Report text available as:

  • TXT
  • PDF   (PDF provides a complete and accurate display of this text.) Tip ?
                                                       Calendar No. 576
107th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session                                                     107-259

======================================================================

 
                    NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS STUDIES

                                _______
                                

               September 9, 2002.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Bingaman, from the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany H.R. 37]

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was 
referred the Act (H.R. 37) to amend the National Trails System 
Act to update the feasibility and suitability studies of 4 
national historic trails and provide for possible additions to 
such trails, having considered the same, reports favorably 
thereon with an amendment and recommends that the Act, as 
amended, do pass.
    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:

SECTION 1. REVISION OF FEASIBILITY AND SUITABILITY STUDIES OF EXISTING 
                    NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS.

    Section 5 of the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1244) is 
amended by inserting the following new subsection (g):
    ``(g) The Secretary shall revise the feasibility and suitability 
studies for certain national trails for consideration of possible 
additions to the trails.
          ``(1) In general.--
                  ``(A) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                          ``(i) Route.--The term `route' includes a 
                        trail segment commonly known as a cutoff.
                          ``(ii) Shared route.--The term `shared route' 
                        means a route that was a segment of more than 
                        one historic trail, including a route shared 
                        with an existing national historic trail.
                  ``(B) Study requirements and objectives.--The study 
                requirements and objectives specified in subsection (b) 
                shall apply to a study required by this subsection.
                  ``(C) Completion and submission of study.--A study 
                listed in this subsection shall be completed and 
                submitted to the Congress not later than three complete 
                fiscal years from the date of the enactment of this 
                subsection, or from the date of the enactment of the 
                addition of the study to this subsection, whichever is 
                later.
          ``(2) Oregon national historic trail.--
                  ``(A) Study required.--The Secretary of the Interior 
                shall undertake a study of the routes of the Oregon 
                Trail listed in subparagraph (B) and generally depicted 
                on the map entitled `Western Emigrant Trails 1830/1870' 
                and dated 1991/1993, and of such other routes of the 
                Oregon Trail that the Secretary considers appropriate, 
                to determine the feasibility and suitability of 
                designation of one or more of the routes as components 
                of the Oregon National Historic Trail.
                  ``(B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied under 
                subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
                          ``(i) Whitman Mission route.
                          ``(ii) Upper Columbia River.
                          ``(iii) Cowlitz River route.
                          ``(iv) Meek cutoff.
                          ``(v) Free Emigrant road.
                          ``(vi) North Alternate Oregon Trail.
                          ``(vii) Goodale's cutoff.
                          ``(viii) North Side alternate route.
                          ``(ix) Cutoff to Barlow Road.
                          ``(x) Naches Pass Trail.
          ``(3) Pony express national historic trail.--The Secretary of 
        the Interior shall undertake a study of the approximately 20-
        mile southern alternative route of the Pony Express Trail from 
        Wathena, Kansas, to Troy, Kansas, and such other routes of the 
        Pony Express Trail that the Secretary considers appropriate, to 
        determine the feasibility and suitability of designation of one 
        or more of the routes as components of the Pony Express 
        National Historic Trail.
          ``(4) California national historic trail.--
                  ``(A) Study required.--The Secretary of the Interior 
                shall undertake a study of the Missouri Valley, 
                central, and western routes of the California Trail 
                listed in subparagraph (B) and generally depicted on 
                the map entitled `Western Emigrant Trails 1830/1870' 
                and dated 1991/1993, and of such other and shared 
                Missouri Valley, central, and western routes that the 
                Secretary considers appropriate, to determine the 
                feasibility and suitability of designation of one or 
                more of the routes as components of the California 
                National Historic Trail.
                  ``(B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied under 
                subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
                          ``(i) Missouri valley routes.--
                                  ``(I) Blue Mills-Independence Road.
                                  ``(II) Westport Landing Road.
                                  ``(III) Westport-Lawrence Road.
                                  ``(IV) Fort Leavenworth-Blue River 
                                route.
                                  ``(V) Road to Amazonia.
                                  ``(VI) Union Ferry Route.
                                  ``(VII) Old Wyoming-Nebraska City 
                                cutoff.
                                  ``(VIII) Lower Plattsmouth Route.
                                  ``(IX) Lower Bellevue Route.
                                  ``(X) Woodbury cutoff.
                                  ``(XI) Blue Ridge cutoff.
                                  ``(XII) Westport Road.
                                  ``(XIII) Gum Springs-Fort Leavenworth 
                                route.
                                  ``(XIV) Atchison/Independence Creek 
                                routes.
                                  ``(XV) Forth Leavenworth-Kansas River 
                                route.
                                  ``(XVI) Nebraska City cutoff routes.
                                  ``(XVII) Minersville-Nebraska City 
                                Road.
                                  ``(XVIII) Upper Plattsmouth route.
                                  ``(XIX) Upper Bellevue route.
                          ``(ii) Central routes.--
                                  ``(I) Cherokee Trail, including 
                                splits.
                                  ``(II) Weber Canyon route of Hastings 
                                cutoff.
                                  ``(III) Bishop Creek cutoff.
                                  ``(IV) McAuley cutoff.
                                  ``(V) Diamond Springs cutoff.
                                  ``(VI) Secret Pass.
                                  ``(VII) Greenhorn cutoff.
                                  ``(VIII) Central Overland Trail.
                          ``(iii) Western routes.--
                                  ``(I) Bidwell-Bartleson route.
                                  ``(II) Georgetown/Dagget Pass Trail.
                                  ``(III) Big Trees Road.
                                  ``(IV) Grizzly Flat cutoff.
                                  ``(V) Nevada City Road.
                                  ``(VI) Yreka Trail.
                                  ``(VII) Henness Pass route.
                                  ``(VIII) Johnson cutoff.
                                  ``(IX) Luther Pass Trail.
                                  ``(X) Volcano Road.
                                  ``(XI) Sacramento-Coloma Wagon Road.
                                  ``(XII) Burnett cutoff.
                                  ``(XIII) Placer County Road to 
                                Auburn.
          ``(5) Mormon pioneer national historic trail.--
                  ``(A) Study required.--The Secretary of the Interior 
                shall undertake a study of the routes of the Mormon 
                Pioneer Trail listed in subparagraph (B) and generally 
                depicted on the map entitled `Western Emigrant Trails 
                1830/1870' and dated 1991/1993, and of such other 
                routes of the Mormon Pioneer Trail that the Secretary 
                considers appropriate, to determine the feasibility and 
                suitability of designation of one or more of the routes 
                as components of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic 
                Trail.
                  ``(B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied under 
                subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
                          ``(i) 1846 Subsequent routes A and B (Lucas 
                        and Clarke Counties, Iowa).
                          ``(ii) 1856-57 Handcart route (Iowa City to 
                        Council Bluffs)
                          ``(iii) Keokuk route (Iowa).
                          ``(iv) 1847 Alternative Elkhorn and Loup 
                        River Crossings in Nebraska.
                          ``(v) Fort Leavenworth Road; Ox Bow route and 
                        alternates in Kansas and Missouri (Oregon and 
                        California Trail routes used by Mormon 
                        emigrants).
                          ``(vi) 1850 Golden Pass Road in Utah.
          ``(6) Shared california and oregon trail routes.--
                  ``(A) Study required.--The Secretary of the Interior 
                shall undertake a study of the shared routes of the 
                California Trail and Oregon Trail listed in 
                subparagraph (B) and generally depicted on the map 
                entitled `Western Emigrant Trails 1830/1870' and dated 
                1991/1993, and of such other shared routes that the 
                Secretary considers appropriate, to determine the 
                feasibility and suitability of designation of one or 
                more of the routes as shared components of the 
                California National Historic Trail and the Oregon 
                National Historic Trail.
                  ``(B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied under 
                subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
                          ``(i) St. Joe Road.
                          ``(ii) Council Bluffs Road.
                          ``(iii) Sublette cutoff.
                          ``(iv) Applegate route.
                          ``(v) Old Fort Kearny Road (Oxbow Trail).
                          ``(vi) Childs cutoff.
                          ``(vii) Raft River to Applegate.''

                                Purpose

    The purpose of H.R. 37, as ordered reported, is to amend 
the National Trails System Act to authorize the Secretary of 
the Interior to study the feasibility and suitability of 
designating addition routes as components of the Oregon, 
Mormon, California, and Pony Express National Historic Trails.

                          Background and Need

    The National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1241 et seq.) 
authorizes the establishment of National Scenic, Historic and 
Recreation trails. H.R. 37 would amend that Act to authorize 
studies of additional routes for four prominent National 
Historic Trails: the Oregon National Historic Trail, a primary 
route for emigrants to the West; the Mormon National Historic 
Trail, which commemorates the 1846-47 journey of Mormon 
settlers from Illinois to Utah; the California National 
Historic Trail, which traces access routes to the 1849 
California Gold Rush, and the Pony Express National Historic 
Trail, which commemorates the eighteenth-month running of the 
Pony Express and its dashing delivery of mail from Missouri to 
California in ten days.
    Congress designated the Oregon and Mormon trails in the 
late 1970's and the California and Pony Express trails in the 
late 1980's. More recently, dozens of additional routes and 
cutoffs have been identified which may qualify as integral 
parts of these trails. Rather than following a single mainline 
route, the pioneers often followed a system of trails, braided 
to follow water and grass, avoid Indians, save time, and even 
access additional sites.
    H.R. 37 is necessary because the National Trails System Act 
does not provide for additions to trails subsequent to their 
designation by Congress. The bill would authorize the Secretary 
responsible for each trail to study the feasibility and 
suitability of adding new routes to each of these trails. Any 
designation of these new routes as components of the National 
Trails System would require subsequent legislation.
    The Oregon, Mormon, California, and Pony Express trails 
overlap one another in many locations and several of the routes 
and cutoffs proposed for study in H.R. 37 are already part of 
one or another of the designated trails. These shared routes 
are prominent where the trails depart from various points along 
the Missouri River, and other shared locations include routes 
in western Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, 
and California. The study of these additional routes and 
cutoffs will help assure greater historical accuracy along 
these routes.

                          Legislative History

    H.R. 37 was sponsored by Representative Bereuter on January 
3, 2001 and passed the House of Representatives on June 6, 
2001. Companion legislation, S. 213 was introduced by Senator 
Hatch and others on January 30, 2001. The Subcommittee on 
National Parks held a hearing on both bills on March 7, 2002. 
At its business meeting on July 31, 2002, the Committee on 
Energy and Natural Resources ordered H.R. 37 to be favorably 
reported, as amended.

                        Committee Recommendation

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, in open 
business session on July 31, 2002, by voice vote of a quorum 
present, recommends that the Senate pass H.R. 37, if amended as 
described herein.

                          Committee Amendment

    During the consideration of H.R. 37, the Committee adopted 
an amendment in the nature of a substitute. As passed by the 
House of Representatives, H.R. 37 would have authorized the 
Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture, as 
appropriate, to study the routes identified in the bill, and to 
designate those routes determined to be suitable and feasible 
additions to the National Trails System. The Committee 
amendment deletes the Secretary's authority to designate these 
additions. Instead, any future designations will require 
subsequent legislation. In addition, the amendment makes 
several clarifying and conforming changes to the bill. The 
amendment is explained in detail in the section-by-section 
analysis, below.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis

    Section 1 amends section 5 of the National Trails System 
Act (16 U.S.C. 1244) by inserting a new subsection (g) 
authorizing the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of 
Agriculture, as appropriate, to study the referenced routes 
which are associated with the Oregon, Pony Express, California, 
and Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trails for possible 
additions to these trails.
    Paragraph (1) of the new subsection defines key terms used 
in the studies and clarifies that the studies are to be 
conducted in accordance with the requirements of section 5(b) 
of the National Trails System Act.
    Paragraph (2) identifies ten routes associated with the 
Oregon National Historic Trail and any other routes the 
Secretary determines are appropriate for designation as a 
component of the Oregon National Historic Trail.
    Paragraph (3) directs the Secretary to study approximately 
20 miles of the southern alternative route of the Pony Express 
National Historic Trail from Wathena, Kansas to Troy, Kansas. 
In addition, the Secretary is to consider other routes that 
might be feasible and suitable for designation as components of 
the Pony Express National Historic Trail.
    Paragraph (4) directs the Secretary to study several routes 
associated with the California National Historic Trail, 
including 19 routes in the Missouri Valley, eight central 
routes, and 12 western routes.
    Paragraph (5) directs the Secretary to study six routes 
associated with the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail 
depicted on the referenced map.
    Paragraph (6) requires the Secretary to study seven routes 
that are shared by the California and Oregon National Historic 
Trails. In addition, the Secretary is authorized to study other 
associated shared routes to determine their suitability and 
feasibility for designation as part of either trail.

                   Cost and Budgetary Considerations

    The following estimate of the costs of this measure has 
been provided by the Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                   Washington, DC, August 14, 2001.
Hon. Jeff Bingaman,
Chairman, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 37, an act to 
amend the National Trails System Act to update the feasibility 
and suitability studies of four national historic trails and 
provide for possible additions to such trails.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Deborah Reis.
            Sincerely,
                                         Robert A. Sunshine
                                    (For Dan L. Crippen, Director).
    Enclosure.

H.R. 37--An act to amend the National Trails System Act to update the 
        feasibility and suitability studies of four national historic 
        trails and provide for possible additions to such trails

    H.R. 37 would direct the Department of the Interior to 
update the feasibility studies of four national historic trails 
to include numerous shared routes, cutoff trails, and other 
trail segments. The department would designate as components of 
the four national historic trails any segments found to be 
feasible and suitable additions. H.R. 37 would require the 
department to report the studies' findings within three years 
of the legislation's enactment.
    Assuming the availability of appropriated funds, CBO 
estimates that it would cost about $160,000 over the next three 
years to conduct all of the required studies of trail segments 
specified by the act. The legislation would not affect direct 
spending or receipts; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures would 
not apply.
    H.R. 37 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local or tribal governments.
    On May 25, 2001, CBO transmitted a cost estimate for H.R. 
37 as ordered reported by the House Committee on Resources on 
May 16, 2001. The two versions of the legislation are very 
similar, and the cost of the authorized studies are identical.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Deborah Reis. 
The estimate was approved by Peter Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                      Regulatory Impact Evaluation

    In compliance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee makes the following 
evaluation of the regulatory impact which would be incurred in 
carrying out H.R. 37. The bill is not a regulatory measure in 
the sense of imposing Government-established standards or 
significant economic responsibilities on private individuals 
and businesses.
    No personal information would be collected in administering 
the program. Therefore, there would be no impact on personal 
privacy.
    Little, if any, additional paperwork would result from the 
enactment of H.R. 37.

                        Executive Communications

    The legislative report from the Department of the Interior 
setting forth Executive agency views on H.R. 37 follows:

                   U.S. Department of the Interior,
                                   Office of the Secretary,
                                    Washington, DC, March 11, 2002.
Hon. Jeff Bingaman,
Chairman, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: This letter sets forth the views of the 
Department of the Interior on S. 213 and H.R. 37, bills that 
would amend the National Trails System Act to update the 
feasibility and suitability studies of the Oregon, California, 
Pony Express and Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trails (NHT).
    Both S. 213 and H.R. 37 would update the feasibility and 
suitability studies and make recommendations through the 
examination of additional routes and cutoffs not included in 
the initial studies of all four trails. The Secretary of the 
Interior would determine if any of these routes and cutoffs are 
eligible as additions to the four NHTs at the completion of 
these studies. Further, both bills would authorize the 
Secretary to make authorization of any of these additional 
routes and cutoffs if she found them eligible.
    The Department supports both bills. However, the Department 
did not request additional funding for updating these studies 
in Fiscal Year 2003. We believe that any funding requested 
should be directed toward completing previously authorized 
studies. Presently, there are 40 studies pending, of which we 
hope to transmit 15 to Congress by the end of 2002. New studies 
can eventually result in new designations, and we believe that 
it is important to focus our resources on working down the 
deferred maintenance backlog at existing parks. Of the studies 
underway during the 10-year period between 1989 and 1998, NPS 
has transmitted 79 studies to Congress. These 79 studies 
resulted in 15 new NPS units, 14 heritage areas, and 10 other 
types of designations or programs. To plan for the future of 
our National Parks, the Administration will identify in each 
study the costs to establish, operate, and maintain the site 
should it result in a future designation.
    The feasibility study for the Oregon NHT was completed in 
1977, the study for the Mormon Pioneer NHT in 1978, and the one 
for the California and Pony Express NHTs in 1987. Since those 
studies have been completed, additional routes and cutoffs were 
identified, and may qualify as parts of these trails. The 
National Trails System Act makes no provision by which such 
additional routes and cutoffs may be evaluated and added to 
national historic trails.
    The Oregon NHT, authorized in 1978, commemorates the 
``primary route'' used by emigrants beginning in 1841 between 
Independence, Missouri and Oregon City, Oregon. Traveled by 
thousands, the trail contained routes and cutoffs used through 
the years. These secondary routes had substantial emigrant 
traffic over several decades that demonstrate historical 
significance and may be worthy of examination in an updated 
study. The authorization of the Mormon NHT in 1978 be worthy of 
examination in an updated study. The authorization of the 
Mormon NHT in 1978 commemorates the journey of the pioneer 
party in 1846-1847 from Nauvoo, Illinois to Salt Lake City, 
Utah. As with the Oregon NHT, emigrant traffic occurred on many 
additional routes during the Mormon migration westward. 
Similarly with the other trails, these routes are more often 
than not coincident or shared with one another. Preliminary 
data indicate traffic along those routes during the historic 
period and there are additional routes to be studied for these 
two trails. Authorized in 1992, the California NHT commemorates 
the gold rush to the Sierra Nevada. Dozens of routes and 
cutoffs were traveled by thousands of pioneers, but no single 
route dominated. The Pony Express NHT was included in the same 
authorizing legislation as the California NHT. It commemorates 
the efforts of this nation struggling to establish a system of 
communication across the Trans-Missouri west. The trail 
primarily follows routes beginning at St. Joseph, Missouri and 
ending in San Francisco, California. The firm of Russell, 
Majors, and Waddell, a western Missouri freighting company set 
up and operated the Pony Express for one and a half years 
before it fell on hard times and ceased to exist. A short 
section of the trail, from the Missouri River into Kansas, may 
be worthy of study and is included in both S. 213 and H.R. 37.
    All four trails overlap one another in many locations and 
several of the routes and cutoffs proposed for study in S. 213 
and H.R. 37 are already part of designated trails. These shared 
routes are prominent where the trails depart from various 
points along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, particularly 
in the Kansas City, St. Joseph, Nebraska City, Council Bluffs 
and Omaha areas. Several other shared locations include routes 
in western Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada 
and California.
    The National Trail System Act requires that studies of 
lands proposed for trails be made in consultation with federal, 
state, and local agencies, as well as nonprofit trail 
organizations. Between 1994 and 1999, the National Park 
Service--in collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management, 
USDA Forest Service, trail advocacy groups and others--
completed the Comprehensive Management and Use Plan and 
Environmental Impact Statement (1999) for the four trails. This 
was the initial plan for the recently established California 
and Pony Express NHTs as well as revised plans for the earlier 
established Oregon and Mormon Pioneer NHTs. S. 213 and H.R. 37 
would allow for the consideration of these additional 
alternates and cutoffs by authorizing an update of the original 
studies done for these four tails to evaluate which are 
eligible for designation as NHT segments. S. 213 and H.R. 37 
would authorize the Department of the Interior to work closely 
with federal agencies, state, local and tribal governments, 
local landowners and other interested parties.
    Historic trails cross public and private lands and the 
intent of the National Trails System Act is one of respecting 
private property rights. In so doing, the development of strong 
partnerships is critical to administering and managing the 
historic trails and achieving preservation of trail resources 
and interpretation of the trail to the public. The four 
national trails in this legislation demonstrate existing public 
and private partnerships.
    The Office of Management and Budget advises that there is 
no objection to the presentation of this report from the 
standpoint of the Administration's program.
            Sincerely,
                                      Craig Manson,
                               Assistant Secretary for Fish
                                            and Wildlife and Parks.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
the Act H.R. 37, as ordered reported, are shown as follows 
(existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black 
brackets, new matter is printed in italic, existing law in 
which no change is proposed is shown in roman):

                     A. NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM ACT


             (Public Law 90-543; Approved October 2, 1968)


  AN ACT To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled,

                              SHORT TITLE

    Section 1. This Act may be cited as the ``National Trails 
System Act''.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


             NATIONAL SCENIC AND NATIONAL HISTORICAL TRAILS

    Sec. 5. (a) National scenic and national historic trails 
shall be authorized and designated only by Act of Congress. 
There are hereby established the following National Scenic and 
National Historic Trails:

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (g) The Secretary shall revise the feasibility and 
suitability studies for certain national trails for 
consideration of possible additions to the trails.
          (1) In general.--
                  (A) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                          (i) Route.--The term ``route'' 
                        includes a trail segment commonly known 
                        as a cutoff.
                          (ii) Shared route.--The term ``shared 
                        route'' means a route that was a 
                        segment of more than one historic 
                        trail, including a route shared with an 
                        existing national historic trail.
                  (B) Study requirements and objectives.--The 
                study requirements and objectives specified in 
                subsection (b) shall apply to a study required 
                by this subsection.
                  (C) Completion and submission of study.--A 
                study listed in this subsection shall be 
                completed and submitted to the Congress not 
                later than three complete fiscal years from the 
                date of the enactment of this subsection, or 
                from the date of the enactment of the addition 
                of the study to this subsection, whichever is 
                later.
          (2) Oregon national historic trail.--
                  (A) Study required.--The Secretary of the 
                Interior shall undertake a study of the routes 
                of the Oregon Trail listed in subparagraph (B) 
                and generally depicted on the map entitled 
                ``Western Emigrant Trails 1830/1870'' and dated 
                1991/1993, and of such other routes of the 
                Oregon Trail that the Secretary considers 
                appropriate, to determine the feasibility and 
                suitability of designation of one or more of 
                the routes as components of the Oregon National 
                Historic Trail.
                  (B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied 
                under subparagraph (A) shall include the 
                following:
                          (i) Whitman Mission route.
                          (ii) Upper Columbia River.
                          (iii) Cowlitz River route.
                          (iv) Meek cutoff.
                          (v) Free Emigrant Road.
                          (vi) North Alternate Oregon Trail.
                          (vii) Goodale's cutoff.
                          (viii) North Side alternate route.
                          (xi) Cutoff to Barlow Road.
                          (x) Naches Pass Trail.
          (3) Pony express national historic trail.--The 
        Secretary of the Interior shall undertake a study of 
        the approximately 20-mile southern alternative route of 
        the Pony Express Trail from Wathena, Kansas, to Troy, 
        Kansas, and such other routes of the Pony Express Trail 
        that the Secretary considers appropriate, to determine 
        the feasibility and suitability of designation of one 
        or more of the routes as components of the Pony Express 
        National Historic Trail.
          (4) California national historic trail.--
                  (A) Study required.--The Secretary of the 
                Interior shall undertake a study of the 
                Missouri Valley, central, and western routes of 
                the California Trail listed in subparagraph (B) 
                and generally depicted on the map entitled 
                ``Western Emigrant Trails 1830/1870'' and dated 
                1991/1993, and of such other and shared 
                Missouri Valley, central, and western routes 
                that the Secretary considers appropriate, to 
                determine the feasibility and suitability of 
                designation of one or more of the routes as 
                components of the California National Historic 
                Trail.
                  (B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied 
                under subparagraph (A) shall include the 
                following:
                          (i) Missouri valley routes.--
                                  (I) Blue Mills-Independence 
                                Road.
                                  (II) Westport Landing Road.
                                  (III) Westport-Lawrence Road.
                                  (IV) For Leavenworth-Blue 
                                River route.
                                  (V) Road to Amazonia.
                                  (VI) Union Ferry Route.
                                  (VII) Old Wyoming-Nebraska 
                                City cutoff.
                                  (VIII) Lower Plattsmouth 
                                Route.
                                  (IX) Lower Bellevue Route.
                                  (X) Woodbury cutoff.
                                  (XI) Blue Ridge cutoff.
                                  (XII) Westport Road.
                                  (XIII) Gum Springs-Fort 
                                Leavenworth route.
                                  (XIV) Atchison/Independence 
                                Creek routes.
                                  (XV) Fort Leavenworth-Kansas 
                                River route.
                                  (XVI) Nebraska City cutoff 
                                routes.
                                  (XVII) Minersville Nebraska 
                                City Road.
                                  (XVIII) Upper Plattsmouth 
                                route.
                                  (XIX) Upper Bellevue route.
                          (ii) Central routes.--
                                  (I) Cherokee Trail, including 
                                splits.
                                  (II) Weber Canyon route of 
                                Hastings cutoff.
                                  (III) Bishop Creek cutoff.
                                  (IV) McAuley cutoff.
                                  (V) Diamond Springs cutoff.
                                  (VI) Secret Pass.
                                  (VII) Greenhorn cutoff.
                                  (VIII) Central Overland 
                                Trail.
                          (iii) Western routes.--
                                  (I) Bidwell-Bartleson route.
                                  (II) Georgetown/Dagget Pass 
                                Trail.
                                  (III) Big Trees Road.
                                  (IV) Grizzly Flat cutoff.
                                  (V) Nevada City Road.
                                  (VI) Yreka Trail.
                                  (VII) Henness Pass route.
                                  (VIII) Johnson cutoff.
                                  (IX) Luther Pass Trail.
                                  (X) Volcano Road.
                                  (XI) Sacramento-Coloma Wagon 
                                Road.
                                  (XII) Burnett cutoff.
                                  (XIII) Placer County Road to 
                                Auburn.
          (5) Mormon pioneer national historic trail.--
                  (A) Study required.--The Secretary of the 
                Interior shall undertake a study of the routes 
                of the Mormon Pioneer Trail listed in 
                subparagraph (B) and generally depicted on the 
                map entitled ``Western Emigrant Trails 1830/
                1870'' and dated 1991/1993, and of such other 
                routes of the Mormon Pioneer Trail that the 
                Secretary considers appropriate, to determine 
                the feasibility and suitability of designation 
                of one or more of the routes as components of 
                the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail.
                  (B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied 
                under subparagraph (A) shall include the 
                following:
                          (i) 1846 Subsequent routes A and B 
                        (Lucas and Clarke Counties, Iowa).
                          (ii) 1856-57 Handcart route (Iowa 
                        City to Council Bluffs)
                          (iii) Keokuk route (Iowa).
                          (iv) 1847 Alternative Elkhorn and 
                        Loup River Crossings in Nebraska.
                          (v) Fort Leavenworth Road; Ox Bow 
                        route and alternates in Kansas and 
                        Missouri (Oregon and California Trail 
                        routes used by Mormon emigrants).
                          (vi) 1850 Golden Pass Road in Utah.
          (6) Shared california and oregon trail routes.--
                  (A) Study required.--The Secretary of the 
                Interior shall undertake a study of the shared 
                routes of the California Trail and Oregon Trail 
                listed in subparagraph (B) and generally 
                depicted on the map entitled ``Western Emigrant 
                Trails 1830/1870'' and dated 1991/1993, and of 
                such other shared routes that the Secretary 
                considers appropriate, to determine the 
                feasibility and suitability of designation of 
                one or more of the routes as shared components 
                of the California National Historic Trail and 
                the Oregon National Historic Trail.
                  (B) Covered routes.--The routes to be studied 
                under subparagraph (A) shall include the 
                following:
                          (i) St. Joe Road.
                          (ii) Council Bluffs Road.
                          (iii) Sublette cutoff.
                          (iv) Applegate route.
                          (v) Old Fort Kearny Road (Oxbow 
                        Trail).
                          (vi) Childs cutoff.
                          (vii) Raft River to Applegate.