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105th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 2d Session                                             105-562, Part I
_______________________________________________________________________


 
  COMMISSION ON THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND 
                       TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ACT

_______________________________________________________________________


                  June 3, 1998.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Sensenbrenner, from the Committee on Science, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 3007]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, to whom was referred the bill 
(H.R. 3007) to establish the Commission on the Advancement of 
Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development, 
having considered the same, reports favorably thereon with an 
amendment and recommends that the bill as amended do pass.



                            C O N T E N T S

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................6
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................6
  IV. Summary of Hearings.............................................7
   V. Committee Actions...............................................8
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill........................10
 VII. Section-By-Section Analysis (By Title and Section) and Committee 
      Views..........................................................10
VIII. Committee Cost Estimate........................................17
  IX. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................18
   X. Compliance With Public Law 104-4...............................19
  XI. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............19
 XII. Oversight Findings and Recommendations by the Committee on 
      Government Reform and Oversight................................19
XIII. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................19
 XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................19
  XV. Congressional Accountability Act...............................19
 XVI. Committee Recommendations......................................19
XVII. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup.........................21
XVIII.Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................67


                              I. Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Commission on the Advancement of 
Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development Act''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    The Congress finds the following:
            (1) According to the National Science Foundation's 1996 
        report, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in 
        Science and Engineering--
                    (A) women have historically been underrepresented 
                in scientific and engineering occupations, and although 
                progress has been made over the last several decades, 
                there is still room for improvement;
                    (B) female students take fewer high-level 
                mathematics and science courses in high school;
                    (C) female students earn fewer bachelors, masters, 
                and doctoral degrees in science and engineering;
                    (D) among recent bachelors of science and bachelors 
                of engineering graduates, women are less likely to be 
                in the labor force, to be employed full-time, and to be 
                employed in their field than are men;
                    (E) among doctoral scientists and engineers, women 
                are far more likely to be employed at 2-year 
                institutions, are far less likely to be employed in 
                research universities, and are much more likely to 
                teach part-time;
                    (F) among university full-time faculty, women are 
                less likely to chair departments or hold high-ranked 
                positions; and
                    (G) a substantial salary gap exists between men and 
                women with doctorates in science and engineering.
            (2) According to the National Research Council's 1995 
        report, Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry: 
        Why So Few?--
                    (A) limited access is the first hurdle faced by 
                women seeking industrial jobs in science and 
                engineering, and while progress has been made in recent 
                years, common recruitment and hiring practices that 
                make extensive use of traditional networks often 
                overlook the available pool of women;
                    (B) once on the job, many women find paternalism, 
                sexual harassment, allegations of reverse 
                discrimination, different standards for judging the 
                work of men and women, lower salary relative to their 
                male peers, inequitable job assignments, and other 
                aspects of a male-oriented culture that are hostile to 
                women; and
                    (C) women to a greater extent than men find limited 
                opportunities for advancement, particularly for moving 
                into management positions, and the number of women who 
                have achieved the top levels in corporations is much 
                lower than would be expected, based on the pipeline 
                model.
            (3) The establishment of a commission to examine issues 
        raised by the findings of these 2 reports would help--
                    (A) to focus attention on the importance of 
                eliminating artificial barriers to the recruitment, 
                retention, and advancement of women in the fields of 
                science, engineering, and technology, and in all 
                employment sectors of the United States;
                    (B) to promote work force diversity;
                    (C) to sensitize employers to the need to recruit 
                and retain women scientists, engineers, and computer 
                specialists; and
                    (D) to encourage the replication of successful 
                recruitment and retention programs by universities, 
                corporations, and Federal agencies having difficulties 
                in employing women in the fields of science, 
                engineering, and technology.

SEC. 3. ESTABLISHMENT.

    There is established a commission to be known as the ``Commission 
on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology 
Development'' (in this Act referred to as the ``Commission'').

SEC. 4. DUTY OF THE COMMISSION.

    The Commission shall review available research, and, if determined 
necessary by the Commission, conduct additional research to--
            (1) identify the number of women (including minority women 
        and women with disabilities) in the United States in specific 
        types of occupations in science, engineering, and technology 
        development;
            (2) examine the preparedness of women (including minority 
        women and women with disabilities) to--
                    (A) pursue careers in science, engineering, and 
                technology development; and
                    (B) advance to positions of greater responsibility 
                within academia, industry, and government;
            (3) describe the practices and policies of employers and 
        labor unions relating to the recruitment, retention, and 
        advancement of women (including minority women and women with 
        disabilities) in the fields of science, engineering, and 
        technology development;
            (4) identify the opportunities for, and artificial barriers 
        to, the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women 
        (including minority women and women with disabilities) in the 
        fields of science, engineering, and technology development in 
        academia, industry, and government;
            (5) compile a synthesis of available research on lawful 
        practices, policies, and programs that have successfully led to 
        the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women (including 
        minority women and women with disabilities) in science, 
        engineering, and technology development;
            (6) issue recommendations with respect to lawful policies 
        that government (including Congress and appropriate Federal 
        agencies), academia, and private industry can follow regarding 
        the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women (including 
        minority women and women with disabilities) in science, 
        engineering, and technology development;
            (7) identify the disincentives for women (including 
        minority women and women with disabilities) to continue 
        graduate education in the fields of engineering, physics, and 
        computer science;
            (8) identify university undergraduate programs that are 
        successful in retaining women (including minority women and 
        women with disabilities) in the fields of science, engineering, 
        and technology development;
            (9) identify the disincentives that lead to a 
        disproportionate number of women (including minority women and 
        women with disabilities) leaving the fields of science, 
        engineering, and technology development before completing their 
        undergraduate education;
            (10) assess the extent to which the recommendations of the 
        Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science 
        and Technology established under section 8 of the National 
        Science Foundation Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 
        (Public Law 99-383; 42 U.S.C. 1885a note) have been 
        implemented;
            (11) compile a list of all Federally funded reports on the 
        subjects of encouraging women (including minority women and 
        women with disabilities) to enter the fields of science and 
        engineering and retaining women (including minority women and 
        women with disabilities) in the science and engineering 
        workforce that have been issued since the date that the Task 
        Force described in paragraph (10) submitted its report to 
        Congress; and
            (12) assess the extent to which the recommendations 
        contained in the reports described in paragraph (11) have been 
        implemented.

SEC. 5. MEMBERSHIP.

    (a) Number and Appointment.--The Commission shall be composed of 11 
members as follows:
            (1) 3 members appointed by the President from among for-
        profit entities that hire individuals in the fields of 
        engineering, science, or technology development.
            (2) 2 members appointed by the Speaker of the House of 
        Representatives from among such entities.
            (3) 2 members appointed by the majority leader of the 
        Senate from among such entities.
            (4) 2 members appointed by the Chairman of the National 
        Governors Association from among individuals in education or 
        academia in the fields of life science, physical science, or 
        engineering.
            (5) 2 members appointed by the Vice Chairman of the 
        National Governors Association from among such individuals.
    (b) Initial Appointments.--Initial appointments shall be made under 
subsection (a) not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act.
    (c) Terms.--
            (1) In general.--Each member shall be appointed for the 
        life of the Commission.
            (2) Vacancies.--A vacancy in the Commission shall be filled 
        in the manner in which the original appointment was made.
    (d) Pay of Members.--Members shall not be paid by reason of their 
service on the Commission.
    (e) Travel Expenses.--Each member shall receive travel expenses, 
including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with sections 
5702 and 5703 of title 5, United States Code.
    (f) Quorum.--A majority of the members of the Commission shall 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
    (g) Chairperson.--The Chairperson of the Commission shall be 
elected by the members.
    (h) Meetings.--The Commission shall meet not fewer than 5 times in 
connection with and pending the completion of the report described in 
section 8. The Commission shall hold additional meetings for such 
purpose if the Chairperson or a majority of the members of the 
Commission requests the additional meetings in writing.
    (i) Employment Status.--Members of the Commission shall not be 
deemed to be employees of the Federal Government by reason of their 
work on the Commission except for the purposes of--
            (1) the tort claims provisions of chapter 171 of title 28, 
        United States Code; and
            (2) subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, United States 
        Code, relating to compensation for work injuries.

SEC. 6. DIRECTOR AND STAFF OF COMMISSION; EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS.

    (a) Director.--The Commission shall appoint a Director who shall be 
paid at a rate not to exceed the maximum annual rate of basic pay 
payable under section 5376 of title 5, United States Code.
    (b) Staff.--The Commission may appoint and fix the pay of 
additional personnel as the Commission considers appropriate.
    (c) Applicability of Certain Civil Service Laws.--The Director and 
staff of the Commission may be appointed without regard to the 
provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in 
the competitive service, and may be paid without regard to the 
provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of that title 
relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that 
an individual so appointed may not receive pay in excess of the maximum 
annual rate of basic pay payable under section 5376 of title 5, United 
States Code.
    (d) Experts and Consultants.--The Commission may procure temporary 
and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United 
States Code, at rates for individuals not to exceed the maximum annual 
rate of basic pay payable under section 5376 of title 5, United States 
Code.
    (e) Staff of Federal Agencies.--Upon request of the Commission, the 
Director of the National Science Foundation or the head of any other 
Federal department or agency may detail, on a reimbursable basis, any 
of the personnel of that department or agency to the Commission to 
assist it in carrying out its duties under this Act.

SEC. 7. POWERS OF COMMISSION.

    (a) Hearings and Sessions.--The Commission may, for the purpose of 
carrying out this Act, hold hearings, sit and act at times and places, 
take testimony, and receive evidence as the Commission considers 
appropriate. The Commission may administer oaths or affirmations to 
witnesses appearing before it.
    (b) Powers of Members and Agents.--Any member or agent of the 
Commission may, if authorized by the Commission, take any action which 
the Commission is authorized to take by this section.
    (c) Obtaining Official Data.--The Commission may secure directly 
from any department or agency of the United States information 
necessary to enable it to carry out this Act. Upon request of the 
Chairperson of the Commission, the head of that department or agency 
shall furnish that information to the Commission.
    (d) Gifts, Bequests, and Devises.--The Commission may accept, use, 
and dispose of gifts, bequests, or devises of services or property, 
both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the 
work of the Commission. Gifts, bequests, or devises of money and 
proceeds from sales of other property received as gifts, bequests, or 
devises shall be deposited in the Treasury and shall be available for 
disbursement upon order of the Commission.
    (e) Mails.--The Commission may use the United States mails in the 
same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and 
agencies of the United States.
    (f) Administrative Support Services.--Upon the request of the 
Commission, the Administrator of General Services shall provide to the 
Commission, on a reimbursable basis, the administrative support 
services necessary for the Commission to carry out its responsibilities 
under this Act.
    (g) Contract Authority.--To the extent provided in advance in 
appropriations Acts, the Commission may contract with and compensate 
government and private agencies or persons for the purpose of 
conducting research or surveys necessary to enable the Commission to 
carry out its duties under this Act.

SEC. 8. REPORT.

    Not later than 1 year after the date on which the initial 
appointments under section 5(a) are completed, the Commission shall 
submit to the President, the Congress, and the highest executive 
official of each State, a written report containing the findings, 
conclusions, and recommendations of the Commission resulting from the 
study conducted under section 4.

SEC. 9. CONSTRUCTION; USE OF INFORMATION OBTAINED.

    (a) In General.--Nothing in this Act shall be construed to require 
any non-Federal entity (such as a business, college or university, 
foundation, or research organization) to provide information to the 
Commission concerning such entity's personnel policies, including 
salaries and benefits, promotion criteria, and affirmative action 
plans.
    (b) Use of Information Obtained.--No information obtained from any 
entity by the Commission may be used in connection with any employment 
related litigation.

SEC. 10. TERMINATION; ACCESS TO INFORMATION.

    (a) Termination.--The Commission shall terminate 30 days after 
submitting the report required by section 8.
    (b) Access to Information.--On or before the date of the 
termination of the Commission under subsection (a), the Commission 
shall provide to the National Science Foundation the information 
gathered by the Commission in the process of carrying out its duties 
under this Act. The National Science Foundation shall act as a central 
repository for such information and shall make such information 
available to the public, including making such information available 
through the Internet.

SEC. 11. REVIEW OF INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE 
                    FOUNDATION AND OTHER AGENCIES.

    (a) Provision of Information.--At the request of the Commission, 
the National Science Foundation and any other Federal department or 
agency shall provide to the Commission any information determined 
necessary by the Commission to carry out its duties under this Act, 
including--
            (1) data on academic degrees awarded to women (including 
        minority women and women with disabilities) in science, 
        engineering, and technology development, and workforce 
        representation and the retention of women (including minority 
        women and women with disabilities) in the fields of science, 
        engineering, and technology development; and
            (2) information gathered by the National Science Foundation 
        in the process of compiling its biennial report on Women, 
        Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and 
        Engineering.
    (b) Review of Information.--The Commission shall review any 
information provided under subsection (a) and shall include in the 
report required under section 8--
            (1) recommendations on how to correct any deficiencies in 
        the collection of the types of information described in that 
        subsection, and in the analysis of such data, which might 
        impede the characterization of the factors which affect the 
        attraction and retention of women (including minority women and 
        women with disabilities) in the fields of science, engineering, 
        and technology development; and
            (2) an assessment of the biennial report of the National 
        Science Foundation on Women, Minorities, and Persons with 
        Disabilities in Science and Engineering, and recommendations on 
        how that report could be improved.

SEC. 12. DEFINITION OF STATE.

    In this Act, the term ``State'' includes the several States, the 
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth 
of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Virgin 
Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

                        II. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of the bill is to establish the Commission on 
the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and 
Technology Development to: (1) identify the number of women in 
the United States in the fields of science, engineering, and 
technology development; (2) determine the barriers that exist 
to women pursuing an education or career within each of these 
disciplines; and (3) issue recommendations that government, 
academia, and private industry can follow to encourage the 
recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in science, 
engineering, and technology development.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    Over the last decade, the use of technology has transformed 
almost every sector of our Nation's economy ranging from 
transportation and health care to manufacturing and education. 
In manufacturing alone, high-tech industries are currently the 
largest manufacturing employer in the United States. In 
addition, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has predicted the 
demand for highly skilled workers in computer and data 
processing services will more than double over the next 10 
years. The shift from an industrial age to an information age 
has resulted in the need for an increased pool of high-tech 
workers trained in all areas of science, engineering, and 
technology development.
    There has been significant progress over the last decade 
integrating women into the fields of science, engineering, and 
technology development. For example, according to the 
Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of 
Engineering Societies, the percentage of women Ph.D.'s in 
engineering has increased from .4 percent in 1970 to 12.2 
percent in 1997. In addition, the number of medical degrees 
earned by women rose from 8 percent to 38 percent between 1970 
and 1993.
    Women, however, continue to be underrepresented in most 
scientific and engineering fields, thus significantly 
decreasing the pool of potential high-tech workers. According 
to the 1996 National Science Foundation report, Women, 
Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and 
Engineering, women represent nearly 46 percent of the U.S. 
labor force, but comprise only 22 percent of all scientists and 
engineers. With respect to engineering, which includes 
electrical and computer engineering, the percentage of women in 
the workforce is still under 10 percent.
    In order to ensure that the U.S. high-tech economy 
continues to flourish well into the 21st Century, the need 
exists to examine what underlying factors contribute to the 
relative lack of women in science, engineering, and technology 
development. H.R. 3007 will establish a Commission on the 
Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology 
Development to address this issue.
    H.R. 3476, similar legislation introduced by Mrs. Morella, 
was considered under suspension of the rules and passed the 
House by a voice vote on September 29, 1992. The measure was 
not acted upon by the Senate.

                        IV. Summary of Hearings

    On March 10, 1998, the Subcommittees on Technology and 
Basic Research held a joint hearing on ``A Review of H.R. 3007, 
The Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and 
Technology Development Act.'' Witnesses included: Ms. Belkis 
Leong-Hong, President-elect, Women in Technology (WIT); Ms. 
Catherine Didion, Executive Director, Association for Women in 
Science; Ms. Monica Moman-Saunders, Louisville Gas and Electric 
Company, representing the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers; and Professor Ann M. Quade, Department of Computer 
Science, Mankato State University.
    Ms. Belkis Leong-Hong, testifying as President-elect, Women 
in Technology, Fairfax, Virginia, emphasized the need to 
provide young women the support necessary to pursue an 
education and career in science, engineering, and technology 
development. As an example of the lack of encouragement for 
young women to excel in these areas, she stated that nearly 
one-third of all girls in our high schools report that they 
were advised against taking advanced mathematics courses. To 
overcome the lack of support for young women in all areas of 
science, the need exists for a systematic mentoring process. 
Women in Technology (WIT) has addressed this problem by 
establishing a formal mentoring program in the Washington, DC. 
metropolitan area. Ms. Leong-Hong expresses her support for 
H.R. 3007 and endorsed the bill on behalf of WIT.
    Ms. Catherine Didion, testifying as Executive Director, 
Association for Women in Science, stated that there needs to be 
a major change in the way society portrays women in science, 
engineering, and technology development. In particular, she 
stated that many young women have a difficult time reconciling 
the demands of being a woman with being a scientist. She stated 
that in a recent study by the National Science Teachers 
Association, 99 percent of the boys and nearly 90 percent of 
the girls who were asked to draw a picture of a scientists drew 
a white male scientist. To reinforce this point, she recalled 
the account of one female scientist who was advised not to wear 
fingernail polish or makeup if she hoped to be taken seriously. 
After informally polling the 76 AWIS chapters and asking what 
was the compelling issue facing women in science, Ms. Didion 
said she received numerous answers but that almost all of them 
contained two important recommendations. First, that there is a 
need to promote an effective mentoring system with adequate 
reward structures for women in science. Second, flexibility in 
the workforce is a key contributor to whether women succeed in 
careers in science. She said many women fear it is unrealistic 
to both pursue a career in science and also maintain a solid 
family structure. Ms. Didion endorsed H.R. 3007 on behalf of 
AWIS.
    Professor Ann Quade, testifying as Associate Professor, 
Department of Computer Science, Mankato State University, 
expressed her concern about the decline in the number of women 
pursuing degrees in computer sciences. She cited data 
indicating a 50% decrease in the number of women pursuing a 
computer science degree between the years 1986 and 1994. 
Professor Quade referenced other previously male dominated 
fields where women have made progress including medicine, law, 
and business, and said that the skills necessary to succeed in 
these areas are essentially the same skills necessary to 
succeed in computer sciences. She stated that in her experience 
as an educator, many young women did not have an adequate 
understanding of what was involved in the computer science 
field. She indicated that those involved in the profession had 
not done a very good job of explaining what they do for a 
living and potential job opportunities for computer science 
graduates. She supported the idea of a strong mentoring system 
to achieve this goal. Professor Quade also endorsed H.R. 3007.
    Ms. Monica Moman-Saunders, testifying on behalf of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, cited a number of 
statistics which indicate that women are making progress in the 
areas of science, engineering, and technology development. 
However, she also stated that not enough is being done to 
recruit, retain, and advance women in these areas. Ms. Moman-
Saunders emphasized the need for the Commission established by 
H.R. 3007 to draw upon the resources of other groups and 
coordinate its efforts with those that are ongoing in order to 
keep duplicative research from occurring. ASME, for example, 
recently completed a similar study aimed at determining whether 
real or perceived barriers exist that inhibit the participation 
of women and minorities in their society. This information 
should be shared and incorporated within the Commission's 
study. Ms. Moman-Saunders agreed with the other witnesses that 
mentoring programs are critically important in not only 
recruitment of women in science, engineering, and technology, 
but also their retention of women. In conclusion, Ms. Moman-
Saunders stated that women constitute nearly half of the 
Nation's labor force; thus, it is crucial to the Nation's 
economy that the under-representation of women in science, 
engineering and technology be rectified. Ms. Moman-Saunders 
also endorsed H.R. 3007 on behalf of ASME.

                          V. Committee Actions

    On March 26, 1998, the Committee on Science, Subcommittee 
on Technology convened to markup H.R. 3007, the Commission on 
the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and 
Technology Development Act. A substitute amendment was offered 
and adopted by voice vote. Five amendments to the substitute 
were considered en bloc and adopted by voice vote.
    1. Mrs. Morella offered a substitute amendment to 
streamline the Commission process and for other purposes. The 
amendment requires the Commission to be appointed in 90, not 
180 days; gives the Commission 1 year, not 18 months to report; 
terminates the Commission in 30 days, not 1 year, after it 
reports; and replaces a requirement that NSF conduct a study 
with language requiring NSF to transmit the data it currently 
collects to the Commission. In addition the substitute ensures 
that the States are active participants in the Commission by 
allowing the National Governors Association Chairman and Vice 
Chairman to appoint 4 of the 11 Commissioners, and by requiring 
the Commission's report to be transmitted to all 50 States, the 
District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories. The substitute 
was adopted by a voice vote. 
    2. Mrs. Morella requested unanimous consent to consider 
five amendments to the substitute offered by Ms. Stabenow, Mrs. 
Tauscher, Mr. Doyle, and Ms. Rivers en bloc. The amendments 
would: (1) require the Commission to identify the disincentives 
for women to continue graduate educations in the fields of 
engineering, physics, and computer science; (2) require the 
National Science Foundation to act as a central repository for 
all information gathered by the Commission in carrying out its 
duties and to make the information available to the public, 
including making it available via the Internet; (3) require the 
Commission to identify university undergraduate programs that 
are successful in retaining women in the fields of science, 
engineering, and technology development and to identify 
disincentives that lead to a disproportionate number of women 
leaving these fields before completing their undergraduate 
degrees; (4) require the Commission to compile a list of all 
federally funded reports on women in science and to assess the 
extent to which any recommendations included in these reports, 
including the National Science Foundation's Task Force on 
Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and 
Technology, have been implemented; and (5) require all federal 
agencies, including the National Science Foundation, to provide 
at the request of the Commission any data collected by these 
agencies relevant to the work of the Commission and require the 
Commission to analyze the data and offer recommendations 
regarding deficiencies in the collection process. The 
amendments to the substitute were considered en bloc and 
adopted by voice vote.
    With a quorum present, Mr. Barcia moved that H.R. 3007, as 
amended, be reported. The motion was adopted by a voice vote.
    On May 13, 1998, the Committee on Science convened to 
markup H.R. 3007. A substitute and an en bloc amendment to the 
substitute were adopted by voice vote. An amendment to the en 
bloc amendment was rejected by voice vote.
    1. Mrs. Morella offered an Amendment in the Nature of a 
Substitute which consisted of the text of H.R. 3007 as reported 
by the Technology Subcommittee. The amendment was agreed to by 
a voice vote.
    2. Chairman Sensenbrenner offered an en bloc amendment to 
the substitute reflecting four amendments offered by Ms. 
Johnson, Ms. Stabenow, Ms. Lee, and Ms. Jackson Lee. The en 
bloc amendment: inserts a new section of findings based on the 
findings of the National Science Foundation's 1996 report, 
Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and 
Engineering, and the National Research Council's 1995 report, 
Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry, Why so 
Few?; strikes the word ``nondiscriminatory'' as it appears in 
the legislation and replaces it with the word ``lawful''; 
prohibits members of the Commission from being compensated for 
days in which they partake in Commission business; and strikes 
the term ``women'' as it appears in the legislation and 
replaces it with the term ``women (including minority women and 
women with disabilities).'' The en bloc amendment was adopted 
by a voice vote.
    3. Mr. Bartlett offered an amendment to the en bloc 
amendment to strike language contained in the Findings (Section 
2 (3) (B & C)) related to workforce diversity and sensitizing 
employers to the need to recruit and retain women scientists, 
engineers, and computer specialists. The amendment was defeated 
by a voice vote.
    With a quorum present, Mr. Brown moved that H.R. 3007, as 
amended, be reported. The motion was adopted by a voice vote.

              VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    H.R. 3007 establishes the Commission on the Advancement of 
Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development to 
examine the barriers that exist to women scientists and 
engineers. Specifically, H.R. 3007 requires the Commission to:

    1. Identify the number of women in the United States in the 
fields of science, engineering, and technology development.
    2. Examine the preparedness of women to pursue careers in 
science, engineering, and technology development and to advance 
to positions of greater responsibility in academia, industry, 
and government.
    3. Describe university undergraduate programs that are 
successful in retaining women in the areas of science, 
engineering, and technology development.
    4. Identify any disincentives that have led to a 
disproportionate number of women either leaving the fields of 
science, engineering, and technology development before 
receiving a degree or declining to pursue a graduate education 
in any of these disciplines.
    5. Examine the current practices and policies of employers 
relating to the recruitment, retention, and advancement of 
women in science, engineering, and technology development, and 
to compile a synthesis of available research in areas where 
such practices, policies, and programs have proven successful.
    5. Issue recommendations, in the form of a report, that 
government, academia, and private industry can follow to 
encourage and assist women pursuing an education and career in 
the fields of science, engineering, and technology development.

 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (By Title and Section) and Committee 
                                 Views

Section 1. Short Title

    The Act's title is the ``Commission on the Advancement of 
Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development 
Act.''

Section 2. Findings

    The Committee finds that according to the 1996 National 
Science Foundation's report, Women, Minorities, and Person with 
Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 
    1. Women have historically been underrepresented in 
scientific and engineering occupations, and although progress 
has been made over the last several decades, there is still 
room for improvement.
    2. Female students take fewer high-level mathematics and 
science courses in high school.
    3. Female students earn fewer bachelors, masters, and 
doctoral degrees in science and engineering.
    4. Among recent bachelors of science and bachelors of 
engineering graduates, women are less likely to be in the labor 
force, to be employed full-time, and to be employed in their 
field than are men.
    5. Among doctoral scientists and engineers, women are far 
more likely to be employed at 2 year institutions, are far less 
likely to be employed in research universities, and are much 
more likely to teach part-time.
    6. Among university full-time faculty, women are less 
likely to chair departments or hold high ranking positions.
    7. A substantial salary gap exists between men and women 
with doctorates in science and engineering.
    The Committee also finds that according to the National 
Science Foundation's 1995 report, Women Scientists and 
Engineers Employed in Industry: Why so Few?:
    1. Limited access is the first hurdle faced by women 
seeking industrial jobs in science and engineering, and while 
progress has been made in recent years, common recruitment and 
hiring practices that make extensive use of traditional 
networks often overlook the available pool of women.
    2. Once on the job, many women find paternalism, sexual 
harassment, allegations of reverse discrimination, different 
standards for judging the work of women and men, lower salary 
relative to their male peers, inequitable job assignments, and 
other aspects of a male-oriented culture that are hostile to 
women.
    3. Women to a greater extent than men find limited 
opportunities for advancement, particularly for moving into 
management positions, and the number of women who have achieved 
the top levels in corporations is much lower than would be 
expected, based on the pipeline model.
    The establishment of a commission to examine issues raised 
by the findings in these two reports would help:
    1. Focus attention on the importance of eliminating 
artificial barriers to the recruitment, retention, and 
advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and 
technology, and in all employment sectors of the United States;
    2. Promote work force diversity;
    3. Sensitize employers to the need to recruit and retain 
women scientists, engineers, and computer specialists; and
    4. Encourage the replication of successful recruitment and 
retention programs by universities, corporations, and federal 
agencies having difficulties in employing women in the fields 
of science, engineering, and technology.

Section 3. Establishment

    Establishes the ``Commission on the Advancement of Women in 
Science, Engineering, and Technology Development.''

Section 4. Duty of the Commission

    The Commission shall review available research, and, if 
determined necessary by the Commission, conduct additional 
research to:
    1. identify the number of women in the United States in the 
fields of science, engineering, and technology development;
    2. examine the preparedness of all women to:

      (A) pursue careers in science, engineering, and 
technology development; and
      (B) advance to positions of greater responsibility within 
academia, industry, and government;

    3. describe the practices and policies of employers and 
labor unions relating to the recruitment, retention, and 
advancement of all women in the fields of science, engineering, 
and technology development;
    4. identify the opportunities for, and artificial barriers 
to, the recruitment, retention, and advancement of all women in 
the fields of science, engineering, and technology development 
in academia, industry, and government;
    5. compile a synthesis of available research on lawful 
practices, policies, and programs that have successfully led to 
the recruitment, retention, and advancement of all women in 
science, engineering, and technology development;
    6. issue recommendations with respect to lawful policies 
that government (including Congress and appropriate federal 
agencies), academia, and private industry can follow to assist 
in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of all women in 
science, engineering, and technology development;
    7. identify the disincentives for all women to continue 
graduate education in the fields of engineering, physics, and 
computer science;
    8. identify university undergraduate programs that are 
successful in retaining all women in the fields of science, 
engineering, and technology development;
    9. identify the disincentives that lead to a 
disproportionate number of all women leaving the fields of 
science, engineering, and technology development before 
completing their undergraduate education;
    10. assess the extent to which the recommendations of the 
Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science 
and Technology established under Section 8 of the National 
Science Foundation Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 have 
been implemented;
    11. compile a list of all federally funded reports on the 
subjects of encouraging all women to enter the fields of 
science and engineering and retaining all women in the science 
and engineering workforce that have been issued since the date 
that the Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped 
in Science and Technology submitted its report to Congress; and
    12. assess the extent to which the recommendations 
contained in the reports described in paragraph (11) have been 
implemented.

Committee Views

    The Committee expects the Commission to conduct a thorough 
analysis of the current status of all women (including 
minorities and women with disabilities) in the fields of 
science, engineering, and technology development and to provide 
insight as to the barriers that face women pursuing an 
education or career in these disciplines.
    There have been varying attempts in the past by other 
federal entities and private organizations to address the issue 
of women in science and engineering. However, little has been 
done to coordinate these efforts or to develop a uniform 
analysis of the problem. The Committee believes it is important 
to coordinate these efforts, rather than allow public policy to 
be driven by a plethora of different reports, statistics, and 
recommendations. It is not the intent of the Committee to have 
the Commission duplicate any previous research or work done in 
this area. Rather, the Committee believes the Commission should 
utilize the existing disparate body of information on this 
issue, to the extent possible, in carrying out its duties.
    In its report, the Commission is expected to provide a list 
of recommendations with respect to lawful policies that 
government, academia, and private industry can follow to 
encourage and assist in the recruitment, retention, and 
advancement of women in science, engineering, and technology 
development.
    The use of the term ``lawful'' in the bill is intended to 
reinforce the Committee's opposition to the use of quotas in 
advancing women in the fields of science, engineering, and 
technology development. The Committee supports programs which 
promote efforts to recruit and retain women into the fields of 
science, engineering, and technology development on the basis 
of merit.
    The Committee does not intend that the Commission review 
all existing federal programs to assess their compliance with 
the law. Rather, the Committee believes the Commission should 
not include in its report recommendations for any programs that 
have been judged by a federal court to be in violation of the 
U.S. Constitution or a federal civil rights statute.

Section 5. Membership

    (a) The Commission will be made up of 11 members to be 
appointed by the President (3), the Speaker of the House (2), 
the Majority Leader of the Senate (2), and the Chairman and 
Vice Chairman of the National Governors Association (2 each). 
The membership of the Commission shall consist of individuals 
from for profit entities who hire individuals in the fields of 
engineering, science, and technology development, and 
individuals in education or academia in the fields of life 
science, physical science, or engineering.
    (b) The Commission must be appointed within 90 days of 
enactment of the act.
    (c) Members are appointed for the life of the Commission 
and any vacancies will be filled in the same manner in which 
the original appointment was made.
    (d) Members will not be paid, but will be reimbursed for 
travel and receive per diem.
    (e) A Commission quorum consists of the majority of the 
Commission.
    (f) The Chairperson of the Commission shall be elected by 
its members.
    (g) The Commission must meet at least five times before 
issuing its report.
    (h) A member of the Commission is not deemed to be a 
federal employee except with regard to tort claims and workers 
compensation for injuries.

Committee Views

    The Committee supports actively involving the States in the 
Commission process by allowing the National Governors 
Association's Chair and Vice Chair to appoint 4 members to the 
Commission. In addition, it is the intent of the Committee to 
define the types of people expected to serve on the Commission. 
The Committee believes the Commission members should be 
selected from among those candidates who are involved on a day-
to-day basis both in hiring and retaining women scientists and 
engineers, and people who are actively involved in educating 
women in these areas.

Section 6. Director and Staff of Commission; Experts and Consultants

    (a) The Commission will have a director appointed by its 
members.
    (b) The Commission may hire staff as the members deem 
appropriate.
    (c) Commission staff can be hired without going through 
standard federal employment practices.
    (d) The Commission may hire consultants and experts.
    (e) The Director of the National Science Foundation and 
other federal agencies may detail staff to the commission on a 
reimbursable basis.

Committee Views

    This section is intended to give the Commission members the 
authority to establish the support team necessary to carry out 
the duties of the Commission. This includes giving the 
Commission discretion over such issues as the selection of a 
director, the hiring of additional staff, if deemed necessary, 
and the procurement of the services of other experts and or 
consultants. The Committee does not intend that the Commission 
create a large staff which would duplicate work already being 
conducted at various government agencies.

Section 7. Powers of Commission

    (a) The Commission may hold hearings, sit, take testimony, 
and receive evidence as the Commission considers appropriate.
    (b) The Commission may authorize its individual members to 
take actions which the Commission is authorized to take.
    (c) The Commission may request from any federal agency 
information necessary to enable it to carryout its work. Upon 
request of the Chairperson of the Commission, the head of that 
department or agency shall furnish that information to the 
Commission.
    (d) The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts 
for the purpose of aiding or facilitating its work. Gifts shall 
be deposited in the Treasury and shall be available to the 
Commission.
    (e) The Commission may use the United States mail in the 
same manner and under the same conditions as other departments 
and agencies of the United States.
    (f) The Administrator of General Services shall provide to 
the Commission, on a reimbursable basis, the administrative 
support it requires.
    (g) To the extent provided in advance in appropriations 
bills, the Commission may contract with and compensate 
government and private agencies or persons for the purpose of 
conducting research or surveys.

Committee Views

    It is the intent of the Committee that the Commission 
operate in an independent and autonomous manner. The Committee 
authorizes the Commission to hold hearings, receive testimony, 
and collect other relevant information. The Committee has given 
the Commission significant authority to collect information. 
The Committee believes the Commission should use care in its 
use of this authority, especially in its request for 
information collected by federal agencies from private sources. 
The Commission should use great discretion in requesting 
information considered sensitive by agencies which have 
collected information from the private sector. It is not the 
Committee's intention to harm private companies which have 
cooperated with federal agencies by supplying proprietary 
information about the companies hiring practices.

Section 8. Report

    Not later than 1 year after the Commission is established, 
the Commission shall submit to the President, the Congress, and 
the highest executive official of each State, a written report 
containing the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of 
the Commission.

Committee Views

    The Committee has described in length in Section 4 the 
types of information which it expects to be included in the 
Commission's final report.

Section 9. Construction; Use of Information Obtained

    (a) Non-federal entities such as a business, college or 
university, foundation, or research organization are not 
required to provide information to the Commission concerning 
their personnel policies, including salaries and benefits, 
promotion criteria, and affirmative action plans.
    (b) No information obtained from any entity by the 
Commission may be used in connection with any employment 
related litigation.

Committee Views

    The Committee believes that in order for the Commission to 
issue a report which reflects the true nature of those barriers 
that exist for women in science, engineering, and technology 
development, it is important for the Commission to receive a 
comprehensive overview of the current policies and practices of 
employers relating to the recruitment and retainment of women 
scientists and engineers. However, it is not the intent of the 
Committee to force non-federal entities to supply the 
Commission with information directly related to their personnel 
policies. To promote voluntary cooperation from the private 
sector, the Committee believes it is important to emphasize 
that no information gathered by the Commission may be used in 
connection with any employment related litigation.

Section 10. Termination

    (a) The Commission is terminated 30 days after submitting 
its report.
    (b) After the termination of the Commission, the National 
Science Foundation will act as a central depository for all 
information gathered by the Commission in carrying out its 
duties and will make such information available to the public, 
including making the information available via the Internet.

Committee Views

    The Commission is expected to provide a list of 
recommendations that government, academia, and private 
organizations can follow to encourage and assists women in the 
fields of science, engineering, and technology development. The 
Committee believes that utilizing the Internet to make the 
findings and recommendations of the Commission available to the 
general public is an effective way to reach a large portion of 
those individuals and entities who can most benefit from the 
work of the Commission, namely those in academia and industry 
who might not otherwise have access to the final report. It is 
the intent of the Committee to ensure wide distribution of the 
Commission's findings and recommendations. However, it is not 
the intent of the Committee that private information, such as 
personnel policies of specific private organizations or 
businesses, gathered by the Commission in compiling its report, 
be distributed via the Internet to the general public unless 
such distribution is specifically authorized by the business.

Section 11. Review of Information Provided by the National Science 
        Foundation and other Agencies

    (a) At the request of the Commission, the National Science 
Foundation and other federal agencies shall provide information 
to the Commission to carry out is duties, including:

      (1) data on academic degrees awarded to women in science, 
engineering, and technology development, and workforce 
representation and retention of women in the fields of science, 
engineering, and technology development; and
      (2) information gathered by the National Science 
Foundation in the process of compiling its biennial report on 
Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and 
Engineering.

    (b) The Commission shall review any information provided in 
subsection (a) and shall include in its final report:

      (1) recommendations on how to correct any deficiencies in 
the collection and analysis of the types of information 
gathered by the National Science Foundation or other federal 
agencies which might impede the characterization of the factors 
which affect the attraction and retention of women in the 
fields of science, engineering, and technology development; and
      (2) an assessment of the biennial report of the National 
Science Foundation on Women, Minorities, and Persons with 
Disabilities in Science and Engineering, and recommendations on 
how the report can be improved.

Committee Views

    Several federal entities, including the National Science 
Foundation, collect a wide variety of raw data and statistics 
on the issue of women in science, engineering, and technology 
development. Examples of this data include the number of women 
employed in science and engineering, the types of jobs they 
hold, and their educational background. The Committee reaffirms 
its intent that the Commission not duplicate the previous work 
of federal agencies on this topic. The Committee believes that, 
through its review process, the Commission has a unique 
opportunity to identify any deficiencies in existing data.

Section 12. Definition of State

    Defines the term ``State'' to include the 50 States, the 
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, 
Guam, the Virgin Islands, and any other territory or possession 
of the United Sates.

                     VIII. Committee Cost Estimate

    Clause 7(a) of Rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report accompanying 
each bill or joint resolution of a public character to contain: 
(1) an estimate, made by such Committee, of the costs which 
would be incurred in carrying out such bill or joint resolution 
in the fiscal year in which it is reported, and in each of the 
5 fiscal years following such fiscal year (or for the 
authorized duration of any program authorized by such bill or 
joint resolution, if less than 5 years); (2) a comparison of 
the estimate of costs described in subparagraph (1) of this 
paragraph made by such Committee with an estimate of such costs 
made by any government agency and submitted to such Committee; 
and (3) when practicable, a comparison of the total estimated 
funding level for the relevant program (or programs) with the 
appropriate levels under current law. However, clause 7(d) of 
that Rule provides that this requirement does not apply when a 
cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of the 
Congressional Budget Office under Section 403 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted 
prior to the filing of the report and included in the report 
pursuant to clause 2(l)(3)(C) of Rule XI. A cost estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under Section 403 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 has been timely submitted prior to the filing of this 
report and included in Section IX of this report pursuant to 
clause 2(l)(3)(C) of Rule XI.
    Clause 2(l)(3)(B) of Rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report that accompanies 
a measure providing new budget authority (other than continuing 
appropriations), new spending authority, or new credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures to 
contain a cost estimate, as required by Section 308(a)(1) of 
the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and, when practicable with 
respect to estimates of new budget authority, a comparison of 
the total estimated funding level for the relevant program (or 
programs) to the appropriate levels under current law. H.R. 
3007 does not contain any new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
3007 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section IX of this report.

             IX. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                               Congressional Budget Office 
                                              U.S. Congress
                                      Washington, DC. 20515
                                  June E. O'Neill, Director

                                                       May 21, 1998
Honorable F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr.,
Chairman, Committee on Science,
U.S. House of Representatives,
Washington, DC. 20515

    Dear Mr. Chairman:
    The Congressional Budget Office has prepared the enclosed cost 
estimate for H.R. 3007, the Commission on the Advancement of Women in 
Science, Engineering, and Technology Development Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be pleased to 
provide them. The CBO staff contacts are Joanna Wilson and Kathleen 
Gramp, both of whom can be reached at 226-2860.
Sincerely,
                                                    June E. O'Neill

Enclosure

cc: Honorable George E. Brown, Jr., Ranking Minority Member
                                 ______
                                 
               CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE COST ESTIMATE
                              May 21, 1998
                                H.R 3007
  Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and 
                       Technology Development Act
As ordered reported by the House Committee on Science on May 13, 1998

    H.R. 3007 would establish an 11-member commission to study the 
barriers that face women in the fields of science, engineering, and 
technology. The bill would direct the commission to evaluate the 
current status of women in these fields and examine both successful and 
unsuccessful programs that encourage women to pursue such careers. The 
commission would have the authority to conduct hearings and to contract 
with various private or government agencies or individuals to collect 
information. The bill would direct the commission to hire a director 
and appoint additional personnel and would require it to submit a 
report within one year after its members are appointed.
    Assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts, CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 3007 would cost approximately $1 million over the 
1999-2000 period. Based on information provided by the National Science 
Foundation and other commissions, CBO assumes that the commission would 
hire a small staff and seek assistance from outside consultants to 
compile and analyze the information. Because the report would have to 
be completed within one year, we also expect that the commission would 
rely heavily upon available information.
    H.R. 3007 would authorize the commission to accept and use gifts 
and donations. Donations of money are recorded in the budget as 
governmental receipts (revenues) and the use of any such amounts under 
this bill would be direct spending. Because H.R. 3007 could affect 
receipts and direct spending, pay-as-you-go procedures would apply. CBO 
expects that any such effects would be negligible.
    The bill contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates 
as defined in Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 and would not affect 
the budgets of state, local, or tribal governments.
    The CBO staff contacts for this estimate are Joanna Wilson and 
Kathleen Gramp, both of whom can be reached at 226-2860. This estimate 
was approved by Robert A. Sunshine, Deputy Assistant Director for 
Budget Analysis.

                  X. Compliance With Public Law 104-4

    H.R. 3007 contains no unfunded mandates.

          XI. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    Clause 2(l)(3)(A) of Rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report to include 
oversight findings and recommendations required pursuant to 
clause 2(b)(1) of rule X. The Committee has no oversight 
findings.

    XII. Oversight Findings and Recommendations by the Committee on 
                    Government Reform and Oversight

    Clause 2(l)(3)(D) of Rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report to contain a 
summary of the oversight findings and recommendations made by 
the House Government Reform and Oversight Committee pursuant to 
clause 4(c)(2) of Rule X, whenever such findings and 
recommendations have been submitted to the Committee in a 
timely fashion. The Committee on Science has received no such 
findings or recommendations from the Committee on Government 
Reform and Oversight.

                XIII. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Clause 2(l)(4) of Rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each report of a Committee on a bill 
or joint resolution of a public character to include a 
statement citing the specific powers granted to the Congress in 
the Constitution to enact the law proposed by the bill or joint 
resolution. Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the 
United States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 3007.

               XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    The functions of the advisory committee authorized in H.R. 
3007 are not currently being nor could they be performed by one 
or more agencies or by enlarging the mandate of another 
existing advisory committee.

                  XV. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 3007 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of Section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

                     XVI. Committee Recommendations

    On May 13, 1998, a quorum being present, the Committee 
favorably reported H.R. 3007, the Commission on the Advancement 
of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development 
Act, by a voice vote, and recommends its enactment.
              XVII. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup



SUBCOMMITTEE MARKUP OF H.R. 3007, THE COMMISSION ON THE ADVANCEMENT OF 
     WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ACT

                              ----------                              


                        THURSDAY, MARCH 26, 1998

             U.S. House of Representatives,
                              Committee on Science,
                                Subcommittee on Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.
    The Subcommittee met at 10:12 a.m., in room 2318 of the 
Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Constance A. Morella, 
Chairwoman of the Subcommittee, presiding.
    Mrs. Morella. We will now consider H.R. 3007, the 
Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, 
and Technology Act.
    I would like to ask that for the first reading of the bill, 
ask unanimous consent that the bill be considered as read and 
open to amendment at any point.
    [The text of H.R. 3007 and a section-by-section analysis 
follow:]





    Mrs. Morella. There are six amendments on the roster, and I 
have an amendment at the desk.
    Before I offer the first amendment, I'd like to recognize 
the Ranking Member for his opening statement.
    Mr. Barcia. Thank you very much, Madam Chairwoman.
    I want to commend you for introducing House Resolution 3007 
and for bringing this bill to markup. Yet while the Science 
Committee has a long history of improving the participation 
rates of women in the fields of science and engineering, as was 
evident during the recent Subcommittee hearing on the bill, we 
still have a problem with encouraging and retaining women in 
the fields of science and engineering during their 
undergraduate and graduate education.
    The retention rates are even worse, once women graduate and 
they enter the workforce. In today's competitive environment, 
we must ensure that all Americans are encouraged to enter 
careers in science and engineering.
    We cannot afford to neglect half of our human resource 
base. Our job is to seek ways to ensure there is a level 
playing field for women in access to and retention in these 
fields.
    A number of my colleagues will be offering amendments to 
strengthen House Resolution 3007, and these proposed changes 
are intended to make certain that the Commission will build 
upon the existing pool of data and experience on this subject.
    I fully support these amendments. With these amendments, 
House Resolution 3007 is a step in the right direction to 
identifying ways to encourage the greater participation of 
women in the fields of science and engineering.
    I want to thank, once again, Chairwoman Morella for working 
with us to address our concerns in the bill, and for her strong 
support for these amendments.
    Madam Chairwoman, I thank you and yield back my time.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Mr. Barcia.
    I ask unanimous consent that the bill be considered as read 
and open to amendment at any point.
    There are six amendments on the roster, and I have an 
amendment at the desk. I ask unanimous consent that the 
Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute be considered as 
original text for the purpose of amendment, and be considered 
as read.
    [No response.]
    Mrs. Morella. Hearing no objection, so ordered.
    Actually, so that everyone is informed of the procedure 
that we're going to follow, this is what I suggest: That I 
offer the substitute, and then I'm going to ask unanimous 
consent to have the remaining five amendments, numbered 2 
through 6 on the roster, considered en bloc.
    I will then recognize each member, in the order of the 
roster, to explain his or her amendment, which at that point 
will be part of the en bloc amendment.
    Doing that, we'll then have one vote on the en bloc 
amendments. I'm now going to--so I ask that amendments 2 
through 6 on the roster be considered on bloc.
    [No response.]
    Mrs. Morella. Hearing no objection, so ordered.
    [The amendment roster and the text of the amendments 
follow:]





    Mrs. Morella. I will now recognize members, in order of the 
amendment roster, to explain their amendments as included in 
the en bloc amendment. So I will start off then with Ms. 
Stabenow.
    Ms. Stabenow is recognized for 5 minutes to explain her 
amendment.
    Ms. Stabenow. Thank you, Madam Chairwoman. My amendment 
would add the words, on page 3, beginning on line 1, ``identify 
the disincentives for women to continue graduate education in 
the fields of engineering, physics, and computer science.''
    During our hearings on H.R. 3007, we heard from witnesses 
that mentioned the fact that many women do not pursue graduate 
careers. This leads to a lack of women faculty members and 
researchers who can serve as role models.
    This has also been identified as a problem in the NSF 
report, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in 
Science and Engineering.
    Unfortunately, neither the witnesses nor NSF has systematic 
data on why this happens. We have identified a problem, but 
until we understand the causes, at this point it's difficult to 
develop a solution.
    The purpose of this amendment is to require the Commission 
to identify why women tend not to pursue graduate education in 
the fields of engineering, computer science, and physics, all 
of which field were identified as having particularly poor 
representation of women.
    I would appreciate the support of the Subcommittee.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Ms. Stabenow. I know that that's 
the intent of the bill, and you've offered an amendment to make 
sure that the identification of the disincentives is part of 
the objective.
    I would now like to recognize Mr. Doyle for 5 minutes to 
explain his amendments.
    Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Madam Chairwoman. I have two 
amendments. The first amendment is a very simple amendment 
offered very much in the spirit of good government.
    It requires the Commission to establish a repository for 
all of the information it gathers in order to ensure that its 
findings and recommendations are widely available. This 
requirement can easily be met by setting up a website on the 
Internet.
    One of the Commission's most useful activities will be to 
gather together the existing disparate body of information on 
this topic, generate new, relevant information, evaluate this 
information, and identify strategies and best practices for 
their replication.
    This is not the first time the Federal Government has tried 
to address this issue. Too often, though, these efforts are 
forgotten, with final reports left to collect dust in a storage 
facility.
    Hopefully the creation of an Internet website containing 
the workproduct generated through the activities of the 
Commission will result in greater access to this information, 
and thus widespread implementation of the Commission's findings 
and recommendations.
    My second amendment, Madam Chairwoman--during our 
Subcommittee hearing on this issue, the witnesses identified as 
a major problem, the evidence that many women opt out of 
science and engineering majors during their undergraduate 
educations.
    This tendency has been borne out by NSF findings as well. 
Since this is a known problem contributing to the 
underrepresentation of women in science, I am offering this 
amendment that would require the Commission to identify 
programs which are successful in retaining women in 
undergraduate science and engineering programs, and also 
identify best practices in this area.
    This amendment also requires the Commission to identify the 
reasons why women leave the undergraduate science and 
engineering disciplines in inordinate numbers. By going beyond 
a simple recognition that there is a problem, and taking the 
extra step of identifying why this is occurring, we wind up 
with tangible recommendations in the final report.
    Thank you, Madam Chairwoman.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. The concept of a 
clearinghouse makes a great deal of sense, and obviously we 
should be accessing the Internet, and the identification of the 
good programs and the disincentives should be part of the task 
of the Commission.
    Now I'd like to recognize Ms. Tauscher for 5 minutes to 
explain her amendment.
    Ms. Tauscher. Thank you, Madam Chairwoman. I appreciate 
your leadership in encouraging women to enter the fields of 
science, engineering, and technology.
    I have long been concerned about the shortage of women in 
these occupations, and I hope the Commission you propose in 
this legislation will develop ideas and recommendations to 
recruit women into the growing areas of science and technology.
    I have a simple amendment to this bill that directs the 
Commission to review past federal efforts in the area of women 
in science and technology.
    As you know, there have been many efforts by different 
federal agencies to examine the shortage of women in these 
fields.
    In particular, the Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the 
Handicapped in Science and Technology, issued a report on this 
matter in 1989. Many of the recommendations made by the Task 
Force were consistent with the recommendations we heard at our 
Subcommittee hearing.
    We should try to ensure that this new Commission builds 
upon the existing body of work, rather than start at the 
beginning.
    Reviewing the body of information generated by these past 
studies will help focus the Commission's deliberations, and 
avoid needlessly duplicating the work of previous federal 
efforts.
    In addition, this provision gives the Commission the 
important task of examining why potentially valuable 
recommendations of prior studies were never implemented, 
thereby helping the Commission to avoid pitfalls in crafting 
its own recommendations.
    I appreciate your support for this amendment and thank you 
for your valuable leadership.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Ms. Tauscher. I agree with you 
that certainly the reports that have been assembled in the past 
should be looked at to avoid duplication.
    I would now like to recognize Ms. Rivers for her amendment.
    Ms. Rivers. Thank you, Madam Chairwoman. My amendment 
speaks to the issue of reviewing data collected by federal 
agencies on academic degrees and a variety of other things that 
are awarded to women in science and engineering.
    One of the activities that's required by this bill is for 
the Commission to do that research and collect the data on the 
number of women entering the fields, as well as their retention 
within the workforce.
    A number of federal agencies currently gather, analyze, and 
publish this type of information, the most notable being the 
NSF.
    But this amendment would require that the Commission review 
existing data collection and make suggestions on what 
deficiencies may exist in the analysis and collection of that 
information.
    The purpose would be to determine if improvements can be 
made in data collection and analysis to illuminate more 
clearly, the factors that affect the attraction and persistence 
of women in these careers. Recommendations by the Committee to 
improve existing data collection will have a major, long-term 
impact on the problem by providing the means to help identify 
interventions of potential merit, and to track whether proposed 
remedies are actually effective. Thank you.
    Mrs. Morella. Ms. Rivers, again, I think it's very 
thoughtful. I want to commend the Subcommittee for the fact 
that they closely scrutinized the bill in terms of making sure 
that there is total clarification of the role of the 
Commission.
    So, do I have any discussion by the Subcommittee on any of 
these issues?
    Mr. Brady. Madam Chairwoman?
    Mrs. Morella. Yes?
    Mr. Brady. I would seek recognition for an affirmative 
question to Ms. Stabenow and Ms. Tauscher.
    Mrs. Morella. Yes.
    Mr. Brady. One, I support both amendments on identifying 
the disincentives, but I'm wondering if it would be of more 
value in the end report if we were to identify the 
disincentives unique to women in pursuing graduate degrees and/
or undergraduate degrees in engineering, physics, computer 
science.
    Obviously, the cyclical nature of the economy and the 
reduction in private sector research dollars affect all 
genders, and are generally understood. I would think that 
identifying disincentives unique to women would give us at 
least a blueprint to try to start addressing those issues.
    I'm wondering, if you agree with that concept, you might be 
open to a simple amendment that would reflect that.
    I yield.
    Mrs. Morella. Mr. Brady is going to yield to Ms. Stabenow.
    Ms. Stabenow. I guess I would be concerned at this point, 
or confused about the necessity for that.
    I appreciate what you're saying, but in the testimony we 
heard very powerful testimony that, in fact, there are very few 
women in these areas. That's the reason for the Commission, and 
that while certainly there are economic issues, regardless of 
gender, we know that there have been barriers.
    I believe I heard testimony, I experienced that as I talked 
with people in my District, that there are, in fact, 
disincentives for women.
    I guess, in looking at this, I feel that the language, by 
saying disincentives for women, implies what you're saying 
already, that it is--we certainly aren't going to look at the 
economic disincentives, overall, of these fields that people 
are going into.
    The Commission, I think, overall, makes it clear that we're 
talking about the need to encourage more women in these fields, 
and the disincentives.
    Mr. Brady. Thank you. And I would yield to Ms. Tauscher as 
well.
    Mrs. Morella. Ms. Tauscher, did you want to--he's yielding 
to you if you want to make any comments on it.
    Ms. Tauscher. I'm happy to just comment briefly on the fact 
that in my District, we are the only District in the country 
with two national labs in it, both the Livermore National 
Laboratory and the Sandia Laboratory, and the Berkeley 
Laboratory is on our border.
    So, disproportionately, the constituents of my District are 
lab employees. I meet with the women at both the Sandia Lab and 
the Livermore Lab, specifically--at least every 5 or 6 months--
because of their tremendous concern--and these are women in 
science; these are women in technology with jobs--about their 
ability to move forward and to crack the silicon ceiling, so to 
speak.
    They also talk with great concern about their outreach. 
They have very successful programs at Mills College in Oakland, 
and other places, to attract and retain women in science and 
technology and engineering, and their frustration at the 
ability to do that.
    I think that the bill, Mr. Brady, is focused on women, as 
it should be. I think that this is an important issue, not only 
in the sense that we want to find programs that bring women in 
and attract them, but also what we do for the women that are in 
science, and how we make sure that they have their ability to 
not only move into jobs that are good, high-paying jobs, but 
also jobs that would provide them with a future career track.
    Mr. Brady. If I may just reclaim the balance of my time, I 
agree with all that was said. My point is that is, since I have 
two research parks in my District and the home of Texas A&M; 
University, which is one of the top ten research universities 
in the Nation, we deal with this issue a lot.
    It seems to me that we--and the reason I raise the point is 
that the value of this study and analysis is to recognize the 
unique challenges that women face in these issues, and that 
rather than using resources to identify the generic challenges, 
the cost of education, the cyclical nature of the economy, the 
research drain in certain areas of the country, and in certain 
disciplines that affect both genders--I almost said all 
genders, and I don't know what I was going to mean by that--but 
both genders, that we would, at the end, end up with more--they 
would have the ability to focus uniquely on the issues you just 
raised, rather than duplicating some generic issues.
    But let me do this. This isn't a big deal. My only point is 
that I agree that I think there are unique disincentives that 
women face. I wanted to focus more on those than the generic 
ones, but let me--it is no big deal, so let me withdraw my 
comment.
    Mrs. Morella. It is interesting that this is the assumption 
of the whole bill, quite frankly, to look at what are those 
disincentives unique to women. The fact that you mention it, 
if, in fact, you would like to, before the time it comes out in 
the Full Committee, if you would like us to do something in 
report language, then that's a possibility.
    I appreciate your bringing it up, but it is something that 
is implicit within the bill.
    Mr. Brady. And I support the bill.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you.
    Are there any further amendments or discussion?
    Mr. Bartlett?
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you very much. I would like to thank 
you and the staff for working with us to address some of the 
concerns we had about the original language in the bill.
    They have all been addressed in your amendment in the form 
of a substitute. Everybody wants employers who are sensitive. 
Everybody agrees that diversity is important.
    But we were concerned that the bill not contain language 
which could be misunderstood, and thank you very much for 
working with us to make sure that none of that language occurs 
in the bill.
    Also, we were concerned about the makeup of the Commission 
in the original bill, and we now are very supportive of the 
broader spectrum of the makeup of the Commission in the 
substitute.
    So, thank you and the staff very much for working with us.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Mr. Bartlett. That demonstrates 
the fact that your input was valuable. It means the Commission 
is going to work faster. It's going to be far more streamlined, 
and it won't engage in any of those problems with regard to 
discrimination.
    Ms. Stabenow, would you like to make any comment?
    Ms. Stabenow. Thank you, Madam Chairwoman. Regarding the 
issue of the new language in the substitute, I do have a 
question and a concern regarding terms that are on page 2 
regarding nondiscriminatory practices.
    I'm wondering, because quotas are already illegal, if legal 
counsel could explain why we need the term, nondiscrimination, 
and what that means in the substitute?
    Mrs. Morella. Actually, if I could just comment, because 
when I noted that, I had a discussion with the idea that, as I 
mentioned in my opening statement, I believe in affirmative 
action. I do not believe in quotas.
    So often that is mixed up, and so the concept--and this 
could be put into report language, an explanation of 
nondiscriminatory meant simply that, so nobody is to construe 
that we're talking about those specific quotas.
    Ms. Stabenow. If I might just follow up, my concern in 
raising that is only that there are specific NSF programs now 
at the Career Advancement Awards for Women, other specific 
programs for women and girls that are very important.
    And as the Commission looks at solutions, because we know 
that we want to go beyond just studying the problem, but 
recommending solutions for recruiting and retaining and 
promoting more women in these areas, I would certainly want us 
to give them the flexibility to look at specific programs that 
are, in NSF now and other possibilities for recruitment and 
supporting of women.
    I would hope that nondiscrimination practices or saying 
nondiscrimination policies would not exclude those very 
important and valuable endeavors.
    Mrs. Morella. I can assure you that it will not, and the 
report that is being compiled right now of our statements here 
will also tend to confirm it. Thank you.
    I am going to then subject the Subcommittee to the vote, if 
there are no further amendments.
    The question is on the substitute, as amended. All those in 
favor will say aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Mrs. Morella. All those opposed will say no.
    [No response.]
    Mrs. Morella. In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes have 
it.
    I didn't approve the en bloc first, and so I should do that 
now.
    If we might vote on the on bloc amendments, all those in 
favor will say aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Mrs. Morella. Opposed, no.
    [No response.]
    Mrs. Morella. Not hearing any negative and everybody in the 
affirmative, then the en bloc is affirmed, and confirmed and 
approved, and we have already given our approval on the 
substitute, as amended.
    So now the question is on the bill, H.R. 3007, the 
Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, 
and Technology Development Act, as amended.
    All those in favor will say aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Mrs. Morella. All opposed, no.
    [No response.]
    Mrs. Morella. In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes have 
it.
    I'd like to recognize the honorable Ranking Member, Mr. 
Barcia, for a motion.
    Mr. Barcia. Thank you very much, Madam Chairwoman.
    I ask unanimous consent that the staff be instructed to 
make technical and conforming corrections to H.R. 3007. Also I 
move that the Subcommittee report the bill, H.R. 3007, as 
amended, and that the Chairwoman take all necessary steps to 
bring the bill before the Full Committee for consideration.
    Mrs. Morella. The Subcommittee has heard the motion. Those 
in favor will say aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Mrs. Morella. Those opposed will say no.
    [No response.]
    Mrs. Morella. The ayes have it, and the motion is agreed to 
without objection.
    The motion to reconsider is laid upon the table.
    Mr. Ehlers. Madam Chairwoman?
    Mrs. Morella. Mr. Ehlers is recognized.
    Mr. Ehlers. Thank you. I would just like to have entered on 
the record that I was attending a meeting previously and could 
not be here for consideration of H.R. 2544. Had I been here, I 
would have voted in the affirmative.
    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Mr. Ehlers. I recognize the fact 
that you have been to all our Subcommittee meetings when we 
discussed it.
    I want to thank the Subcommittee. I know it's been more 
lengthy than we thought it would be. The attendance has been 
excellent, the comments have been superb. Thank you all very 
much.
    You may join in cosponsorship of either of those pieces of 
legislation or both.
    The Subcommittee is adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 11:00 a.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]
             XIII. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup



                   FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP OF H.R. 3007

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, MAY 13, 1998

             U.S. House of Representatives,
                              Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Finally, the last bill on this 
morning's agenda is H.R. 3007, the Commission on the 
Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology 
Development Act.
    Without objection, the bill will be considered as read and 
open for amendment at any point.
    I have a rather lengthy opening statement, which I will not 
give but will ask unanimous consent that it be placed in the 
record at this point. And will also ask unanimous consent that 
all members opening statements be placed in the record at this 
point.
    I would point out however, before recognizing the 
gentlewoman from Maryland, that the Managers Amendment that I 
will be offering later on deals with technical issues and has 
been clear on both sides.
    The gentlewoman from Maryland is now recognized for 5 
minutes.
    [The prepared statements of Chairman Sensenbrenner, Mr. 
Coburn, Mr. Gutknecht, Mr. Salmon, Mr. Davis and Ms. Hooley 
follow:]





    Mrs. Morella. Thanks, Mr. Chairman. I want to thank you for 
convening this markup of H.R. 3007, which we call the WISETECH 
bill, Women in Science Engineering and Technology. I think, as 
my colleagues know, this was introduced on November 9th of last 
year. It's fitting that we mark it up today.
    Just on Monday, I had the pleasure of participating in the 
first regional town hall meeting on the National Technology 
Workforce. This is a national situation. It was convened in 
Montgomery County, Maryland. And the goal of the regional 
meetings is to bring to the attention of the public and 
industry and academia, the issue of preparing our workforce for 
the Year 2000. And we are about making sure that our Nation's 
workers are getting the education and training that they need 
to meet the demands of a job market increasingly dependent on 
technological expertise.
    Ensuring that our workforce is prepared to meet the 
technology challenges of the future it is not only important to 
us from regional standpoints, but also as technology continues 
to emerge as the driving force behind the strong economy and 
the 21st Century, all of us need to make sure that our 
workforce is properly trained and educated in all areas of 
science, engineering, and technology development.
    While women represent--jumping to the conclusion--while 
women represent nearly 50 percent of all U.S. workers, they 
comprise roughly 22 percent of the entire science and 
engineering workforce. In the field of engineering, which 
includes electrical and computer engineering, the percentage of 
women in the workforce is still under 10 percent. So, we need 
to take some action now to ensure that we have a sufficient 
pool of trained high-tech workers in the United States. And we 
need to take some action to determine why women are under 
represented in the areas of science, engineering and technology 
development. That was the genesis of this legislation.
    This legislation will establish a Commission to determine 
why women are underrepresented in the high-tech workforce. 
Examine what current practices and policies of employers have 
been success in recruiting, retaining, and advancing women in 
those professions. And finally, to provide us with a list a 
recommendations that we can follow to encourage women who are 
pursuing an education and career in these disciplines.
    I want to thank the members of the Committee who are co-
sponsors of H.R. 3007, Congressman Gutknecht, Congressman 
Ehlers, Congressmen Boehlert, Barcia, Davis, Ewing, Calvert, 
Luther, Congresswomen Lofgren and Stabenow. Also I want to 
thank all the members of the Subcommittee on Technology for 
working together in a bipartisan manner to produce the 
legislation before us today.
    You will give me an opportunity, Mr. Chairman, to point out 
the amendment that I will be offering. And it is not a part of 
my 5 minutes, right?
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. You'll get another 5 minutes for 
offering an amendment.
    Mrs. Morella. Splendid. So I would now like to yield the 
remainder of my initial 5 minutes to Mr. Gutknecht.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman from Minnesota is 
recognized for how long?
    Mr. Gutknecht. For the balance of her time.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. A minute and 30 seconds.
    Mr. Gutknecht. Well, thank you Mr. Chairman. I do have an 
opening statement which I will submit to the record.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection.
    Mr. Gutknecht. I want to thank Chairwoman Morella for the 
hearing, and I particularly want to thank the staff because the 
hearing that we had on this particular bill was excellent. And 
I want to say a special thank you to Dr. Ann Quade, a professor 
at Mankato State University, who came out to testify before us.
    By establishing this Commission we really need to get to 
the facts as to why there is this disparity between men and 
women in science and engineering. If there are barriers, it 
seems to me, we have some responsibility to do what we can in 
Congress here to break them down.
    So, I support this legislation. I applaud the Chairwoman 
and the staff for the hearings and the information that we 
received about this problem. And hopefully, we can get to a 
solution. Yield back.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentlewoman's time has expired. 
Who would like to make the opening statement for the Minority?
    Mr. Brown of California. Mr. Chairman?
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman from California is 
recognized for 5 minutes.
    Mr. Brown of California. I will be extremely brief.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. That's appreciated because we are 
losing our reporting quorum. We don't want that to happen.
    Mr. Brown of California. I ask unanimous consent to insert 
an opening statement in the record at this point.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection.
    Mr. Brown of California. And I would like to point out that 
43 percent of the Democrats on this Committee are women. We are 
doing our best to advance women in science, engineering, and 
technology.
    [Laughter.]
    [Applause.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. With that, the gentleman's time is 
expired.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Brown follows:]





    Are there any amendments to the bill? And the Chair 
recognizes the gentlewoman Morella from Maryland for purposes 
of offering an Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute to the 
bill as reported to the Subcommittee. The Clerk will report the 
Morella amendment.
    The Clerk. ``Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute 
showing H.R. 3007 as amended by''----
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, the amendment is 
considered as read and open for amendment at any point. And the 
gentlewoman from Maryland is recognized for 5 quick minutes.
    [The amendment roster and the text of the amendments 
follow:]





    Mrs. Morella. I will make it very quick because this is a 
bill that we want to fleetingly sign into law. During the 
Subcommittee markup a number of changes were made to H.R. 3007 
which I think are going to help strengthen the bill. And I just 
want to present those quickly.
    First of all, the substitute amendment streamlines the 
Commission by requiring the Commission to be appointed in 90, 
not 180 days; giving the Commission 1 year, not 18 months to 
report; terminating the Commission in 30 days, not 1 year after 
its report; reducing the size of the Commission from 18 to 11 
members; and replacing a requirement that NSF, National Science 
Foundation, conduct a study with language requiring NSF to 
transmit the data it currently collects to the Commission.
    In addition, the substitute will ensure that States are 
active participants in the Commission by allowing the National 
Governors Association's Chairman and Vice Chairman to appoint 4 
of the 11 Commissioners, and by requiring the Commission's 
final report to be transmitted to all 50 States, the District 
of Columbia, and the U.S. territories.
    Finally, the substitute includes a number of Democratic 
amendments which were adopted to help better define the duties 
of the Commission. I am pleased to report to the members of the 
Committee that 3007 as passed by the Subcommittee has received 
the endorsement of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers, National Society of Professional Engineers, Women in 
Technology, Association of Women in Science, American 
Association of Engineering Societies, American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers.
    Thank you again, Mr. Chairman, and members of the 
Committee. I hope you all support this unanimously. I yield 
back.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentlewoman's time has expired.
    Is there anybody on the Democratic side that wishes to say 
anything about the Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute 
before I offer the en bloc amendments, which incorporate many 
of the suggestions that have come from the Minority party 
members?
    If not, the Chair has an en bloc amendment to the Amendment 
in the Nature of a Substitute at the desk which the Clerk will 
report.
    The Clerk. ``En bloc amendments offered by Mr. 
Sensenbrenner to the Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute. 
Page 1 after line 4''----
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, the amendments 
en bloc to the Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute are 
considered as read and open for amendment at any point.
    And the Chair at this time recognizes himself for 5 brief 
minutes.
    The manager's amendment does four things. First, it inserts 
a new section of findings in the substitute which are based 
upon the findings of the National Science Foundation's 1996 
report entitled, Women, Minorities, and Persons with 
Disabilities in Science and Engineering, and also the National 
Research Council's 1995 report, Women Scientists and Engineers 
Employed in Industry. Why so few?
    Second, it strikes the word ``non-discriminatory'' in 
section 3, subsections 5 and 6, of the substitute and replaces 
it with the word ``lawful.''
    Third, it strikes section 4(b) of the substitute and 
replaces it with the language which prohibits members of the 
Commission from being compensated for days in which they 
partake in Commission business.
    And fourth, strike the term ``women'' as it appears in all 
sections of the substitute and replaces it with the term 
``women (including minority women, and women with 
disabilities).''
    I'm going to yield back the balance of my time, but I would 
like to ask each of the members, in the order in which their 
amendment appears in the manager's amendment in the en bloc 
amendments, to explain their part beginning with the 
gentlewoman from Texas, Ms. Johnson.
    Ms. Johnson of Texas. Thank you.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentlewoman is recognized for 5 
minutes.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I offered 
the findings amendment due to the importance of adding these 
findings to the bill. These findings are necessary because it 
is the findings which will motivate the Commission to study the 
disparity of women in the science, engineering and technology 
fields.
    Clearly, the workforce for the future will comprise people 
with these kinds of backgrounds. And with more than 60 percent 
of the workforce moving toward women, it is extraordinarily 
important. I've spent 25 years working in this area--trying to 
offer opportunities, thinking of various ways to attempt to get 
women interested, and to also open opportunities. They have 
been historically underrepresented in scientific and 
engineering occupations. And yet they comprise, really 12 
percent of the employed scientific and engineering labor force. 
We have got to improve that. And the only way we can address 
the issue is to determine what the findings are.
    Women earn a smaller proportion of total science and 
engineering degrees. Among the recent Bachelor of Science 
degrees in engineering, women are less likely to be in the 
labor force, and to be employed full-time, and to be employed 
in their field than are men. Among women who received their 
doctorates 13 years ago, 72 percent of men, but only 55 percent 
of women are full professors. In addition, 43 percent of women 
are tenured compared to 67 percent of them being men.
    A substantial salary gap exists between men and women with 
science and engineering doctorates, and it is believed that 
almost 90 percent of the observed $13,200 gap is related to 
many background variables.
    But, I encourage members to really support the findings 
amendment because it is this inclusion that will precipitate 
the Commission to push forward to study why there is a 
disparity of women in science, and engineering, and technology 
fields. When it is so critical that we attract more for the 
future workforce. I thank you.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. I thank the gentlewoman from Texas.
    Let me say that there are some other markups, including one 
that is very contentious in the Government Reform and Oversight 
Committee, that is drawing our reporting quorum away. And we 
have one amendment that the gentleman from Maryland wishes to 
offer, which will bring some debate. So, I would like to ask 
the other members that I recognized to somewhat summarize their 
statements. Not with the idea of gagging them, but with the 
idea of getting this bill out, which is what most members 
desire. Gentlewoman from Michigan, Ms. Stabenow.
    Ms. Stabenow. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I appreciate very 
much working with the Chairman of the Subcommittee, as well as 
the Chairman of the Committee, in incorporating an amendment 
that would strike the term non-discriminatory and replace it 
with lawful. In the Subcommittee it was explained that 
originally there was a concern about quotas, and obviously 
illegal and so by replacing it with the word lawful we 
addressed that concern.
    I would just add one other thing, and that is it is 
critical that for the future of the economic growth of our 
country that over half of our country's population not be 
discouraged or discriminated against as it relates to entering 
the fields of science, technology and engineering. This is a 
very important bill with the amendments. We need all the 
educated and qualified men and women to fill jobs, as possible, 
in this country in these fields. And I would commend the 
Chairman. And I appreciate having the opportunity to serve as a 
co-sponsor. Thank you.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentlewoman from California, 
Ms. Lee.
    Ms. Lee. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. And I thank you for 
including in your en bloc amendment, my amendment, which 
basically was offered in the spirit of fiscal responsibility in 
an attempt to save taxpayers' money.
    When I reviewed the provisions of the bill, I noted that 
the Commission's members are not only compensated for travel 
and per diem expenses, but also authorized to receive salary 
compensation for the days served. According to the provisions 
of the bill, this amounts to upwards between $13- $17,000 per 
week for a salary for Commission members. This amounts to close 
to $1 million.
    So, I feel it's entirely appropriate that the Commission 
members are reimbursed for all travel costs associated with 
their work, but not for their salaries. So, this is a very 
prudent measure. And I thank the Chairman for your 
consideration.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. I thank the gentlewoman from 
California for her contribution. The gentlewoman from Texas, 
Ms. Jackson Lee, also had a contribution to the manager's en 
bloc amendments. Without objection, she will be allowed to 
insert a statement if she so desires at this point in the 
record.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Jackson Lee follows:]





    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The Chair has been notified of an 
amendment by the gentleman from Maryland, Mr. Bartlett. And 
this would be the proper time if he should choose to offer the 
amendment to do so.
    Mr. Bartlett. Mr. Chairman, I have an opening statement.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, the gentleman's 
opening statement will be placed in the record.
    The gentleman from Maryland.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you very much. I have an amendment at 
this desk, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The Clerk will report the 
amendment.
    The Clerk. ``Amendment offered by Mr. Bartlett to the en 
bloc amendments offered by Mr. Sensenbrenner to the Amendment 
in the Nature of a Substitute''----
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, the amendment 
will be considered as read and open for amendment at any point. 
And the Chair recognizes the gentleman from Maryland, Mr. 
Bartlett, for 5 minutes.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you very much. Mr. Chairman, this is a 
very simple, very short amendment. I would first like to say 
that I could not be more strongly supportive of what this bill 
is trying to achieve.
    We certainly do need to advance women in science, 
engineering, and technology. They represent an enormous 
unexploited resource and our country badly needs to do exactly 
what this bill purports to do.
    My problem is with specific language on page 3, and that is 
lines 20 to 23. The bill by the way is a bill to promote the 
advancement of women in science, engineering and technology, 
and with that said the language on page 3 is really duplicative 
and unnecessary and it simply invites controversy. It says ``to 
promote workforce diversity.'' What the private sector needs to 
do is what they do, and that is to hire the best people. It 
says ``to sensitize employers.'' We should not be in the 
business of socially re-engineering our society. What employers 
need to do is to recruit and retain the best.
    This is a very good bill, it promotes a very good cause. I 
think that the inclusion of this language in the bill simply 
invites controversy which will detract from the importance of 
this bill, and from the results that I hope that it will 
achieve.
    So, therefore, my bill is a very simple one. It simply 
moves to strike this language.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman's time has expired.
    The Chair yields himself 5 minutes in opposition of the 
amendment. I agree with everything that the gentleman from 
Maryland has said. Certainly I'm strongly opposed to quotas, 
and quotas are unlawful. However, if you look at the text on 
page 3 of the en bloc amendments, the charge that is given by 
this bill to the Commission it creates is to examine issues 
raised in the findings of the two reports. One by the NSF, and 
the second by the NRC. The deal with the two issues that the 
gentleman from Maryland proposes to strike from the bill, which 
is to promote workforce diversity and to sensitize employers to 
the need to recruit and retain women scientists, engineers, and 
computer specialists.
    Now, if we don't have the Commission review what these two 
outside agencies concluded then I guess there will be no 
critical review, and the outside agencies conclusions will 
stand. And I don't think that's why we want to have the 
Commission appointed. I think that if the outside agencies did 
not bring these issues up, it would have been proper to strike 
the language the gentleman from Maryland proposes to strike. 
But, since they did I think the Commission ought to review, 
ought to comment on it. If the comments are off the wall, they 
will be considered appropriately by the Congress and the 
public. So, I really think that it's best to leave the language 
in. And I oppose the amendment.
    I yield back the balance of my time.
    The gentlewoman from Texas Ms. Johnson, for 5 minutes.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I would like to 
express my opposition to this amendment. Unless there is some 
effort to promote workforce diversity and to sensitize 
employers to the need to recruit and retain women in this area, 
I'm not sure what the bill will actually go beyond that. It is 
not a quota system.
    When you say ``to sensitize employers'' it simply means 
maybe some flex hours. Often--if you will listen to the 
statistics of this report--younger women do not stay in these 
fields. Often it's because they have families with small 
children. Sometimes the company only needs to provide for flex 
hours, or provide for some day care in the near vicinity.
    It is not attempting to bring about quotas, it is an 
attempt to encourage right out of college to remain in the 
field, and to remain active. I don't know that this implies 
anything other than to call attention to the need for 
sensitization in these areas. I really think that this gets at 
the heart of any activity that this bill could call for. I 
admire and support the Chairwoman of this Subcommittee. And I 
don't believe that she stands for quotas, I don't. But I do 
think that it is important for us to address the issue, the 
finding from the Commission that shows that young women leave 
these fields. This is the workforce area for the future. And I 
think we need to encourage women to remain in the field. Thank 
you.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentlewoman's time has expired.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Mr. Chairman. I'll try to be brief.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman from California is 
recognized for 5 minutes.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. I strongly support Mr. Bartlett's 
amendment. Frankly, what he is doing here is eliminating just 
feel good language. And one thing the Republicans have always 
been upset about with Democrats is that they put feel good 
language in things just to make people seem like they are doing 
things. Mr. Bartlett says let's clear out the feel good 
language.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Will the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Not until I finish. Not until I finish. 
Just one moment. This is--I mean, Mr. Bartlett just says let's 
get on with the substance. We don't have any complaint about--
he just says we're trying to get women into the workforce into 
these high-tech jobs, but let's clear away this language that 
does nothing but appeal to different people on a stylistic 
basis. And I agree with him totally, and I hope that by 
cleaning this language away we can get to the substance of this 
issue rather than just trying the ``feel good'' language.
    Yes, I will yield to the Chairman.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. I'm just saying that I'm the author 
of the amendment that contains the language and I haven't 
switched parties yet.
    [Laughter.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The question is on the en bloc 
amendments offered by the Chair.
    All those in favor of the Bartlett amendment will signify 
by saying aye.
    Those opposed, by saying no.
    The noes appear to have it.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Does everybody feel good?
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. I feel great.
    The noes have it. The amendment is not agreed to.
    [Laughter.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The question is now on the en bloc 
amendments to the substitute amendment offered by the Chair.
    Those in favor will signify by saying aye.
    Opposed, no.
    The ayes have it. The en bloc amendments are agreed to.
    The question now is on the Amendment in the Nature of a 
Substitute offered by the gentlewoman from Maryland Mr. 
Morella.
    All those in favor will signify by saying aye.
    Opposed, no.
    The ayes appear to have it. The ayes have it.
    Are there further amendments to the bill?
    The gentlewoman from California, Ms. Capps.
    Mrs. Capps. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Today I was planning 
to offer an amendment that would improve the composition of the 
Commission by making the selection process more bipartisan, and 
ensuring that we get the best possible people to serve.
    While I will not be offering this amendment, I do want to 
note two concerns. First, my amendment would have allowed each 
of the Minority leaders of the House and Senate a nomination to 
the Commission on what is truly a bipartisan issue--ensuring 
that women have access to careers in science.
    I believe the Minority party in Congress, whoever it may be 
should have a voice in this process. Unfortunately the bill as 
currently drafted does not allow this. In addition, my 
amendment would have provided those nominating Commission 
members a wider pool of applicants to choose from by allowing 
experts in this issue from the private sector, non-profits, or 
government agencies to also be considered. It would also insure 
that Commissioners have some experience with issues relating to 
women in science. And I strongly believe that the criteria for 
selection to this Commission should be based on the expertise 
and background of the individual, and that would be--we would 
be best served by a Commission with a broad array of experience 
from the public and private sectors.
    And I do appreciate the efforts of Chairwoman Morella to 
work with me on this, and look forward to continuing our 
discussion as this legislation moves forward.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman. And I ask you now might consent to 
withdraw my amendment and yield back the balance of my time.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection.
    The gentleman from Oklahoma. For what purpose do you rise?
    Mr. Coburn. To strike the requisite number of words.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman is recognized for 5 
minutes.
    Mr. Coburn. Mr. Chairman, I'll be very brief. One 
observation on this bill that concerns me. As we look at the 
appropriations process in Congress, we often see things 
appropriated that we as an authorizing committee are not happy 
about. And what I do note in this bill lacking, is there is no 
maximum amount under which, under our authority, we have the 
right to tell the appropriators not to exceed. And I think we 
neglect our duty as authorizers, and we defer tremendous power 
to appropriators by not setting the maximum amount of money 
that can be spent for this Commission. And it would be--my 
recommendation that the Chairman, if this bill comes to the 
Floor under rules where there will not be amendments, to 
hopefully change it, if not put an amendment in it that will 
give a maximum amount that can not be exceeded by the 
appropriators.
    And I yield back.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman's time has expired.
    Are there further amendments to the bill?
    [No response.]
    If there are no further amendments, the Chair recognizes 
the gentleman from California for the appropriate motion to 
report.
    Mr. Brown of California. Mr. Chairman, I move the Committee 
report the bill H.R. 3007 as amended, furthermore I move to 
instruct the staff to prepare the legislative report, make 
technical and conforming amendments, and that the Chairman take 
all necessary steps to bring the bill before the House for 
consideration.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The Chair notes the presence of the 
reporting quorum. The question is on the adoption of the motion 
to report favorably. Those in favor will signify by saying aye.
    Opposed, no.
    The ayes appear to have it. The ayes have it and the motion 
is agreed to.
    Without objection, the bill will be reported in the form of 
a single Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute reflecting 
amendments that were agreed to today. Without objection, 
members will have the appropriate number of days in which to 
file additional, dissenting, Minority or other views. And 
without objection, pursuant to House Rule 20, the Chair is 
authorized to make whatever motions necessary to go to 
conference.
    Mrs. Morella. Mr. Chairman?
    Mr. Boehlert. Mr. Chairman?
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman from New York.
    Mr. Boehlert. Would it be appropriate to ask the staff to 
play James Brown's rendition of ``I feel good'' now?
    [Laughter.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The Chair is constrained to object. 
We haven't paid our ASCAP fee for that yet.
    [Laughter.]
    The gentlewoman from Maryland.
    Mrs. Morella. Mr. Chairman, I just want to thank you for 
also so quickly, at the last minute, including the amendments 
that had been offered by the Minority in the en bloc 
amendments. And I want to thank all the members of the 
Subcommittee, all the members of the Full Committee. This is 
terrific. Let's get it under suspension.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Okay. I thank everybody for their 
cooperation.
    There being no further business to come before the 
Committee, the Committee is adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 11:40 a.m., the Committee was adjourned.]