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106th Congress                                            Rept. 106-423
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     Part 1

======================================================================



 
                    TAIWAN SECURITY ENHANCEMENT ACT

                                _______
                                

                October 28, 1999.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Gilman, from the Committee on International Relations, submitted 
                             the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1838]

  The Committee on International Relations, to whom was 
referred the bill (H.R. 1838) to assist in the enhancement of 
the security of Taiwan, and for other purposes, having 
considered the same, report favorably thereon with an amendment 
and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.
    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Taiwan Security Enhancement Act''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

  The Congress finds the following:
          (1) Since 1949, the close relationship between the United 
        States and Taiwan has been of enormous benefit to both 
        societies.
          (2) In recent years, Taiwan has undergone a major political 
        transformation, and Taiwan is today a true multiparty democracy 
        with a political system separate from and totally unlike that 
        of the People's Republic of China.
          (3) The economy of Taiwan is based upon free market 
        principles and is separate and distinct from the People's 
        Republic of China.
          (4) Although on January 1, 1979, the United States Government 
        withdrew diplomatic recognition of the government on Taiwan as 
        the legitimate government of China, neither at that time nor 
        since has the United States Government adopted a formal 
        position as to the ultimate status of Taiwan other than to 
        state that status must be decided by peaceful means. Any 
        determination of the ultimate status of Taiwan must have the 
        express consent of the people on Taiwan.
          (5) The People's Republic of China refuses to renounce the 
        use of force against democratic Taiwan.
          (6) The Taiwan Relations Act has been instrumental in 
        maintaining peace, security, and stability in the Taiwan Strait 
        and the Western Pacific since its enactment in 1979.
          (7) The Taiwan Relations Act (Public Law 96-8) states that--
                  (A) peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait area are 
                in the political, security, and economic interests of 
                the United States and are of international concern;
                  (B) the decision of the United States to establish 
                diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of 
                China rests upon the expectation that the future of 
                Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means;
                  (C) the United States would consider any effort to 
                determine the future of Taiwan by other than peaceful 
                means, including boycotts or embargoes, a threat to the 
                peace and security of the Western Pacific region and of 
                grave concern to the United States;
                  (D) the United States will maintain the capacity to 
                resist any form of coercion that jeopardizes the 
                security, or the social or economic system, of the 
                people of Taiwan; and
                  (E) the preservation and enhancement of the human 
                rights of all people on Taiwan are objectives of the 
                United States.
          (8) The Taiwan Relations Act establishes on the part of the 
        United States a continuing connection with and concern for 
        Taiwan and its people. Continued adherence to the Act will help 
        Taiwan to maintain its democracy free of coercion and to 
        safeguard its people from the use of force against them. 
        Furthermore, the maintenance by Taiwan of forces adequate for 
        its defense is in the interest of the United States in that it 
        helps to maintain peace in the Western Pacific region.
          (9) The military modernization and weapons procurement 
        efforts by the People's Republic of China, as documented in the 
        February 1, 1999, report by the Secretary of Defense on ``The 
        Security Situation in the Taiwan Strait'', could threaten 
        cross-Strait stability and United States interests in the Asia-
        Pacific region.
          (10) The Taiwan Relations Act provides explicit guarantees 
        that the United States will make available defense articles and 
        services necessary in such quantity as may be necessary to 
        enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability.
          (11) The Taiwan Relations Act requires timely reviews by 
        United States military authorities of Taiwan's defense needs in 
        connection with recommendations to the President and the 
        Congress.
          (12) Congress and the President are committed by the Taiwan 
        Relations Act to determine the nature and quantity of Taiwan's 
        legitimate self-defense needs.
          (13) It is the policy of the United States to reject any 
        attempt to curb the provision by the United States of defense 
        articles and services legitimately needed for Taiwan's self-
        defense.
          (14) In accordance with the Taiwan Relations Act, the United 
        States has, since 1979, sold defensive weapons to Taiwan, and 
        such sales have helped Taiwan maintain its autonomy and 
        freedom. The Congress supports the continued provision of 
        additional defense articles and defense services in accordance 
        with the Taiwan Relations Act.
          (15) It is in the national interest of the United States to 
        eliminate ambiguity and convey with clarity continued United 
        States support for Taiwan, its people, and their ability to 
        maintain their democracy free from coercion and their society 
        free from the use of force against them. Lack of clarity could 
        lead to unnecessary misunderstandings or confrontations between 
        the United States and the People's Republic of China, with 
        grave consequences for the security of the Western Pacific 
        region.
          (16) A possible consequence of such ambiguity and lack of 
        clarity was the People's Republic of China's decision to 
        conduct military exercises and live fire missile tests in the 
        Taiwan Strait in March 1996, necessitating House Concurrent 
        Resolution 148, approved by the House of Representatives by a 
        vote of 369-14 on March 19, 1996, and by the Senate by a vote 
        of 97-0 on March 21, 1996, which stated that ``the United 
        States, in accordance with the Taiwan Relations Act and the 
        constitutional process of the United States, and consistent 
        with its friendship with and commitment to the democratic 
        government and people of Taiwan, should assist in defending 
        them against invasion, missile attack, or blockade by the 
        People's Republic of China.''. Immediately following 
        Congressional passage of House Concurrent Resolution 148, the 
        United States deployed on an emergency basis two aircraft 
        carrier battle groups to the Taiwan Strait, after which the 
        People's Republic of China ceased further planned military 
        exercises.
          (17) An earlier consequence of such ambiguity and lack of 
        clarity was the expressed surprise by the People's Republic of 
        China that Congress and the American people fully supported 
        President Lee Teng-hui's private visit to his alma mater, 
        Cornell University, necessitating House Concurrent Resolution 
        53, approved by the House of Representatives by a vote of 390-0 
        on May 2, 1995, and by the Senate by a vote of 97-1 on May 9, 
        1995, which stated such support explicitly.

SEC. 3. TRAINING OF MILITARY OFFICERS AND SALE OF DEFENSE ARTICLES AND 
                    SERVICES TO TAIWAN.

  (a) Training of Taiwan Military Officers.--The Secretary of Defense 
and the Secretaries of the military departments shall make every effort 
to reserve additional positions for Taiwan military officers at the 
National Defense University and other professional military education 
schools specified in section 2162(d) of title 10, United States Code, 
and for prospective Taiwan military officers at the United States 
Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, and the Air Force 
Academy.
  (b) Foreign Military Sales.--The Secretary of State shall, when 
considering foreign military sales to Taiwan--
          (1) take into account the special status of Taiwan, including 
        the defense needs of Taiwan in response to the military 
        modernization and weapons procurement efforts by the People's 
        Republic of China; and
          (2) make every effort to ensure that Taiwan has full and 
        timely access to price and availability data for defense 
        articles and defense services.

SEC. 4. DETERMINATIONS OF DEFENSE NEEDS OF TAIWAN.

  (a) Increase in Technical Staff of the American Institute in 
Taiwan.--Upon the request of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 
the President shall use funds available to the Department of Defense 
under the Arms Export Control Act for the employment of additional 
technical staff at the American Institute in Taiwan.
  (b) Annual Reports.--Beginning 60 days after the next round of arms 
talks between the United States and Taiwan, and annually thereafter, 
the President shall submit a report to Congress, in classified and 
unclassified form--
          (1) detailing each of Taiwan's requests for purchase of 
        defense articles and defense services during the one-year 
        period ending on the date of the report;
          (2) describing the defense needs asserted by Taiwan as 
        justification for those requests; and
          (3) describing the decision-making process used to reject, 
        postpone, or modify any such request.

SEC. 5. STRENGTHENING THE DEFENSE OF TAIWAN.

  (a) Maintenance of Sufficient Self-Defense Capabilities of Taiwan.--
Congress finds that any determination of the nature or quantity of 
defense articles or defense services to be made available to Taiwan 
that is made on any basis other than section 3(b) of the Taiwan 
Relations Act (22 U.S.C. 3302(b)), whether such alternative basis is 
the August 17, 1982, communique signed with the People's Republic of 
China, or any similar executive agreement, order, or policy, would 
violate the intent of Congress in the enactment of such Act.
  (b) Combined Training and Personnel Exchange Programs.--Not later 
than 210 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of 
Defense shall implement a plan for the enhancement of programs and 
arrangements for operational training and exchanges of senior officers 
between the Armed Forces of the United States and the armed forces of 
Taiwan for work in threat analysis, doctrine, force planning, 
operational methods, and other areas. At least 30 days prior to such 
implementation, the Secretary of Defense shall submit the plan to 
Congress, in classified and unclassified form.
  (c) Report Regarding Maintenance of Sufficient Self-Defense 
Capabilities.--Not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, and annually thereafter, the Secretary of Defense shall 
submit to the Congress, in classified and unclassified form, an annual 
report on the security situation in the Taiwan Strait. Such report 
shall include an analysis of the military forces facing Taiwan from the 
People's Republic of China, evaluating recent additions to the 
offensive military capability of the People's Republic of China. The 
report shall include, but not be limited to, an analysis of the surface 
and subsurface naval threats, the ballistic missile threat, the air 
threat, and the threat to the military and civilian communications 
links in Taiwan. The report shall include a review of the steps taken 
by the armed forces of Taiwan to address its security situation.
  (d) Communications Between United States and Taiwan Military 
Commands.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of 
this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall certify to the Committee on 
International Relations and the Committee on Armed Services of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the 
Committee on Armed Services of the Senate that direct secure 
communications exist between the armed forces of the United States and 
the armed forces of Taiwan.
  (e) Relation to Arms Export Control Act.--Nothing in this section 
supersedes or modifies the application of section 36 of the Arms Export 
Control Act to the sale of any defense article or defense service under 
this section.

SEC. 6. REPORT REGARDING THE ABILITY OF THE UNITED STATES TO RESPOND IN 
                    ASIA-PACIFIC CONTINGENCIES THAT INCLUDE TAIWAN.

  (a) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, and updated as appropriate, the Secretary of Defense shall 
prepare and submit to the chairmen and ranking minority members of the 
Committee on International Relations and the Committee on Armed 
Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign 
Relations and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate a report in 
classified and unclassified form on the ability of the United States to 
successfully respond to a major contingency in the Asia-Pacific region 
where United States interests on Taiwan are at risk.
  (b) Contents.--The report described in subsection (a) shall include--
          (1) a description of planning on the national, operational, 
        and tactical levels to respond to, prosecute, and achieve 
        United States strategic objectives with respect to a major 
        contingency described in subsection (a); and
          (2) a description of the confidence level of the Secretary of 
        Defense in United States military capabilities to successfully 
        respond to such a contingency.
  (c) Preparation of Report.--In preparing the report under subsection 
(a), the Secretary of Defense shall use the resources and expertise of 
the relevant unified commands, military departments, the combat support 
agencies, and the defense components of the intelligence community, as 
required, and other such entities within the Department of Defense as 
the Secretary considers necessary.

                         Background and Purpose

    H.R. 1838, the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act, was 
introduced on May 18, 1999, by Mr. DeLay of Texas and 14 other 
original cosponsors. This bill provides assistance in enhancing 
the security of Taiwan, and for other purposes.
    Since the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act (Pub. L. 96-8), the 
United States has been committed to Taiwan's legitimate defense 
needs and a peaceful resolution to the Taiwan question. The 
Taiwan Relations Act declares that ``any effort to determine 
the future of Taiwan by other than peaceful means * * * (is) a 
threat to the peace and security of the Western Pacific area 
and of grave concern to the United States.'' The Act goes on 
further to say that the United States will ``make available to 
Taiwan such defense articles and defense services in such 
quantity as may be necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a 
sufficient self-defense capacity.'' In 1995 and 1996, the 
People's Republic of China (PRC) launched ballistic missiles 
over and around Taiwan in an effort at coercive diplomacy. This 
month in Shanghai, Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji stated that 
sooner or later, the Taiwan question would have to be 
resolved--by force if necessary--because the Chinese people 
would become impatient. This has led to increasing concern 
about the PRC's security policy and intentions towards Taiwan.
    This concern is buttressed by the PRC's robust military 
modernization efforts, especially those weapons systems well-
suited for power projection over Taiwan. China has deployed a 
significant number of short-range ballistic missiles opposite 
Taiwan. The PRC has purchased advanced Russian SU-27 fighters, 
Sovremennyy-class destroyers equipped with the advanced 
surface-to-surface SUNBURN missiles, and KILO-class diesel 
submarines. In addition, Beijing has refused to renounce the 
use of force against Taiwan.
    Many are concerned as well about the Clinton 
Administration's handling of Taiwan policy in general, but 
especially: its unwillingness to sell some defensive weapon 
systems to Taiwan irrespective of China's military advances; 
its talk of a ``strategic partnership'' with Beijing; its 
movement in the direction of Beijing's definition of ``one 
China;'' and the impact these actions have for peace and 
stability across the Taiwan Strait.
    The United States should, without question, continue to 
steadfastly meet its security commitments to Taipei, as 
stipulated in the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act. This means 
assisting Taiwan to maintain the balance of power across the 
Taiwan Strait in the face of the PRC's unprecedented military 
build-up. A failure to meet Taiwan's legitimate defense needs 
will make China's military dominance of the Taiwan Strait a 
reality. An unwillingness to provide for Taiwan's legitimate 
defense needs could: lead to Beijing's misunderstanding of 
American interests; foster perceptions of Taiwanese defense 
vulnerability; increase the likelihood of Chinese 
miscalculation; and ultimately lead to conflict with the United 
States. Ensuring and enhancing Taiwan's ability to defend 
itself increases the prospects for continued peace and 
stability in Northeast Asia, and supports U.S. national 
interests.
    Unfortunately, China continues to refuse to renounce the 
use of force against Taiwan, and Zhu's recent comments make 
that threat all the more ominous. Therefore, the United States 
should continue to meet its security commitments to Taipei 
under the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act. A failure to meet Taiwan's 
legitimate defense needs will make China's military dominance 
of the Taiwan Strait a reality.
    Beijing's perceptions of Taiwan's growing defense 
vulnerability could increase the likelihood of military action 
against the island by the PRC. Enhancing Taiwan's ability to 
defend itself promotes U.S. security interests in the region, 
and may convince China that a peaceful resolution to the Taiwan 
question is the prudent route. Many believe that there is a 
growing threat to that peace and stability from the 
increasingly assertive foreign policy of the PRC towards 
Taiwan.

                            Committee Action

    H.R. 1838, the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act, was 
introduced on May 18, 1999, by Mr. DeLay and 14 original 
cosponsors. It was referred to the Committee on International 
Relations, and in addition to the Committee on Armed Services, 
for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in 
each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within 
the jurisdiction of the committee concerned.
    On September 9, 1999, the bill was referred to the 
Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, which subsequently waived 
consideration of the measure.
    On September 15, 1999, the Subcommittee on Asia and the 
Pacific held a hearing on ``Taiwan, the PRC, and the Taiwan 
Security Enhancement Act''. Testimony was received from the 
following witnesses: The Honorable Craig Thomas, Chairman of 
the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on East Asian and 
Pacific Affairs; Ms. Susan Shirk, Deputy Assistant Security for 
East Asian and Pacific Affairs, U.S. Department of State; Dr. 
Kurt Campbell, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Asia and Pacific 
Affairs, U.S. Department of Defense; The Honorable Caspar 
Weinberger, Chairman, Forbes Magazine; The Honorable R. James 
Woolsey, Partner, Shea and Gardner; and Dr. David M. Lampton, 
Director, Chinese Studies, School of Advanced International 
Studies, Johns Hopkins University.
    The Committee on International Relations marked up the bill 
in open session, pursuant to notice, on October 26, 1999. An 
amendment in the nature of a substitute was offered by Mr. 
Gilman on behalf of himself and Mr. Gejdenson. While the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute was pending, a motion 
by Mr. Lantos to postpone consideration of the bill until 
November 29, 1999, was offered and was not agreed to by a 
record vote of 9 ayes to 30 noes. The amendment in the nature 
of a substitute was subsequently agreed to by voice vote. A 
quorum being present, the Committee then agreed to a motion 
offered by Mr. Burton to report the bill to the House with the 
recommendation that the bill, as amended, do pass, by record 
vote of 32 ayes to 6 noes.

            Record Votes on Amendments and Motion to Report

    Clause (3)(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires that the results of each record vote 
on an amendment or motion to report, together with the names of 
those voting for or against, be printed in the committee 
report.
    The following votes developed during the course of the 
consideration of H.R. 1838:

                           (October 26, 1999)

    Vote No. 1.--on Lantos motion to postpone consideration of 
the bill until November 29, 1999:
    Voting yes: Sanford, Salmon, Houghton, Campbell, Lantos, 
Ackerman, Delahunt, Meeks and Lee.
    Voting no: Gilman, Goodling, Bereuter, Smith, Burton, Ros-
Lehtinen, Ballenger, Rohrabacher, Manzullo, Royce, King, 
Chabot, McHugh, Brady, Burr, Gillmor, Radanovich, Cooksey, 
Tancredo, Gejdenson, Berman, Brown, Hastings, Danner, Sherman, 
Wexler, Rothman, Davis, Crowley and Hoeffel.
    Total: 9 ayes, 30 noes.

    Vote No. 2.--Burton motion to report H.R. 1838, as amended, 
favorably to the House:
    Voting yes: Gilman, Goodling, Bereuter, Smith, Burton, Ros-
Lehtinen, Ballenger, Rohrabacher, Manzullo, Royce, King, 
Chabot, Sanford, Campbell, McHugh, Brady, Burr, Gillmor, 
Radanovich, Cooksey, Tancredo, Gejdenson, Ackerman, Brown, 
Danner, Sherman, Wexler, Rothman, Davis, Meeks, Crowley and 
Hoeffel.
    Voting no: Salmon, Houghton, Lantos, Hastings, Delahunt and 
Lee.
    Total: 32 ayes, 6 noes.

                             Other Matters


                      committee oversight findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee reports the 
findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the 
descriptive portions of this report.

                committee on government reform findings

    Clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each committee report to contain a 
summary of the oversight findings and recommendations made by 
the Government Reform Committee pursuant to clause (4)(c)(2) of 
rule X of those Rules. The Committee on International Relations 
has received no such findings or recommendations from the 
Committee on Government Reform.

                      advisory committee statement

    No advisory committees within the meaning of section 5(b) 
of the Federal Advisory Committee Act were created by this 
legislation.

                applicability to the legislative branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act.

                   constitutional authority statement

    In compliance with clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee cites the 
following specific powers granted to the Congress in the 
Constitution as authority for enactment of H.R. 1838 as 
reported by the Committee: Article I, section 8, clause 1 
(relating to providing for the common defense and general 
welfare of the United States); and Article I, section 8, clause 
18 (relating to making all laws necessary and proper for 
carrying into execution powers vested by the Constitution in 
the government of the United States).

                        preemption clarification

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 
requires the report of any committee on a bill or joint 
resolution to include a committee statement on the extent to 
which the bill or joint resolution is intended to preempt state 
or local law. The Committee states that H.R. 1838 is not 
intended to preempt any state or local law.

                      section-by-section analysis

Section 1. Short title

    Provides that the Act may be cited as the ``Taiwan Security 
Enhancement Act''.

Section 2. Findings

    Sets forth findings with respect to relations between and 
among the United States, the People's Republic of China, and 
Taiwan.

Section 3. Training of military officers and sale of defense articles 
        and services to Taiwan

    Directs the Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the 
military departments to make every effort to reserve additional 
positions for Taiwan military officers at the National Defense 
University and other professional military education schools, 
and for prospective Taiwan military officers at the three U.S. 
military academies.
    Directs the Secretary of Defense, when considering foreign 
military sales to Taiwan, to take into account the special 
status of Taiwan, including Taiwan's defense needs in light of 
the military modernization and weapons procurement efforts of 
the People's Republic of China, and to make every effort to 
ensure that Taiwan has full and timely access to price and 
availability data for defense articles and services.

Section 4. Determinations of defense needs of Taiwan

    Directs the President to use funds available to the 
Department of Defense under the Arms Export Control Act to 
employ additional technical staff at the American Institute in 
Taiwan upon the request of the Defense Security Cooperation 
Agency.
    Requires the President to submit an annual report to 
Congress detailing each of Taiwan's requests for purchase of 
defense articles and services during the one-year period ending 
on the date of the report, describing the defense needs 
asserted by Taiwan as justification for those requests, and 
describing the decision-making process used to reject, 
postpone, or modify any such request. The first report under 
this section is to be submitted 60 days after the conclusion of 
the next round of arms talks between Taiwan and the United 
States, and annually thereafter. Such reports are to be 
submitted in classified and unclassified form. As used in this 
section the term ``next round of arms talks between Taiwan and 
the United States'' refers to the annual dialogue between the 
United States and Taiwan, typically beginning in November and 
concluding in April, regarding potential arms sales to Taiwan. 
The Committee intends for the term ``requests for purchase of 
defense articles and defense services'' to encompass not only 
formal written or oral requests for the purchase of defense 
articles or defense services, but also instances in which 
Taiwanese officials make a seemingly hypothetical inquiry 
regarding whether a particular article or service, if formally 
requested for purchase, would be approved for sale to Taiwan by 
the United States.

Section 5. Strengthening the defense of Taiwan

    States that any determination of the nature or quantity of 
defense articles or defense services to be made available to 
Taiwan that is made on any basis other than section 3(b) of the 
Taiwan Relations Act would violate the intent of Congress in 
the enactment of such Act, irrespective of whether such 
alternative basis is the August 17, 1982, communique signed 
with the People's Republic of China, or any similar executive 
agreement, order, or policy.
    Directs the Secretary of Defense to implement a plan for 
the enhancement of programs and arrangements for operational 
training and exchanges of senior officers between the armed 
forces of the United States and the armed forces of Taiwan, for 
work in threat analysis, doctrine, force planning, operational 
methods, and other areas. Such implementation shall take place 
not later than 210 days after the date of enactment. At least 
30 days prior to such implementation, the Secretary of Defense 
shall submit the plan to Congress in classified and 
unclassified form.
    Requires the Secretary of Defense to submit a report to 
Congress no later than 45 days after the date of enactment, and 
annually thereafter, on the security situation in the Taiwan 
Strait. Such reports shall be submitted in classified and 
unclassified form.
    Requires the Secretary of Defense to certify to specified 
Committees of Congress not later than 180 days after the date 
of enactment that direct secure communications exist between 
the armed forces of the United States and the armed forces of 
Taiwan. As used in this section, the term ``direct secure 
communications'' refers to the capability to instantaneously 
pass information directly back and forth between the armed 
forces of the United States and of Taiwan, secure from 
interception by other parties, in a manner that will permit 
coordination between the two armed forces in the event of a 
crisis.

Section 6. Report regarding the ability of the United States to respond 
        in Asia-Pacific contingencies that include Taiwan

    Requires the Secretary of Defense to prepare and submit to 
specified Committees of Congress a report on the ability of the 
United States to respond successfully to a major contingency in 
the Asia-Pacific region where United States interests in Taiwan 
are at risk. The report shall be submitted not later than 180 
days after the date of enactment and shall be updated as 
appropriate. The report shall be submitted in classified and 
unclassified form.