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                                                       Calendar No. 915
106th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session                                                     106-467

======================================================================



 
 AMENDING THE NATIVE AMERICAN LANGUAGES ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE SUPPORT 
  OF NATIVE AMERICAN LANGUAGE SURVIVAL SCHOOLS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

                                _______
                                

October 3 (legislative day, September 22), 2000.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Campbell, from the Committee on Indian Affairs, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 2688]

    The Committee on Indian Affairs, to which was referred the 
bill (S. 2688) to amend the Native American Languages Act to 
provide for the support of Native American Language Survival 
Schools, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
reports favorably thereon with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute and recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass.

                                Purpose

    The purpose of S. 2688, the Native American Languages Act 
Amendments Act of 2000, is to encourage and support development 
of Native American Language Survival Schools and Native 
American Language Nests to support revitalization of Native 
American languages and to address the effects of past 
discrimination against Native American language speakers.

                          Background and Need

    After the American Civil War, President Ulysses S. Grant 
appointed Peace Commissioners to bring an end to the Indian 
wars. The 1868 Report of the Indian Peace Commissioners 
concluded the following:

         Now, by educating the children of these tribes in the 
        English language these differences would have 
        disappeared, and civilization would have followed at 
        once. * * * Through sameness of language is produced 
        sameness of sentiment, and thought; customs and habits 
        are molded and assimilated in the same way, and thus in 
        process of time the differences producing trouble would 
        have been gradually obliterated. * * * In the 
        difference of language today lies two-thirds of our 
        trouble. * * * Schools should be established, which 
        children should be required to attend; their barbarous 
        dialect should be blotted out and the English language 
        substituted.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Reyhner, Jon. (1996). Rationale and Needs for Stabilizing 
Indigenous Languages. In G. Cantoni (Ed.), Stabilizing Indigenous 
Languages. Flagstaff: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern 
Arizona University.

    As recommended by the Peace Commissioners, a system of off-
reservation boarding schools was initiated in the 1880s as part 
of the United States' forced assimilation policies towards 
Native Americans. Native American children were forcibly taken 
from their families, transported hundreds of miles to schools 
where their hair was cut, notwithstanding the religious 
importance of hair length in most native cultures, their 
clothes were replaced with military-style uniforms, and they 
were forbidden to speak their native languages or practice 
their religions. Although this effort to eradicate Indian 
culture was not successful, it did separate several generations 
of Native Americans from their native languages.
    Over the years, Federal Indian policy has vacillated 
between the assimilationist sentiment reflected in the 1868 
Report of the Indian Peace Commissioners and self-determination 
at the other end of the spectrum. The most recent shift to the 
self-determination policy came in the late 1960's with the end 
of the Termination Era, a time in which Federal policy sought 
the termination of Indian reservations as well as the 
termination of the United States' relationship with Indian 
tribal governments. Since then, Native American communities 
have begun to rebuild what the Federal government attempted to 
destroy by establishing schools where Native American children 
are taught all subjects in their native language. Native 
American language immersion schooling in the United States was 
pioneered by Native Hawaiians with the formation of the `Aha 
Punana Leo (Language Nest) in 1983, following the Maoir 
language nest model of New Zealand.
    At the request of the Native American Language Issues 
Institute, Senator Inouye introduced legislation that was to 
become the Native American Languages Act of 1990. The Act 
officially repudiated the policies of the past and declared 
that ``it is the policy of the United States to preserve, 
protect, and promote the rights and freedom of Native Americans 
to use, practice, and develop Native American languages.'' 
Although this was an important step towards assuring the 
preservation and revitalization of Native American languages, 
the Act did not dedicate any financial resources to the effort.
    Despite the lack of funds allocated to implement the new 
policy, the National Park Service (NPS) awarded Historic 
Preservation Fund Grants to Federally-recognized tribes under 
the authority of the National Historic Preservation Act of 
1966. The purpose of the grants was to support Native American 
language retention and revitalization. Between Fiscal Years 
1990 and 1994, NPS awarded 49 grants for a total amount of 
$1,474,900. Although NPS still awards Historic Preservation 
Fund Grants for projects such as cultural resource inventories, 
ethnobotany surveys, and oral history documentation, Native 
American language retention and revitalization projects are no 
longer funded.
    The Committee on Indian Affairs moved to address the lack 
of resources with the passage of the Native American Languages 
Act of 1992. The Act amended the Native American Programs Act 
of 1974 to establish a grant program under the Department of 
Health and Human Services' Administration for Native Americans 
(ANA) to support Native American language projects. Since 1994, 
the ANA has awarded grants for the purpose of assisting Native 
Americans in assuring the survival and continuing vitality of 
their languages. Grants are provided under two categories: 
Category I Planning Grants are used to conduct the assessment 
and planning needed to identify the current status of the 
Native American language(s) to be addressed and to establish 
long-range community language goals; Category II Design and/or 
Implementation Grants enable communities to design and/or 
implement a language program or programs that will contribute 
to the achievement of the community's long-range language 
goal(s). Between Fiscal Years 1994 and 2000, ANA awarded 166 
grants for a total amount of $13,740,084. During this same time 
period, the total number of applicants was 737 and the total 
amount sought by applicants was $63,629,144.
    With the help of ANA funding, private institutions, and 
sometimes with no assistance other than the dedication of 
volunteers, Native American communities across the United 
States have struggled to establish schools that will provide 
instruction to their children in their native language and in a 
manner that respects their culture. Today, in addition to the 
Native Hawaiian schools, Native American language immersion 
schools have been established by the Navajo Nation, the 
Mississippi Bank of Choctaw, the Mohawk, Northern Arapaho, and 
Blackfeet tribes, the Yup'ik Eskimos of Alaska, various 
California tribes, and the Cochiti Pueblo.
    At the request of linguists, parents and teachers involved 
in Native American language schools, Senator Inouye introduced 
S. 2688 to address the need for more funding directed 
specifically at providing support for Native American language 
schools. The areas of complement between the ANA grant program 
and the S. 2688 grant program include language documentation, 
teacher, staff and community training, and curriculum 
development. Activities ANA does not fund, that the S. 2688 
program would authorize funding for, include:
           instruction of students through the use of a 
        Native American language;
           school administration costs;
           rental, lease, purchase, construction, 
        maintenance or repair of educational facilities;
           conferences for Native American language 
        school teachers and school administrators;
           educational exchange among Native American 
        language teachers and school administrators (e.g., 
        cross-training);
           establishment of three demonstration 
        programs that will provide assistance to Native 
        American Language Nests and Survival Schools;
           followup data collection and analysis on 
        students;
           transportation, purchase of basic materials, 
        boarding and food services for enrolled students;
           full or partial scholarships and fellowships 
        to colleges and universities for the professional 
        development of faculty and staff or parents of enrolled 
        students; and
           activities to revive languages that are 
        being lost or have been lost because of the lack or 
        absence of native language speakers.
    It is important to note that Native American language 
schools are eligible for grants under the Bilingual Education 
Act, but the main purpose of bilingual education programs is to 
help students master English. Although these programs serve 
Native American populations, the Act does not recognize the 
need to, or importance of, supporting the survival of Native 
American languages.
    Similarly, there is Federal funding available to support 
teaching Native American languages as foreign languages. 
Although this funding supports cultural enrichment, teaching a 
Native American language in the same way that a foreign 
language is taught generally does not produce fluent speakers, 
much less allow the language to survive or reestablish inter-
generational transmission.

                          Legislative History

    S. 2688 was introduced on June 7, 2000 by Senator Inouye 
for himself and Senators Akaka, Cochran, Dodd, Kennedy, Murray, 
and Schumer. Senators Boxer, Bryan, Campbell, Daschle, and Reid 
were later added as cosponsors. The bill was referred to the 
Committee on Indian Affairs. On July 20, 2000, the Committee 
held a hearing on S. 2688, at which representatives of the 
Administration, Native American language schools, and linguists 
testified in support of the bill.

            Committee Recommendation and Tabulation of Vote

    The Committee on Indian Affairs, in an open business 
session on September 27, 2000, adopted an amendment-in-the-
nature-of-a-substitute to S. 2688 by voice vote and ordered the 
bill, as amended, reported favorably to the Senate.

                          Substitute Amendment

    S. 2688, as amended and reported by the Committee on Indian 
Affairs on September 27, 2000, would establish a grant program 
to be administered by the U.S. Department of Education to 
support the development of Native American Language Nests and 
Native American Language Survival Schools. Grants are 
authorized to establish Native American Language Nest programs 
that would provide instruction and child care for students 
under the age of 7 through the use of a Native American 
language. S. 2688 authorizes funds to support the development 
of Native American Language Survival Schools to provide 
instruction through the use of a Native American language or 
languages for students from infancy through grade 12. In 
addition, the bill authorizes the establishment of three 
demonstration programs that will provide assistance to Native 
American Language Nests and Native American Language Survival 
Schools.
    At the July 20, 2000, hearing on S. 2688, several concerns 
regarding the bill were expressed by witnesses. Below is a 
brief discussion of the concerns that were raised and how those 
concerns are addressed in the substitute amendment.
    The Administration's testimony expressed concern regarding 
four areas: (1) English fluency and academic success, (2) the 
requirement that students of Native American Language Survival 
Schools achieve fluency in a Native American language within 3 
years of enrollment, (3) school finance and governance, and (4) 
research and evaluation.
    The Committee agrees that English fluency is important to 
the future success of Native American students, however, as 
illustrated in the testimony of several hearing witnesses, 
Native American language immersion schools in no way threaten a 
student's acquisition of English. On the contrary, the research 
indicates that immersion students perform better on achievement 
measures--including standardized assessments of English--than 
students in English-only classrooms, as discussed in Dr. Teresa 
McCarty's testimony.
    Native American students have the highest school failure 
and dropout rates in the nation and are heavily over 
represented in special education programs. The current methods 
of educating Native American children are not working. As 
stated by Dr. McCarty, ``* * * the proposed amendments are not 
about saving indigenous languages as if they were endangered 
species. These amendments are about building the intellectual 
and social-linguistic abilities of indigenous children in ways 
that strengthen them, their families and communities.'' The 
amendment-in-the-nature-of-a-substitute to S. 2688 adopted by 
the Committee states that one of the purposes of the bill is to 
``demonstrate the positive effects of Native American Language 
Survival Schools on the academic success of Native American 
students and their mastery of standard English.''
    The concern of the Administration and witnesses to the 
bill's requirement that students of Native American Language 
Survival Schools achieve fluency in a Native American language 
within 3 years of enrollment stemmed from a confusion over the 
interpretation of the term ``fluency.'' The Committee has 
addressed this concern by including language in the amendment-
in-the-nature-of-a-substitute, which states that Native 
American Language Survival Schools must ``ensure that within 3 
years of enrollment, all students achieve functional fluency 
appropriate to the unique circumstances and endangerment status 
of the Native American language with the ultimate goal of 
academic or cognitive fluency.''
    The Administration's concerns regarding school finance and 
governance included the types of schools that would be eligible 
to receive funding under the proposed legislation. The 
amendment-in-the-nature-of-a-substitute includes public schools 
under the definition of ``Native American Language Educational 
Organization,'' thereby making public schools eligible to 
receive funding.
    The Administration and other witnesses suggested the 
addition of a research and evaluation component to the bill. 
The amendment-in-the-nature-of-a-substitute authorizes the 
demonstration programs to ``conduct followup data collection 
and analysis on students while they are in school to assess how 
Survival School students are performing in comparison to other 
students, as well as identify instructional methods that are 
working and those methods which may not be working.'' In 
addition, the results of this research will be widely 
disseminated through the national clearinghouse that would be 
created by the demonstration programs.

        Section-by-Section Analysis of the Substitute Amendment


Sec. 1. Short title

    S. 2688 may be cited as the Native American Languages Act 
Amendments Act of 2000.

Sec. 2. Purpose

    The purpose of the bill is to encourage and support 
development of Native American Language Survival Schools and 
Native American Language Nests to address the effects of past 
discrimination against Native American language speakers and to 
support revitalization of such languages. In addition, the bill 
seeks to demonstrate the positive effects of Native American 
Language Survival Schools on the academic success of Native 
American students and their mastery of standard English; to 
encourage family involvement in the Native American Language 
Survival Schools; to encourage educational exchange among 
Native American Language Survival Schools; to provide support 
for Native American Language Survival School facilities and 
endowments; to support the development of local and national 
models for teaching Native American students; and to develop a 
support center system for Native American Survival Schools at 
the university level.

Sec. 3. Definitions

    This section contains definitions for the following terms: 
Indian, Indian tribal government, Indian tribe, Indian 
reservation, Native American, Native American language, Native 
American Language College, Native American Language Educational 
Organization, Native American Language Nest, Native American 
Language Survival School, Native American Pacific Islander, 
Native Hawaiian, Secretary, traditional leaders, and tribal 
organization.

Sec. 4. Native American language nests and survival schools

    This section of the bill amends the Native American 
Languages Act by adding the following new sections:

Sec. 108. Native American language nests

    This section authorizes funds to establish Native American 
Language Nest programs for students under the age of 7 and 
their families. Native American Language Nest programs must 
provide instruction and child care through the use of a Native 
American language for at least 10 children for at least 700 
hours per year per student; provide compulsory classes in a 
Native American language for parents of enrolled students; 
provide compulsory monthly meetings for parents and other 
family members of enrolled students; provide a preference in 
enrollment for students and families who are fluent in a Native 
American language; receive at least 5% of its funding from 
another source, which may include Federal-funded programs, such 
as Head Start; and ensure that a Native American language 
becomes the dominant medium of instruction within a period of 
six years of funding under this Act.

Sec. 109. Native American language survival schools

    This section authorizes funds to operate, expand, and 
increase Native American Language Survival Schools for Native 
American children and Native American language-speaking 
children. In order to receive funds, eligible organizations 
must have at least three years experience in operating and 
administering a Native American Language Survival School, a 
Native American Language Nest, or other educational programs in 
which instruction is conducted in a Native American language; 
and include students who are subject to State compulsory 
education laws; and may include students from infancy through 
grade 12, as well as their families.
    In order to receive funding, Native American Language 
Survival Schools must provide not less than 700 hours of 
instruction per student conducted annually through a Native 
American language or languages for at least 15 students who do 
not regularly attend another school; provide direct educational 
services and school support services such as transportation and 
food service; provide direct or indirect educational and 
support services for the families of enrolled students; and 
ensure that students who are not Native American language 
speakers achieve functional fluency in a Native American 
language within 3 years of enrollment. In addition, funds may 
be used for curriculum development and community language uses 
development; teacher, staff and community resource development; 
and rental, lease, purchase, construction, maintenance or 
repair of educational facilities.

Sec. 110. Assistance

    This section authorizes the establishment of three 
demonstration programs that will provide assistance to Native 
American Language Survival Schools and Native American Language 
Nests. The three demonstration programs are the Native Language 
College of the University of Hawaii at Hilo, the Alaska Native 
Language Center of the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and 
the Piegan Institute in Browning, Montana.

Sec. 111. Authorization of appropriations

    This section authorizes the appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary to carry out the activities authorized under 
the Act for fiscal years 2001 through 2006.

                   Cost and Budgetary Considerations

    The cost estimate for S. 2688, as amended, as provided by 
the Congressional Budget Office, is set forth below:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                Washington, DC, September 29, 2000.
Hon. Ben Nighthorse Campbell,
Chairman, Committee on Indian Affairs,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 2688, the Native 
American Language Act Amendments Act of 2000.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Deborah 
Kalcevic.
            Sincerely,
                                          Barry B. Anderson
                                    (For Dan L. Crippen, Director).
    Enclosure.

S. 2688--Native American Language Act Amendments Act of 2000

    Summary: S. 2688 would authorize the appropriation of such 
sums as may be necessary for a new grant program for native 
language schools and related programs for Native Americans. The 
grants would be authorized through 2006, administered by the 
Secretary of Education, and subject to the availability of 
appropriated funds. Assuming appropriation of the necessary 
amounts, CBO estimates that spending to implement the bill 
would total about $43 million over the 2001-2005 period. S. 
2688 would not affect direct spending or receipts, so pay-as-
you-go procedures would not apply to the bill.
    S. 2688 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state or local governments. 
Implementing this bill would benefit tribal governments, and 
any resulting costs to those governments would be incurred 
voluntarily.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of S. 2688 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 500 
(education, employment training, and social services).

                                TABLE 1.--ESTIMATED BUDGETARY EFFECTS OF S. 2688
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--

                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                                                                   2000    2001    2002    2003    2004    2005
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Estimated Authorization Level...................................       0       7       8      12      18      23
Estimated Outlays...............................................       0       1       6       8      12      17
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis if estimate: For the purposes of this estimate, CBO 
assumes that S. 2688 will be enacted early in October 2000 and 
that the funds necessary to implement the bill will be 
appropriated by early in each fiscal year. Estimated outlays 
reflect the spending rates of other Indian education grant 
programs of the Department of Education.
    This bill would authorize such sums as may be necessary for 
fiscal years 2001 through 2006 for federal grants to Native 
American organizations for the purpose of operating Native 
American language survival schools and Native American language 
nests. The language survival schools enroll children eligible 
for elementary or secondary education and use the native 
language as the dominant language for instruction. To be 
eligible for funds, a school would have to have at least three 
years of experience in operating a program in which the 
instruction is conducted in the native language, and the 
program would have to provide for a minimum of 700 hours of 
instruction per student annually for at least 15 students. As 
defined by the bill, Native American language nests would be 
full-time programs targeted at children below the age of seven, 
in which native language and culture would be taught and 
supporting services to their families would be provided. To be 
eligible for funding, nests would have to enroll at least 10 
children and provide at least 5 percent of the operating funds 
from other sources, including other federal grants. The bill 
would also authorize demonstration grants for three entities to 
assist Native American organizations with the establishment of 
language survival schools and nests. Those organizations are 
the Ka Haka `Ula O Ke`elikolani College of the University of 
Hawaii at Hilo in consortium with the `Aha Punana Leo, Inc., 
the Alaska Native Language Center of the University of Alaska 
at Fairbanks, and the Piegan Institute of Browning, Montana.
    The purposes and uses of the funds authorized by this bill 
are very broadly defined; thus, the costs are difficult to 
estimate. CBO used data obtained from the Department of 
Education and various Native American organizations currently 
involved in similar programs to estimate the potential cost of 
the bill.
    CBO estimates that implementing this bill would require 
appropriations of $7 million in 2001 and $67 million over the 
2001-2005 period. As many as 10 language survival schools could 
meet the three-year requirement today, and as many as 40 
schools are in various stages of formation. CBO assumes that 
the existing schools would participate beginning in 2001. 
Participation by new schools would be phased in slowly, and CBO 
assumes that the additional 40 schools would participate with 
at least one operational classroom by 2006, the last year of 
the authorization. CBO further assumes that the bill would 
cover the current operating budgets of these schools. Based on 
information for the current schools, the language survival 
schools are assumed to be small, serve fewer than 100 children 
each, and have annual costs of about $250,000 when fully 
operational.
    Few Native American language nest programs exist today. CBO 
assumes that, by the end of the authorization period, about 
one-third of all of the 185 federally-recognized Native 
American tribal organizations and the Native Hawaiian 
organizations would establish a nest program serving about 30 
children and their parents. Based upon data for similar 
existing programs, the annual costs per nest are expected to 
total about $250,000.
    S. 2688 would also authorize funds for three demonstration 
programs. Based on information from the three entities, CBO 
estimates that the cost of these grants would be $3 million in 
2001, including about $1 million in one-time expenses. After 
2001, annual costs would be $2 million to $3 million annually.
    Pay-as-you-go considerations: None
    Estimated impact on state, local, and tribal governments: 
S. 2688 contains no intergovernmental mandates as defined in 
UMRA and would impose no costs on state or local governments. 
CBO estimates that tribal organizations would receive $43 
million over the next five years to support tribal schools 
providing instruction using Native American languages. Any 
costs associated with receipt of those funds would be incurred 
voluntarily.
    Estimated impact on the private sector: S. 2688 contains no 
private-sector mandates as defined on UMRA.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Deborah Kalcevic. 
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Susan Sieg 
Tompkins. Impact on the Private Sector: Nabeel Alsalam.
    Estimate approved by: Robert A. Sunshine, Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                      Regulatory Impact Statement

    Paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of the 
Senate requires each report accompanying a bill to evaluate the 
regulatory and paperwork impact that would be incurred in 
carrying out the bill, S. 2688, as amended. The Committee finds 
that the regulatory impact of S. 2688, as amended, will be 
minimal.

                        Executive Communications

    The Committee received the statement of the Honorable Mike 
Cohen, Assistant Secretary of Elementary and Secondary 
Education, Department of Education, on July 20, 2000, regarding 
S. 2688.

   Statement of Michael Cohen, Assistant Secretary of Education for 
      Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education

    Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee for the 
opportunity to testify before you today. I am pleased to be 
here to discuss the importance of preserving Native American 
Languages and the Administration's views on S. 2688, the Native 
American Languages Act Amendments Act of 2000.
    Preserving Native American languages is important for many 
reasons, including the contribution this can make to improving 
education for Native American students. Overall, the education 
performance of Native American students lags significantly 
behind the performance of their peers nationwide. Only 48 
percent of American Indian fourth graders scored ``at or above 
the basic level'' on the 1994 NAEP reading assessment, as 
compared to 60 percent of all fourth graders nationwide. Low 
achievement levels, in turn, are matched by high dropout rates. 
The annual high school dropout rate for American Indian 
teenagers (5.9 percent) in 1996-7 was nearly twice the national 
average (3.2 percent).
    The achievement gap that exists between Native American and 
non-Native American students is influenced by a number of 
factors, including inadequate school resources, high rates of 
family poverty, and high student absenteeism. In addition, 
Native American cultures and languages are often undervalued in 
schools serving Native American students, causing these young 
people to feel disconnected from their heritage. We know from 
research and experience that individuals who are strongly 
rooted in their past--who know where they come from--are often 
best equipped to face the future.
    That is why preserving Native American languages is so 
crucial--to better connect Native American students to their 
own past, and to help better prepare them for a future in which 
education and learning are more important than ever.
    As you know, U.S. Education Secretary Richard W. Riley has 
proposed expanding the number of schools that enable students 
to be educated in English and their native language, otherwise 
know as dual language schools. In a speech this past March, 
Secretary Riley called for increasing the number of dual 
language schools from 260 today to 1,000 by the year 2005.
    The Clinton Administration has been a strong supporter of 
improving educational opportunities for all Americans, and 
Native American students in particular. In fiscal year 2001, 
President Clinton requested $1.2 billion dollars in additional 
funding for new and existing programs across the Federal 
government designed to serve Native-Americans.
    I am extremely pleased that the Senate--through its current 
appropriations bill--has proposed funding levels for three 
Administration program priorities that are identical to amounts 
requested in the president's 2001 budget: Indian Education 
Grants to Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) ($92.8 million), 
the American Indian Teacher Corps ($10 million), and a new 
American Indian Administrator Corps ($5 million). The 
Administration is encouraged that the House has matched your 
commitment level for grants to LEAs and the Teacher Corps, and 
hope that they will provide funding for the new Administrator 
Corps program.
    President Clinton has also proposed $1.3 billion for a new 
School Renovation Loan and Grant program, which includes $50 
million targeted directly to Impact Aid school districts that 
have at least 50 percent of their children residing on Indian 
lands. Unfortunately, both the House and Senate bills reported 
out of the Appropriations Committee this may provide no funding 
for this initiative. The Senate bill potentially does allocate 
some funding that could be used for school modernization and 
repairs, which is a step in the right direction. However, the 
Senate bill would consolidate under a block grant two of our 
most important national priorities--school construction and 
class size reduction--with no assurances that the funds would 
be used for either purpose.
    In addition, the Administration has proposed $460 million 
for the Bilingual Education programs funded under Title VII of 
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Many Title 
VII grantees provide educational services to schools serving 
Native American students. The Senate and House levels for Title 
VII fall $17 million and $54 million below the President's 
request, respectively. We look forward to working with members 
of this Committee and others in Congress to secure funding for 
these and other crucial programs for Native American students.


               the challenge: preserving native languages


    American Indians, Alaskan Natives, Native Hawaiians, and 
Native American Pacific Islanders are faced with the growing 
challenge of preventing the loss of their native languages. 
Michael Krauss of the Linguistic Society of America estimates 
that of the 175 indigenous languages still spoken in the United 
States, ninety percent are at-risk of extinction. For example, 
of the 20 native languages still spoken in Alaska, only Central 
Yupik and St. Lawrence Island Yupik are being passed on to the 
next generation.
    Many of those languages not currently seen by linguists to 
be in immediate danger of extinction are projected to reach 
this status in the future. Even among the Navajo tribe, the 
single largest American Indian community in the United States, 
the number of tribal members who speak Navajo is decreasing 
annually. According to U.S. Census data, the number of Navajos 
living on their reservation--age five or older--who speak only 
English nearly doubled between 1980 (7.2 percent) and 1990 
(15.0 percent).
    In the past, the Federal government promoted policies that 
worked to undermine the survival of Native American languages. 
Starting in the 1880s, many Native Americans were educated in 
schools where they were punished for speaking their native 
language. Albert Kneale--a teacher at a Native American 
boarding school in the early 1900s--explained that in the 
schools, ``children were taught to despise every custom of 
their forefathers, including religion, language, songs, dress, 
ideas, (and) methods of living.'' In a recent interview, one 
elderly Native American woman--Celene Not Help Him--recalled 
the punishment she received for speaking in her native language 
as a schoolgirl in the 1930s: ``We talk Indian in the 
classroom, they'll * * * bend a ruler and hit you in the 
mouth.'' Unfortunately, we are still living with the 
consequences of these policies.
    However, more recently, Congress has established a 
government grant policy aimed at preventing further Native 
American language extinction. The Native American Language Act 
of 1990 declared it ``the official policy of the United States 
government to preserve, protect, and promote the rights and 
freedom of Native Americans to use, practice, and develop 
Native languages.''
    The Native American Languages Act was amended in 1992 to 
establish a grant program under the Department of Health and 
Human Services (HHS) to support native language projects. The 
Administration for Native Americans (ANA)--part of HHS--has 
funded grants to tribal governments and Native Hawaiian groups 
since 1994. ANA funds projects in language immersion, 
curriculum development, and development of language 
dictionaries and CD-ROMS. Since 1994, ANA has funded 166 awards 
for a total of $12.1 million.
    The Department of Education has also provided funding to 
strengthen students' native language skills under our Bilingual 
Education Program. The statutory language in Title VII of ESEA 
currently supports funding for bilingual education programs 
that ``may also develop the native language skills of limited 
English proficient students, or ancestral languages of American 
Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and the residents of 
the outlying areas.''
    Currently, 64 separate Title VII grants provide over $6 
million in funding annually to schools and school districts 
serving American Indians, Alaskan Natives, Native Hawaiians, 
and Native American Pacific Islanders.
    Through a Title VII grant, the Department of Education has 
provided funding for a professional development, distance-
learning project based at Northern Arizona University in 
Flagstaff involving seven Navajo Nation school districts. 
Through this Title VII Teacher and Personnel grant, university 
faculty, masters fellows, and mentor K-12 teachers are 
collaborating over a five-year period to increase the ability 
of Navajo teachers to provide high-quality education to Native 
American students.
    In addition, the Department of Education has provided 
nearly $800,000 in FY1999 and FY2000 through the Native 
Hawaiian Education Act (ESEA, Title IX, Part B) for the 
development of K-12 audio-visual and computer curricula for the 
statewide Hawaiian Medium education program. The videos 
developed through this grant cover topics such as grammar, and 
cultural traditions, while one of the CDs is a compilation of 
Native Hawaiian songs. The grant was awarded to Aha Punana Leo, 
Inc., in Hawaii, one of the organizations testifying before 
this committee today.
    The Education Department's Public Charter Schools program, 
which helps finance the design and start-up of more than 100 
charter schools nationwide, has also helped promote education 
in Native American language and culture. Located on the Navajo 
Nation, the Tolani Elementary School will receive $300,000 in 
funding over a two-year period beginning in FY2000 to support a 
learning environment grounded in traditional Navajo culture. 
Classes in Navajo language and culture will be offered at each 
grade level. Community leaders will serve as tutors, mentors, 
and counselors for the students in this predominantly Navajo 
school.


                      specific comments on s. 2688


    Despite these important efforts, there is still more to be 
done. That is why we support the goal and intent of the 
proposed Native American Language Act Amendments Act of 2000, 
as well as the overall approach of providing funding to schools 
that will intensively educate students in Native American 
languages. However, there are some areas of S. 2688 that are 
problematic and could, we believe, be strengthened. We look 
forward to working with this committee in attempt to address 
these issues. Let me briefly discuss some of the chief 
concerns.
    Instruction in Native languages and English, and High 
Standards. The Native American Language Act Amendments Act 
would provide funding to Native American Survival Schools to 
promote student acquisition of their native language. It would 
require that schools provide at least 20 hours per week of 
instruction and not less than 35 weeks per year in Native 
languages and that the students not be enrolled in any other 
school.
    Even though gaining fluency in a native language is the 
primary and essential objective of this proposed bill, we also 
need to ensure that students who attend these schools are also 
fully prepared for the future by becoming both fluent in 
English and academically proficient.
    Just as we must honor the past by acting aggressively to 
preserve Native languages, we must provide Native American 
students with the English skills necessary to fully participate 
in the great American and global society. We do not believe 
there is a necessary trade-off between Native language 
instruction and the development of English language 
proficiency. In fact, properly done, dual-language schools can 
help students leave school proficient not only in academic 
subjects, but also conversant in two languages.
    Evidence suggests the dual immersion approach results in 
improved native language fluency, English language competency, 
and cognitive ability. Children exposed to two languages at an 
early age are more flexible, creative, and achieve higher 
cognitive development at an early age than children who learn 
only one language. Active use of native languages in the 
classroom allows students to retain ties to their culture and 
their past, while literacy skills in a first or native language 
can increase second language acquisition. In addition, studies 
have consistently shown that immersion students do at least as 
well, and in some instances even surpass, comparable non-
immersion students on measures of verbal and mathematics 
skills. As a result, the Department believes it is necessary 
that the bill also support the goal of English language 
proficiency.
    All students, including Native American students, should be 
held to high academic standards. Under the Improving America 
Schools Act of 1994, all BIA schools had to adopt new content 
standards. Bureau schools were given the choice to adopt the 
voluntary national standards, adopt State standards, or develop 
their own standards (so long as they were as rigorous as the 
State or national standards). Most BIA schools have chosen to 
adopt the standards of the state where the school is located. 
Students attending schools funded under this legislation must 
have the same opportunities as their state student counterparts 
to achieve academically.
    I would like to raise an additional point regarding the way 
in which language proficiency is addressed in the proposed 
legislation. According to section 8 (c)(1)(D) of S. 2688, a 
Native Language Survival School receiving Federal funds shall 
``ensure that students who are not Native American language 
speakers achieve fluency in a Native American language within 3 
years of enrollment.'' The requirement is significantly more 
rigorous than the provision in existing ESEA Title I law that 
deals with English language learning for students who speak 
English as a second language. We must take into account the 
reality that individual students learn at different rates based 
on various factors, such as the level of fluency upon entering 
schools, literacy in their native language, and their 
motivation to learn languages.
    School Finance and Governance. Under S. 2688, tribes and 
institutions of higher education (IHEs) can apply for funds, 
while the eligibility of State Educational Agencies (SEAs) and 
Local Education Agencies (LEAs) is unclear. This raises some 
questions concerning school finance and governance. Who pays 
for operational cost? Who makes decisions about teacher 
qualifications? What core academic subjects should be taught? 
The Department of Education would like to work with Members of 
this Committee to clarify the types of schools that would be 
eligible to receive funding under the proposed legislation. It 
is not clear whether native Language Survival Schools are to be 
public schools governed and operated by either a LEA or a 
tribe, or whether they could be public schools or independent 
private schools. The resolution of this issue will have 
important consequences for this program, and for the students 
who attend the schools. For example, public schools operated by 
LEAs or tribes receive other Federal education funds, while 
private schools only indirectly benefit from Federal programs. 
Public schools, operated by LEAs, must meet a range of State 
requirements ranging from the establishment of academic 
standards for all students to the qualifications of the 
teachers in the schools.
    Research and Evaluation. S. 2688 would be strengthened by 
the addition of a research and evaluation component. There is 
still much we need to learn about how best to teach Native 
American languages in school. Therefore, it is important to 
evaluate the programs supported under the proposed Act, to 
identify and document effective educational methods practiced 
at Native American Language Survival Schools, and disseminate 
these as widely as possible, to the schools and to Tribal 
Colleges and other institutions of higher education preparing 
the next generation of Native American teachers. Further, funds 
should be made available to support research on issues that are 
important to meet the objectives of this proposal, such as 
research on Native Language retention. Funds should also be 
made available for the development of tapes, orthographies, 
dictionaries, and materials development in native languages.


                               conclusion


    The Administration is committed to ensuring that Native 
American students receive a high-quality education in not only 
English, but also their language and culture. Thank you for the 
opportunity to address this committee. I am willing to answer 
any questions you many have concerning my testimony.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with subsection 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
the bill are required to be set out in the accompanying 
Committee report. The Committee states that the enactment of S. 
2688 will result in the following amendment to P.L. 101-477 
(104 Stat. 1153). Deletions are in brackets; new material is in 
italic.

                              [definitions

    [Sec. 103. For purposes of this title--
          [(1) The term ``Native American'' means an Indian, 
        Native Hawaiian, or Native American Pacific Islander.
          [(2) The term ``Indian'' has the meaning given to 
        such term under section 5351(4) of the Indian Education 
        Act of 1988 (25 U.S.C. 2651(4)).
          [(3) The term ``Native Hawaiian'' has the meaning 
        given to such term by section 4009 of Public Law 100-
        297 (20 U.S.C. 4909).
          [(4) The term ``Native American Pacific Islander'' 
        means any descendent of the aboriginal people of any 
        island in the Pacific Ocean that is a territory or 
        possession of the United States.
          [(5) The terms ``Indian tribe'' and ``tribal 
        organization'' have the respective meaning given to 
        each of such terms under section 4 of the Indian Self-
        Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 
        450b).
          [(6) The term ``Native American language'' means the 
        historical, traditional languages spoken by Native 
        Americans.
          [(7) The term ``traditional leaders'' includes Native 
        Americans who have special expertise in Native American 
        culture and Native American languages.
          [(8) The term ``Indian reservation'' has the same 
        meaning given to the term ``reservation'' under section 
        3 of the Indian Financing Act of 1974 (25 U.S.C. 
        1452).]


                              definitions


    Sec. 103. In this Act:
          (1) Indian.--The term ``Indian'' has the meaning 
        given that term in section 9161 of the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7881).
          (2) Indian tribal government.--The term ``Indian 
        tribal government'' has the meaning given that term in 
        section 502 of Public Law 95-134 (42 U.S.C. 4368b).
          (3) Indian tribe.--The term ``Indian tribe'' has the 
        meaning given that term in section 4 of the Indian 
        Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 
        U.S.C. 450b).
          (4) Indian reservation.--The term ``Indian 
        reservation'' has the meaning given the term 
        ``reservation'' in section 3 of the Indian Financing 
        Act of 1974 (25 U.S.C. 1452).
          (5) Native american.--The term ``Native American'' 
        means an Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Native American 
        Pacific Islander.
          (6) Native American language.--The term ``Native 
        American language'' means the historical, traditional 
        languages spoken by Native Americans.
          (7) Native american language college.--The term 
        ``Native American Language College'' means--
                  (A) a tribally-controlled community college 
                or university (as defined in section 2 of the 
                Tribally-Controlled Community College or 
                University Assistance Act of 1978 (25 U.S.C. 
                1801)), or a college applying for a Native 
                American Language Survival School in a Native 
                American language which that college regularly 
                offers as part of its curriculum and which has 
                the support of an Indian tribal government 
                traditionally affiliated with that Native 
                American language; or government traditionally 
                affiliated with that Native American language; 
                or
                  (B) Ka Haka `Ula O Ke'elikolani College.
          (8) Native american language educational 
        organization.--The term ``Native American Language 
        Educational Organizations'' means an organization 
        that--
                  (A) is governed by a board consisting 
                primarily of Native Americans and as many 
                speakers of 1 or more Native Americans 
                languages as possible;
                  (B) is currently providing instruction 
                through the use of a Native American language 
                to at least 10 preschool, elementary or high 
                school students for at least 700 hours of 
                instruction per year per student; and
                  (C) has provided such instruction for at 
                least 10 preschool, elementary or high school 
                students through a Native American language for 
                at least 700 hours per year per student for not 
                less than 3 years prior to applying for a grant 
                under this Act.
                  (D) may be a public school that meets the 
                requirements of (A), (B) and (C) above.
          (9) Native american language nest.--The term ``Native 
        American Language Nest'' means a site-based educational 
        program enrolling families with children below the age 
        of 7 which is conducted through a Native American 
        language for at least 700 hours per year per student 
        with the specific goal of strengthening, revitalizing, 
        or re-establishing a Native American language and 
        culture as a living language and culture of daily life.
          (10) Native american language survival school.--The 
        term ``Native American Language Survival School'' means 
        a Native American language dominant site-based 
        educational program which expands from a Native 
        American Language Nest, either as a separate entity or 
        inclusive of a Native American Language Nest, to enroll 
        families with children eligible for elementary or 
        secondary education and which provides a complete 
        education through a Native American language with the 
        specific goal of strengthening, revitalizing, or 
        reestablishing a Native American language and culture 
        as a living language and culture of daily life.
           (11) Native american pacific islander.--The term 
        ``Native American Pacific Islander'' means any 
        descendant of the aboriginal people of any island in 
        the Pacific Ocean that is a territory or possession of 
        the United States.
          (12) Native hawaiian.--The term ``Native Hawaiian'' 
        has the meaning given that term in section 9212 of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 7912).
          (13) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the 
        Secretary of the Department of Education.
          (14) Traditional leaders.--The term ``traditional 
        leaders'' includes Native Americans who have special 
        expertise in Native American culture and Native 
        American languages.
          (15) Tribal organization.--The term ``tribal 
        organization'' has the meaning given that term in 
        section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and 
        Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                           general authority


                     native american language nests


    Sec. 108. (a) In General.--The Secretary is authorized to 
provide funds, through grant or contract, to Native American 
Language Educational Organizations, Native American Language 
Colleges, Indian tribal governments, organizations that 
demonstrate the potential to become Native American Language 
Educational Organizations, or a consortia of such 
organizations, colleges, or tribal governments for the purpose 
of establishing Native American Language Nest programs for 
students below the age of 7 and their families.
    (b) Requirements.--A Native American Language Nest program 
receiving funds under this section shall--
          (1) provide instruction and child care through the 
        use of a Native American language for at least 10 
        children below the age of 7 for at least 700 hours per 
        year per student;
          (2) provide compulsory classes for parents of 
        students enrolled in a Native American Language Nest in 
        a Native American language, including Native American 
        language-speaking parents;
          (3) provide compulsory monthly meetings for parents 
        and other family members of students enrolled in a 
        Native American Language Nest;
          (4) provide a preference in enrollment for students 
        and families who are fluent in a Native American 
        language;
          (5) receive at least 5 percent of its funding from 
        another source, which may included Federally-funded 
        programs, such as a Head Star program funded under the 
        Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9801 et seq.); and
          (6) ensure that a Native American language becomes 
        the dominant medium of instruction in the Native 
        American Language Nest with within a period of six 
        years of funding under this Act.


               native american language survival schools


    Sec. 109. (a) In General.--The Secretary is authorized to 
provide funds, through grant or contract, to Native American 
Language Educational Organizations, Native American Language 
Colleges, Indian tribal governments, or a consortia of such 
organizations, colleges, or tribal governments to operate, 
expand, and increase Native American Language Survival Schools 
throughout the United States and its territories for Native 
American children and Native American language-speaking 
children, including the provision of direct educational 
services and school support services.
    (b) Eligibility.--As a condition of receiving funds under 
subsection (a), a Native American Language Educational 
Organization, a Native American Language College, an Indian 
tribal government, or a consortia of such organizations, 
colleges, or tribal governments--
          (1) shall--
                  (A) have at least 3 years experience in 
                operating and administering a Native American 
                Language Survival School, a Native American 
                Language Nest, or other educational programs in 
                which instruction is conducted in a Native 
                American language; and
                  (B) include students who are subject to State 
                compulsory education laws; and
          (2) may include students from infancy through grade 
        12, as well as their families.
    (c) Priority.--In making grants or entering into contracts, 
the Secretary shall give priority to:
          (1) the provision of direct educational services;
          (2) applicants with the support of the appropriate 
        tribal government or governments; and
          (3) applicants that have researched language 
        revitalization and the unique characteristics and 
        circumstances of the languages of their schools.
    (d) Use of Funds.--
          (1) Required uses.--A Native American Language 
        Survival School receiving funds under this section 
        shall--
                  (A) consist of not less than 700 hours of 
                instruction per student conducted annually 
                through a Native American language or languages 
                for at least 15 students for whom a Native 
                American Language Survival School is their 
                principal place of instruction;
                  (B) provide direct educational services and 
                school support services to students that may 
                also include--
                          (i) support services for children 
                        with special needs;
                          (ii) transportation;
                          (iii) boarding;
                          (iv) food service;
                          (v) teacher and staff housing;
                          (vi) purchase of basic materials
                          (vii) adaptation of teaching 
                        materials;
                          (viii) translation and development; 
                        or
                          (ix) other appropriate services;
                  (C) provide direct or indirect educational 
                and support services for the families of 
                enrolled students on site, through colleges, or 
                through other means to increase their knowledge 
                and use of the Native American language and 
                culture, and may impose a requirement of family 
                participation as a condition of student 
                enrollment; and
                  (D) ensure that within 3 years of enrollment 
                all students achieve functional fluency 
                appropriate to the unique circumstances and 
                endangerment status of the Native American 
                language with the ultimate goal of academic/
                cognitive fluency.
          (2) Permissible uses.--A Native American Language 
        Survival School receiving funds under this section 
        may--
                  (A) include Native American Language Nests 
                and other educational programs for students who 
                are not Native American language speakers but 
                who seek to establish fluency through 
                instruction in a Native American language or to 
                re-establish fluency as descendants of Native 
                American language speakers;
                  (B) provide instruction through more than one 
                language;
                  (C) provide instruction through a regional 
                program (as opposed to one site) to better 
                serve geographically dispersed students;
                  (D) include a program of concurrent and 
                summer college or university education course 
                enrollment for secondary school students 
                enrolled in Native American Language Survival 
                Schools, as appropriate;
                  (E) provide special support for Native 
                American languages for which there are very few 
                or no remaining Native American language 
                speakers;
                  (F) develop comprehensive curricula in Native 
                American language instruction and instruction 
                through Native American languages, including:
                          (i) curricula that can be used by 
                        public schools for instruction through 
                        a Native American language or teaching 
                        Native American languages as subjects;
                          (ii) community Native American 
                        language use in communities served by 
                        Native American Language Survival 
                        Schools; and
                          (iii) knowledge of a specific Native 
                        American language gained through 
                        research for the purpose of directly 
                        aiding the development of curriculum 
                        materials.
                  (G) provide programs in pre-service and in-
                service teacher training, staff training, 
                personnel development programs, programs to 
                upgrade teacher and staff skills, and community 
                resource development training, that shall 
                include a program component which has as its 
                objective increased Native American language 
                speaking proficiency for teachers and staff 
                employed in Native American Language Survival 
                Schools and Native American Language Nests. 
                Programs may include--
                          (i) visits or exchanges among Native 
                        American Language Survival Schools and 
                        Native American Language Nests of 
                        school or nest teachers, staff, 
                        students, or families of students;
                          (ii) participation in conference or 
                        special non-degree programs focusing on 
                        the use of a Native American language 
                        or languages of the education of 
                        students, teachers, staff, students, or 
                        families of students;
                          (iii) full or partial scholarships 
                        and fellowships to colleges or 
                        universities for the professional 
                        development of faculty and staff, and 
                        to meet requirements for the 
                        involvement of the family or the 
                        community of Native American Language 
                        Survival Schools students in Native 
                        American Language Survival Schools, and 
                        to develop resource persons for Native 
                        American Language Nests programs in 
                        public schools. A recipient of a 
                        fellowship or scholarship awarded under 
                        the authority of this subsection who is 
                        enrolled in a program leading to a 
                        degree or certificate shall--
                                  (I) be trained in the Native 
                                American Language Nests of the 
                                Native American Language 
                                Survival Schools, if such 
                                program is available through 
                                that Native American Language 
                                Survival Schools;
                                  (II) complete a minimum 
                                annual number of hours in 
                                Native American language study 
                                or training during the period 
                                of the fellowship or 
                                scholarship; and
                                  (III) enter into a contract 
                                which obligates the recipient 
                                to provide his or her 
                                professional services, either 
                                during the fellowship or 
                                scholarship period or upon 
                                completion of a degree or 
                                certificate, in Native American 
                                language instruction in the 
                                Native American language 
                                associated with the Native 
                                American Language Survival 
                                Schools in which the service 
                                obligation is to be fulfilled.
                          (iv) training in the language and 
                        culture associated with a Native 
                        American Language Survival School 
                        either under community or academic 
                        experts in programs which may include 
                        credit courses;
                          (v) structuring of personnel 
                        operations to support Native American 
                        language and cultural fluency and 
                        program effectiveness;
                          (vi) Native American language 
                        planning, documentation, reference 
                        material and archives development; and
                          (vii) recruitment for participation 
                        in teacher, staff, student, and 
                        community development.
                  (H) rent, lease, purchase, construct, 
                maintain or repair educational facilities to 
                ensure the academic achievement of Native 
                American Language Survival School students.


        demonstration programs regarding linguistics assistance


    Sec. 110. (a) Demonstration Programs.--The Secretary shall 
provide funds, through grant or contract, for the establishment 
of 3 demonstration programs that will provide assistance to 
Native American Language Survival Schools and Native American 
Language Nests. Such demonstration programs shall be 
established at--
          (1) Ka Haka `Ula O Ke`elikolani College of the 
        University of Hawaii at Hilo, in consortium with the 
        `Aha Punana Leo, Inc., and with other entities if 
        deemed appropriate by such College, to--
                  (A) conduct a demonstration program in the 
                development and operation of the various 
                components of a regional Native American 
                Language Survival School program and college 
                level Native American language teaching and use 
                that is supportive of Native American Language 
                Survival Schools; and
                  (B) provide assistance in the establishment, 
                operation, and administration of Native 
                American Language Nests and Native American 
                Language Survival Schools by such means as 
                training, hosting informational visits to 
                demonstration sites, and providing a national 
                clearinghouse for data and information relevant 
                to teaching Native American languages, 
                outreach, courses, conferences, and other 
                means; and
          (2) Piegan Institute of Browning, Montana to 
        demonstrate the operation of a Native American Language 
        Nest and Survival School; and
          (3) the Alaska Native Language Center of the 
        University of Alaska at Fairbanks, in consortium with 
        other entities as deemed appropriate by such Center, to 
        conduct a demonstration program, training, outreach, 
        conferences, visitation programs, and other assistance 
        in developing orthographies, resource materials, 
        language documentation, language preservation, material 
        archiving, and community support development.
    (b) Use of Technology.--The demonstration programs 
authorized to be established under this section may employ 
synchronic and asynchronic telecommunications and other 
appropriate means to maintain coordination and cooperation with 
one another and with participating Native American Language 
Survival Schools and Native American Language Nests.
    (c) Direction to the Secretary.--The demonstration programs 
authorized to be established under this section shall provide 
direction to the Secretary in developing a site visit 
evaluation of Native American Language Survival Schools and 
Native American Language Nests.
    (d) Follow-Up and Data Collection.--The demonstration 
programs authorized to be established under this section may 
conduct follow-up data collection and analysis on students 
while they are in school to assess how Survival School students 
are performing in comparison to other students, as well as 
identify instructional methods that are working and those which 
may not be working.
    (e) Endowments and Facilities.--The demonstration programs 
authorized to be established under this section may establish 
endowments for the purpose of furthering their activities 
relative to the study and preservation of Native American 
languages, and may use funds to provide for the rental, lease, 
purchase, construction, maintenance, and repair of facilities.


                    authorization of appropriations


    Sec. 111. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums 
as may be necessary to carry out the activities authorized by 
this Act for fiscal years 2001 through 2006.