S. 222, the National Drought Policy Act of 1997, 
as ordered reported by the Senate Committee on Governmental 
Affairs on November 5, 1997. The two bills are similar and the 
estimates of total cost are identical.
    Estimate prepared by: Gary Brown and David Hull.
    Estimate approved by: Paul N. Van de Water, Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                   constitutional authority statement

    Pursuant to clause (2)(l)(4) of rule XI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, committee reports on a bill or joint 
resolution of a public character shall include a statement 
citing the specific powers granted to the Congress in the 
Constitution to enact the measure. The Committee on 
Transportation and Infrastructure finds that Congress has the 
authority to enact this measure pursuant to its powers granted 
under article I, section 8 of the Constitution.

                       federal mandates statement

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of federal 
mandates prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act.

                      advisory committee statement

    The bill establishes an advisory committee within the 
meaning of section 5(b) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. 
In the view of the Committee the functions of the Commission 
are not and could not be accomplished by one or more other 
agencies or by an advisory committee already in existence, or 
by enlarging the mandate of an existing advisory committee.

                applicability to the legislative branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional accountability Act.

         changes in existing law made by the bill, as reported

    H.R. 3035 makes no changes in existing law.

                          exchange of letters

                          House of Representatives,
                                    Committee on Resources,
                                      Washington, DC, May 21, 1998.
Hon. Bud Shuster,
Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Rayburn House 
        Office Building, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: I understand that the Committee on 
Transportation and Infrastructure recently ordered reported 
H.R. 3035, the National Drought Policy Act of 1998, authored by 
Congressman Skeen of New Mexico.
    In recognition of your Committee's desire and that of 
Congressman Skeen to move this legislation expeditiously 
through the House of Representatives, the Committee on 
Resources agrees to waive its additional referral of the bill. 
However, this action should not be construed as waiving or 
otherwise diminishing the Committee on Resources' jurisdiction 
over the bill or issues associated with H.R. 3035. In addition, 
should a conference on H.R. 3035 or a similar measure become 
necessary, I would ask you to support the Committee on 
Resources be represented on the conference committee. Finally, 
I ask that you make this letter a part of the Committee on 
Transportation and Infrastructure's report on the bill.
    Once again, it has been a pleasure working with you and 
your staff, and I look forward to seeing H.R. 3035 scheduled 
for Floor consideration very soon.
            Sincerely,
                                               Don Young, Chairman.
                                ------                                

                          House of Representatives,
            Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure,
                                      Washington, DC, May 21, 1998.
Hon. Don Young,
Chairman, Committee on Resources, Longworth House Office Building, 
        Washington, DC.
    Dear Chairman Young: Thank you for contacting me regarding 
the jurisdictional interest of the Committee on Resources over 
H.R. 3035, the National Drought Policy Act of 1998.
    I appreciate the decision of the Committee on Resources to 
be discharged from further consideration of the bill in the 
interest of moving it forward expeditiously. I agree that this 
should not be viewed as a waiver of any jurisdictional claim 
that you might have over the bill or issues associated with the 
bill.
    I appreciate your cooperation and the cooperation of your 
staff.
    With kind personal regards, I am
            Sincerely,
                                             Bud Shuster, Chairman.