H. Rept. 105-844 - 105th Congress (1997-1998)

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House Report 105-844 - ACTIVITIES and SUMMARY REPORT of the COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES One Hundred Fifth Congress

[House Report 105-844]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]




                                                 Union Calendar No. 485

105th Congress, 2d Session - - - - - - - - - - - - House Report 105-844


                              ACTIVITIES


                                  and


                            SUMMARY REPORT


                                of the


                        COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET

                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                       One Hundred Fifth Congress





January 2, 1999.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                               --------

                    U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE                    
69-006                     WASHINGTON : 1999




                         LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

                              ----------                              

                                   Committee on the Budget,
                                   Washington, DC, January 2, 1999.
Hon. Jeff Trandahl,
Acting Clerk of the House, U.S. House of Representatives,
Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Trandahl: Pursuant to Clause 1(d) of House Rule 
XI, I am pleased to transmit a report on the activities of the 
Committee on the Budget during the 105th Congress.
            Sincerely,
                                          John R. Kasich, Chairman.



                                                 Union Calendar No. 485

105th Congress                                                   Report
  2d Session            HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES                105-844

=======================================================================


 
ACTIVITIES AND SUMMARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET DURING THE 
                             105TH CONGRESS

                                _______
                                

January 2, 1999.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______


  Mr. Kasich of Ohio, from the Committee on the Budget, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                    Summary of Committee Activities

              JURISDICTION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMITTEE

    The Committee on the Budget was established by the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974.\1\ The committee has been 
responsible for developing and reporting the annual 
congressional budget resolution, for assembling and reporting 
any reconciliation legislation required by that resolution, and 
working on the congressional budget process. In the 105th 
Congress, its jurisdiction was expanded to include budget 
process, generally.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ The jurisdiction of the Committee on the Budget is governed by 
Rule X, clause 1(d) of the Rules of the House of Representatives for 
the 105th Congress. This provision was added to the House Rules by 
section 101 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The main purpose of the budget resolution is to provide an 
overall framework and plan for congressional action on spending 
and revenue legislation. It sets ceilings on total budget 
authority and outlays and a floor on total revenues. It also 
allocates spending authority to the appropriations committees 
and among the various authorizing committees of the House and 
Senate that have jurisdiction over direct spending programs. 
The limits and allocations set by the budget resolution are 
enforced through points of order in the House and Senate.
    The budget reconciliation process is used when changes in 
entitlement or tax law are needed to implement the plan set out 
in the budget resolution. The process begins with the inclusion 
of ``reconciliation instructions'' in the budget resolution. 
These instructions direct the appropriate authorizing 
committees to report legislation revising programs under their 
jurisdiction to change projected spending by specified amounts. 
They may also direct the tax-writing committees to report 
legislation revising tax law to change revenues by specified 
amounts.
    In response to reconciliation instructions, the various 
committees report their legislative recommendations to the 
Budget Committee. The Budget Committee then assembles the 
legislation into an omnibus legislative package--without making 
any substantive revisions--for consideration by the House. The 
Budget Committee not only has jurisdiction over budget 
resolutions and reconciliation bills, it has legislative 
jurisdiction over major elements of the budget process and 
various statutory controls over the Federal budget.
    When the House of Representatives adopted Rules for the 
104th Congress (H. Res. 6) on January 5, 1995, the Budget 
Committee achieved for the first time legislative jurisdiction 
over major elements of the congressional budget process and 
various statutory controls over the Federal budget. The 
relevant section of clause 1(d) reads as follows:

          (1) * * * Other measures setting forth appropriate 
        levels of budget totals for the United States 
        Government.
          (2) Measures relating to the congressional budget 
        process, generally.
          (3) Measures relating to the establishment, 
        extension, and enforcement of special controls over the 
        Federal budget including the budgetary treatment of 
        off-budget Federal agencies and measures providing 
        exemption from reduction under any order issued under 
        part C of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit 
        Control Act of 1985.

    The addition to subparagraph (d)(2) gave the Budget 
Committee substantive jurisdiction over any statement providing 
for a balanced budget required under the proposed amendment to 
the U.S. Constitution. The amendment, which had passed the 
House during the 104th Congress but failed in the Senate, 
envisioned a legislative vehicle other than the concurrent 
budget resolution that would be sent to the President.
    Subparagraph (d)(3) gave the Budget Committee primary 
jurisdiction over budget terminology and the discretionary 
spending limits. The Budget Committee would have shared 
jurisdiction over such other elements of the congressional 
budget process. Essentially, the Budget Committee would have 
exclusive jurisdiction over both budgetary levels and budgetary 
concepts and secondary jurisdiction over purely procedural 
aspects of the congressional budget process. In fact, the 
Budget Committee would have shared jurisdiction over the 
establishment, extension, and enforcement of mandatory and 
discretionary spending limits, PAYGO requirements, and other 
special budgetary mechanisms to control spending, the deficit, 
or the Federal budgets. Jurisdiction over the sequestration 
process also migrated from the Government Reform and Oversight 
Committee to the Budget Committee.
    The Rules for the 104th Congress recognized that the 
Government Reform and Oversight Committee would retain, for the 
duration of the 104th Congress, jurisdiction over certain 
budget process already in the legislative pipeline, most 
notably the rescission process, performance budgeting, 
regulatory budgets, and capital budgeting. However, in adopting 
the Rules of the House of Representatives for the 105th 
Congress (H. Res. 5) on January 7, 1997, the Budget Committee 
extended its legislative jurisdiction even further to cover not 
only the congressional budget process but all budget process in 
general. The pertinent section of clause 1(d) was changed to 
read as follows:

          (3) Measures relating to the budget process, 
        generally.

    To also reflect this expansion of the Budget Committee's 
legislative jurisdiction over budget process measures that were 
retained under the jurisdiction of the Committee on Government 
Reform and Oversight, the pertinent section of clause 1(g) 
outlining the Government Reform and Oversight Committee's 
jurisdiction was changed from

          (4) Budget and accounting measures, generally.

to read as follows:

          (4) Government management and accounting measures, 
        generally.

    In addition to its legislative duties, the Budget Committee 
continues to have responsibilities for oversight and studies. 
These responsibilities include oversight of the Congressional 
Budget Office; study of the outlay effects of existing and 
proposed legislation; study of off-budget entities; study of 
tax expenditures; and study of proposals to improve and 
facilitate the congressional budget process.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\ Rules of the House of Representatives, Rule X, clauses 3(b) and 
4(b) (1995).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                    Activities in the 105th Congress

                     FISCAL YEAR 1998 BUDGET CYCLE

Overview of the bipartisan budget agreement

    The framework for the 1997 budget agreement was developed 
through intensive deliberations between members of the Budget 
Committee, the congressional leadership, President Clinton, and 
various officials of his administration. The overall framework 
of the agreement--which was intended to balance the Federal 
budget by 2002 and provide for tax relief--was agreed to on May 
2, 1997. The Bipartisan Budget Agreement Between the President 
and the Leadership of Congress, a memorandum of understanding 
outlining the terms of this negotiated budget agreement, was 
finally approved and signed by the President, the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, the Senate majority leader, and 
the Senate minority leader on May 15, 1997.\3\ The Congress 
then quickly adopted a budget resolution establishing spending 
and revenue aggregates and committee allocations consistent 
with the spending levels agreed to in the memorandum of 
understanding. The budget resolution also included the 
necessary reconciliation instructions to the authorizing 
committees to make the necessary changes in entitlement and tax 
law to achieve the spending and revenue levels in the budget 
resolution. In accordance with these instructions, the Congress 
passed two reconciliation bills--one for entitlements and other 
programs not controlled through the appropriations process and 
one for taxes. Ultimately, a package of budget process 
provisions intended to enforce the budget agreement and which 
were within the legislative jurisdiction of the Budget 
Committees were folded into the reconciliation bill for 
entitlements reforms.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\ See Appendix A of H. Rept. 105-100, the House report 
accompanying H. Con. Res. 84, the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget-
Fiscal Year 1998.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Budget resolution

    The congressional budget cycle commenced on May 18, 1997, 
with the markup of the Fiscal Year 1998 Concurrent Resolution 
on the Budget. Out of 13 amendments offered, only 2 were 
adopted: A sense of the Congress offered by Ms. Roybal-Allard 
relating to family violence; and the second amendment, which 
was offered by Mr. Sherman, provided language to the budget 
resolution regarding a separate allocation for land acquisition 
and exchanges. The resolution was ordered reported with a vote 
of 31 to 7.
    The report accompanying House Concurrent Resolution 84, 
House Report 105-100, was filed on May 18, 1997.
    The Rules Committee reported a rule (H. Res. 152/H. Rept. 
105-102) providing for the consideration of House Concurrent 
Resolution 84 on May 20, 1997. The rule made in order an 
amendment printed in the accompanying report, House Report 105-
102, as original text, provided for 5 hours of general debate, 
and made in order the consideration of five substitutes.
    House Resolution 152 was considered by the House on May 20, 
1997, and passed by a vote of 278 to 142. House Concurrent 
Resolution 84 was called up for consideration that same day. 
Five substitutes were defeated by roll call votes. The House 
passed the bill, as amended by the rule, by 333 to 99.
    The House agreed to a unanimous consent request by Mr. 
Kasich to disagree to the Senate amendment and agree to the 
request to a conference on June 3, 1997.
    The conferees met on June 3, 1997. Senator Domenici was 
elected chairman of the conference committee. The conference 
report was filed in the House on June 4, 1997 (H. Rept. 105-
116). In the rule providing for the consideration of the 
conference report (H. Res. 160), the House agreed to the 
conference report on June 4, 1997.

Reconciliation

    A conference report on the budget resolution provides for 
levels of spending and revenue for the Federal Government. 
Because it is a document internal to the Congress, however, it 
does not have the force of law. To implement these levels, a 
Budget Resolution may include instructions that direct certain 
Congressional committees to submit recommendations to the 
budget committee to ``reconcile'' levels of current law 
spending and revenue to those called for in the budget 
resolution. This simply means changing the law so that the 
levels of spending and revenue called for in the budget 
resolution are attained. These recommendations are then 
gathered together by the Budget Committee and reported to the 
whole House in the form of one or more ``Reconciliation 
Bills.'' These bills must be passed by the House, the Senate, 
and then signed by the President in order to become law.
    For fiscal year 1998, the conference report on the budget 
resolution (H. Con. Res. 84/H. Rept. 105-116) provided for two 
separate reconciliation bills: the first, what became the 
Balanced Budget Act of 1997, reformed entitlements. The second, 
what was eventually known as the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, 
provided tax relief. These reconciliation instructions directed 
eight authorizing committees in the House to submit to the 
Budget Committee by June 12, 1997, recommendations that were 
reported by the Budget Committee on June 20, 1997, in the form 
of two reconciliation packages. Pursuant to section 310(b)(2) 
of the Congressional Budget Act, the submissions were not 
subject to amendment by the Budget Committee.
    In addition, in order to maintain those spending and 
revenue levels over five years, certain budget process and 
enforcement provisions in the Budget Enforcement Act of 1997 
were extended and modified as part of the Balanced Budget Act 
of 1997.
            Reconciliation--entitlement reforms (Balanced Budget Act of 
                    1997)
    For the reconciliation bill providing entitlement reforms, 
the committee agreed to a motion offered by Mr. Hobson to order 
it reported to the House with a favorable recommendation by a 
vote of 25 to 5, 2 voting present.
    Mr. Kasich introduced the entitlement provisions reported 
by the Budget Committee as H.R. 2015 and filed the accompanying 
report (House Report 105-149), on June 24, 1997. H.R. 2015 
contained the text of the legislative language provided to the 
Budget Committee by the various authorizing committees 
recommending changes in entitlement programs.
    The Committee on Rules ordered reported a rule (H. Res. 
174) providing for the consideration of H.R. 2015 on June 25, 
1997. The rule provided for three hours of general debate. It 
made in order the text of H.R. 2015 as modified by the 
amendments printed in the Rules Committee's report as original 
text for purposes of amendment. This rule also added the text 
of the Budget Enforcement Act of 1997 on to H.R. 2015. The BEA 
of 1997 extended budget procedures through 2002, such as the 
discretionary spending caps and the pay-as-you-go requirements 
in order to assure both revenue and spending levels were 
maintained. This same rule provided for the consideration of 
the second reconciliation bill, H.R. 2014, providing tax 
relief.
    House Resolution 174 passed the House by a vote of 228 to 
200, 1 voting present, on June 25, 1997.
    The House rejected by a vote of 207 to 223 a motion by Mr. 
Brown of Ohio to recommit the bill to the Budget Committee with 
instructions to report the bill back to the House with various 
modifications. The House then passed the reconciliation bill by 
270 to 162.
    The House agreed under unanimous consent, to a motion 
offered by Mr. Kasich to disagree to the Senate amendment and 
ask for a conference on July 10, 1997. Mr. Spratt offered a 
motion to instruct conferees which was agreed to by 414 to 14.
    The conferees met on July 10, 1997 and they elected Senator 
Domenici as the chairman of the conference committee. The 
conference report was filed on July 30, 1997 (H. Rept. 105-
217). The House agreed to the conference report on July 30, 
1997, by a vote of 346 to 85.
    The President exercised use of the line-item veto pursuant 
to P.L. 104-130 on a single provision in H.R. 2015 on August 
11, 1998 (Presidential Cancellation Number 97-3).\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\ The Line Item Veto Act was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. 
Supreme Court in Clinton v. City of New York on June 25, 1998.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Reconciliation--tax relief (Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997)
    As for the second reconciliation package providing tax 
relief, the Budget Committee agreed to a motion offered by Mr. 
Hobson to order the legislative text reported with a favorable 
recommendation by a vote of 20 to 12 on June 20, 1997.
    Mr. Kasich introduced the tax provisions reported by the 
Budget Committee as H.R. 2014 and filed the accompanying report 
(House Report 105-148) on June 24, 1997. This legislation would 
later be renamed the ``Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997.'' H.R. 2014 
contained the text of the reconciliation submission related to 
tax relief reported by the Budget Committee.
    The Committee on Rules ordered reported a rule (H. Res. 
174) providing for the consideration of H.R. 2014 on June 25, 
1997. The rule provided for 3 hours of general debate and made 
in order one substitute to be offered by Mr. Rangel or his 
designee. It made in order the text of H.R. 2014 as modified by 
the amendment printed in the Rules Committee's report as 
original text for purposes of amendment. This same rule 
provided for the consideration of H.R. 2015, the entitlement 
reconciliation act, as well.
    House Resolution 174 passed the House by a vote of 228 to 
200, 1 voting present, on June 25, 1997.
    The House rejected an amendment offered by Mr. Rangel by a 
vote of 197 to 235. The House rejected by a vote of 164 to 268 
a motion by Mr. Peterson of Minnesota to recommit the bill to 
the Budget Committee with instructions to report the bill back 
to the House with various modifications. The House then passed 
the reconciliation bill by 253 to 179.
    The House agreed under unanimous consent, to a motion 
offered by Mr. Kasich to disagree to the Senate amendment and 
request a conference on July 11, 1997.
    The conferees met on July 11, 1997. They elected Senator 
Domenici as the chairman of the conference committee. The 
conference report was filed on July 30, 1997 (H. Rept. 105-
220). The House agreed to the conference report on July 30, 
1997 by a vote of 389 to 43.
    The President exercised use of the line-item veto pursuant 
to P.L. 104-130 on two provisions in H.R. 2014 on August 11, 
1998 (Presidential Cancellation Numbers 97-1 and 97-2).
            Budget enforcement provisions (Budget Enforcement Act of 
                    1997)
    The Bipartisan Budget Agreement called for legislation 
extending the discretionary spending limits and PAY-AS-YOU-GO 
requirements and a variety of lessor changes in the budget 
process. Unlike the entitlement and tax provisions submitted to 
the Budget Committee as part of the reconciliation process, 
this legislation was within the original jurisdiction of the 
budget process. However, these provisions could not be directly 
incorporated by the Budget Committees into one of the 
reconciliation bills because of a Senate rule prohibiting the 
consideration of extraneous measures as part of reconciliation. 
However, the Budget Committees were able to add these 
provisions at a later stage in the reconciliation process.
    On June 25, 1997 the House incorporated the enforcement 
provisions into the entitlement bill, H.R. 2015, as part of a 
self-executing rules providing for the consideration of the 
bill. Although the Senate added the enforcement provisions to 
the tax bill as part of a floor amendment, the provisions were 
ultimately enacted as part of the entitlement bill.
    Also on June 25, 1997, Representative Nick Smith of 
Michigan introduced the enforcement measures as H.R. 2037, the 
Budget Enforcement Act of 1997.
    The House passed these enforcement measures as Title X of 
the conference report on the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 when 
it was considered on July 30, 1997, which was subsequently 
signed into law by the President on August 11, 1997.

Summary of the balanced budget agreement

    The Bipartisan Budget Agreement reached in 1997 represented 
an historic achievement. It demonstrated that Congress and the 
Clinton Administration could commit themselves to major reforms 
of government programs so that the Federal budget could be 
balanced in 2002. It also called for a substantial reduction in 
the tax burden for middle-income Americans.
    This legislation--the Balanced Budget Act of 1997--
demonstrated the efforts of House authorizing committees to 
fulfill the first part of that agreement through systemic, 
fundamental reforms of government entitlements. A second 
measure, called the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1997, 
provided approximately $85 billion in net tax relief over 5 
years. Together, these twin bills responded to the 
reconciliation directives of the House Concurrent Resolution on 
the Budget for Fiscal Year 1998, (H. Con. Res. 84), which 
embraced the Bipartisan Budget Agreement.
    From a budgetary standpoint, the accomplishments of the 
budget agreement included the following:
          --It balanced the Federal budget in 2002 and was 
        projected to run surpluses each year thereafter through 
        2002.
          --It provided a total of $85 billion in net tax 
        relief over the following 5 years and $250 billion 
        through 2007--the majority of this relief going to 
        middle-income working families.
          --It delayed Medicare bankruptcy for 10 years.
          --It reduced total Federal spending to 18.9 percent 
        of gross domestic product [GDP] by 2002--the first time 
        since 1974 that Federal spending has been below 20 
        percent of GDP.
          --It slowed the growth of total Federal spending to 3 
        percent a year for the following 5 years.
          --It achieved roughly $182 billion in entitlement 
        savings over the following 5 years, and approximately 
        $700 billion over the following 10 years.
          --It slowed the growth of non-defense discretionary 
        outlays to less than one-half of 1 percent a year over 
        the following 5 years, compared with an average of 6 
        percent a year for the past 10 years.
          --It saved taxpayers approximately $13 billion over 
        the following 5 years, and $142 billion over the 
        following 10 years, through lower interest payments.
    These achievements in this budget agreement represented the 
Budget Committee's long-term commitment to keep the Congress' 
fiscal house in order.
            The Balanced Budget Act
    Title I of the Balanced Budget Act increased Federal food 
stamp spending by $1.5 billion over the 1998-2002 period and 
$2.8 billion over the 1998-2007 period. The law contained two 
provisions that address components of the Personal 
Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. 
Those provisions allow states to exempt some individuals from 
the 3-month time limit for participation and give additional 
Federal funds to States for the Food Stamp Employment and 
Training program. Other provisions required states to establish 
a system to assure that prisoners are not counted as members of 
food stamp households and create a new grant program for 
nutrition education.
    Title II permanently prohibited the Federal Housing 
Administration [FHA] from deferring foreclosure on properties 
whose owners have defaulted in making payments on FHA-insured 
single-family mortgages. In addition, this title made two 
changes affecting rent adjustments for Section 8 housing. 
First, it generally prohibited rent increases for projects 
assisted under the Section 8 New Construction, Substantial 
Rehabilitation, or Moderate Rehabilitation programs, if their 
assisted rents exceed the fair market rent [FMR] established by 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD] for that 
housing area. It also limited rent increases for units without 
tenant turnover.
    Title III directed the Federal Communications Commission 
[FCC] to auction licenses to use portions of the 
electromagnetic spectrum. CBO estimated that those provisions 
would produce receipts totaling $21.4 billion over the 1998-
2002 period and $25.3 billion over the 1998-2007 period.
    Title IV of the Balanced Budget Act contained provisions 
relating to Medicare, Medicaid, and children's health. The 
title reduced Federal spending by $102 billion over the 1998-
2002 period compared with prior law. Medicare benefit payments 
were reduced by $99 billion, Medicare premiums were increased 
by $13 billion, Medicaid was cut by $10 billion, and additional 
spending of $20 billion was provided for a new State Children's 
Health Insurance Program. In addition, the title increased 
Federal revenues by $2 billion. Title IV of the Balanced Budget 
Act contains provisions relating to Medicare, Medicaid, and 
children's health. On balance, the title reduces federal 
spending by $102 billion over the 1998-2002 period compared 
with prior law. Medicare benefit payments are reduced by $99 
billion, Medicare premiums are increased by $13 billion, 
Medicaid is cut by $10 billion, and additional spending of $20 
billion is provided for a new State Children's Health Insurance 
Program. In addition, the title increases federal revenues by 
$2 billion.
    Many of the provisions of title IV were interrelated. 
Subtitles A through G primarily concerned the Medicare program, 
and subtitle H primarily concerned Medicaid, but the Medicare 
provisions also affected Medicaid and vice versa. Similarly, 
the State Children's Health Insurance Program established by 
subtitle J had an impact on Medicaid. The Medicare provisions 
in title IV established Medicare+Choice plans, expanded 
preventive benefits, reduced payment rates to most health care 
providers, increased premiums required of beneficiaries, and 
made other changes to reduce the growth of Medicare spending 
and postpone the depletion of the Hospital Insurance Trust 
Fund. CBO projected that under prior law, spending for Medicare 
benefits would have grown at an annual rate of 8.5 percent from 
1997 to 2002. In total, the provisions of title IV slowed the 
rate of growth to about 6 percent a year on average and 
postpone the depletion of the trust fund from 2001 to 2007.
     The act gave Medicare beneficiaries the option to remain 
in the existing fee-for-service Medicare program or to enroll 
in Medicare+Choice plans, which replaced Medicare's current 
risk-based plans. Medicare+Choice plans included health 
maintenance organizations, point-of-service plans, preferred 
provider organizations, provider-sponsored organizations, 
private fee-for-service plans, and insurance plans operated in 
conjunction with a medical savings account. New or expanded 
screening benefits were added for the detection of breast 
cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, 
and osteoporosis. Blood-glucose-testing supplies and diabetes 
self-management training are covered for beneficiaries with 
diabetes.
    Title V modified the previous year's welfare reform law by 
providing money to states to help welfare recipients find work 
and by softening restrictions on benefits to legal immigrants. 
Savings in the unemployment insurance program offset some of 
those costs.
    Title VI reduced the cost of the Federal student loan 
programs and repealed the Smith-Hughes Act, which provides 
funds for vocational education. It saved $2 billion in the 
student loan program and $64 million in vocational education 
over the next 10 years. It required that the 36 guaranty 
agencies currently participating in the guaranteed student loan 
program return $1 billion of their cash reserve funds to the 
federal government in 2002. It also eliminated the separate 
per-loan federal subsidy to schools or alternate originators to 
process applications for direct student loans.
    Title VII made a number of changes affecting the retirement 
and health insurance programs for Federal employees and 
annuitants. It increased the contributions of both Federal 
employees and their employing agencies for the employees' 
retirement programs, modified the Federal Government's payments 
for health insurance coverage of employees and annuitants, and 
ended a payment the Treasury was required to make to the U.S. 
Postal Service. In total, those provisions reduced on-budget 
direct spending by $3.3 billion, increased off-budget outlays 
by $44 million, and increased Federal revenues by $1.9 billion 
over the 1998-2007 period. Most of these savings resulted from 
increasing the amount of retirement costs charged to agency 
appropriations.
    Title VIII extended through 2002 the provisions of the 
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 [OBRA-90] that affect 
programs for veterans. It also made the authority of the 
Department of Veterans Affairs to spend certain receipts 
subject to appropriations and rounded down cost-of-living 
adjustments [COLAs] for veterans' disability compensation. CBO 
estimated that the act reduced direct spending by $247 million 
in 1998 and $4.2 billion over the 1998-2007 period. It raised 
net spending subject to appropriations by $557 million in 1998 
and $4.4 billion over the 10-year period.
    Title IX produced budgetary savings by selling Federal 
assets, extending certain fees, increasing the excise tax on 
tobacco, and implementing other policy reforms.
    Title X of the Balanced Budget Act extended budget 
enforcement requirements and made technical changes to 
congressional and executive branch budget procedures. Most 
important, it extended the limits on discretionary spending and 
the pay-as-you-go procedures for direct spending and receipts 
beyond 1998. Those provisions affect the consideration of 
future legislation but do not directly alter Federal outlays or 
revenues. (See section on the BEA.)
    Under title XI, the Federal Government assumed additional 
responsibility for several state-like functions currently 
carried out by the District of Columbia, including operation of 
its courts, prisons, and pension system. Title XI also 
eliminated the current annual Federal payment to the District 
of $660 million and instead authorizes a smaller contribution 
of $190 million in 1998 and unspecified additional amounts in 
future years. The act also authorized the District of Columbia 
to borrow up to $300 million from the Treasury for a period not 
to exceed 10 years if it cannot obtain reasonable financing 
elsewhere. Finally, this title affected the operation of the 
District government in several ways. It required the Financial 
Responsibility and Management Assistance Authority (the 
``Control Board'') and the District government to develop 
management reform plans for nine District agencies and four 
functions. It also gave the Control Board the authority to fire 
the heads of the nine agencies as well as to confirm mayoral 
nominations to head each agency; and requires the District to 
balance its budget in 1998.
            Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
    The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 made many changes to the 
Internal Revenue Code. A new $500 per child credit for children 
under age 17 would result in the largest reduction in revenue. 
Other major reductions in revenue result from new tax credits 
for students and other education incentives, changes in IRAs, 
lower taxation of capital gains realizations, and modifications 
to the alternative minimum tax and to the estate and gift tax. 
The act's provisions also included changes that would generate 
revenue. The largest revenue increase comes from extending and 
modifying aviation excise taxes. The Joint Committee on 
Taxation and CBO estimate that these provisions would reduce 
governmental receipts by $88.9 billion over the 1997-2002 
period. In addition, CBO estimates that the bill would increase 
outlays from the Child Credit and Earned Income Credit by $11.5 
billion in fiscal years 1997 through 2002.

                     budget enforcement act of 1997

Summary of the Budget Enforcement Act of 1997

    In compliance with the Bipartisan Budget Agreement, the 
budget enforcement provisions that were enacted as part of the 
reconciliation bill for entitlement reforms extended the 
discretionary spending limits and PAYGO requirements through 
Fiscal Year 2002. It also made a series of technical changes in 
both the Congressional budget process and in the operations of 
the discretionary spending limits and PAYGO requirements.
    The bill revised the limits for Fiscal Year 1998 and 
extended the caps through Fiscal Year 2002. It established 
separate limits on defense and non-defense discretionary 
spending for Fiscal Year 1998 and 1999. The bill maintained at 
revised levels the separate limits for the Violent Crime 
Reduction Trust Fund. It repealed automatic cap adjustments for 
changes in inflation and estimating differences between OMB and 
CBO on outlays. However, it retained adjustments in budget 
authority and outlays for changes in concepts and definitions, 
emergencies, continuing disability reviews and added 
adjustments for the International Monetary Fund, international 
arrears and an Earned Income Tax Initiative.
    The bill also extended PAYGO, which had been scheduled to 
expire after Fiscal year 2008 requirements through Fiscal Year 
2002. Pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Agreement, the 
permitted OMB and CBO to count the proceeds from certain asset 
sales under PAYGO. It specifically specified that both the 
costs are proceeds of assets sales were to be counted under 
PAYGO if the sale was estimated to result in a long-term cost 
to the Federal Government. In order to make this determination 
both OMB and CBO are required to calculate the net present 
value of the asset sale.

         TECHNICAL CHANGES IN THE CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET PROCESS

    The bill also made a series of technical changes in the 
congressional budget process focused largely on 302(a) 
allocations, points of order, and the budgetary treatment of 
credit programs. Most of these changes were made to the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974. These changes:
          Provided for a single spending allocation of 
        mandatory spending authority to the authorizing 
        committees. Previously the House provided separate 
        allocations of new entitlement authority and other 
        mandatory, but nonentitlement, budget authority. 
        Neither form of spending is controlled through annual 
        appropriations. In the case of new entitlement 
        authority, the claimant has a legal right to the 
        specified benefits and may seek redress in court if the 
        benefit is denied. Members have not found the 
        distinction particularly useful and it occasionally has 
        led to inequitable outcomes between committees simply 
        because one committee has an allocation of one form of 
        spending authority and another an allocation of both.
          Changed the default allocation to the Appropriations 
        Committee if the budget resolution is not agreed to by 
        April 15th from levels based on the President's budget 
        submission to the levels assumed in the second year of 
        the most recently agreed to budget resolution.
          Made the requirement that the budget resolution 
        establish limits on loans optional. The inclusion of 
        these levels has essentially been obsolete since 1990 
        when loans and loan guarantees were first treated as a 
        form of new budget authority as part of the Credit 
        Reform Act.
          Modified Congressional procedure to permit additional 
        tax cuts in the House if they are offset with spending 
        cuts. It also broadened the so-called ``Rosty 
        exception'' in the House for deficit-neutral 
        legislation. It specified that taxes can be reduced 
        beyond the levels assumed in the budget resolution if 
        they are offset with reductions in direct spending. The 
        reductions must be in excess of any required under 
        reconciliation.
          Repealed a mini-reconciliation process to pay for tax 
        cuts. In the event a bill was reported that reduced 
        revenue, OBRA 1990 permitted the Budget Committee to 
        issue a reconciliation bill to pay for it. Since no 
        such procedures were adopted in the Senate, any bill 
        that passed the House pursuant to these procedures was 
        ineligible for the expedited procedures afforded a 
        reconciliation bill in the Senate. The mini-
        reconciliation process has not been utilized since its 
        enactment.
          Eliminated the need to waive the Congressional Budget 
        Act if the rule ``cures'' the bill. Since most points 
        of order applied to the bill as reported, bill sponsors 
        had to secure Budget Act waivers even if the source of 
        the violation was corrected in the base text (through a 
        rule or manager's amendment).
          Increased committee flexibility in meeting 
        reconciliation targets. The BBA changed the rule that 
        permits the Ways and Means Committee to substitute 20 
        percent of its entitlement changes with 20 percent of 
        its tax changes as long as the committee meets the net 
        change in the deficit or surplus set forth in its 
        reconciliation instructions. It was argued that the 
        Ways and Means Committee could not invoke the original 
        rule because it applied to the sum of tax and 
        entitlement changes which hypothetically could be zero. 
        The BBA simply provided that the 20 percent rule 
        applies to the sum of the absolute value of the desired 
        revenue and tax change.

  TECHNICAL CHANGES IN THE PAYGO REQUIREMENTS/DISCRETIONARY SPENDING 
                                 LIMITS

    The BBA of 1997 made numerous technical changes in the 
statutory controls over the budget that are codified as part of 
the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 
as amended most recently by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. 
These changes primarily dealt with PAYGO requirements, 
particularly sequestration procedures. The Balanced Budget Act 
of 1997:
          Corrected the ``look-back'' requirement for 
        calculating a PAYGO sequester. As originally drafted in 
        1990, the language was intended to ensure that 
        legislation enacted after an end-of-year sequester 
        would be picked up in the following year's sequester. 
        OMB maintained that the provision required it to sum 
        the deficit effects for the budget year and the prior 
        year in its sequester calculations. Consequently a 
        credit in one year could be used to offset a deficit 
        increase in the next. The BBA clarified that only the 
        budget effects of legislation enacted after the prior 
        year's sequester are included in the deficit 
        calculation for the following year.
          Permanently extended the budget resolution's 5-year 
        window. Prior to 1990, the budget resolution covered 
        the budget year and two planning years. The Omnibus 
        Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 temporarily extended 
        the window to 5 years as part of what was then a 5-year 
        budget agreement. The BBA of 1997 permanently extended 
        the 5-year window, but provided that the budget 
        resolution can specify a different period to enforce 
        through points of order.
          Clarified assumptions in the baseline for farm 
        subsidies. It specified that in the event of an 
        expiration of farm subsidies, the baseline for scoring 
        legislation would assume the prior year's levels. In 
        the 104th Congress, OMB scored the farm bill as 
        ``saving'' $1.9 billion in fiscal year 1996 relative to 
        a 1949-era law in order to avoid triggering a sequester 
        for that year.
          Revised the formula for calculating sequestration of 
        student loans under PAYGO so that it is equally applied 
        to direct student loans and guaranteed student loans.
          Provided for a ``rolling'' 5-year scorecard under 
        PAYGO. Under the BBA the sum of all legislation must be 
        deficit-neutral for 5 years from the date of enactment. 
        Previously PAYGO applied for the full 5 years only in 
        the year following its enactment or extension. Each 
        year, the window was reduced by a year. The contracting 
        window emboldened Congress and the administration to 
        support legislation that increased the deficit just 
        beyond the PAYGO horizon.
          Repealed the separate 302(a) allocation in the House 
        for the Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund [VCRTF]. 
        This change was intended to put VCRTF spending on a 
        comparable basis with defense and non-defense 
        discretionary spending, which are not subject to points 
        of order under 302(f) even though they fall under 
        separate caps.
          Increased the caps by the amount of emergency-
        designated appropriations. While the BBA continues to 
        hold appropriations harmless for emergency-designated 
        appropriations, it adjusts the caps upward by the 
        amount of the emergency instead of ignoring the fact 
        that such amounts were appropriated.
          Eliminated adjustments in the baseline for nonindexed 
        programs. Prior to the BBA, OMB and CBO inflated 
        certain nonindexed programs in their baseline 
        calculations. The BBA directed CBO and OMB to assume no 
        adjustment for inflation unless such an adjustment is 
        required in the underlying law. Under this change, 
        legislation affecting these programs will be estimated 
        relative to a base that assumes a constant level of 
        expenditures. The BBA also provides OMB and the Budget 
        Committees with the authority to determine whether the 
        baseline should assume funding for legislation in which 
        the program sunsets at a certain date.
          Updated the list of programs and activities that are 
        subject to or exempt from PAYGO requirements and the 
        discretionary spending limits.
          Amended the Credit Reform Act to redefine the 
        discount rate used to determine each year's cash flows 
        to more closely follow standard discounting procedures. 
        It also required agencies to base their subsidy cost 
        estimates on the economic and technical assumptions in 
        the President's budget for the year in which the funds 
        are obligated. It requires that the interest rate paid 
        on financing account debt to Treasury, and earned on 
        financing account balances, be identical to the 
        discount rate used to calculate subsidy costs. Finally, 
        it requires that all unobligated balances in 
        liquidating accounts be transferred to the general fund 
        of the Treasury.
          Extended the period for OMB estimates from 10 days 
        after enactment to 15 days. Additionally, the BBA 
        stipulated that OMB must consult in writing with the 
        Budget Committees on scoring issues.

                     FISCAL YEAR 1999 BUDGET CYCLE

Budget resolution and related events

    The committee marked up the concurrent resolution on the 
budget for fiscal year 1999 on May 27, 1998. The committee 
passed a sense-of-Congress amendment relating to Individual 
Development Accounts offered by Mr. Thompson; an amendment 
offered by Mr. Spratt and Ms. Rivers relating to funding levels 
for special education as amended by a substitute amendment 
offered by Mr. Bass to reflect a sense of Congress on special 
education funding levels; an amendment offered by Mr. Weygand 
relating to funding levels for Medicare Home Health Care 
Services, as modified; an amendment offered by Mr. Bentsen 
relating to Medicare Beneficiaries' Clinical Cancer Trials 
Demonstration, as modified; report language offered by Mr. 
Bentsen regarding funding for the Army Corps of Engineers; and 
report language offered by Mr. Minge related to the Social 
Security Trust Fund. An amendment offered by Mr. Minge related 
to Medicare+Choice was withdrawn and the committee agreed by 
unanimous consent to include similar language in the report. 
Therefore, out of 28 amendments, the committee defeated 20 
amendments and 1 was withdrawn. The committee agreed to the 
budget resolution, as amended, by a rollcall vote of 22 to 16.
    The Committee on Rules ordered reported (H. Res. 455/H. 
Rept. 105-565) a rule providing for the consideration of House 
Concurrent Resolution 284. The rule made in order an amendment 
printed in the accompanying report as original text and 
suspended House rule XLIX which provides for an automatic 
engrossment of legislation raising the debt ceiling upon the 
adoption the budget resolution conference report. On June 4, 
1998 the House passed the rule which self-executed changes 
modified the text of the bill that made in order two 
substitutes to be offered by Representatives Neumann and 
Spratt.
    The House passed House Resolution 455 on June 4, 1998. 
House Concurrent Resolution 284 (H. Rept. 105-555) was called 
up in the House for consideration on June 4, 1998. The House 
rejected substitutes offered by Mr. Neumann by a vote of 158 to 
262 and Mr. Spratt by 164 to 257. The budget resolution passed 
the House by a vote of 216 to 204 on June 5, 1998.

Reconciliation and related events

    Section 4 of House Concurrent Resolution 284 set forth 
reconciliation instructions for considering a single omnibus 
reconciliation bill. The deadline for committee submissions to 
meet the reconciliation instructions was June 26, 1998.

Interim allocation

    The Rule providing for the consideration of H.R. 4059, the 
fiscal year 1999 Military Construction Appropriations Act 
specified that until a conference report on the budget 
resolution for fiscal year 1999 was passed, the appropriations 
committees allocation would be based on the levels as passed in 
the Balanced Budget Act of 1997.

                   TASK FORCE ON BUDGET PROCESS REFORM

    During the 105th Congress, many House Members indicated 
strong interest in major budget process reform. The basic 
structure of the congressional budget process had not been 
fundamentally revised since the Congressional Budget Act was 
enacted in 1974. Members have repeatedly expressed frustration 
over the complexity of the process, the inability to enforce 
budgetary decisions, and what they perceive as an inherent bias 
toward higher spending. In recent time, additional concerns had 
been raised about the advisability of maintaining separate 
controls over discretionary and mandatory components of the 
budget during a period in which the budget is projected to be 
in balance.
    On February 5, 1998, the Budget Committee authorized the 
creation of a Task Force on Budget Process Reform. The Task 
Force was authorized pursuant to a colloquy between the 
Chairman of the Budget Committee and Representative David 
Hobson. Representative Jim Nussle was appointed as chairman and 
Representative Cardin the ranking minority member. Mr. Nussle 
indicated that the Task Force would hold hearings in the 
following areas: the nature of the budget resolution, baselines 
and budgetary projections, contingent liabilities, emergencies, 
and budget enforcement.
    The first hearing was held on March 31, 1998, on the topic 
of converting the budget resolution into a law. At this 
hearing, Dr. Roy Meyers, an assistant professor at the 
University of Maryland, and David Mason of the Heritage 
Foundation testified in favor of converting the concurrent 
budget resolution into a joint resolution. Dr. Allen Schick of 
the Brookings Institution cautioned that adoption of a joint 
resolution would reduce the ability of Congress and the 
President to set forth their own budget priorities.
    On April 1, 1998, a hearing was held on baselines and 
budgetary projections. The witnesses included Tim Penny, a 
former Member of Congress and current cochairman of the 
Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget; Paul Van de Water, 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis, Congressional Budget 
Office; and Timothy J. Muris, Foundation Professor, George 
Mason University School of Law. Former Representative Tim 
Penny, who along with Chairman Kasich and Representative 
Charles W. Stenholm offered a bill in the 103rd Congress to 
reform the concept of baseline budgeting, testified in favor of 
eliminating some elements of the baseline and modifying others. 
Timothy Muris testified in favor of eliminating the baseline 
altogether, arguing that it does not provide a true measure of 
the services being provided. In his testimony, Paul Van de 
Water defined the concept and evolution of baselines and 
explained how CBO currently measures its baseline.
    A third hearing was held on April 23, 1998, on the 
budgetary treatment of insurance programs. At that hearing the 
witnesses included Susan J. Irving, Associate Director for 
Federal Budget Issues, Government Accounting Office; Marvin 
Phaup, Deputy Assistant Director, Special Studies Division, 
Congressional Budget Office and former CBO director Rudy 
Penner. All three witnesses testified in favor of reforming the 
budgetary treatment of Federal insurance programs so that they 
more accurately reflect the true cost of the programs, but 
continued that the model for estimating risk are not 
sufficiently developed to immediately integrate accrual 
measures into the budget.
     On June 18, 1998, Chairman Nussle invited Members to 
testify on their own ideas for reforming the budget process. 
Mr. Cox, Mr. Barton, Mr. Sabo, Mr. Stenholm, and Mr. Castle 
testified before the Task Force. Although they did not testify, 
Mr. Radanovich, Mr. Goss, Mr. Sam Johnson, and Mr. Livingston 
submitted prepared statements for the record.
    A fourth and final hearing was held on June 23, 1998, on 
the topic of emergencies. The hearing featured James L. Witt, 
the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 
Director Witt was followed by a panel of experts (James Blum, 
CBO; Keith Bea, CRS; and Theresa Gullo, CBO) on the budgetary 
treatment of emergencies.
    At the conclusion of these hearings, Representatives Nussle 
and Cardin worked on comprehensive legislation to reform the 
budget process. Together with other members of the Budget and 
Rules Committee, Representatives Nussle and Cardin introduced 
H.R. 4837, the Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act of 1998 
on October 14, 1998.

       SUMMARY OF THE COMPREHENSIVE BUDGET PROCESS REFORM OF 1998

    The majority of the provisions of H.R. 4837, the 
Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act of 1998, are first 
effective starting in fiscal year 2000. However, the insurance 
title in Title V is gradually phased in over a 5-year period. A 
summary of the contents in each of the titles of this bill is 
explained below.

Title I--Budget with the force of law

    This bill changes the current nonbinding concurrent budget 
resolution to a joint budget resolution, which--when signed by 
the President--has the force of law. However, Congress retains 
the power to adopt a concurrent budget resolution under 
expedited procedures if the President vetoes the joint budget 
resolution and the Congress fails to override.
    H.R. 4837 prohibits the Congress from considering spending 
and tax bills until a budget resolution--either a joint 
resolution or a concurrent resolution--is in place, unless a 3/
5ths majority approves consideration of such spending or tax 
bills. This bill also simplifies the budget resolution by 
collapsing the 20 nonenforceable budget functions to the total 
(aggregate) spending and revenue levels, with categories for 
discretionary, mandatory, and emergency spending.
    This bill requires the Office of Management and Budget 
[OMB], the House and Senate Budget Committees, and the 
Congressional Budget Office [CBO] to exclude Social Security 
revenues and outlays in their budget projections and analyses. 
It also reaffirms the special off-budget status of Social 
Security, including its exemption from Pay-As-You-Go [PAYGO] 
requirements and sequestration and its exclusion from the 
President's budget submission as well as any joint or 
concurrent budget resolution passed by the Congress. The bill 
stipulated that budgetary displays of budget aggregates exclude 
Social Security and other off-budget entitlements.

Title II--Reserve fund for emergencies

                              Reserve Fund

    H.R. 4837 requires both the President and Congress to 
budget up front for emergencies by establishing an emergency 
reserve fund. Both the President and Congress are required to 
include a reserve fund in their budgets, which must contain an 
amount at least equal to the 5-year historical average of 
amounts provided for emergencies.

                        Definition of Emergency

    This bill establishes a clear procedure for determining 
whether an emergency exists. Emergency funds may not be 
released from the reserve fund unless the Budget Committee 
certifies that: a situation arises that requires funding for 
``the prevention or mitigation of, or response to, loss of life 
or property, or a threat to national security and the situation 
is ``unanticipated''--with ``unanticipated'' defined as sudden, 
urgent, unforeseen, and temporary.
    H.R. 4837 eliminates automatic increases in spending limits 
for ``emergency'' amounts designated in appropriations bills 
and exemptions from PAYGO requirements for ``emergency'' 
amounts designated in authorization bills. In addition, the 
bill subjects all emergency spending to both the levels in the 
budget resolution and any applicable spending caps.

                        Dire Emergency Procedure

    H.R. 4837 includes an additional fallback provision for 
exceptional and dire emergencies that require immediate 
spending in excess of those provided for in the budget 
resolution. Any bill providing funds in excess of the amount in 
the reserve would be referred to the Committee on the Budget, 
which could amend the bill to exempt some or all of the 
additional emergency funding.

Title III--Enforcement of budgetary decisions

                      Budget Compliance Statements

    This bill requires committees to justify Budget Act waivers 
for bills that breach the levels in the budget resolution. It 
also extends Budget Act requirements to nonreported bills. 
Finally, it requires CBO to provide cost estimates for 
conference reports.

Title IV--Accountability for Federal spending

                               Sunsetting

    To increase accountability for Federal spending, this bill 
requires committees to submit a schedule for reauthorizing, 
within 10 years, all laws, programs, or agencies in their 
jurisdictions, including entitlements.

            Subjecting Entitlements to Annual Appropriations

    H.R. 4837 prohibits the consideration, in the House or in 
the Senate, of any bill, amendment, motion, or conference 
report that authorizes a new entitlement program, project or 
activity unless the program is limited to a period of 10 or 
fewer years. The bill mandates that the Budget Committee 
justify any amount allocated in the budget resolution to an 
authorizing committee to create or expand an entitlement.

                       Increasing the Debt Limit

    This bill enhances accountability by requiring Congress to 
vote each time it increases the limit on the public debt. 
Specifically, it would eliminate House Rule 49, which enabled 
the House to pass legislation increasing the debt without 
having to vote on it.

                        Ten-Year Cost Estimates

    H.R. 4837 deters committees from moving budget-busting 
legislation whose costs explode beyond the 5-year window of the 
budget resolution, by requiring CBO to report on the 10-year 
cost of the bill.

Title V--Budgeting for unfunded liabilities and other long-term 
        obligations

                         Long-Term Liabilities

    H.R. 4837 begins the process of budgeting for the long-term 
liabilities of certain Federal insurance programs by requiring 
both the President and Congress to switch from cash to accrual 
budgeting for Federal insurance programs.

                      Long-Term Budget Projections

    In addition to shifting to accrual budgeting for insurance 
programs, H.R. 4837 requires CBO and OMB to report periodically 
on long-term budgetary trends, as well as the impact of long-
term Federal spending and taxation on the economy, including 
such factors as inflation, foreign investment, interest rates, 
and economic growth.

Title VI--Baselines, Byrd rule, and fail-safe mechanisms

                         ``Baseline Budgeting''

    H.R. 4837 requires that the Presidents' budget submissions, 
budget resolutions/reports, CBO semiannual reports, and CBO 
cost estimates be compared with prior year spending levels. 
Also, CBO and OMB are required to report periodically on the 
reasons behind the growth of Federal entitlement spending.

                            Byrd Rule Reform

    This bill curtails the ability of the Senate to strip out 
of budget reconciliation bills certain provisions designated 
under the Senate's so-called Byrd Rule. Under the Byrd Rule, 40 
Members of the Senate can unilaterally strip out House 
provisions from a budget reconciliation conference report if 
the Senate judges the provisions to be ``incidental'' spending 
reductions or ``extraneous'' to the purposes of budget 
reconciliation. This provision precludes use of the Byrd Rule 
for budget reconciliation conference reports.

                    Preventing Government Shutdowns

    H.R. 4837 provides for an automatic stop-gap appropriation 
for any appropriations bills that are not enacted by the 
beginning of the fiscal year, thereby ensuring that vital 
government functions continue without interruption.

                                Lock-Box

    H.R. 4837 includes a ``lock-box'' to ensure that savings 
from Floor amendments to appropriations bills are used to 
reduce Federal Government spending. The spending levels in the 
budget resolution and any caps on discretionary spending are 
automatically reduced by the amount by which a floor amendment 
reduces the amount appropriated for any program project or 
activity.

Title VII--Budgeting in an era of surpluses

            Relaxing PAYGO requirements
    This bill amends the Pay-As-You-Go requirements, which 
require offsets for entitlement increases and tax cuts, to 
permit using any portion of the on-budget surplus to pay for 
certain legislative initiatives.

Legislative History of Measures on Which Action Was Taken by the House 
                        Committee on the Budget

                            H. CON. RES. 84

Sponsor--Kasich
Date Introduced--May 18, 1997
House Committee--Budget
Official Title--A concurrent resolution establishing the 
        congressional budget for the United States Government 
        for fiscal year 1998 and setting forth appropriate 
        budgetary levels for fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 
        2002.
    May 18, 1997--House Committee on the Budget Reported an 
Original Measure. Report No. 105-100.
    May 18, 1997--Placed on Union Calendar No. 61.
    May 19, 1997--Rules Committee Resolution H. Res. 152 
Reported to House.
    May 20, 1997--Rule Passed House.
    May 20, 1997--Called up by House by Rule.
    May 20, 1997--Committee on Rules granted a modified closed 
rule providing 5 hours of general debate; waiving all points of 
order against the resolution and against its consideration; 
making in order only the amendments in nature of a substitute 
designated in section 2 of the rule.
    May 21, 1997--Resolution agreed to in House by yea-nay 
vote: 333-99 (Record Vote No. 148).
    May 21, 1997--Received in the Senate.
    May 21, 1997--Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under 
General Orders. Calendar No. 56.
    May 23, 1997--Measure laid before Senate.
    May 23, 1997--Senate struck all after the enacting clause 
and substituted the language of S. Con. Res. 27 as amended.
    May 23, 1997--Passed Senate in lieu of S. Con. Res. 27, 
amended, by yea-nay vote: 78-22 (Record Vote No. 92).
    May 23, 1997--Senate insisted upon its amendment.
    May 23, 1997--Senate requested a conference.
    June 3, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees: Domenici, 
Grassley, and Lautenberg.
    June 3, 1997--House disagreed to the Senate amendment by 
voice vote.
    June 3, 1997--House agreed to a conference.
    June 3, 1997--House conferees instructed agreed to by voice 
vote.
    June 3, 1997--The Speaker appointed conferees: Kasich, 
Hobson, and Spratt.
    June 3, 1997--Conference held.
    June 4, 1997--Conferees agreed to file conference report.
    June 4, 1997--Conference report H. Rept. 104-116 filed.
    June 4, 1997--Rules Committee resolution H. Res. 160 
reported to House.
    June 5, 1997--Rule passed House.
    June 5, 1997--House agreed to conference report by yea-nay 
vote: 327-97 (Record Vote No. 166).
    June 5, 1997--Senate agreed to the conference report by 
yea-nay vote: 76-22 (Record Vote No. 96).

                               H.R. 2015

Brief Title--Balanced Budget Act of 1997; Veterans 
        Reconciliation Act of 1997; Budget Enforcement Act of 
        1997; National Capital Revitalization and Self-
        Government Improvement Act of 1997; District of 
        Columbia Retirement Protection Act of 1997; District of 
        Columbia Management Reform Act of 1997; District of 
        Columbia Bond Financing Improvements Act of 1997.
Sponsor--Kasich
Date Introduced--June 24, 1997
House Committee--Budget
Official Title--A bill to provide for reconciliation pursuant 
        to subsections (b)(1) and (c) of section 105 of the 
        concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 
        1998.
    June 24, 1997--House Committee on the Budget reported an 
original measure. Report No. 105-149.
    June 24, 1997--Placed on Union Calendar No. 89.
    June 25, 1997--Committee on Rules granted by a vote of 9 to 
4, a rule providing for the consideration of H.R. 2015; 
providing three hours of general debate; an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute consisting of the text of H.R. 2015 
modified by the amendments printed in the Rules Committee 
report shall be considered as adopted in the House; the bill, 
as amended, shall be considered as the original bill for the 
purpose of further amendment waiving all points of order 
against provisions of the bill as amended; no amendment shall 
be in order to the bill as amended except an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute consisting of the text of H.R. 2015; 
waiving all points of order against the amendment in the nature 
of a substitute; providing that the yeas and nays are ordered 
on final passage and that the provisions of clause 5(c) of Rule 
XXI shall not apply to the votes on the bill, amendments 
thereto or conference reports thereon.
    June 25, 1997--Rules Committee resolution H. Res. 174 
reported to House.
    June 25, 1997--Rule passed House.
    June 25, 1997--Called up by House by rule.
    June 25, 1997--Motion to recommit the bill to the Committee 
on the Budget with instructions to report the same back to the 
House with an amendment failed in House by yea-nay vote: 207-
223 (Record Vote No. 240).
    June 25, 1997--Passed House (amended) by yea-nay vote: 270-
162 (Record Vote No. 241).
    June 25, 1997--Received in the Senate, read twice.
    June 25, 1997--Senate struck all after the enacting clause 
and substituted the language of S. 947 as amended.
    June 25, 1997--Passed Senate with an amendment by unanimous 
consent.
    June 26, 1997--Senate ordered measure printed as passed.
    June 27, 1997--Senate insisted on its amendment.
    June 27, 1997--Senate requested a conference.
    June 27, 1997--Senate appointed conferees: Domenici, 
Grassley, Nickles, Gramm, Lautenberg, Conrad and Boxer.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry: Lugar, 
Helms, and Harkin.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs: D'Amato, 
Shelby, and Sarbanes.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation: McCain, 
Stevens, and Hollings.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources: Murkowski, Craig, 
and Bumpers.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Finance: Roth, Lott, and Moynihan.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Governmental Affairs: Thompson, Collins, and 
Glenn.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Labor and Human Resources: Jeffords, Coats, and 
Kennedy.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on Veterans' Affairs: Specter, Thurmond, and 
Rockefeller.
    July 10, 1997--House disagreed to the Senate amendment by 
unanimous consent.
    July 10, 1997--House requested a conference.
    July 10, 1997--House conferees instructed agreed to by 
recorded vote: 414-14 (Record Vote No. 257).
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed conferees for 
consideration of the House bill and the Senate amendment, and 
modifications committed to conference: Kasich, Hobson, Armey, 
DeLay, Hastert, Spratt, Bonior, and Fazio.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Agriculture for consideration of title I 
of the House bill, and title I of the Senate amendment, and 
modifications committed to conference: Smith (OR), Goodlatte, 
and Stenholm.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Banking and Financial Services for 
consideration of title II of the House bill, and title II of 
the Senate amendment, and modifications committed to 
conference: Leach, Lazio, and Gonzalez.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Commerce for consideration of subtitles 
A-C of title III of the House bill, and title IV of the Senate 
amendment, and modifications committed to conference: Bliley, 
Schaefer, and Dingell.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Commerce for consideration of subtitle D 
of title III of the House bill, and subtitle A of title III of 
the Senate amendment, and modifications committed to 
conference: Bliley, Tauzin, and Dingell.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Commerce for consideration of subtitles E 
and F of title III, title IV and X of the House bill, and 
divisions 1 and 2 of title V of the Senate amendment, and 
modifications committed to conference: Bliley, Bilirakis, and 
Dingell.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Education and the Workforce for 
consideration of subtitle A of title V and subtitle A of title 
IX of the House bill, and chapter 2 of division 3 of title V of 
the Senate amendment, and modifications committed to 
conference: Goodling, Talent, and Clay.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Education and the Workforce for 
consideration of subtitles B and C of title V of the House 
bill, and title VII of the Senate amendment, and modifications 
committed to conference: Goodling, McKeon, and Kildee.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Education and the Workforce for 
consideration of subtitle D of title V of the House bill, and 
chapter 7 of division 4 of title V of the Senate amendment, and 
modifications committed to conference: Goodling, Fawell, and 
Payne.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight for 
consideration of title VI of the House bill, and subtitle A of 
title VI of the Senate amendment, and modifications committed 
to conference: Burton, Mica, and Waxman.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on the Transportation and Infrastructure for 
consideration of title VII of the House bill, and subtitle B of 
title III and subtitle B of title VI of the Senate amendment, 
and modifications committed to conference: Shuster, Gilchrest, 
and Oberstar.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Veterans' Affairs for consideration of 
title VIII of the House bill, and title VIII of the Senate 
amendment, and modifications committed to conference: Stump, 
Smith (NJ), and Evans.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Ways and Means for consideration of 
subtitle A of title V and title IX of the House bill, and 
divisions 3 and 4 of title V of the Senate amendment, and 
modifications committed to conference: Archer, Shaw, Camp, 
Rangel, and Levin.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Ways and Means for consideration of 
titles IX and X of the House bill, and division 1 of title V of 
the Senate amendment, and modifications committed to 
conference: Archer, Thomas, and Stark.
    July 10, 1997--Conference held.
    July 29, 1997--Conferees agreed to file conference report.
    July 30, 1997--Conference report H. Rept. 105-217 filed.
    July 30, 1997--Committee on Rules granted a rule providing 
two hours of general debate; vacating the proceedings by which 
the conference report was filed and authorizes the managers to 
immediately refile the report in the form actually signed and 
ordered reported, with the corrected part printed in section 3 
of the rule; providing that existing signatures of the 
conferees shall remain valid as authorizing the presentation of 
the conference report to the House in its corrected form; 
providing one motion to recommit which may not contain 
instructions; providing that following the disposition of the 
conference report no further action on the bill is in order 
except by subsequent order of the House.
    July 30, 1997--Rules Committee resolution H. Res. 202 
reported to House.
    July 30, 1997--Rule passed House.
    July 30, 1997--House agreed to conference report by yea-nay 
vote: 346-85 (Record Vote No. 345).
    July 31, 1997--Senate agreed to conference report by yea-
nay vote: 85-15 (Record Vote No. 209).
    July 31, 1997--Cleared for White House.
    Aug. 1, 1997--Presented to President.
    Aug. 5, 1997--Signed by President and became Public Law No. 
105-33.
    Aug. 11, 1997--Line item veto by President under the Line 
Item Veto Act (P.L. 104-130) (Presidential Cancellation Number 
97-3).
    Aug. 11, 1997--Veto message and bill referred to Senate 
Committees on the Budget; and Finance.
    Sept. 3, 1997--Veto message and bill referred to House 
Committees on the Budget; and Commerce.
    Sept. 3, 1997--Disapproval bill introduced in Senate (S. 
144).
    Sept. 9, 1997--Disapproval bill introduced in House (H.R. 
2436).

                               H.R. 2014

Brief Title--Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997; Revenue 
        Reconciliation Act of 1997; United States-Caribbean 
        Basin Trade Partnership Act.
Sponsor--Kasich
Date Introduced--June 24, 1997
House Committee--Budget
Official Title--A bill to provide for reconciliation pursuant 
        to subsections (b)(2) and (d) of section 105 of the 
        concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 
        1998.
    June 24, 1997--House Committee on the Budget reported an 
original measure. Report No. 105-148.
    June 24, 1997--Placed on Union Calendar No. 88.
    June 25, 1997--Committee on Rules granted, by a vote of 9 
to 4, a rule providing for the consideration of H.R. 2014; 
providing three hours of general debate; an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute consisting of the text of H.R. 2014 
modified by the amendments printed in the Rules Committee 
report shall be considered as adopted in the House; the bill as 
amended shall be considered as an original bill for the purpose 
of further amendment waiving all points of order against 
provisions of the bill as amended; no amendment shall be in 
order to the bill as amended except an amendment in the nature 
of a substitute consisting of the text of H.R. 2014; waiving 
all points of order against the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute; providing that the yeas and nays are ordered on 
final passage and that the provisions of clause 5(c) of Rule 
XXI shall not apply to the votes on the bill, amendments 
thereto or conference reports thereon.
    June 25, 1997--Rules Committee resolution H. Res. 174 
reported to House.
    June 25, 1997--Rule passed House.
    June 26, 1997--Called up by House by rule.
    June 26, 1997--Motion to recommit the bill to the Committee 
on the Budget with instructions to report the same back to the 
House with various amendments failed in House by yea-nay vote: 
164-268 (Record Vote No. 244).
    June 26, 1997--Passed House (amended) by yea-nay vote: 253-
179 (Record Vote No. 244).
    June 26, 1997--Received in the Senate.
    June 27, 1997--Senate struck all after the enacting clause 
and substituted the language of S. 949 as amended.
    June 27, 1997--Passed Senate with an amendment by yea-nay 
vote: 80-18 (Record Vote No. 160).
    June 27, 1997--Senate insisted on its amendment.
    June 27, 1997--Senate requested a conference.
    June 27, 1997--Senate appointed conferees: Roth, Lott, and 
Moynihan.
    June 27, 1997--The Senate appointed conferees--from the 
Committee on the Budget: Domenici, Grassley, Nickles, 
Lautenberg, and Conrad.
    July 08, 1997--Message on Senate action sent to the House.
    July 10, 1997--House disagreed to the Senate amendment by 
unanimous consent.
    July 10, 1997--House requested a conference.
    July 10, 1997--House conferees instructed failed by 
recorded vote: 199-233 (Record Vote No. 258).
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed conferees for 
consideration of the House bill and the Senate amendment, and 
modifications committed to conference: Kasich, Archer, Crane, 
Thomas, Armey, DeLay, McDermott, Rangel, Stark, and Matsui.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure for 
consideration of sections 702 and 704 of the Senate amendment, 
and modifications committed to conference: Shuster, Molinari, 
and Oberstar.
    July 10, 1997--The Speaker appointed additional conferees--
from the Committee on Education and the Workforce for 
consideration of sections 713-14, 717, 879, 1302, 1304-5, and 
1311 of the Senate amendment, and modifications committed to 
conference: Goodling, Fawell, and Payne.
    July 11, 1997--Conference held.
    July 28, 1997--Conferees agreed to file conference report.
    July 30, 1997--Conference report H. Rept. 105-220 filed.
    July 30, 1997--Committee on Rules granted a rule providing 
two hours of general debate; vacating the proceedings by which 
the conference report was filed and authorizes the managers to 
immediately refile the report in the form actually signed and 
ordered reported, with the corrected part printed in section 3 
of the rule; providing that existing signatures of the 
conferees shall remain valid as authorizing the presentation of 
the conference report to the House in its corrected form; 
providing one motion to recommit which may not contain 
instructions; providing that following the disposition of the 
conference report no further action on the bill is in order 
except by subsequent order of the House.
    July 30, 1997--Rules Committee resolution H. Res. 202 
reported to House.
    July 30, 1997--Rule passed House.
    July 31, 1997--House agreed to conference report by yea-nay 
vote: 389-43 (Record Vote No. 350).
    July 31, 1997--Point of order against the conference report 
raised in Senate.
    July 31, 1997--Motion to waive the Budget Act against the 
conference report made in Senate.
    July 31, 1997--Motion to waive the Budget Act against the 
conference report agreed to in Senate by yea-nay vote: 78-22 
(Record Vote No. 210).
    July 31, 1997--Senate agreed to conference report by yea-
nay vote: 92-8 (Record Vote No. 211).
    July 31, 1997--Cleared for White House.
    Aug. 1, 1997--Presented to President.
    Aug. 5, 1997--Signed by President and became Public Law No. 
105-34.
    Aug. 11, 1997--Line item veto by President under the Line 
Item Veto Act (P.L. 104-130)(Presidential Cancellation Numbers 
97-1 and 97-2).
    Aug. 11, 1997--Veto message and bill referred to Senate 
Committees on the Budget; and Finance.
    Sept. 3, 1997--Veto message and bill referred to House 
Committees on Ways and Means; and the Budget.
    Sept. 9, 1997--Disapproval bill introduced in Senate (S. 
1157).
    Sept. 9, 1997--Disapproval bill introduced in House (H.R. 
2444).

                            h. con. res. 284

Sponsor--Kasich
Date Introduced--May 27, 1998
House Committee--Budget
Official Title--A concurrent resolution revising the 
        congressional budget for the United States Government 
        for fiscal year 1998, establishing the congressional 
        budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 
        1999 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for 
        fiscal years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003.
    May 27, 1998--House Committee on the Budget reported an 
original measure. Report No. 105-555.
    May 27, 1998--Placed on Union Calendar No. 310.
    June 3, 1998--Rules Committee resolution H. Res. 455 
reported to House.
    June 4, 1998--Rule passed House.
    June 4, 1998--Committee on Rules granted, by voice vote, a 
modified closed rule providing three hours of general debate; 
making in order three amendments in the nature of a substitute; 
waiving all points of order against the amendments designated 
in part 2; providing that the adoption of an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute shall constitute the conclusion of 
consideration of the concurrent resolution for amendment; 
providing that rule XLIX (establishment of statutory limit on 
the public debt) shall not apply with respect to the adoption 
by the Congress of a concurrent resolution on the budget for 
fiscal year 1999.
    June 5, 1998--Considered by House as unfinished business.
    June 5, 1998--Resolution agreed to in House (Amended) by 
yea-nay vote: 216-204, 1 Present (Record Vote No. 210).
    June 5, 1998--Received in the Senate.
    June 15, 1998--Senate struck all after the enacting clause 
and substituted the language of S. Con. Res. 86 as amended.
    June 15, 1998--Passed Senate, amended, in lieu of S. Con. 
Res. 86 by unanimous consent.
    June 15, 1998--Senate insisted upon its amendment.
    June 15, 1998--Senate requested a conference.
    June 15, 1998--The Senate appointed conferees: Domenici, 
Grassley, Nickles, Gramm, Bond, Gorton, Gregg, Snowe, Abraham, 
Frist, Grams, Smith of OR, Lautenberg, Hollings, Conrad, 
Sarbanes, Boxer, Murray, Wyden, Feingold, Johnson, and Durbin.
    June 16, 1998--Message on Senate action sent to the House.

                               H.R. 3989

    [Note: Not formally acted upon by Committee.]
Sponsor--Solomon
Date Introduced--June 3, 1998
House Committee--Ways and Means; Commerce; Agriculture; 
        Resources; Judiciary; Transportation and 
        Infrastructure; Banking and Financial Services; and 
        International Relations.
Official Title--A bill to provide for the enactment of user 
        fees proposed by the President in his budget Submission 
        under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, 
        for fiscal year 1999.
Cosponsors--None
    June 5, 1998--Called up by House under unanimous consent.
    June 5, 1998--Motion to recommit the bill to the Committee 
on Ways and Means to report back to the House with an amendment 
rejected in House by yea-nay vote: 0-416, 1 Present (Record 
Vote No. 206).
    June 5, 1998--Failed of passage in House by yea-nay vote: 
0-421, 1 Present (Record Vote No. 207).

                               H.R. 4837

    [Note: Not formally acted upon by Committee.]
Sponsor--Nussle
Date Introduced--October 14, 1998
House Committee--Budget and Rules.
Official Title--A bill to amend the Congressional Budget Act of 
        1974 to provide for joint resolutions on the Budget, 
        reserve funds for emergency spending, strengthened 
        enforcement of budgetary decisions, increased 
        accountability for Federal spending, accrual budgeting 
        for Federal insurance programs, mitigation of the bias 
        in the budget process toward higher spending, 
        modifications in paygo requirements when there is an 
        on-budget surplus, and for other purposes.
Cosponsors--Kasich; Cardin; Solomon; Goss; Dreier; Minge; 
        Sununu; Radanovich; Granger; Stenholm; Barton; Castle; 
        Ehrlich; Gutknecht; Hastings; Hoekstra; Inglis; Miller, 
        D.; Parker; Pitts; Royce; Shadegg; Shays; and Smith, N.

                          Other Actions Taken

    February 4, 1997--The Committee organized and adopted the 
rules of the Committee for the 105th Congress and ordered them 
printed; and (2) adopted the Committee's Oversight Plan for the 
105th Congress.

                 Bills Referred to the Budget Committee

Referrals under rule X, clause 1(d)(2)

    H. Con. Res. 58, A concurrent resolution establishing the 
congressional budget for the United States Government for 
fiscal year 1998 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels 
for fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.
    H. Con. Res. 82, A concurrent resolution establishing the 
congressional budget for the United States Government for 
fiscal year 1998 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels 
for fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.
    H. Con. Res. 84, A concurrent resolution establishing the 
congressional budget for the United States Government for 
fiscal year 1998 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels 
for fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.
    H. Con. Res. 86, A concurrent resolution setting forth the 
congressional budget for the United States Government for 
fiscal years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.
    H. Con. Res. 90, A concurrent resolution establishing the 
congressional budget for the United States Government for 
fiscal year 1998 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels 
for fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.
    H. Con. Res. 284, A concurrent resolution revising the 
congressional budget for the United States Government for 
fiscal year 1998, establishing the congressional budget for the 
United States Government for fiscal year 1999, and setting 
forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2000, 2001, 
2002, and 2003.

Referrals under rule X, clause 1(d) (3) and (4)

    H. Con. Res. 228, A bill expressing the sense of the 
Congress regarding the primary objectives of the process for 
preparing the Federal budget for fiscal year 1999.
    H. J. Res. 109, A bill relating to the expenditure of funds 
by the Federal Government under National or State tobacco 
industry settlements.
    H. J. Res. 112, A bill establishing the Joint Committee on 
Social Security Reform.
    H. Res. 89, A bill requesting the President to submit a 
budget for fiscal year 1998 that would balance the Federal 
budget by fiscal year 2002 without relying on budgetary 
contingencies.
    H. Res. 340, A bill expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that any budgetary surplus achieved by the end 
of fiscal year 2002 be saved for investment in the Social 
Security Program.
    H.R. 4, the ``Truth in Budgeting Act''
    H.R. 107, A bill to amend title 5, United States Code, to 
provide that the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund 
be excluded from the budget of the United States Government.
    H.R. 113, the ``Balanced Budget Requirement Act of 1996''
    H.R. 126, the ``Deficit Reduction Lock-box Act of 1997''
    H.R. 142, the ``Crown Jewel National Parks Act''
    H.R. 205, the ``Infrastructure Protection Act of 1997''
    H.R. 397, A bill to require that the President transmit to 
Congress, that the Budget Committees report, and that the 
Congress consider a balanced budget for each fiscal year.
    H.R. 441, A bill to repeal the Impoundment Control Act of 
1974.
    H.R. 457, A bill to amend the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 to provide for budgeting for emergencies through the 
establishment of a budget reserve account, and for other 
purposes.
    H.R. 593, A bill to amend the Balanced Budget and Emergency 
Deficit Control Act of 1985 to provide for a sequestration of 
all budgetary accounts for fiscal year 1998.
    H.R. 706, A bill to provide off-budget treatment for one-
half of the receipts and disbursements of the land and water 
conservation fund.
    H.R. 716, the ``Freedom From Government Competition Act of 
1997''
    H.R. 753, the ``Intelligence Budget Accountability Act of 
1997''
    H.R. 933, A bill to expand the definition of limited tax 
benefit for the purposes of the Line Item Veto Act.
    H.R. 867, the ``Adoption Promotion Act of 1997''
    H.R. 898, the ``Balanced Budget Enforcement Act of 1997''
    H.R. 1321, the ``Expedited Rescissions Act of 1997''
    H.R. 1372, the ``Budget Process Reform Act''
    H.R. 1487, A bill to provide off-budget treatment for one-
half of the receipts and disbursements of the land and water 
conservation fund, and to provide that the amount appropriated 
from the fund for . . .
    H.R. 1588, the ``United Nations Accountability Act of 
1997''
    H.R. 1732, A bill to amend the Land and Water Conservation 
Fund Act of 1965 to provide for off-budget treatment of the 
receipts and disbursements of the land and water conservation 
fund and the special . . .
    H.R. 1914, the ``Debt Buy-Down Act''
    H.R. 2003, the ``Budget Enforcement Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2037, the ``Budget Enforcement Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2107, the ``Androscoggin River Valley Heritage Area 
Act''
    H.R. 2191, the ``National Debt Repayment Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2230, the ``Tax Relief Guarantee Act''
    H.R. 2382, the ``Highways and National Defense Investment 
Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2400, the ``Building Efficient Surface Transportation 
and Equity Act of 1998''
    H.R. 2424, A bill to amend the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 
to eliminate the requirement that a Federal budget deficit must 
exist in order for the President to use the line-item veto 
authority.
    H.R. 2496, the ``Taxpayer Dividend Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2513, A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 
1986 to restore and modify the provision of the Taxpayer Relief 
Act of 1997 relating to exempting active financing income from 
foreign personal . . .
    H.R. 2586, the ``Surplus Protection Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2649, the ``Expedited Rescissions Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2650, A bill to repeal the Line Item Veto Act of 1996.
    H.R. 2768, the ``Personal Retirement Accounts Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2780, A bill to provide for an annual statement of 
accrued liability of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance 
Program.
    H.R. 2825, the ``Economic Growth and Social Security 
Transition Act''
    H.R. 2860, the ``Budget Surplus Dividend Act of 1997''
    H.R. 2906, A bill to authorize the Director of the Office 
of Management and Budget to reduce non-defense discretionary 
spending limits by two percentage points for each of fiscal 
years 1999 . . .
    H.R. 2933, the ``Working Americans Gainful Employment 
(WAGE) Act''
    H.R. 2956, the ``Biennial Budgeting and Appropriations 
Act''
    H.R. 3008, the ``Notch Fairness Act of 1997''
    H.R. 3091, A bill to amend the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 to require a two-thirds vote on the passage of legislation 
that repeals, increases, or waives the discretionary spending 
limit or repeals . . .
    H.R. 3228, A bill to amend the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 
to add the requirement that if Federal budget is in surplus 
then the vetoed item shall be used to reduce the public debt.
    H.R. 3474, the ``Healthy Kids Act''
    H.R. 3564, A bill to exclude the receipts and disbursement 
of the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund from the budget of the 
United States Government, and for other purposes.
    H.R. 3707, A bill to amend the Balanced Budget and 
Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 to allow reductions in 
the discretionary spending limits to be used to offset tax 
cuts.
    H.R. 4012, the ``Honest Balanced Budget Act of 1998''
    H.R. 4070, A bill to restore veterans tobacco-related 
benefits as in effect before the enactment of the 
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century.
    H.R. 4174, A bill to amend the Congressional Budget and 
Impoundment Control Act of 1974 to provide for the expedited 
consideration of certain proposed rescissions of budget 
authority.
    H.R. 4215, A bill to require the Secretary of Energy to 
submit to Congress a plan to ensure that all amounts accrued on 
the books of the United States Enrichment Corporation for the 
disposition of depleted . . .
    H.R. 4220, the ``Veterans Benefits Restoration Act of 
1998''
    H.R. 4234, A bill to require the Secretary of Energy to 
submit to Congress a plan to ensure that all amounts accrued on 
the books of the United States Enrichment Corporation for the 
disposition of depleted . . .
    H.R. 4306, A bill to eliminate the spending cap adjustments 
for International Monetary Fund funding increases.
    H.R. 4343, A bill to amend the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 regarding the application of points of order to unreported 
measures in the House of Representatives.
    H.R. 4379, the ``Budget Surplus Dividend Act of 1998''
    H.R. 4414, the ``Repeal the Social Security Tax Increase 
Act''
    H.R. 4452, A bill requiring the Congressional Budget Office 
and the Joint Committee on Taxation to use dynamic economic 
modeling in addition to static economic modeling in the 
preparation of budgetary . . .
    H.R. 4503, the ``Social Security Budget Transparency Act of 
1998''
    H.R. 4747, the ``Emergency Agricultural Response Act of 
1998''
    H.R. 4837, the ``Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act of 
1998''

            Summary of Oversight Plan for the 105th Congress

    The following is a summary of the Oversight Plan submitted 
by the Committee on the Budget for the 105th Congress:
          To fulfill its obligation to the American people, the 
        House Committee on the Budget, which has been given the 
        responsibility by the House of Representatives to 
        oversee the Federal budget and the process by which the 
        budget is adopted, has an aggressive oversight plan for 
        the 105th Congress. To fulfill its responsibility to 
        develop an annual concurrent budget resolution, the 
        committee will hold hearings and receive testimony from 
        Members of Congress, cabinet-level officials, state and 
        local officials, and expert witnesses to review the 
        Federal budget in general, as well as the budgets and 
        spending histories of specific Departments.
          The committee will review the activities of the 
        Congressional Budget Office. During 1999 the committee 
        also will recommend to the Speaker who to appoint as 
        the new Director of the Congressional Budget Office.
          The committee will study proposals designed to 
        improve the congressional budget process.
          The committee will coordinate its oversight 
        activities with other committees, including, but not 
        limited to, considering other committee's Views and 
        Estimates when developing the annual concurrent budget 
        resolution.
          The committee will study provisions of law which 
        exempt Federal agencies or any of their activities or 
        outlays from inclusion in the Budget of the United 
        States Government, and make recommendations for 
        terminating or modifying such provisions.
          The committee will study the effect of existing and 
        proposed legislation, as well as government regulation, 
        on government spending.
          The committee will request and evaluate continuing 
        studies of tax expenditures, and ways to improve 
        coordination between tax incentives and direct 
        spending.
          The committee will study monetary policy and its 
        effect on the Federal budget.

      Summary of Oversight Actions Taken During the 105th Congress

    The following is a summary of the major oversight actions 
taken by the House Budget Committee during the 105th Congress:
          During the course of developing the annual concurrent 
        budget resolutions for fiscal years 1998 and 1999, the 
        Committee held numerous hearings at which testimony was 
        received from members of the President's cabinet and 
        other administration officials regarding the budgets 
        and spending histories of the Federal Government and 
        specific departments and agencies. (A complete list of 
        Committee hearings held during the 105th Congress is 
        included in this report.)
    The Committee engaged in its statutory obligation to 
oversee the Congressional Budget Office [CBO] by: (1) receiving 
testimony from the Director and other staff of CBO during 
Committee hearings; and (2) its daily interaction with CBO to 
insure that CBO fulfill its mandate to provide Congress with 
budget information, data, estimates, statistics, etc.
    Under the direction of a Budget Process Reform Task Force 
chaired by Representative Jim Nussle, the Committee studied 
proposals designed to improve the congressional budget process. 
As part of its review, the task force of the Committee held a 
series of hearings devoted to the congressional budget process, 
at which testimony was received from experts from CBO and the 
General Accounting Office [GAO], outside experts, as well as 
interested Members of Congress.
    The Committee coordinated its oversight activities with 
other House committees in formulating the annual concurrent 
budget resolutions, including soliciting and considering the 
other committees' Views and Estimates.
    The Committee studied the effect of existing and proposed 
legislation, as well as government regulation on government 
spending. Significant staff resources were devoted to this 
activity, in addition to substantial utilization of GAO 
resources and services. (A complete list of GAO reports issued 
at the request of the Budget Committee is included in this 
report.)
    The Committee studied monetary policy and its effect on the 
Federal budget. As part of its review, the Committee held two 
hearings at which it received testimony from Alan Greenspan, 
Chairman of the Federal Reserve.

                         House Budget Committee


                      1997 HEARINGS--FIRST SESSION
 
       Date                  Title                    Witnesses
 
2/05/97...........  ``Why the Balanced       Glen Norfleet, Retired
                     Budget Amendment is      Senior Vice -----
                     Good for Americans.'' -  President, Aerospace
                     .                        Engineering/Management;
                                              Cathi Herrod, Stay-At-Home
                                              Mom (Lawyer); Elliott
                                              Bennett-Guerrero, M.D.,
                                              Research Physician, Mount
                                              Sinai Medical Center; Kyra
                                              Fischbeck, Director,
                                              Business Affairs, and
                                              Lawyer, Prime Time 24;
                                              Sadie Coleman, Retired
                                              Teacher; Jennifer
                                              Jennings, Student; James
                                              C. Miller III, Former OMB
                                              Director; Richard K.
                                              Vedder, Ph.D., Professor
                                              of Economics, Ohio
                                              University; Allen Schick,
                                              Professor of Public
                                              Policy, University of
                                              Maryland; Charles
                                              Schultze, Senior Fellow,
                                              Brookings Institute,
                                              Former Chair, Council of
                                              Economic Advisors;
                                              Annelise Anderson, Ph.D.,
                                              Senior Fellow, Hoover
                                              Institute.-- -
2/11/97...........  President Clinton's      Hon. Franklin D. Raines,
                     Fiscal Year 1998         Director, Office of
                     Budget.                  Management and Budget.
2/13/97...........  CBO Budget Outlook and   Hon. June E. O'Neill,
                     Analysis of President    Ph.D., Director,
                     Clinton's Budget         Congressional Budget
                     Proposal.                Office.
3/04/97...........  Consumer Price Index...  Hon. Alan Greenspan,
                                              Chairman, Federal Reserve
                                              Board.
3/06/97...........  CBO's Preliminary        Hon. June E. O'Neill,
                     Analysis of the          Ph.D., Director, - -
                     President's Fiscal       Congressional Budget
                     Year 1998 Budget.        Office.
3/11/97...........  U.S. Treasury            Hon. Robert E. Rubin,
                     Department's Fiscal      Secretary of the United
                     Year 1998 Budget         States Treasury; Hon. Jack
                     Request.                 Lew, Deputy Director,
                                              Office of Management and
                                              Budget. -------
3/12/97...........  Revisions in the CPI     Michael Boskin, T. M.
                     Calculation-.            Friedman Professor of
                                              Economics and Senior
                                              Fellow, Hoover
                                              Institution, Stanford
                                              University; Katharine G.
                                              Abraham, Commissioner of
                                              Labor Statistics.
9/24/97...........  Protecting the Future    Jose Pinera, President,
                     of Social Security-.     International Center for
                                              Pension Reform, and Co-
                                              Chairman, Cato Project on
                                              Social Security
                                              Privatization.-
10/08/97..........  Addressing Our Long-     Hon. Alan Greenspan,
                     Term Budget Challenges.  Chairman, Federal Reserve
                                              Board.
10/23/97..........  Securing America's       Hon. Newt Gingrich (R-GA);
                     Future: Preparing the    Hon. Bud Shuster (R-PA);
                     Nation for the 21st      Hon. John Boehner (R-OH);
                     Century.                 Hon. Pete Stark (R-CA);
                                              Hon. Martin Olav Sabo (D-
                                              MN); Hon. Jim Kolbe (R-
                                              AZ); Hon. George E. Brown,
                                              Jr. (D-CA); Hon. Bill
                                              Archer (R-TX); Hon. Mark
                                              Neumann (R-WI); Hon. David
                                              Minge (D-MN); Grover
                                              Norquist, President,
                                              Americans For Tax Reform;
                                              William Niskanen,
                                              Chairman, Cato Institute;
                                              Robert Greenstein,
                                              Executive Director, Center
                                              on Budget and Policy
                                              Priorities.
 



                      1998 HEARINGS--SECOND SESSION
 
       Date                  Title                    Witnesses
 
2/03/98...........  The Administration's     Hon. Franklin Raines,
                     Fiscal Year 1999         Director, Office --of
                     Budget Submission.       Management and Budget.
2/05/98...........  CBO Budget Outlook and   Hon. June E. O'Neill,
                     Analysis of President    Ph.D., Director,
                     Clinton's Budget         Congressional Budget
                     Proposal.                Office.
3/04/98...........   State of the Economy..  Hon. Alan Greenspan,
                                              Chairman, Federal Reserve
                                              Board.
3/26/98...........  Joint Hearing on the     Michael Dombeck, Chief,
                     Management of the        United States -Forest
                     United States Forest     Service; Barry Hill,
                     Service.                 Associate Director,
                                              Energy, Resources and
                                              Science Issues, Resources,
                                              Community and Economic
                                              Development Division,
                                              General Accounting Office;
                                              Charlie Cotton and McCoy
                                              Williams, General
                                              Accounting Office; Robert
                                              T. Lewis, Jr., Acting
                                              Associate Chief,
                                              Department of Agriculture;
                                              Roger C. Viadero,
                                              Inspector General,
                                              Department of Agriculture;
                                              Hon. Helen Chenoweth (R-
                                              ID); Hon. Jerry F.
                                              Costello (D-IL); Hon.
                                              Norman D. Dicks (D-WA);
                                              Hon. Wally Herger (CA);
                                              Hon. Maurice D. Hinchey (D-
                                              NY); Hon. George Miller (D-
                                              CA); Hon. Ralph Regula (R-
                                              OH); Hon. Bob Schaffer (R-
                                              CO); Hon. Don Young (R-
                                              AK).
 


                    BUDGET PROCESS REFORM TASK FORCE
 
       Date                  Title                    Witnesses
 
3/31/98...........  Converting the           Roy Meyers, Associate
                     Concurrent Budget        Professor, Department of
                     Resolution Into a        Political Science,
                     Joint Resolution:        University of Maryland,
                     Should the Budget Be a   Baltimore County; Allen
                     Law?.                    Schick, Visiting Fellow,
                                              Brookings Institution;
                                              David Mason, Senior
                                              Fellow, Heritage
                                              Foundation.
4/01/98...........  Budget Projections and   Paul N. Van De Water,
                     Baselines.               Assistant Director for
                                              Budget Analysis,
                                              Congressional Budget
                                              Office; Tim Penny, Co-
                                              Chairman, Committee for a
                                              Responsible Federal
                                              Budget; Timothy J. Muris,
                                              Foundation Professor of
                                              Law, George Mason
                                              University School of Law.
4/23/98...........  Budgeting of Government  Susan J. Irving, Associate
                     Insurance Programs and   Director, Budget Issues,
                     Contingent Liabilities.  Accounting and Information
                                              Management Division,
                                              General Accounting Office;
                                              Rudolph G. Penner, Senior
                                              Fellow, The Urban
                                              Institute; Marvin Phaup,
                                              Deputy Assistant Director,
                                              Special Studies Division,
                                              Congressional Budget
                                              Office.
6/18/98...........  Members' Views on        Hon. Chris Cox (R-CA); Hon.
                     Budget Process Reform.   Joe Barton (R-TX); Hon.
                                              Charles A. Stenholm (D-
                                              TX); Hon. Martin Olav Sabo
                                              (D-MN); Hon. Michael N.
                                              Castle (R-DE); Hon. Porter
                                              Goss (R-FL). ----
6/23/98...........  Budgetary Treatment of   James Lee Witt, Director,
                     Emergencies.             Federal Emergency
                                              Management Agency; Gary
                                              Johnson, Chief Financial
                                              Officer, Federal Emergency
                                              Management Agency; James
                                              Blum, Deputy Director,
                                              Congressional Budget
                                              Office; Keith Bea,
                                              Specialist, American
                                              National Government,
                                              Government Division,
                                              Congressional Research
                                              Office; Theresa Gullo,
                                              Chief, State and Local
                                              Government Cost Estimates
                                              Unit, Budget Analysis
                                              Division, Congressional
                                              Budget Office.
 

                 GAO Reports Requested by the Chairman

    The following is a list of General Accounting Office [GAO] 
reports issued at the request of the chairman of the Budget 
Committee during the 105th Congress. This list does not include 
the further utilization of GAO resources and services in 
studying government spending, such as requests for reports that 
are still pending or requests for information on an informal 
basis.
    1. Budget Issues: Budget Enforcement Compliance Report 
(AIMD-98-57).
    2. Budget Issues: Budgeting for Federal Insurance Programs 
(AIMD-97-16).
    3. Defense Budget: Analysis of Operation and Maintenance 
Accounts for 1985-2001 (NSIAD-97-73).
    4. Budget Issues: Analysis of Long-Term Fiscal Outlook 
(AIMD/OCE-98-19).
    5. Budget Issues: Budgeting for Federal Insurance Programs 
(T-AIMD-98-147).
    6. Managing For Results: Agencies' Annual Performance Plans 
Can Help Address Strategic Planning Challenges (GGD-98-44).
    7. The Government Performance and Results Act: 1997 
Government wide Implementation Will be Uneven (GGD-97-109).
    8. Best Practices: Elements Critical to Successfully 
Reducing Unneeded RDT&E Infrastructure (NSIAD/RCED-98-23).
    9. Fraud, Waste, and Abuse: The Cost of Mismanagement 
(AIMD-98-265R).
    10. Federal Civilian Personnel: Cost of Lump-Sum Annual 
Leave Payments to Employees Separating From Government (GGD-97-
100).
    11. Community Policing: Issues Related to the Design, 
Operation, and Management of the Grant Program (GGD-97-167).
    12. The Results Act: Observations on DOD's Draft Strategic 
Plan (NSIAD-97-219R).
    13. Forest Service: Barriers to Generating Revenue or 
Reducing Costs (RCED-98-58).
    14. The Results Act: Observations on the Postal Service's 
June 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (GGD-97-163R).
    15. Federal Property Disposal: Information on DOD's 
Personal Property Disposal Process (NSIAD-97-155BR).
    16. WIC: States Had a Variety of Reasons for Not Spending 
Program Funds (RCED-97-166).
    17. Financial Management: Federal Aviation Administration 
Lacked Accountability for Major Assets (AIMD-98-62).
    18. Forest Service: Status of Progress Toward Financial 
Accountability (AIMD-98-84).
    19. The Results Act: Observations on the National Science 
Foundation's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-203R).
    20. The Results Act: Observations on the Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-206R).
    21. Army National Guard: Planned Conversions Are a Positive 
Step, but Unvalidated Combat Forces Remain (NSIAD-97-55BR).
    22. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
Energy's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-199R).
    23. Food Assistance: Working Women's Access to WIC Benefits 
(RCED-98-19).
    24. The Results Act: Observations on USDA's Draft Strategic 
Plan (RCED-97-196R).
    25. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
Justice's February 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (GGD-97-153R).
    26. The Results Act: Observations on the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-204R).
    27. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
State's May 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (NSIAD-97-198R).
    28. The Results Act: Observations on the Small Business 
Administration's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-205R).
    29. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
Housing and Urban Development's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-
224R).
    30. Student Loans: Selected Characteristics of Schools in 
Two Major Federal Loan Programs (HEHS-97-45).
    31. The Results Act: Observations on USTR's September 1996 
Draft Strategic Plan (NSIAD-97-199R).
    32. Welfare Reform: Transportation's Role in Moving From 
Welfare to Work (RCED-98-161).
    33. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of the 
Treasury's July 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (GGD-97-162R).
    34. Medicaid: Sustainability of Low 1996 Spending Growth is 
Uncertain (HEHS-97-128).
    35. The Results Act: Observations on Commerce's June 1997 
Draft Strategic Plan (GGD-97-152R).
    36. Budget Issues: Analysis of Long-Term Fiscal Outlook 
(AIMD/OCE-98-19).
    37. Food Assistance: Information on WIC Sole-Source Rebates 
and Infant Formula Prices (RCED-98-146).
    38. The Results Act: Observations on the Social Security 
Administration's June 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (HEHS-97-179R).
    39. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
Health and Human Services' April 1997 Draft Strategic Plan 
(HEHS-97-173R).
    40. The Results Act: Observations on Department of Labor's 
June 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (HEHS-97-172R).
    41. The Results Act: Observations on USAID's November 1996 
Draft Strategic Plan (NSIAD-97-197R).
    42. Park Service: Managing for Results Could Strengthen 
Accountability (RCED-97-125).
    43. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
Education's June 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (HEHS-97-176R).
    44. Food Assistance: A Variety of Practices May Lower the 
Costs of WIC (RCED-97-225).
    45. The Results Act: Observations on GSA's April 1997 Draft 
Strategic Plan (GGD-97-147R).
    46. The Results Act: Observations on the Department of 
Transportation's Draft Strategic Plan (RCED-97-208R).
    47. The Results Act: Observations on the Office of 
Management and Budget's July 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (AIMD/
GGD-97-169R).
    48. Food Safety: Opportunities to Redirect Federal 
Resources and Funds Can Enhance Effectiveness (RCED-98-224).
    49. The Results Act: Observations on VA's June 1997 Draft 
Strategic Plan (HEHS-97-174R).
    50. The Results Act: Observations on NASA's May 1997 Draft 
Strategic Plan (NSIAD-97-205R).
    51. Future Years Defense Program: DOD's 1998 Plan Has 
Substantial Risk in Execution (NSIAD-98-26).
    52. The Results Act: Observations on OPM's May 1997 Draft 
Strategic Plan (GGD-97-150R).
    53. CFO Act Financial Audits: Programmatic and Budgetary 
Implications of Navy Financial Data Deficiencies (AIMD-98-56).
    54. Power Marketing Administrations: Repayment of Power 
Costs Needs Closer Monitoring (AIMD-98-164).
    55. The Results Act: Observations on EPA's Draft Strategic 
Plan (RCED-97-209R).
    56. Department of Energy: Fossil Energy Programs (RCED-98-
63).
    57. The Results Act: Assessment of the Government wide 
Performance Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (AIMD/GGD-98-159).
    58. Managing for Results: Critical Issues for Improving 
Federal Agencies' Strategic Plans (GGD-97-180).
    59. The Results Act: Observations on the Draft Strategic 
Plans of Selected Department of Labor Components (HEHS-97-
188R).
    60. Budget Function Classifications: Origins, Trends, and 
Implications for Current Uses (AIM-98-67).
    61. Managing for Results: An Agenda To Improve the 
Usefulness of Agencies' Annual Performance Plans (GAO/GGD/AIMD-
98-228).
    62. Budget Issues: Budget Enforcement Compliance Report 
(AIMD-97-28).
    63. Quadrennial Defense Review: Some Personnel Cuts and 
Associated Savings May Not Be Achieved (NSIAD-98-100).
    64. Head Start: Research Provides Little Information on 
Impact of Current Program (HEHS-97-59).
    65. National Park Service: Efforts to Link Resources to 
Results Suggest Insights for Other Agencies (AIMD-98-113).
    66. Future Years Defense Program: Substantial Risks Remain 
in DOD's 1999-2003 Plan (NSIAD-98-204).
    67. Managing for Results: Using the Results Act to Address 
Mission Fragmentation and Program Overlap (AIMD-97-146).
    68. Federal User Fees: Budgetary Treatment, Status, and 
Emerging Management Issues (AIMD-98-11).
    69. Rural Development: Financial Condition of the Rural 
Utilities Service's Loan Portfolio (RCED-97-82).
    70. Defense Infrastructure: Central Training Funding 
Projected to Remain Stable During 1997-2003 (NSIAD-98-168).
    71. Debt Collection: Improved Reporting Needed on Billions 
of Dollars in Delinquent Debt and Agency Collection Performance 
(AIMD-97-48).
    72. Defense Budget: Analysis of Operation and Maintenance 
Accounts for 1985-2001 (NSIAD-97-73).
    73. Information Technology: Department of Energy Does Not 
Effectively Manage Its Supercomputers (RCED-98-208).
    74. U.S. Agricultural Exports: Strong Growth Likely But 
U.S. Export Assistance Programs' Contribution Uncertain (NSIAD-
97-260).
    75. Commodity Programs: Impact of Support Provisions on 
Selected Commodity Prices (RCED-97-45).
    76. Food-Related Services: Opportunities Exist to Recover 
Costs by Charging Beneficiaries (RCED-97-57).
    77. Federal Electricity Activities: The Federal 
Government's Net Cost and Potential for Future Losses (AIMD-97-
110).

                     Printed Committee Publications

                                reports

House Report 105-100--Concurrent Resolution on the Budget--
        Fiscal Year 1998.
House Report 105-116--Conference Report on the Concurrent 
        Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 1998.
House Report 105-149--Balanced Budget Act of 1997.
House Report 105-217--Conference Report on the Balanced Budget 
        Act of 1997.
House Report 105-555--Concurrent Resolution on the Budget--
        Fiscal Year 1999.

                            printed hearings

105-1--Why the Balanced Budget Amendment is Good for Americans, 
        February 5, 1997.
105-2--President Clinton's Fiscal Year 1998 Budget, February 
        11, 1997.
105-3--CBO Budget Outlook and Analysis of President Clinton's 
        Budget Proposal, February 13, 1997.
105-4--Consumer Price Index, March 4, 1997.
105-5--CBO's Preliminary Analysis of the President's Fiscal 
        Year 1998 Budget, March 6, 1997.
105-6--U.S. Treasury Department's Fiscal Year 1998 Budget 
        Request, March 11, 1997.
105-7--Revisions in the CPI Calculation, March 12, 1997.
105-8--Protecting the Future of Social Security, September 24, 
        1997.
105-9--Addressing Our Long-Term Budget Challenges, October 8, 
        1997.
105-10--Securing America's Future: Preparing the Nation for the 
        21st Century, October 23, 1997.
105-11--The Administration's Fiscal Year 1999 Budget 
        Submission, February 3, 1998.
105-12--CBO Budget Outlook and Analysis of President Clinton's 
        Budget Proposal, February 5, 1998.
105-13--State of the Economy, March 4, 1998.
105-82--Joint Hearing on the Management of the United States 
        Forest Service, March 26, 1998.

                               task force

                     budget process reform hearings

13-1--Converting the Concurrent Budget Resolution Into a Joint 
        Resolution: Should the Budget Be a Law?, March 31, 
        1998.
13-2--Budget Projections and Baselines, April 1, 1998.
13-3--Budgeting of Government Insurance Programs and Contingent 
        Liabilities, April 23, 1998.
13-4--Members' Views on Budget Process Reform, June 18, 1998.
13-5--Budgetary Treatment of Emergencies, June 23, 1998.

                            committee prints

CP-1--Views and Estimates of Committees of the House on the 
        Congressional Budget for Fiscal Year 1998, May 1997.
CP-2--Views and Estimates of Committees of the House on the 
        Congressional Budget for Fiscal Year 1999, April 1998.

              BUDGET COMMITTEE MAJORITY PUBLICATIONS LIST

    These publications were made available to the public by the 
Republican caucus of the Budget Committee but were not 
officially adopted by the committee and therefore may not 
reflect the views of all its members.
1. Background on the Budget--A Briefing Paper on the Budget 
        Process for the 105th Congress. January 8, 1997.
2. Why We Must Pass the Balanced Budget Amendment--[Pocket 
        folder]. January 21, 1997.
3. Helping the President Meet the Budget Credibility Test--
        Criteria for the Administration's Budget Submission for 
        Fiscal Year 1998--[White paper]. February 4, 1997.
4. Helping the President Meet the Budget Credibility Test--
        Criteria for the Administration's Budget Submission for 
        Fiscal Year 1998--[Pocket folder]. February 4, 1997.
5. Balancing the budget--Helping American Families Today and 
        Tomorrow. [An Update on the Budget Environment for the 
        105th Congress] February 5, 1997.
6. The Clinton Budget for Fiscal Year 1998--An Analysis by the 
        House Budget Committee February 5, 1997 [revised 
        February 10, 1997].
7. For America's Families--The Republican Budget Strategy for 
        the 105th Congress. [Slide Show]. February 8, 1997.
8. Cracks in the Clinton Plan--Why the President Should Submit 
        Another Budget. [White Paper]. March 5 1997.
9. Cracks in the Clinton Plan--Why the President Should Submit 
        Another Budget. [Pocket folder]. March 5, 1997.
10. What's at Stake for America's Families--The Budget Debate 
        for Fiscal Year 1998. [A Presentation for Republican 
        House Members by the House Committee on the Budget 
        Majority]. March 19, 1997.
11. Claims Versus the Facts--About the Balanced Budget Plan. 
        [White Paper]. May 7, 1997.
12. The Balanced Budget Plan of 1997--Summary of Major 
        Components of the Agreement Between Congress and the 
        President. May 9, 1997.
13. The Balanced Budget Agreement of 1997--Summary of Major 
        Assumptions. [White Paper]. May 19, 1997.
14. Talking Points on the Balanced Budget Agreement of 1997--
        May 20, 1997.
15. Reconciliation Summary--Fiscal Year 1998--Summary of 
        Provisions as Reported to the House Committee on the 
        Budget. June 18, 1997.
16. Summary of Revenue Reconciliation--Fiscal Year 1998--
        Summary of Provisions as Reported to the House 
        Committee on the Budget. June 18, 1997.
17. Reconciliation Highlights--Summary of Major Provisions 
        Reported to the House Committee on the Budget. June 20, 
        1997.
18. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (H.R. 2015)--Highlights of 
        Provisions as Revised: Incorporating the manager's 
        amendment revisions self-executed in the rule at the 
        request of John R. Kasich, Chairman, House Committee on 
        the Budget. June 25, 1997.
19. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (H.R. 2015)--Summary of 
        Provisions as Revised: Incorporating the manager's 
        amendment revisions self-executed in the rule at the 
        request of John R. Kasich, Chairman, House Committee on 
        the Budget. June 26, 1997.
20. Protecting the Future of Social Security--Background 
        information for Republican Budget Committee members for 
        the hearing on the Chilean Social Security system. 
        September 24, 1997.
21. After Balance, What Next?--Background information for the 
        Budget Committee hearing concerning how to address 
        projected budget surpluses. October 23, 1997.
22. Facing the Challenge of the 21st Century--A series of notes 
        and charts for House Majority Members concerning long-
        term budget challenges. November 3, 1997.
23. Reinventing the Era of Big Government?--Analysis of the 
        President's budget submission for fiscal year 1999. 
        February 3, 1998.
24. The State of the Economy and Related Issues--Background for 
        the committee hearing with Alan Greenspan, Chairman, 
        Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System. March 4, 
        1998.
25. Concurrent Resolution on the Budget--Fiscal Year 1999--
        Report 105-555. May 27, 1998.
26. Shrinking Government So We Can Relieve Families of the 
        Marriage Penalty--[Summary of the House budget 
        resolution for fiscal year 1999]. June 4, 1998.
27. Talking Points on the Budget Resolution for Fiscal Year 
        1999--Republican Members' Packet. June 4, 1998.
28. Whose Budget Policies Have Worked?--[Handout comparing 
        Clinton and Republican budget strategies]. September 
        30, 1998.
29. Our Record Versus the Clinton Rhetoric--[Pocket folder 
        comparing Republican and Clinton records]. October 9, 
        1998.
30. Giving Something Back to America's Families--[Pocket 
        folder]. October 9, 1998.
31. Deficit Time Line--[Pocket folder outlining congressional 
        action toward balancing the budget]. October 9, 1998.
32. Bill Clinton's Balanced Budget Two-Step--[Pocket folder]. 
        October 9, 1998.

              BUDGET COMMITTEE MINORITY PUBLICATIONS LIST

    These publications were made available to the public by the 
Democratic caucus of the Budget Committee but were not 
officially adopted by the committee and therefore may not 
reflect the views of all its members.
1. Summary of President Clinton's FY 1998 Budget--[Short 
        Summary]. February 6, 1997.
2. A Summary of President Clinton's FY 1998 Budget--[Long 
        Summary]. February 10, 1997.
3. Preliminary Summary of the 1998 Budget Agreement--May 4, 
        1997.
4. Summary of the Fiscal Year 1998 House Budget Resolution--May 
        19, 1997.
5. Summary of Chairman Archer's Tax Package--[Briefing Paper]. 
        June 11, 1997.
6. Summary and Analysis of Fiscal Year 1998 Spending 
        Reconciliation Bill--June 23, 1997.
7. Preliminary Summary of the conference Agreement on H.R. 2014 
        Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1997--July 31, 1997.
8. Summary of the Conference Agreement on H.R. 2014, Revenue 
        Reconciliation Act of 1997--[Updated Summary]. August 
        8, 1997.
9. Brief Summary of the Conference Agreement on H.R. 2015 FY 
        1998 Budget Reconciliation Act--[Preliminary Summary]. 
        July 29, 1997.
10. Summary of the Conference Agreement on H.R. 2015, FY 1998 
        Budget Reconciliation Act--September 4, 1997.
11. The Disappearing Deficit: A Democratic Victory--[Background 
        Information]. October 27, 1997.
12. Briefing Paper on Social Security--[Briefing Paper]. 
        November 7, 1997.
13. Summaries of the Budget Process Reform Act (H.R. 1372) and 
        the National Debt Repayment Act (H.R. 2191)--[Materials 
        prepared for Democratic staff briefing on budget 
        process reform]. November 20, 1997.
14. The Budget is Balanced Now!--A Democratic Party Success--
        [Background Information]. January 27, 1998.
15. The Application of Federal Employment Laws to TANF Workfare 
        Activities--[Briefing Paper]. January 28, 1998.
16. Strengths and Weaknesses of Capital Budget Accounting--
        [Testimony by Representative John M. Spratt, Jr. and 
        Richard Kogan before the President's Commission to 
        Study Capital Budgeting]. January 30, 1998.
17. A Preliminary Summary of President Clinton's Fiscal Year 
        1999 Budget--[Short Summary]. February 2, 1998.
18. A Summary of President Clinton's Fiscal Year 1999 Budget--
        [Long Summary]. February 6 1998.
19. The Balanced Budget: A Democratic Victory--[Background 
        Information]. March 5, 1998.
20. Background Information on Taxes--March 20, 1998.
21. Surface Transportation Reauthorization: Budget and Policy 
        Issues--[Briefing Paper]. March 23, 1998.
22. The Budget Situation for Fiscal Year 1999--[Background 
        Information]. March 25, 1998.
23. The Marriage Penalty and Related Proposals--[Briefing 
        Paper]. April 23, 1998.
24. Child Care for American Families--[Briefing Paper]. April 
        29, 1998.
25. Highlights of May 12 Draft Republican Budget Resolution--
        [Briefing Paper]. May 13, 1998.
26. Republican Cuts: Much Deeper Than 1%--[Background Materials 
        on the House Republican Budget Resolution]. May 20, 
        1998.
27. Deep Republican Cuts in Non-Defense Discretionary 
        Spending--[Graphs]. May 20, 1998.
28. Description of Non-Defense Discretionary Cuts--[Background 
        Materials on the House Republican Budget Resolution]. 
        May 20, 1998.
29. The Marriage Penalty and the Republican Budget--[Background 
        Materials on the House Republican Budget Resolution]. 
        May 20, 1998.
30. Summary and Analysis of the House Republican Budget 
        Resolution for Fiscal Year 1999--June 1, 1998.
 31. Summary and Analysis of the Republican II Plan for Fiscal 
        Year 1999--[Long Summary]. June 4, 1998.
32. The Democratic Budget Plan: Summary--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 
        1998.
33. The Democratic Plan vs. the Republican II Plan: Major 
        Differences--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
34. The Republican Budget--Housing Aid is a Broken Promise--
        [Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
35. Highlights of Republican II Entitlement Spending Cuts--
        [Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
36. Republicans Cut and Weaken Education--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 
        1998.
37. Republican Budget Cuts Veterans' Programs--[Fact Sheet]. 
        June 4, 1998.
38. Who Puts Families First? Republican Cuts Hurt Low-Income 
        Working Families--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
39. The Republican Transportation Budget: Paved with Good 
        Intentions?--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
40. The Democratic Budget--Protecting the Health of All 
        Americans--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
41. The Democratic Budget Protects Justice Programs--[Fact 
        Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
42. A $25 Billion Black Hole in the Republican Budget--[Fact 
        Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
43. It's Not Where You Start, It's Where You Finish: Republican 
        Budget Cuts Are Much Deeper Than the Advertised 1 
        Percent--[Fact Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
44. The Democratic Budget Protects the Environment--[Fact 
        Sheet]. June 4, 1998.
45. The Republican Assault on The Environment--[Fact Sheet]. 
        June 4, 1998.
46. Frequently Asked Questions About the Federal Budget, Part 
        I--[Background Information]. June 25, 1998.
47. Republican Delays in Passing a Budget Resolution--
        [Background Information]. July 14, 1998.
48. Overview of the Fiscal Year 1999 Budget Picture--
        [Background Information]. July 15, 1998.
49. Frequently Asked Questions About the Federal Budget, Part 
        II--[Background Information]. July 29, 1998.
50. Student Loan Issues in the Higher Education Act 
        Reauthorization--[Background Information]. August 3, 
        1998.
51. The Budget Surplus: a Democratic Victory--[Background 
        Information]. September 30, 1998.
52. Description of New and Expanded Medicare Benefits--
        [Background Information]. October 8, 1998.