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109th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                     109-698

======================================================================



 
            UNITED STATES TSUNAMI WARNING AND EDUCATION ACT

                                _______
                                

 September 28, 2006.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Mr. Boehlert, from the Committee on Science, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1674]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Science, to whom was referred the bill (H.R. 
1674) to authorize and strengthen the tsunami detection, 
forecast, warning, and mitigation program of the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, to be carried out by 
the National Weather Service, and for other purposes, having 
considered the same, report favorably thereon with an amendment 
and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................5
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................5
  IV. Summary of Hearings.............................................7
   V. Committee Actions...............................................8
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, As Reported............9
 VII. Section-By-Section Analysis (By Title and Section), As Reported10
VIII. Committee Views................................................11
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................14
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................14
  XI. Compliance with Public Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)...........15
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............16
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........16
 XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................16
  XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................16
 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act...............................16
XVII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........16
XVIII.Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, As Reported..........16

 XIX. Committee Recommendations......................................16
  XX. Committee Correspondence.......................................17
 XXI. Correspondence Supporting H.R. 1674............................19
XXII. Proceedings of Subcommittee Markup.............................26
XXIII.Proceedings of Full Committee Markup...........................48


                              I. AMENDMENT

    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``United States Tsunami Warning and 
Education Act''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

  The purposes of this Act are--
          (1) to improve tsunami detection, forecasting, warnings, 
        notification, preparedness, and mitigation to protect life and 
        property both in the United States;
          (2) to enhance and modernize the existing Pacific Tsunami 
        Warning System to increase coverage, reduce false alarms and 
        increase the accuracy of forecasts and warnings, and to expand 
        detection and warning systems to include other vulnerable 
        States and United States territories, including the Atlantic 
        Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico areas;
          (3) to improve mapping, modeling, research, and assessment 
        efforts to improve tsunami forecasting, preparedness, 
        mitigation, response, and recovery;
          (4) to improve and increase education and outreach activities 
        and ensure that those receiving tsunami warnings and the at-
        risk public know what to do when a tsunami is approaching;
          (5) to provide technical and other assistance to speed 
        international efforts to establish regional tsunami warning 
        systems in vulnerable areas worldwide, including the Indian 
        Ocean; and
          (6) to improve Federal, State, and international coordination 
        for tsunami and other coastal hazard warnings and preparedness.

SEC. 3. TSUNAMI FORECASTING AND WARNING PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, through the National Weather Service, shall 
operate a program to provide tsunami forecasting and warnings for the 
Pacific Ocean region and for the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and 
Gulf of Mexico region.
  (b) Components.--The program under this section shall--
          (1) include the tsunami warning centers established under 
        subsection (d);
          (2) provide tsunami forecasting capability based on models 
        and measurements, including tsunami inundation models and maps 
        for use in increasing the preparedness of communities, 
        including through the TsunamiReady program;
          (3) include a cooperative effort among the National Oceanic 
        and Atmospheric Administration, the United States Geological 
        Survey, and the National Science Foundation under which the 
        Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation shall 
        provide rapid and reliable seismic information to the National 
        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration from international and 
        domestic seismic networks;
          (4) provide a capability for the dissemination of warnings to 
        at-risk States and tsunami communities through rapid and 
        reliable notification to government officials and the public 
        through such means as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration weather radio and the All Hazard Alert 
        Broadcasting Radio; and
          (5) include any technology the Administrator considers 
        appropriate to fulfill the objectives of the program under this 
        section.
  (c) System Areas.--The program under this section shall operate--
          (1) a Pacific tsunami warning system capable of forecasting 
        tsunamis anywhere in the Pacific Ocean region and providing 
        adequate warnings; and
          (2) an Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico 
        tsunami warning system capable of forecasting tsunamis and 
        providing adequate warnings in areas of the Atlantic Ocean, 
        Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico that are determined--
                  (A) to be geologically active, or to have significant 
                potential for geological activity; and
                  (B) to pose significant risks of tsunamis for States 
                along the coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean, 
                Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico.
  (d) Tsunami Warning Centers.--
          (1) In general.--The Administrator, through the National 
        Weather Service, shall maintain or establish--
                  (A) a Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii;
                  (B) a West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center in 
                Alaska; and
                  (C) any additional forecast and warning centers 
                determined by the National Weather Service to be 
                necessary.
          (2) Responsibilities.--The responsibilities of each tsunami 
        warning center shall include--
                  (A) continuously monitoring data from seismological, 
                deep ocean, and tidal monitoring stations;
                  (B) evaluating earthquakes that have the potential to 
                generate tsunamis;
                  (C) evaluating deep ocean buoy data and tidal 
                monitoring stations for indications of tsunami 
                resulting from earthquakes and other sources;
                  (D) disseminating forecasts and tsunami warning 
                bulletins to Federal, State, and local government 
                officials and the public;
                  (E) coordinating with the tsunami hazard mitigation 
                program described in section 4 to ensure ongoing 
                sharing of information between forecasters and 
                emergency management officials; and
                  (F) making data gathered under this Act and post-
                warning analyses conducted by the National Weather 
                Service available to researchers.
  (e) Transfer of Technology; Maintenance and Upgrades.--
          (1) In general.--In carrying out this section, the National 
        Weather Service shall--
                  (A) develop requirements for the equipment used to 
                forecast tsunamis, which shall include provisions for 
                multipurpose detection platforms, reliability and 
                performance metrics, and to the maximum extent 
                practicable how the equipment will be integrated with 
                other United States and global ocean and coastal 
                observation systems, the global earth observing system 
                of systems, global seismic networks, and the Advanced 
                National Seismic System; and
                  (B) develop and execute a plan for the transfer of 
                technology from ongoing research described in section 5 
                into the program under this section.
          (2) Report to congress.--(A) Not later than 1 year after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the National Weather Service 
        shall transmit to Congress a report on how the tsunami forecast 
        system under this section will be integrated with other United 
        States and global ocean and coastal observation systems, the 
        global earth observing system of systems, global seismic 
        networks, and the Advanced National Seismic System.
          (B) Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment to 
        this Act, the National Weather Service shall transmit a report 
        to Congress on how technology developed under section 5 is 
        being transferred into the program under this section.
  (f) Congressional Notifications.--The Administrator shall notify the 
Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House 
of Representatives Committee on Science within 3 months of--
          (1) impaired regional forecasting capabilities due to 
        equipment or system failures; and
          (2) significant contractor failures or delays in completing 
        work associated with the tsunami forecasting and warning 
        system.
  (g) External Review.--The Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration shall enter into an arrangement with the 
National Academy of Sciences to review the tsunami detection, forecast, 
and warning program operated by the National Weather Service under this 
Act to assess further modernization and coverage needs, as well as 
long-term operational reliability issues, taking into account measures 
implemented under this Act. The review shall also include an assessment 
of how well the forecast equipment has been integrated into other 
United States and global ocean and coastal observation systems and the 
global earth observing system of systems. Not later than 2 years after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit a 
report containing the National Academy of Sciences' recommendations, 
the Administrator's responses to the recommendations, including those 
where the Administrator disagrees with the Academy, a timetable to 
implement the accepted recommendations, and the cost of implementing 
all the Academy's recommendations, to the Senate Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee 
on Science.

SEC. 4. NATIONAL TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, through the National Weather Service, shall 
conduct a community-based tsunami hazard mitigation program to improve 
tsunami preparedness of at-risk areas in the United States and its 
territories.
  (b) Coordinating Committee.--In conducting the program under this 
section, the Administrator shall establish a coordinating committee 
comprising representatives of Federal, State, local, and tribal 
government officials. The Administrator may establish subcommittees to 
address region-specific issues. The committee shall--
          (1) recommend how funds appropriated for carrying out the 
        program under this section will be allocated;
          (2) ensure that areas described in section 3(c) in the United 
        States and its territories can have the opportunity to 
        participate in the program; and
          (3) provide recommendations to the National Weather Service 
        on how to improve the TsunamiReady program, particularly on 
        ways to make communities more tsunami resilient through the use 
        of inundation maps and other mitigation practices.
  (c) Program Components.--The program under this section shall--
          (1) use inundation models that meet a standard of accuracy 
        defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
        to improve the quality and extent of inundation mapping, 
        including assessment of vulnerable inner coastal and nearshore 
        areas, in a coordinated and standardized fashion to maximize 
        resources and the utility of data collected;
          (2) promote and improve community outreach and education 
        networks and programs to ensure community readiness, including 
        the development of multi-hazard risk and vulnerability 
        assessment training and decision support tools, implementation 
        of technical training and public education programs, and 
        provide for certification of prepared communities;
          (3) integrate tsunami preparedness and mitigation programs 
        into ongoing hazard warning and risk management programs in 
        affected areas;
          (4) promote the adoption of tsunami warning and mitigation 
        measures by Federal, State, tribal, and local governments and 
        nongovernmental entities, including educational programs to 
        discourage development in high-risk areas; and
          (5) provide for periodic external review of the program.

SEC. 5. TSUNAMI RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  The Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration shall, in consultation with other agencies and academic 
institutions, and with the Coordinating Committee established under 
section 4(b), establish or maintain a tsunami research program to 
develop detection, forecast, communication, and mitigation science and 
technology, including advanced sensing techniques, information and 
communication technology, data collection, analysis, and assessment for 
tsunami tracking and numerical forecast modeling. Such research program 
shall--
          (1) consider other appropriate research to mitigate the 
        impact of tsunamis;
          (2) coordinate with the National Weather Service on 
        technology to be transferred to operations;
          (3) include social science research to develop and assess 
        community warning, education, and evacuation materials; and
          (4) ensure that research and findings are available to the 
        scientific community.

SEC. 6. GLOBAL TSUNAMI WARNING AND MITIGATION NETWORK.

  (a) International Tsunami Warning System.--The Administrator of the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, through the National 
Weather Service, in coordination with other members of the United 
States Interagency Committee of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation 
Program, shall provide technical assistance and training to the 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the World Meteorological 
Organization, and other international entities, as part of 
international efforts to develop a fully functional global tsunami 
forecast and warning system comprising regional tsunami warning 
networks, modeled on the International Tsunami Warning System of the 
Pacific.
  (b) International Tsunami Information Center.--The Administrator of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, through the 
National Weather Service, in cooperation with the Intergovernmental 
Oceanographic Commission, shall operate an International Tsunami 
Information Center to improve tsunami preparedness for all Pacific 
Ocean nations participating in the International Tsunami Warning System 
of the Pacific, and which may also provide such assistance to other 
nations participating in a global tsunami warning system established 
through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. As part of its 
responsibilities around the world, the Center shall--
          (1) monitor international tsunami warning activities around 
        the world;
          (2) assist member states in establishing national warning 
        systems, and make information available on current technologies 
        for tsunami warning systems;
          (3) maintain a library of materials to promulgate knowledge 
        about tsunamis in general and for use by the scientific 
        community; and
          (4) disseminate information, including educational materials 
        and research reports.
  (c) Detection Equipment; Technical Advice and Training.--In carrying 
out this section, the National Weather Service--
          (1) shall give priority to assisting nations in identifying 
        vulnerable coastal areas, creating inundation maps, obtaining 
        or designing real-time detection and reporting equipment, and 
        establishing communication and warning networks and contact 
        points in each vulnerable nation; and
          (2) may establish a process for transfer of detection and 
        communication technology to affected nations for the purposes 
        of establishing the international tsunami warning system.
  (d) Data-Sharing Requirement.--The National Weather Service, when 
deciding to provide assistance under this section, may take into 
consideration the data sharing policies and practices of nations 
proposed to receive such assistance, with a goal to encourage all 
nations to support full and open exchange of data.

SEC. 7. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator of the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to carry out this Act--
          (1) $26,000,000 for fiscal year 2006, of which--
                  (A) 62 percent shall be for the tsunami forecast and 
                warning systems under section 3 and international 
                activities under section 6;
                  (B) 30 percent shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 4; and
                  (C) 8 percent shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 5;
          (2) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, of which--
                  (A) 66 percent shall be for the tsunami forecast and 
                warning systems under section 3 and international 
                activities under section 6;
                  (B) 26 percent shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 4; and
                  (C) 8 percent shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 5; and
          (3) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which--
                  (A) 66 percent shall be for the tsunami forecast and 
                warning systems under section 3 and international 
                activities under section 6;
                  (B) 26 percent shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 4; and
                  (C) 8 percent shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 5.

                        II. PURPOSE OF THE BILL

    The purpose of H.R. 1674, the United States Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act, is to improve tsunami detection, 
forecasting, warnings, notification, preparedness, and 
mitigation to protect life and property in the United States 
and to assist the international community in the development of 
an integrated global tsunami warning and education system.

              III. BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR THE LEGISLATION

Indian Ocean Basin Tsunami

    On December 26, 2004, an estimated magnitude 9.2 undersea 
earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, 
unleashed a tsunami that affected more than 12 countries 
throughout Southeast Asia and stretched as far as the 
Northeastern African coast. Massive tsunami waves hit the 
Indonesian coast within minutes of the earthquake, and other 
deadly waves raced across the entire 3,000-mile span of the 
Indian Ocean Basin within hours. Current estimates indicate 
that at least 150,000 people were killed, and millions more 
were injured, displaced or otherwise affected. Experts believe 
that the earthquake that caused the tsunami was the most 
powerful in 40 years and the fourth largest in the last 
century. The death toll appears to be the worst on record for a 
tsunami. Most experts agree that thousands of lives could have 
been saved if an adequate tsunami detection, warning and 
education program had existed in these areas.

Tsunamis in the United States

    While no tsunami has caused equivalent devastation in the 
U.S., tsunamis have hit the U.S. in recent decades, and almost 
all of the major ones were generated in the Pacific Ocean.
    In 1946, an earthquake along the Aleutian fault (Alaska) 
produced waves up to 55 feet high, destroying the City of 
Hilo's waterfront (Big Island, Hawaii). The tsunami killed 159 
people and caused $255 million in damage (in today's dollars). 
In response to this event the Federal government established 
the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii in 1948.
    In 1960, a magnitude 9.5 earthquake, the most powerful 
earthquake in the 20th century, occurred off the coast of 
Chile. The resulting Pacific-wide tsunami reached Hawaii with 
waves as high as 35 feet, causing 61 deaths and $155 million in 
damages (in today's dollars).
    In 1964, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest earthquake 
in the Northern Hemisphere in the 20th century, occurred in 
Alaska. The resulting tsunami devastated five of Alaska's seven 
largest communities and nearly destroyed the Alaskan fishing 
industry. Waves also reached the entire California coastline 
with heights of 7 to 21 feet. Half of the waterfront district 
in Crescent City, CA was destroyed. The tsunami killed more 
than 120 people in the U.S. and Canada and caused a total of 
$515 million in damage (in today's dollars).
    Many experts predict that an earthquake similar in 
magnitude and proximity to the shore as that which occurred in 
Sumatra has a 10 to 15 percent chance of striking the West 
Coast of the U.S. within the next 50 years. Such a tsunami 
would wreak havoc on the West Coast within minutes, before any 
warnings could likely be issued. Therefore, the best way to 
save lives during such an event is for States and local 
officials to develop evacuation and disaster plans and educate 
the public about what it must do immediately after feeling the 
ground shake.
    From June 14 to June 17, 2005, four earthquakes, the 
largest being a magnitude 7.2, shook the West Coast. While, 
fortunately, none of the earthquakes caused a tsunami, news 
reports highlighted the fragmented and divergent warning 
systems and responses from State and local officials and the 
public. These events further showed the need for a coordinated 
education and outreach plan.

Existing U.S. Tsunami Warning System

    To protect the U.S., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA) operates two tsunami warning centers, one 
in Alaska and one in Hawaii. The Hawaiian center dates back to 
1948, and the entire warning system as it exists today, which 
includes tsunami-detecting buoys, has been in place since 2001. 
But, because there are no tsunami-detecting buoys or other 
detection equipment in the Indian Ocean Basin, the U.S. warning 
centers were unable to adequately forecast the December 2004 
Indian Ocean Basin tsunami or send warnings to the affected 
nations in time to be helpful. If the disaster had occurred in 
the Pacific Ocean, some experts question whether the U.S. would 
have been adequately prepared, because three of the six special 
tsunami-detecting buoys the U.S. has deployed in the Pacific 
Ocean were not functioning at the time. The U.S. has no tsunami 
detection and warning systems in place for the coastal areas of 
the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico or Caribbean Sea, areas that 
face at least some risk of tsunamis.

Administration Tsunami Plan

    On January 14, 2005, in response to the Indian Ocean Basin 
tsunami, the Administration announced an interagency plan to 
improve U.S. risk assessment, detection and warning 
capabilities, and disaster planning for tsunamis. The plan 
would cost $37.5 million over Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006, with 
about $24 million for NOAA and about $13.5 million for the 
United States Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the proposed 
funding for NOAA would be used to procure and deploy 32 special 
tsunami-detecting buoys, while funding for USGS would be to 
upgrade and expand its seismic sensor network. This legislation 
is based on the Administration's proposal. H.R. 1674 authorizes 
the tsunami activities at NOAA and addresses concerns that a 
number of experts voiced regarding deficiencies in the 
Administration's proposal, most notably, a lack of emphasis on 
education and outreach activities.

                        IV. SUMMARY OF HEARINGS

    The House Committee on Science held a hearing January 26, 
2005, on ``Tsunamis: Is the U.S. Prepared?'' The hearing 
focused on the causes of tsunamis, the risks they pose to the 
U.S. and to the rest of the world, and how the U.S. should 
prepare for them.
    The Committee heard from: (1) The Honorable Jay Inslee, 
Member, U.S. House of Representatives; (2) Dr. Charles ``Chip'' 
Groat, Director of the United States Geological Survey; (3) 
Gen. David L. Johnson (ret.), Director of the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service; (4) 
Dr. John Orcutt, Deputy Director for Research at the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San 
Diego, and President of the American Geophysical Union; (5) Dr. 
Arthur Lerner-Lam, Director of the Columbia Center for Hazards 
and Risk Research, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia 
University; and (6) Mr. Jay Wilson, Coordinator of Earthquake 
and Tsunami Programs, Plans and Training Section, Oregon 
Emergency Management.
    Congressman Inslee testified that the country will 
experience future earthquakes and tsunamis and that many areas 
in the country are at risk. He stated that the U.S. needs to 
deploy significantly more tsunami-detecting buoys to adequately 
detect tsunamis approaching the U.S. In addition, he argued 
that buoys would not be sufficient without a warning and 
education system to provide people on the shorelines with a 
course of action in the event of an earthquake or tsunami.
    Dr. Groat testified that the Pacific Northwest is at 
significant risk from tsunami-causing earthquakes. He said that 
under the Administration's proposal USGS would be able to 
significantly improve earthquake data processing and analysis, 
which would increase the USGS's ability to determine whether 
any given earthquake is likely to cause a tsunami and to 
transmit that data more quickly to tsunami forecasters and 
other officials.
    Gen. Johnson stated that under the Administration's 
proposal NOAA would expand the current tsunami warning system 
for the U.S. through the installation of 32 new tsunami-
detecting buoys and 38 new sea-level monitoring and tide gauges 
by 2007. Furthermore, the Administration's plan would increase 
funding for NOAA's TsunamiReady program, he said, which 
provides education and outreach to vulnerable communities. 
Finally, the Administration and NOAA support the development of 
a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), he said, 
which would link observations taken from many nations and help 
provide a real-time international tsunami warning capability. 
This capability did not exist when the Indian Ocean tsunami 
occurred, he noted. Gen. Johnson stated he supported efforts by 
Congress to help implement these programs.
    Dr. Orcutt stressed that long-term maintenance of the 
Global Seismic Network (GSN) and tsunami-detection systems is 
extremely important. He argued that current GSN funding is 
inadequate. He also testified that there should be a greater 
emphasis on deployment of inexpensive monitoring technology and 
suggested that any technology should be integrated with 
existing systems.
    Dr. Lerner-Lam stated that the Administration's proposal 
should have a greater emphasis on involving regional, State and 
local agencies in the development of a comprehensive tsunami 
warning program. He noted that the proposal lacked appropriate 
funds to develop new technologies. In addition, he stated that 
the tsunami warning system buoys and tide gauges should be a 
part of GEOSS, and ensure interoperability of its system with 
those developed by international partners.
    Mr. Wilson discussed the importance of the National Tsunami 
Hazard Mitigation Program, a Federal/State community-based 
outreach and education program, and suggested that it be funded 
at an annual level of at least $7.8 million. This level of 
funding would be the most cost-effective means of protecting 
U.S. coastlines by providing long-term support for the state 
tsunami hazard mapping and mitigation programs, he said. These 
mapping and mitigation programs provide States and localities 
with the necessary information to prepare evacuation and 
disaster plans and to educate the public about the plans, he 
said.

                          V. COMMITTEE ACTIONS

    On January 26, 2005, the Committee on Science heard 
testimony from State and Federal officials on the threat that 
tsunamis posed to the United States, as well as on steps the 
Federal government should take to mitigate these threats. On 
April 18, 2005, Congressman Sherwood Boehlert introduced H.R. 
1674, the United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act, 
which was referred to the Committee on Science.
    On April 20, 2005, the Subcommittee on Environment, 
Technology, and Standards considered H.R. 1674, The United 
States Tsunami Warning and Education Act, and ordered the 
measure reported favorably, without amendment, by a voice vote.
    On May 4, 2005, the Committee on Science met to consider 
H.R. 1674, and considered the following amendments to the bill:
    1. Mr. Boehlert offered a manger's amendment that made 
technical corrections to the bill based on recommendations from 
the Administration. The amendment also increased the funding 
for the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program from $6 
million to $7.8 million as recommended by State officials and 
supported by other Members of the Committee. The amendment was 
adopted by a voice vote.
    2. Mr. Wu offered an amendment to authorize the study of 
the potential for improving communication systems for tsunami 
hazards warnings. Mr. Wu made a motion to withdraw his 
amendment, and by unanimous consent, the request to withdraw 
the amendment was agreed to.
    The motion to adopt the bill as amended passed by a voice 
vote. Mr. Gordon moved that the Committee favorably report the 
bill H.R. 1674, as amended, to the House with the 
recommendation that the bill, as amended, do pass; that the 
staff be instructed to prepare the legislative report and make 
necessary technical and conforming changes; and that the 
Chairman take all necessary steps to bring the bill before the 
House for consideration. With a quorum present, the motion was 
agreed to by a voice vote.

        VI. SUMMARY OF MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE BILL, AS REPORTED

    H.R. 1674 would:
     Expand tsunami forecasting and warning capability 
to cover all U.S. coastlines (not just the Pacific). The bill 
would provide flexibility to NOAA to determine the proper mix 
of tsunami detection equipment (buoys, tidal gauges, etc.) that 
it should deploy, but require that the components be integrated 
with other ocean observing systems.
     Place greater emphasis on tsunami education and 
outreach activities. The bill would codify the National Tsunami 
Hazard Mitigation Program, an existing Federal-State 
partnership, to improve community awareness and preparedness 
for tsunamis. States would help decide what activities would be 
funded, such as developing and updating inundation maps and 
evacuation plans and installing warning sirens.
     Require NOAA to have a dedicated tsunami research 
program to improve capabilities to detect, forecast, and 
mitigate tsunami threats with specific research on new buoys, 
modeling and mapping.
     Direct the National Academy of Sciences to review 
NOAA's tsunami programs and provide recommendations to improve 
them.
     Require NOAA to notify Congress within three 
months if any part of the detection or warning system 
malfunctions.
     Direct NOAA to provide technical advice and 
training to the international community. NOAA would provide 
guidance on detection equipment, identifying and mapping 
vulnerable coastal areas and developing communication 
technologies to provide quick and reliable warnings to 
vulnerable communities.
     Authorize appropriations for NOAA of $26 million 
in FY 2006, with 62 percent allocated for tsunami forecasting 
and warning systems and international activities; 30 percent 
for the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program; and 8 
percent for the tsunami research program. For FY 2007 and 2008, 
the bill would authorize appropriations for NOAA of $30 
million, with 66 percent allocated for tsunami forecast and 
warning systems and international activities; 26 percent for 
the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program; and 8 percent 
for the tsunami research program.

  VII. SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS (BY TITLE AND SECTION), AS REPORTED

Section 1. Short title

    The United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act

Section 2. Purposes

    Describes the purposes of the Act: (1) to improve tsunami 
detection, forecasting, warnings, notification, preparedness 
and mitigation in the U.S.; (2) to enhance and modernize the 
existing Pacific tsunami warning system and to expand detection 
and warning systems to the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and 
Gulf of Mexico; (3) to improve tsunami mapping, modeling, 
research and assessment efforts; (4) to improve and increase 
education and outreach activities; (5) to provide technical and 
other assistance to international efforts to establish regional 
tsunami warning systems in vulnerable areas worldwide, 
including the Indian Ocean region; and (6) to improve Federal, 
state, and international coordination for tsunami and other 
coastal hazard warnings and preparedness.

Section 3. Tsunami forecasting and warning program

    Requires NOAA to operate a program to provide tsunami 
forecasting and warnings for the Pacific Ocean region, and for 
the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico regions.
    The components of the program shall include: tsunami 
warning centers; forecasting capabilities, based on 
measurements, models and maps; a cooperative effort among NOAA, 
USGS, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to provide 
seismic information; and the capability for the rapid and 
reliable dissemination of tsunami warnings to States and 
communities.
    Directs the National Weather Service to develop 
requirements for the equipment used to forecast tsunamis, 
including how the equipment will be integrated into other 
United States and global environmental observing systems, and a 
plan for the transfer of technology from research into 
operations. Requires the National Weather Service to submit 
reports to Congress on how it will integrate the equipment and 
on the technology transfer plan. Also requires the National 
Weather Service to notify Congress when tsunami forecasting 
capabilities are impaired for more than three months due to 
equipment or contractor problems.
    Requires the Administrator to enter into an arrangement 
with the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate and provide 
recommendations on how to improve NOAA's tsunami detection, 
forecast and warning activities.

Section 4. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Directs the National Weather Service to conduct the 
National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, a Federal-State 
partnership to improve community awareness and preparation for 
tsunamis. Establishes a coordinating committee of Federal and 
state officials, which shall develop a plan for ensuring wide 
participation in the program; determine how funds will be 
allocated; and provide recommendations to increase resiliency 
of vulnerable communities. Specifically, the National Tsunami 
Hazard Mitigation Program will use NOAA models and maps to 
assess vulnerable areas; promote and improve community outreach 
and education networks; and integrate tsunami preparedness and 
mitigation programs into ongoing hazard warnings and planning.

Section 5. Tsunami research program

    Requires NOAA to establish a tsunami research program to 
develop detection, forecasting, communication and mitigation 
tools and technologies. Directs the research program to work 
with the National Weather Service on ways to transfer the 
research into operations.

Section 6. Global tsunami warning and mitigation network

    Directs NOAA to provide technical assistance and training 
to the international community toward the development of a 
fully functional global tsunami forecast and warning system. 
Establishes the International Tsunami Information Center to 
provide information and advice to nations around the world to 
improve tsunami preparedness.

Section 7. Authorization of appropriations

    Authorizes appropriations of $26 million for fiscal year 
2006 and $30 million for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008 to 
carry out the Act. Specifies that of any funds appropriated for 
activities under this act for fiscal year 2006, 62 percent 
should be used for the tsunami forecast and warning systems 
under section 3 and section 6, 30 percent should be used for 
the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program under section 4, 
and 8 percent should be for the tsunami research program under 
section 5. For each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008, 66 percent 
should be used for the tsunami forecast and warning systems 
under section 3 and section 6, 26 percent should be used for 
the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program under section 4, 
and 8 percent should be for the tsunami research program under 
section 5.

                         VIII. COMMITTEE VIEWS

Section 3. Tsunami forecasting and warning program

    The massive destruction and widespread nature of the Indian 
Ocean Basin tsunami has caused the U.S. to reevaluate its 
existing system, which currently only has detection 
capabilities in the Pacific Ocean. The Act requires NOAA to 
expand its detection and warning system to the areas of the 
Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, which also 
have some risk of tsunamis. Because of its expertise in 
seismology and earthquakes, the Committee expects NOAA to work 
with the USGS on how best to provide coverage and where to 
deploy technology in these new areas.
    The seismic networks operated by the USGS and NSF provide 
earthquake information that is vital to NOAA's abilities to 
properly forecast tsunamis, although NOAA does have a few 
seismic sensors of its own. The Act requires NOAA to work in 
cooperation with USGS and NSF to ensure information is shared 
rapidly. The Committee expects this cooperative effort will 
enable improvements in collecting and transmitting crucial 
earthquake data, in forecasting tsunamis, and in issuing 
tsunami warnings to potentially affected communities, 
ultimately shaving valuable seconds off the response time to 
these fast-moving disasters.
    To be more cost-effective, provide greater scientific 
value, and increase support for sustainable funding for the 
tsunami detection systems, the Act requires NOAA to develop 
specific requirements for the buoys, including provisions to 
ensure the equipment will serve multiple purposes and to be 
integrated into other global observing systems. The Committee 
will follow this issue closely as the Act also requires NOAA to 
report to Congress about its integration efforts.
    The Committee expects the Administration to utilize and 
maintain the maximum practicable array of robust detection 
technologies, including (but not limited to) deep ocean 
detection buoys (including redundant and spare buoys) and an 
associated tide-gauge and water level system for long-term 
continuous operation of tsunami detection, forecasting and 
warning transmission capabilities.
    The Committee expects the Administrator to seek the 
assistance of the Coast Guard, Navy, and other appropriate 
Federal agencies when deploying and maintaining tsunami 
detection technologies.
    The Act requires NOAA to contract with the National Academy 
of Sciences to review NOAA's entire tsunami detection, 
forecast, and warning program. The Committee expects the review 
to include consideration of the following specific issues:
           Whether the program is being implemented in 
        the most effective way possible;
           Whether the geographic distribution of the 
        tsunami-detecting buoys and other instruments are 
        optimal; and
           Whether those instruments are sufficiently 
        integrated into other ocean-observing systems so as to 
        ensure the long-term sustainability of the program.
    The Committee expects NOAA to follow the Academy's report 
as it updates and improves tsunami detection, forecast and 
warning activities.

Section 4. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    The Committee heard repeatedly from witnesses and outside 
experts about the importance of education and outreach 
programs. While buoy technology is important in accurately and 
quickly forecasting tsunamis, the affected public must know 
what to do and where to go when a tsunami could be approaching. 
Unfortunately, in the case of the Indian Ocean Basin tsunami, 
thousands of lives could have been saved if people had simply 
known what to do and had sought higher ground upon feeling the 
earth shake violently.
    The Committee expects NOAA to use the National Tsunami 
Hazard Mitigation Program as the foundation of its education 
and outreach activities. While the program's focus must expand 
to include the U.S. states and territories along the Atlantic 
Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, the Committee expects 
the program to continue to focus on those areas most vulnerable 
to a tsunami.
    The Committee expects that the Tsunami Hazard Mitigation 
Program Coordinating Committee will include representatives 
from the following federal agencies: the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (chair), the United States 
Geological Survey (through its earthquake programs), the 
National Science Foundation, the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology, and the Federal Emergency Management 
Administration.
    The capability to share information in the event of an 
emergency is imperative. Development of communication networks 
must be part of a coordinated effort between coastal community, 
county, State, and Federal participants.
    While the Act does not explicitly spell out how such a 
communications infrastructure is to be developed, the Committee 
notes already-existing public-private efforts, and encourages 
NOAA to work with such local stakeholders to further improve 
such coastal tsunami warning and communications systems.
    The Administration's proposal highlights the National 
Weather Service's TsunamiReady Program, which certifies that 
localities have met specific criteria in tsunami disaster 
planning. However, many States and localities have complained 
that the TsunamiReady Program does not currently provide 
funding or adequate advice to communities on how to meet the 
criteria. The Committee expects NOAA to incorporate the 
recommendations of the Coordinating Committee to improve the 
TsunamiReady Program.

Section 5. Tsunami research program

    The Committee expects those involved in the research 
program to coordinate closely with those in the National 
Weather Service to ensure that the ideas that arise from 
successful research conducted under this section will be put 
into operational use.
    The Committee expects that the tsunami research program 
will help develop tools to determine whether an earthquake or 
other seismic event will result in a tsunami and the likely 
path, severity, duration, and travel time of a tsunami. Also, 
the research program shall develop techniques and technologies 
that may be used to communicate tsunami forecasts and warnings 
as quickly and effectively as possible to affected communities. 
The Committee also expects the Administrator to ensure that the 
research program is coordinated with efforts of other agencies 
to ensure techniques and technologies are being developed and 
deployed that would support evacuation information needs, 
including real-time notice of problems or blockages along 
tsunami evacuation routes in at-risk areas.

Section 6. Global tsunami warning and mitigation network

    In the aftermath of the December 24, 2004 earthquake and 
tsunami, NOAA officials stated that no formal mechanisms or 
protocols were in place to warn Indian Ocean Basin nations. The 
Committee expects NOAA to work with the international community 
to remedy this situation.
    The international community has since held several meetings 
to examine how best to develop a global tsunami warning system. 
The Committee is concerned by news reports that many of the 
nations plan to develop their own independent systems, which 
could jeopardize the sharing of information and hamper efforts 
to adequately provide tsunami forecasts and warnings for all 
nations. The Committee expects the National Weather Service to 
coordinate with the State Department to find ways to encourage 
nations to make their systems interoperable with the U.S. 
system.
    The Committee assumes that the Administration's receipt of 
reimbursement from international partners will continue under 
the same procedures in effect on the date of enactment of this 
Act.

Section 7. Authorization of appropriations

    The Committee is concerned that the Administration's 
tsunami proposal may rely too heavily on expensive buoys and 
rely too little on education and outreach. To ensure that NOAA 
strikes a better balance in implementing the Act, the Committee 
prescribes a percentage of any amounts appropriated for each 
component of the program and expects NOAA to follow the 
percentages.

                           IX. COST ESTIMATE

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science prior to the filing of this report and 
is included in Section X of this report pursuant to House Rule 
XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 1674 contains no new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
1674 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section X of this report.

              X. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE COST ESTIMATE

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, May 12, 2005.
Hon. Sherwood L. Boehlert,
Chairman, Committee on Science,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1674, the United 
States Tsunami Warning and Education Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Deborah Reis.
            Sincerely,
                                       Douglas Holtz-Eakin,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 1674--United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act

    Summary: H.R. 1674 would direct the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration to establish and implement new 
programs to research, detect, monitor, and mitigate the effects 
of tsunamis in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the Caribbean 
Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. The bill would direct the agency 
to upgrade and improve existing systems and data management 
efforts and would authorize it to provide technical aid to 
those affected by tsunamis, including local and international 
entities. For those purposes, the bill would authorize the 
appropriation of $26 million for fiscal year 2006 and $30 
million for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008.
    CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 1674 would cost a 
total of $86 million over the 2006-2010 period, assuming 
appropriation of the amounts authorized. Enacting H.R. 1674 
could affect direct spending, but CBO estimates any offsetting 
receipts and subsequent spending would not exceed $500,000 in 
any year. Enacting the bill would not affect revenues.
    H.R. 1674 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). 
Coastal states and local communities would benefit from the 
programs and grants authorized in this bill; any costs they may 
incur would be from complying with conditions of federal 
assistance.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 1674 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 300 
(natural resources and environment).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      By fiscal year, in millions of
                                                 dollars--
                                 ---------------------------------------
                                   2006    2007    2008    2009    2010
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Authorization Level.............      26      30      30       0       0
Estimated Outlays...............       5      15      25      28      13
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 1674 will be 
enacted by the beginning of 2006 and that the entire amounts 
authorized will be appropriated for each year. Estimated 
outlays are based on historical spending patterns of similar 
scientific programs. Some of the costs of carrying out a global 
tsunami warning and mitigation program may be offset by 
reimbursements from other countries participating in the 
program, but CBO estimates that such reimbursements would be 
less than $500,000 annually.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 1674 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined by UMRA. Coastal states and local communities would 
benefit from the programs and grants authorized in this bill; 
any costs they may incur would be from complying with 
conditions of federal assistance.
    Previous CBO estimate: On March 17, 2005, CBO transmitted a 
cost estimate for S. 50, the Tsunami Preparedness Act, as 
ordered reported by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation on March 17, 2005. The two versions of the 
legislation are similar; however, the House version would 
authorize a lesser amount of appropriations: S. 50 would 
authorize the appropriation of $40 million a year for 2006 
through 2012.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Deborah Reis and Mike 
Waters. Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Lisa 
Ramirez-Branum. Impact on the Private Sector: Jean Talarico.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                  XI. COMPLIANCE WITH PUBLIC LAW 104-4

    H.R. 1674 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. COMMITTEE OVERSIGHT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee on Science's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the body of this report.

      XIII. STATEMENT ON GENERAL PERFORMANCE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

    The goal of this Act is to improve tsunami detection, 
forecasting, warnings, notification, preparedness, and 
mitigation to protect life and property in the United States 
and assist the international community in the development of an 
integrated global tsunami warning and education system.

                XIV. CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY STATEMENT

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 1674.

                XV. FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE STATEMENT

    The Act codifies an existing advisory committee.

                 XVI. CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY ACT

    The Committee finds that H.R. 1674 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

      XVII. STATEMENT ON PREEMPTION OF STATE, LOCAL, OR TRIBAL LAW

    This bill is not intended to preempt any State, local, or 
tribal law.

      XVIII. CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW MADE BY THE BILL, AS REPORTED

    This legislation does not amend any existing Federal 
statute.

                     XIX. COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    On May 4, 2005, a quorum being present, the Committee on 
Science favorably reported H.R. 1674, the United States Tsunami 
Warning and Education Act, by a voice vote and recommended its 
enactment.





  XXII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE MARKUP BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT, 
   TECHNOLOGY, AND STANDARDS ON H.R. 1674, U.S. TSUNAMI WARNING AND 
                             EDUCATION ACT

                              ----------                              


                       WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 2005

                  House of Representatives,
      Subcommittee on Environment, Technology, and 
                                         Standards,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 3:00 p.m., in 
Room 2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Vernon J. 
Ehlers [Chairman of the Subcommittee] presiding.
    Chairman Ehlers. Good afternoon. The Subcommittee will be 
in order. Pursuant to notice, the Subcommittee on Environment, 
Technology, and Standards meets today to consider the following 
measure, H.R. 1674, United States Tsunami Warning and Education 
Act.
    I ask unanimous consent for the authority to recess the 
Subcommittee at any point, and without objection, it is so 
ordered. We will now consider the bill, H.R. 1674, and proceed 
with opening remarks.
    On December 26, 2004, one of the most devastating tsunamis 
ever recorded struck the nations of the Indian Ocean basin. And 
incidentally, I move that my entire statement be entered in the 
record, and I will try to skip certain portions of it. As 
people recovered from the shock of the event, we naturally 
began to ask questions, such as what can we learn from this to 
prevent future disasters.
    In that vein, I joined Chairman Boehlert, Mr. Wu, and Mr. 
Inslee, to introduce H.R. 1674. This bill, the U.S. Tsunami 
Warning and Education Act, authorizes $30 million annually for 
NOAA to expand tsunami forecasts and warning capability for all 
U.S. coastlines, to increase emphasis on community-based 
tsunami education and outreach activities, so that the public 
knows the proper response to tsunami warnings. Third, to 
maintain a tsunami research program, and fourth, to provide 
technical advice and training to the international community. 
The bill is based on the Administration's proposal for a 
national tsunami warning system, and it incorporates comments 
from many experts.
    Unfortunately, it has taken a tragic event to bring natural 
disaster response planning to our attention today. However, now 
that the opportunity is upon us, we must act quickly to 
establish a tsunami forecast and warning system for the Untied 
States, and to educate the public to understand and heed the 
warnings.
    This is an excellent bill, produced by Chairman Boehlert, 
and I urge my colleagues to support this bill and pass it along 
to the Full Committee.
    I also want to add one other comment. All the attention of 
the tsunami in the Indian Ocean basin has created this 
interest, but we should be aware that many countries are 
vulnerable to tsunami damage, and in particular, the United 
States frequently encounters damage in Alaska and the Hawaiian 
islands. However, the mainland is also not immune. In March of 
1964, when the Great Alaska Earthquake occurred, tsunamis 
traveled down the West Coast of the United States. The place 
that got hit the hardest, just because of the direction of the 
wave, and the topography of the area, and the direction of the 
opening of the Bay, was Crescent City, California. And in 
particular, this illustrates the importance of educating people 
about tsunamis. In particular, they were hit hard because, 
after the first wave or two hit, they thought well, that is it. 
Tsunamis are only one or two waves. And they went back to their 
homes and businesses. The third and the fourth waves were by 
far the largest, and basically demolished the city, killing a 
great many people. Though they are now, I would say, the best 
educated area of the United States. In terms of tsunami 
warnings, they know precisely how to deal with it. We want to 
achieve that throughout the world, in any area susceptible to 
tsunamis.
    I am now pleased to recognize Mr. Wu for five minutes to 
present his opening remarks.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Ehlers follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Chairman Vernon J. Ehlers
    Good afternoon everyone. Thank you for coming to today's brief 
Subcommittee markup of H.R. 1674, the U.S. Tsunami Warning and 
Education Act. On December 26, 2004, one of the most devastating 
tsunamis ever recorded struck the nations of the Indian Ocean Basin. As 
people recovered from the shock of the event, we naturally began to ask 
questions such as ``What can we learn from this to prevent future 
disasters?'' In that vein, I joined Chairman Boehlert, Mr. Wu, and Mr. 
Inslee to introduce H.R. 1674.
    The U.S. Tsunami Warning and Education Act authorizes $30 million 
annually for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to:

          expand tsunami forecast and warning capability for 
        all U.S. coastlines;

          increase emphasis on community-based tsunami 
        education and outreach activities so that the public knows the 
        proper response to tsunami warnings;

          maintain a tsunami research program; and

          provide technical advice and training to the 
        international community.

    The bill is based on the Administration's proposal for a national 
tsunami warning system and incorporates comments from many experts, 
including witnesses at the Science Committee hearing held in January.
    Unfortunately, it has taken a tragic event to bring natural 
disaster response planning to our attention today. However, now that 
the opportunity is upon us we must act quickly to establish a tsunami 
forecast and warning system for the United States, and to educate the 
public to understand and heed the warnings. Chairman Boehlert developed 
an excellent bill and we do not anticipate any amendments at today's 
markup. I urge my colleagues to support this bill and pass it along to 
the Full Committee.

    Mr. Wu. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and good afternoon. I 
thank the Chairman, Chairman Ehlers, and Chairman Boehlert for 
bringing H.R. 1674 before the Committee and this subcommittee 
this afternoon, and I am pleased to be an original co-sponsor 
of this legislation.
    While we cannot prevent earthquakes and tsunami, we can 
prepare for them, and ensure that the citizens of our coastal 
communities take appropriate action when an event occurs, and 
well before the event, in preparation for it. Detection and 
forecasting are not sufficient. States and local communities 
must be prepared to disseminate the warning, and to direct the 
public to areas of safety. Individual citizens must know where 
to go when they receive a warning, or how to proceed if no 
warning is forthcoming, and they sense, and they undergo a 
large earthquake near the ocean.
    I am fortunate to represent a Congressional district in 
Oregon with a beautiful coastline. However, we are also well 
aware of the potential danger presented by the Cascadia fault, 
a subduction fault line located just off-shore. A 250 mile 
region of this subduction fault zone is currently locked. It 
has been locked, we believe, for the last 300 years, or 305 
years, and it is not a matter of whether, it is only a matter 
of when a large earthquake will occur. It may be immediately 
off the coastline of Oregon and Washington.
    Oregon has done a great deal to keep our coastline both 
beautiful and our citizens safe. Cannon Beach, a coastal 
community in the First Congressional District of Oregon, was 
one of the first coastal communities to be designated Tsunami-
Ready by NOAA. H.R. 1674 builds upon the successful partnership 
that exists between Federal, State, and local governments on 
the West Coast to ensure that all U.S. coastal communities will 
be prepared to deal with tsunami. The bill authorizes the type 
of end-to-end system that we must have if we are to avoid the 
catastrophic loss of life experienced last December in the 
Indian Ocean nations.
    I still have some concerns about the funding levels we are 
authorizing in this bill. State and local governments have 
limited resources, and the current funding level in the bill of 
$6 million per year for tsunami mitigation and education is 
less than the $7.8 million per year recommended at our Science 
Committee hearing by Mr. Jay Wilson of Oregon Emergency 
Management, and I must note that the $7.8 million recommended 
number was for the Pacific coast, and the $6 million number 
that we were talking about is not only for the Pacific coast, 
but it is also for the Caribbean and Atlantic basins. The 
addition of the Atlantic and Caribbean basins to the warning 
network will increase the demands on the funds available for 
inundation mapping, education, and local community mitigation 
and preparation steps.
    I look forward to continuing to work with my colleagues on 
this bill as it moves forward, to ensure that we provide 
sufficient resources for education and hazard mitigation. I 
understand that we have constraints on our total budget, on 
total expenditures, and understand that there are certain 
minimum requirements that our physical system needs in order to 
maintain full capacity. However, I just need to point out, once 
again, as I have in other settings, that the education and 
mitigation steps provided for in this bill are those parts of 
the bill which will most directly benefit Americans in case of 
a near-shore earthquake right off our shores. The hardware and 
the other necessary sensors, if a near-shore earthquake occurs 
off North America, will certainly be helpful and appropriately 
so, to people we care about in Japan or elsewhere in the world, 
but the only thing that can help Americans here, if there is a 
near-shore earthquake, are mitigation and education steps.
    I look forward to working with Chairman Ehlers, Chairman 
Boehlert, and other co-sponsors, and other Members--co-sponsors 
of the legislation, and Members of this subcommittee, and the 
Science Committee, to set forth the best piece of legislation 
that we possibly can, and I urge support of the existing 
legislation by all the Members of this panel.
    Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I yield back the balance 
of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Wu follows:]
             Prepared Statement of Representative David Wu
    Good afternoon. I thank the Chairman for bringing H.R. 1674 before 
the Subcommittee this afternoon. I am pleased to be a co-sponsor of 
this legislation.
    We cannot prevent earthquakes and tsunamis, but we can prepare for 
them and ensure the citizens of our coastal communities take 
appropriate action when an event occurs. Detection and forecasting are 
not sufficient. States and local communities must be prepared to 
disseminate the warning and direct the public to safe areas. Individual 
citizens must know where to go when they receive a warning.
    I am fortunate to represent a district in Oregon with a beautiful 
coastline. However, we are also well aware of the potential danger 
presented by the Cascadia fault located just off-shore. Oregon has done 
a great deal to keep our coastline beautiful and our citizens safe. 
Cannon Beach, a coastal community in my district, was one of the first 
coastal communities to be designated Tsunami-Ready by NOAA.
    H.R. 1674 builds upon the successful partnership that exists 
between the Federal, State, and local governments on the west coast to 
ensure that all U.S. coastal communities will be prepared to deal with 
tsunamis. The bill authorizes the type of end-to-end system we must 
have if we are to avoid the catastrophic loss of life experienced last 
December in the Indian Ocean nations.
    I still have some concerns about the funding levels we are 
authorizing in the bill. State and local governments have limited 
resources and the current funding level of $6 million per year for 
tsunami hazard mitigation is less than the $7.8 million per year 
recommended at our hearing by Mr. Jay Wilson of Oregon Emergency 
Management.
    Addition of the Atlantic and Caribbean basins to the warning 
network will increase the demands on the funds available for inundation 
mapping, education and local communication networks. I will continue to 
work with my colleagues as this bill moves forward to ensure we provide 
sufficient resources for education and hazard mitigation.
    I look forward to working with Chairman Ehlers and the other co-
sponsors of this legislation to move this legislation through the 
Committee. I urge support of the legislation by all my colleagues.

    Chairman Ehlers. Without objection, all Members may place 
opening statements in the record at this point. I hear no 
objection. So ordered.
    I ask unanimous consent that the bill is considered as read 
and open to amendment at any point. Without objection, so 
ordered.
    Are there any amendments? Hearing none, the question is on 
the bill, H.R. 1674, United States Tsunami Warning and 
Education Act. All those in favor will say aye. Aye. All those 
opposed will say no.
    In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes have it. I will now 
recognize Mr. Wu to offer a motion.
    Mr. Wu. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Subcommittee 
favorably report the bill, H.R. 1674 to the Full Committee. 
Further, I ask unanimous consent that the staff be instructed 
to make all necessary technical and conforming changes to the 
bill in accordance with the recommendation of the subcommittee.
    Chairman Ehlers. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Aye. Opposed, no.
    At this, the ayes appear to have it, and the bill is 
favorably reported. Without objection, the motion to reconsider 
is laid upon the table.
    I have one item of business before we adjourn, and that is 
to recognize that our esteemed Staff Director for this 
subcommittee and his wife enjoy the presence of a new baby. Her 
first name again was? Gabrielle Marie. Born yesterday, after a 
considerable time of labor, but it was certainly worth the 
effort. Wonderful baby. And we congratulate Eric and his wife, 
Natalie, on this wonderful addition to their family. 
Unfortunately, I think he is still at home recovering from the 
shock. Yeah, he may be watching the webcast. If so, I hope he 
heard the applause.
    Having no further business to come before this 
subcommittee, this meeting is adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 3:15 p.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


                 H.R. 1674, Section-by-Section Analysis






               Section-by-Section Analysis of H.R. 1674,
            United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act

Section 1. Short Title.

    United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act

Section 2. Purposes.

    Describes the purposes of the Act: (1) to improve tsunami 
detection, forecasting, warnings, notification, preparedness and 
mitigation both in the U.S. and around the world; (2) to enhance and 
modernize the existing Pacific tsunami warning system and to expand 
detection and warning systems to the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and 
Gulf of Mexico; (3) to improve tsunami mapping, modeling, research and 
assessment efforts; (4) to improve and increase education and outreach 
activities; (5) to provide technical and other assistance to 
international efforts to establish regional tsunami warning systems in 
vulnerable areas worldwide, including the Indian Ocean region; and (6) 
to improve federal, State, and international coordination for tsunami 
and other coastal hazard warnings and preparedness.

Section 3. Tsunami Forecasting and Warning Program.

    Requires NOAA to operate a program to provide tsunami forecasting 
and warnings for the Pacific Ocean region, and for the Atlantic Ocean, 
Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico regions.
    The components of the program shall include: tsunami warning 
centers; forecasting capabilities, based on measurements, models and 
maps; a cooperative effort among NOAA, USGS, and NSF to provide seismic 
information; and the capability for the rapid and reliable 
dissemination of tsunami warnings to States and communities.
    Directs the National Weather Service to develop requirements for 
the equipment used to forecast tsunamis, including how the equipment 
will be integrated into other United States and global environmental 
observing systems and a plan for the transfer of technology from 
research into operations. Requires the National Weather Service to 
submit reports to Congress on how it will integrate the equipment and 
on the technology transfer plan. Also requires the National Weather 
Service to notify Congress when tsunami forecasting capabilities are 
impaired for more than three months due to equipment or contractor 
problems.
    Requires the Administrator to enter into an arrangement with the 
National Academy of Sciences to evaluate and provide recommendation on 
how to improve NOAA's tsunami detection, forecast and warning 
activities.

Section 4. Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

    Directs the National Weather Service to conduct a community-based 
tsunami hazard mitigation program to improve tsunami preparedness of 
at-risk areas. Establishes a coordinating committee of federal and 
State officials, which shall: develop a plan for ensuring wide 
participation in the program; determine how funds will be allocated; 
and provide recommendations to increase resiliency of vulnerable 
communities. Specifically, the program will: use NOAA models and maps 
to assess vulnerable areas; promote and improve community outreach and 
education networks; and integrate tsunami preparedness and mitigation 
programs into ongoing hazard warnings and planning.

Section 5. Tsunami Research Program.

    Requires NOAA to establish a tsunami research program to develop 
detection, forecasting, communication and mitigation tools and 
technologies. Directs the program to work with the National Weather 
Service on ways to transfer the research into operations.

Section 6. Global Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Network.

    Directs NOAA to provide technical assistance and training to the 
international community toward the development of a fully functional 
global tsunami forecast and warning system. Establishes the 
International Tsunami Information Center to provide information and 
advice to nations around the world to improve tsunami preparedness.

Section 7. Authorization of Appropriations.

    Provides $30 million for each of fiscal years 2006-2008 to carry 
out the act. Specifies that of any funds appropriated for activities 
under this act, 70 percent should be used for the tsunami forecast and 
warning systems under section three and section six, 20 percent should 
be used for the tsunami hazard mitigation program under section four, 
and 10 percent should be for the tsunami research program under section 
five.



 XXIII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 1674, UNITED 
                STATES TSUNAMI WARNING AND EDUCATION ACT

                              ----------                              


                         WEDNESDAY, MAY 4, 2005

                  House of Representatives,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:17 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Sherwood L. 
Boehlert [Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Boehlert. Good morning. The Committee on Science 
will come to order.
    Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science meets to 
consider the following measures: H.R. 921, Minority Serving 
Institution Digital and Wireless Technology Opportunity Act of 
2005; H.R. 1674, U.S. Tsunami Warning and Education Act; and 
H.R. 250, Manufacturing Technology Competitiveness Act of 2005. 
I ask unanimous consent for the authority to recess the 
Committee at any point during consideration of these matters. 
And without objection, that is so ordered.
    We will now proceed with the markup, beginning with opening 
statements, and I will launch it.
    I want to welcome everyone to this important markup. As 
usual, we have before us bills that represent bipartisan 
efforts to come up with practical solutions to real problems. 
These bills will advance education, protect our Nation and 
others from natural disasters, enhance research and 
environmental protection, and strengthen our economy. Not bad 
for one morning's work.
    And I would add that while we are marking up these bills, 
we are also working behind the scenes on our portions of the 
Homeland Security reauthorization bill that was reported out of 
the Homeland Committee last week.
    Let me talk briefly now about each of the bills before us 
to save time later.
    First up is Mr. Forbes' bill to help minority serving 
institutions get the information technology equipment they 
need. This bill is identical to the version this committee 
approved last year, and the bill must also go through the 
Education and Workforce Committee. To move the bill forward 
swiftly, both sides of the aisle here have agreed to simply 
move the bill this morning by unanimous consent.
    I think the bill will provide needed assistance to 
educational institutions that are essential to our efforts to 
develop more scientists and engineers from under-represented 
groups. And I think our version of the bill, which places the 
program in the Department of Commerce rather than the National 
Science Foundation, matches the program with the appropriate 
agency for carrying it out.
    Our second bill will be the one I have introduced with 
Representative Inslee to ensure that the Nation and the world 
are better prepared to detect and respond to tsunamis. We all 
watched with horror last December as the Indian Ocean tsunami 
wreaked its devastation. Much of the death that occurred could 
have been avoided.
    We have an obligation to learn more about tsunamis through 
research, to improve our ability to detect tsunamis and issue 
warnings about them, and to improve tsunami preparation and 
education so that we can limit damage and know what to do when 
the warnings come. This bill will improve research, detection, 
and education, and significantly, sets aside a proportion of 
appropriated funds for each of these essential activities.
    The basis of this bill was the Administration's plan. The 
Administration is to be congratulated for its swift, 
thoughtful, and comprehensive response to last December's 
events. We then built on the Administration's proposal, 
following the guidance we received during our January hearing. 
As a result, the bill stresses and ensures funding for tsunami 
preparation and education. And we also press for tsunami 
detection to be integrated as much as possible with other 
earth- and ocean-observing systems.
    Finally, we will take up Dr. Ehlers' manufacturing bill, 
which the House passed last year. I know that, as was the case 
last year, we will have some debate over adding to the bill 
ideas that may be worthy in themselves, the proposals, but that 
would guarantee the demise of the bill. That is something we 
don't want to do. I will oppose most of these amendments, which 
include authorizing--I don't say all of them, because I haven't 
seen all of them. I will oppose most of the amendments, which 
include authorizing the Advanced Technology Program, a program 
that I have always supported and continue to support. But I 
want to make--actually, I want to make progress on the bill in 
connection with manufacturing. That is especially important as 
we enter the budget season with appropriations likely to be 
more constrained than ever.
    And let me say at the outset that I don't want the 
amendment debate to obscure the broad, bipartisan support for 
the base bill, which the House passed last year by voice vote, 
no mean achievement given the political debate surrounding 
manufacturing last year.
    We were going to also do a markup--during the markup this 
morning of the NOAA authorization bill, but both we and the 
Democrats have brought up significant additional changes to the 
bill. We need some more time to talk those through. We will 
reschedule the markup of the NOAA bill swiftly, and I would 
hope we could do it as early as next week.
    So let me close by thanking my colleagues on both sides of 
the aisle for their contributions to these bills. As usual, we 
have beaten the odds and have worked out sensible, targeted, 
bipartisan measures.
    Mr. Gordon.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Boehlert follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Chairman Sherwood L. Boehlert
    I want to welcome everyone to this important markup. As usual, we 
have before us bills that represent bipartisan efforts to come up with 
practical solutions to real problems. These bills will advance 
education, protect our nation and others from natural disasters, 
enhance research and environmental protection and strengthen our 
economy. Not bad for one morning's work.
    And I would add that while we are marking up these bills, we are 
also working behind the scenes on our portions of the Homeland Security 
reauthorization bill that was reported out of the Homeland Committee 
last week.
    Let me talk briefly now about each of the bills before us today to 
save time later.
    First up is Mr. Forbes' bill to help minority serving institutions 
get the information technology equipment they need. This bill is 
identical to the version this committee approved last year, and the 
bill must also go through the Education and Workforce Committee. To 
move the bill forward swiftly, both sides of the aisle here have agreed 
to simply move the bill this morning by unanimous consent.
    I think the bill will provide needed assistance to educational 
institutions that are essential to our efforts to develop more 
scientists and engineers from under-represented groups. And I think our 
version of the bill, which places this program in the Department of 
Commerce rather than in the National Science Foundation, matches the 
program with the appropriate agency for carrying it out.
    Our second bill will be the bill I've introduced with 
Representative Inslee to ensure that the Nation and the world are 
better prepared to detect and respond to tsunamis. We all watched with 
horror last December as the Indian Ocean tsunami wreaked its 
devastation. Much of the death could have been avoided.
    We have an obligation to learn more about tsunamis through 
research, to improve our ability to detect tsunamis and issue warnings 
about them, and to improve tsunami preparation and education so that we 
can limit damage and know what to do when the warnings come. This bill 
will improve research, detection and education and, significantly, sets 
aside a proportion of appropriated funds for each of those essential 
activities.
    The basis of this bill was the Administration's plan. The 
Administration is to be congratulated for its swift, thoughtful and 
comprehensive response to last December's events. We then built on the 
Administration proposal, following the guidance we received in our 
January hearing. As a result, the bill stresses and ensures funding for 
tsunami preparation and education, and we also press for tsunami 
detection to be integrated, as much as possible, with other Earth- and 
ocean-observing systems.
    Finally, we will take up Dr. Ehlers' manufacturing bill, which the 
House passed last year. I know that, as was the case last year, we will 
have some debate over adding to the bill ideas that may be worthy in 
themselves, but that would guarantee the demise of this bill. I will 
oppose those amendments, which include authorizing the Advanced 
Technology Program, a program I have always supported and continue to 
support. But I want to actually make progress on manufacturing. That's 
especially important as we enter the budget season with appropriations 
likely to be more constrained than ever.
    And let me say at the outset that I don't want the amendment debate 
to obscure the broad, bipartisan support for the base bill, which the 
House passed last year by voice vote--no mean achievement given the 
political debate surrounding manufacturing last year.
    We were going to also mark up the NOAA organic act this morning, 
but both we and the Democrats have brought up significant additional 
changes to the bill. We need some more time to talk those through. We 
will reschedule the markup of the NOAA bill swiftly--perhaps as early 
as next week.
    So let me close by thanking my colleagues on both sides of the 
aisle for their contributions to these bills. As usual, we've beaten 
the odds and have worked out sensible, targeted, bipartisan measures.
    Mr. Gordon.

    Mr. Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Let me first thank you for moving NOAA to a later date so 
that we can have a chance--I am sure that this is something 
that we can work out. And there is, I think, general agreement 
on both the minority and the majority on this bill.
    We are also pleased that the Committee is moving forward on 
its legislative agenda, and we look forward to continuing to 
work on a bipartisan basis on several major bills that we hope 
will be before the Committee shortly.
    Today, we are addressing three important legislative areas. 
We applaud the choice of topics and only question why the 
Committee has not chosen to legislate more aggressively in 
certain of these areas, especially manufacturing. We support 
H.R. 921, the Minority Serving Institution Digital and Wireless 
Technological Opportunity Act. The bill would provide grants to 
minority serving institutions for information technology 
upgrades and for training faculty and staff to use the 
technology effectively in support of their education and 
research activities. Minority serving institutions prepare a 
growing portion of the future science and technology workforce 
of the Nation, and it is important that these colleges and 
universities be able to provide a quality education for their 
students.
    H.R. 250, the Manufacturing Technology Competitiveness Act, 
is a start, but we need to make the bill's content live up to 
its title. Democratic Members of the Committee, once again, 
will be offering amendments to the MEP funding, workforce 
training, and technology innovation that would make the bill 
much stronger. Even if these pass, we will only have taken the 
first steps on one of the biggest problems of our day, and we 
hope we will have other opportunities this Congress to deal 
with the other aspects of this far-reaching problem.
    We are especially pleased that the Committee, in a 
bipartisan fashion, has so rapidly developed H.R. 1674, the 
United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act. The bill 
directs NOAA to expand the current tsunami warning system on 
two basins so that all U.S. coastal areas and territories will 
be covered by a buoy-based detection and warning system. The 
bill also directs NOAA to conduct a community-based tsunami 
hazard mitigation program to ensure coastal communities are 
prepared to act upon any warning issued by the tsunami warning 
centers and establish a tsunami research program. We 
enthusiastically support the bill. We feel that the funding 
levels for hazard mitigation and education programs are too 
low. Mr. Wu's amendment would correct this problem.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Gordon follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Bart Gordon
    We are pleased that the Committee is moving forward on its 
legislative agenda and we look forward to continuing to work on a 
bipartisan basis on several major bills that we hope will be before the 
Committee shortly.
    Today we are addressing four important legislative areas. We 
applaud the choice of topics and only question why the Committee has 
not chosen to legislate more aggressively in certain of these areas, 
especially manufacturing.
    We support H.R. 921, the Minority Serving Institution Digital and 
Wireless Technology Opportunity Act. The bill would provide grants to 
minority serving institutions for information technology upgrades and 
for training faculty and staff to use the technology effectively in 
support of their education and research activities. Minority serving 
institutions prepare a growing portion of the future science and 
technology workforce of the Nation, and it is important that these 
colleges and universities be able to provide a quality education for 
their students.
    H.R. 250, the Manufacturing Technology Competitiveness Act, is a 
start but we need to make the bill's contents live up to its title. 
Democratic Members of the Committee, once again, will be offering 
amendments on MEP funding, workforce training, and technology 
innovation that would make the bill much stronger. Even if these pass, 
we will only have taken first steps on one of the biggest problems of 
our day and we hope we will have other opportunities this Congress to 
deal with other aspects of this far-reaching problem.
    We are especially pleased that the Committee in a bipartisan 
fashion has so rapidly developed H.R. 1674, the United States Tsunami 
Warning and Education Act. The bill directs NOAA to expand the current 
tsunami warning system to basins so that all U.S. coastal areas and 
territories will be covered by a buoy-based detection and warning 
system. The bill also directs NOAA to conduct a community-based tsunami 
hazard mitigation program to ensure coastal communities are prepared to 
act upon any warnings issued by the tsunami warning centers and 
establishes a tsunami research program. We enthusiastically support the 
bill but feel that the funding levels for hazard mitigation and the 
education program are too low. Mr. Wu's amendment would correct this 
problem.

    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you.
    Without objection, Members may place opening statements in 
the record at this point.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Ehlers follows:]
         Prepared Statement of Representative Vernon J. Ehlers
    On December 26, 2004, one of the most devastating tsunamis ever 
recorded struck the nations of the Indian Ocean Basin. As people 
recovered from the shock of the event, we naturally began to ask 
questions such as, ``What can we learn from this to prevent future 
disasters?'' In that vein, I joined Chairman Boehlert, Mr. Wu, and Mr. 
Inslee to introduce the U.S. Tsunami Warning and Education Act.
    H.R. 1674 authorizes $30 million annually for the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration to:

          expand tsunami forecast and warning capability for 
        all U.S. coastlines;

          increase emphasis on community-based tsunami 
        education and outreach activities so that the public knows the 
        proper response to tsunami warnings;

          maintain a tsunami research program; and

          provide technical advice and training to the 
        international community.

    The bill is based on the Administration's proposal for a national 
tsunami warning system and incorporates comments from many experts, 
including witnesses at the Science Committee hearing held in January.
    Unfortunately, it has taken a tragic event to bring natural 
disaster response planning to our attention today. However, now that 
the opportunity is upon us we must act quickly to establish a tsunami 
forecast and warning system for the United States, aid other countries 
in doing the same, and educate the public to understand and heed the 
warnings. Chairman Boehlert developed an excellent bill that moved 
quickly through the Subcommittee. I urge my colleagues to support this 
bill and pass it from the Full Committee.

    [The prepared statement of Ms. Hooley follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Representative Darlene Hooley
    Thank you Mr. Chairman. I am pleased that we are addressing the 
issue of tsunami and how we can better prepare ourselves for these 
natural disasters. I appreciate the Chairman's willingness to bring 
this issue up before the Committee and I hope that we are able to 
produce something that will benefit coastal communities across the 
Nation.
    The tsunami that struck Southeast Asia last December awoke us all 
to the destructive force that oceans can produce. The undersea 
earthquake that sent a massive wall of water crashing ashore across 
thousands of miles of coastline in the Indian Ocean could have happened 
just off the coast of Oregon, Washington, California, Alaska, or Hawaii 
and it could have been our coastal communities mourning their dead and 
dealing with the lasting destruction.
    While I am pleased with many aspects of this bill, I am especially 
pleased with the funding that has been earmarked for Tsunami Hazard 
Mitigation Programs across the country. I applaud the Chairman's 
decision to include an increase in the funding for these programs from 
$6 million to $7.8 million as part of his Manager's Amendment. This 
January I wrote a letter signed by many of my Pacific Coast colleagues 
to the Appropriations Committee asking them to appropriate $7.8 million 
for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Programs. I am pleased that this 
legislation recommends this same level of funding and I hope that the 
Appropriations Committee follows the recommendations of experts and the 
requests made by their colleagues to provide the necessary funding.
    I am also happy to see money set aside in this legislation for 
continued research on tsunami so that we can better understand and 
predict their behavior, hopefully limiting the cost to life and 
property that these natural disasters cause. Researchers at Oregon 
State University and across the region are already making valuable 
contributions to our understanding of tsunami and it is important that 
we continue to encourage their work.
    The tsunami last winter demonstrated the destructive potential of 
tsunami. It is my hope that this legislation is the first step in 
limiting the damage that could be done in the United States.

    [The prepared statement of Ms. Jackson-Lee follows:]
        Prepared Statement of Representative Sheila Jackson-Lee
    Mr. Chairman, I want to applaud you and my fellow colleagues Rep. 
Inslee, Rep. Ehlers, and Rep. Wu for authoring the U.S. Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act. Truly, this is a timely piece of legislation that 
should protect our nation from a tsunami disaster that could produce 
monumental damage.
    This legislation comes after the tragic tsunami disaster that took 
place in South Asia. I had the opportunity to travel to Sri Lanka 
shortly after the tsunami disaster to survey the damage that had taken 
place. Suffice to say that the amount of damage caused by this natural 
disaster is beyond our complete comprehension. People lost loved ones, 
in many cases losing their entire family, they lost their homes and 
businesses, and truly everyone affected by the tsunami disaster will 
have the mental trauma of that day for the rest of their lives.
    This bill directs NOAA to expand the current tsunami warning system 
to cover the Pacific, Atlantic and Caribbean basins so that all U.S. 
coastal areas and territories will be covered by a buoy-based detection 
and warning system. It is vital that the American people have peace of 
mind that we can at least warn them of an impending disaster. There 
will be those who claim that the chances of another tsunami disaster 
taking place are one in a million, but after seeing the effects of the 
tsunami disaster in South Asia, I think even those odds are too great 
for us to ignore.
    This bill also establishes a tsunami research program and 
authorizes NOAA to participate in the International Tsunami Warning 
System and to provide technical assistance through international 
organizations as part of the international effort to develop and 
operate a global tsunami warning network. This legislation also 
requires NOAA to operate an International Tsunami Information Center to 
improve tsunami preparedness for all Pacific Ocean nations 
participating in the international Pacific network. It is vital that we 
aid our brothers and sisters abroad and try to protect them from such 
natural disasters.
    This legislation is vital both for our security and that of the 
global community at large. Again, I applaud my colleagues for authoring 
this timely piece of legislation, which I hope will pass through the 
House without contention. While we could not prevent the South Asian 
tsunami disaster, we can work to prevent such future disaster from 
having such a devastating impact. This legislation works toward that 
goal and it is in that vein that I support it.
    Thank you.

    Chairman Boehlert. We will now consider H.R. 1674, U.S. 
Tsunami Warning and Education Act.
    I provided my thoughts on the bill in the opening remarks. 
Just let me say that the bill will save lives and property, and 
those are two objectives that we strongly support. It will have 
a real impact that hopefully we won't see for a long time, 
because we hope the world won't have to face another tsunami 
any time soon. But we can't know that. That is the point. So I 
urge passage of this bill, which will prove essential when we 
most need it.
    Mr. Gordon.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Boehlert follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Chairman Sherwood Boehlert

Tsunami bill

    I provided my thoughts on this bill in my opening remarks. Let me 
just say that this bill will save lives and property. It will have a 
real impact that hopefully we won't see for a long time because we hope 
the world won't have to face another tsunami any time soon. But we 
can't know that--and that's the point. So I urge passage of this bill 
which will prove essential when we most need it.

Tsunami amendment

    This is largely a technical amendment. The most significant change 
in it is that it provides additional funds for preparation, education 
and outreach by altering the proportion of the funding that will go to 
that purpose. This change is a result of negotiations with our friends 
on the other side of the aisle. I think the amendment makes this an 
even more balanced bill. I urge its adoption.

    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, following your lead, I made a 
statement concerning this in my opening statement. And let me 
just--so I will quickly give a synopsis by saying this is 
important legislation. I think that there are some funding 
problems that need to be addressed to make it really effective, 
but this is a swift action on an important problem. And I thank 
you for bringing it up.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Gordon follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Bart Gordon
    Mr. Chairman, thank you for bringing the Tsunami Warning and 
Education Act before the Committee this morning.
    This legislation authorizes a comprehensive set of NOAA activities 
to ensure we have a warning and detection system operated at the 
federal level and a hazard mitigation and education system in place at 
the State and local level.
    The bill also authorizes funding for research to improve our 
knowledge of tsunamis, to develop improved detection and warning 
technologies and to develop effective education and outreach tools.
    However, passing this authorization bill is only the beginning.
    Fortunately, catastrophic tsunamis are rare events. But it is 
exactly this characteristic that can lead us to neglect this system 
once it is installed and the memory of this past catastrophic event in 
Indonesia fades.
    If we are going to maintain the safety of our coastline, we need to 
maintain the detection and warning system we are authorizing today. We 
need to maintain State and local education, outreach, and emergency 
preparedness programs so that all citizens are prepared to respond if 
an event occurs.
    Maintenance of a fully functioning program requires ongoing 
oversight and support by the Congress and the Administration. This will 
remain a significant challenge in these times of tight budgets.
    I thank the Chairman and my colleagues, Rep. Wu, Rep. Hooley, and 
Rep. Baird for their work on this issue and I encourage all of my 
colleagues to support this legislation.

    Chairman Boehlert. I ask unanimous consent that the bill is 
considered as read and open to amendment at any point and that 
Members proceed with the amendments in the order of the roster.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is a manager's amendment 
offered by the Chair.
    This is largely a technical amendment. It has been cleared 
with the minority. The most significant change in it is that it 
provides additional funds for preparation, education, and 
outreach by altering the proportion of funding that will go to 
that purpose. This change is the result of negotiations with 
our friends and colleagues on the other side of the aisle. I 
think the amendment makes this an even more balanced bill, and 
I thank the minority for their contribution, and I urge its 
adoption.
    Mr. Gordon.
    Mr. Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Boehlert. I have got--I am told--I have an 
amendment at the desk, and the Clerk will report the amendment.
    Ms. Tessieri. Amendment to H.R. 1674 offered by Mr. 
Boehlert of New York.
    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you. I ask unanimous consent to 
dispense with the reading and that the amendment is considered 
as en bloc. Without objection--or Mr. Gordon.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike the last word.
    Chairman Boehlert. You are recognized for five minutes.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I want to thank you for working 
with us on this amendment. The amendment incorporates 
amendments offered by our colleagues, Mr. Wu, Representative 
Hooley, and Representative Baird, to address a number of issues 
raised by the Pacific Coastal States. We want to continue to 
work with you on this bill as it moves forward, and I urge my 
colleagues to support the amendment to the legislation.
    Mr. Wu. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike the last word.
    Chairman Boehlert. The gentleman is recognized.
    Mr. Wu. I want to thank the staff on both sides, the 
Chairman, and the Ranking Member for working on a good, 
bipartisan tsunami warning and education bill. And I want to 
thank everyone on the Committee and also the staff for 
increasing that component of the bill, which will truly benefit 
Americans, and that is the education and mitigation part of the 
bill. The other parts of the bill are very, very important, but 
if we have a near-shore event, near-shore earthquake, the only 
part of the bill that will truly benefit Americans is the $7.8 
million which is being spent on education and mitigation, and I 
want to express my appreciation to the Chairman for working 
with us to increase this amount from $1 million to $7.8 
million. I wish that we could increase that amount even 
further, but even the most optimistic of us have to bow to some 
realities, some very harsh realities, in the current fiscal 
environment. And I also want to recognize the very hard work of 
my colleagues, Mr. Baird, and Ms. Hooley, also from the Pacific 
Northwest.
    And again, I want to thank the Chairman, the Ranking 
Member, and the Committee staff on both sides for working to 
improve this bill.
    And I yield back.
    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you very much.
    And I wish to acknowledge--the Chair wishes to acknowledge 
your significant contribution to the overall quality and 
quantity of the final bill.
    Is there any further discussion on the amendment? If no, 
the vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor, say aye. 
Opposed, no. The ayes have it, and the amendment is agreed to.
    Now Mr. Wu, do you have an amendment you would like to 
offer at this point? Was that incorporated into the manager's 
amendment?
    Mr. Wu. Mr. Chairman, I do have an amendment, which is not 
in the manager's amendment, and----
    Chairman Boehlert. Okay. The Clerk will report the 
amendment.
    Ms. Tessieri. Amendment to H.R. 1674 offered by Mr. Wu of 
Oregon.
    Chairman Boehlert. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes.
    Mr. Wu. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    My amendment would require the Administrator to make an 
assessment of the potential for expanded communications options 
to improve systems for tsunami and other hazard warning 
systems. Oregon has been evaluating new communication systems 
to ensure that coastal communities receive warnings, 
advisories, and alerts issued by NOAA along with information on 
evacuation plans through multiple communication devices, which 
are also redundant and secure.
    A company in my District has begun providing this service 
to several coastal communities, and there are several consortia 
working on this. I understand this amendment may cause some 
jurisdictional issues for this committee, and I want to offer 
to work with the Chairman to--if the Chairman will work with me 
on some report language to address the need to evaluate a 
general communication systems and needs and secure systems for 
doing so.
    Chairman Boehlert. You have that commitment from the Chair, 
Mr. Wu.
    Mr. Wu. I ask unanimous consent to withdraw the amendment.
    Chairman Boehlert. Without objection, so ordered.
    Are there any other amendments? Hearing none, the vote is 
on the bill H.R. 1674, U.S. Tsunami Warning and Education Act, 
as amendment. All in favor, say aye. Opposed, no. In the 
opinion of the Chair, the ayes have it.
    I recognize Mr. Gordon to offer a motion.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Committee 
favorably report H.R. 1674, as amended, to the House with the 
recommendation that the bill, as amended, do pass. Furthermore, 
I move that the staff be instructed to prepare the legislative 
report and make necessary technical and conforming changes, and 
that the Chairman take all necessary steps to bring the bill 
before the House for consideration.
    Chairman Boehlert. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it, and the bill is 
favorably reported.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon 
the table. I move that Members have two subsequent calendar 
days in which to submit supplemental, minority, or additional 
views on the measure. I move pursuant to Clause 1 of Rule 22 of 
the Rules of the House of Representatives that the Committee 
authorizes the Chairman to offer such motions as may be 
necessary in the House to adopt and pass H.R. 1674, U.S. 
Tsunami Warning and Education Act, as amended. Without 
objection, so ordered.
    I want to thank the Members for their attendance and for 
their continued active participation in the deliberations of 
this committee.
    We are adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 11:31 a.m., the Committee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


     Subcommittee on Environment, Technology, and Standards Markup 
  Memorandum on H.R. 1674, H.R. 1674 as reported by the Subcommittee, 
             Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendment Roster






               Section-by-Section Analysis of H.R. 1674,
            United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act

Section 1. Short Title.

    United States Tsunami Warning and Education Act

Section 2. Purposes.

    Describes the purposes of the Act: (1) to improve tsunami 
detection, forecasting, warnings, notification, preparedness and 
mitigation both in the U.S. and around the world; (2) to enhance and 
modernize the existing Pacific tsunami warning system and to expand 
detection and warning systems to the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and 
Gulf of Mexico; (3) to improve tsunami mapping, modeling, research and 
assessment efforts; (4) to improve and increase education and outreach 
activities; (5) to provide technical and other assistance to 
international efforts to establish regional tsunami warning systems in 
vulnerable areas worldwide, including the Indian Ocean region; and (6) 
to improve federal, State, and international coordination for tsunami 
and other coastal hazard warnings and preparedness.

Section 3. Tsunami Forecasting and Warning Program.

    Requires NOAA to operate a program to provide tsunami forecasting 
and warnings for the Pacific Ocean region, and for the Atlantic Ocean, 
Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico regions.
    The components of the program shall include: tsunami warning 
centers; forecasting capabilities, based on measurements, models and 
maps; a cooperative effort among NOAA, USGS, and NSF to provide seismic 
information; and the capability for the rapid and reliable 
dissemination of tsunami warnings to States and communities.
    Directs the National Weather Service to develop requirements for 
the equipment used to forecast tsunamis, including how the equipment 
will be integrated into other United States and global environmental 
observing systems and a plan for the transfer of technology from 
research into operations. Requires the National Weather Service to 
submit reports to Congress on how it will integrate the equipment and 
on the technology transfer plan. Also requires the National Weather 
Service to notify Congress when tsunami forecasting capabilities are 
impaired for more than three months due to equipment or contractor 
problems.
    Requires the Administrator to enter into an arrangement with the 
National Academy of Sciences to evaluate and provide recommendation on 
how to improve NOAA's tsunami detection, forecast and warning 
activities.

Section 4. Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

    Directs the National Weather Service to conduct a community-based 
tsunami hazard mitigation program to improve tsunami preparedness of 
at-risk areas. Establishes a coordinating committee of federal and 
State officials, which shall: develop a plan for ensuring wide 
participation in the program; determine how funds will be allocated; 
and provide recommendations to increase resiliency of vulnerable 
communities. Specifically, the program will: use NOAA models and maps 
to assess vulnerable areas; promote and improve community outreach and 
education networks; and integrate tsunami preparedness and mitigation 
programs into ongoing hazard warnings and planning.

Section 5. Tsunami Research Program.

    Requires NOAA to establish a tsunami research program to develop 
detection, forecasting, communication and mitigation tools and 
technologies. Directs the program to work with the National Weather 
Service on ways to transfer the research into operations.

Section 6. Global Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Network.

    Directs NOAA to provide technical assistance and training to the 
international community toward the development of a fully functional 
global tsunami forecast and warning system. Establishes the 
International Tsunami Information Center to provide information and 
advice to nations around the world to improve tsunami preparedness.

Section 7. Authorization of Appropriations.

    Provides $30 million for each of fiscal years 2006-2008 to carry 
out the act. Specifies that of any funds appropriated for activities 
under this act, 70 percent should be used for the tsunami forecast and 
warning systems under section three and section six, 20 percent should 
be used for the tsunami hazard mitigation program under section four, 
and 10 percent should be for the tsunami research program under section 
five.