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                                                       Calendar No. 200
109th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session                                                    109-131

======================================================================



 
            HEAD START IMPROVEMENTS FOR SCHOOL READINESS ACT

                                _______
                                

                August 31, 2005.--Ordered to be printed

   Filed, under authority of the order of the Senate of July 29, 2005

Mr. Enzi, from the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 1107]

    The Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, to 
which was referred the bill (S. 1107) to reauthorize the Head 
Start Act, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
reports favorably and recommends that the bill (as amended) do 
pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
  I. Purpose and summary of the bill..................................1
 II. Background and need for legislation..............................2
III. Legislative history and committee action.........................4
 IV. Explanation of bill and committee views..........................6
  V. Cost Estimate...................................................41
 VI. Application of law to the legislative branch....................44
VII. Regulatory impact statement.....................................44
VIII.Section-by-section analysis.....................................44

 IX. Changes in existing law.........................................64

                   I. Purpose and Summary of the Bill

    The Head Start Improvements for School Readiness Act of 
2005 reauthorizes and makes improvements in the Head Start 
program in order to ensure that children in the program make 
measurable progress toward developing the skills they need to 
enter school ready to learn. In order to accomplish this, the 
bill focuses on four areas: (1) improved academic, 
developmental, and educational outcomes for children, (2) 
improved teacher competencies and high quality opportunities 
for professional development, (3) better coordination and 
collaboration with other programs in the State (including child 
care, State preschool programs, and the local public schools), 
and (4) greater accountability for the management of Head Start 
programs; and (5) enhanced support for infants and toddlers 
through the Early Head Start program.
    The bill authorizes $7.2 billion for fiscal year 2006, $7.5 
billion for fiscal year 2007, $7.8 billion for fiscal year 
2008, and such sums as may be necessary for subsequent years. 
Each year, 13 percent of Head Start funding is set-aside for 
the Secretary to allocate funds for Migrant and Seasonal Head 
Start programs, Indian Head Start programs, training and 
technical assistance for Head Start grantees, improvement in 
the PRISM reviews through increased inter-rater reliability 
training, and other purposes. For research and evaluation each 
year, $20 million is reserved. The set-aside for Early Head 
Start is increased from 10 percent currently to 18 percent in 
fiscal year 2010.

                II. Background and Need for Legislation

    Head Start was created in 1965 and today stands as one of 
the nation's most well regarded domestic programs. Head Start's 
mission to promote school readiness among the Nation's low-
income children reflects a comprehensive approach to supporting 
children and families. Because school readiness depends upon 
the interdependent relationship between cognitive, 
intellectual, physical, social and emotional, and other areas 
of development, Head Start programs provide a broad array of 
services determined to be necessary, based on an assessment of 
the child and family's needs.
    Children in Head Start enter the program with a number of 
factors that put them at risk of school failure, such as 
extreme poverty, family economic and housing instability, and 
limited family education attainment. The overwhelming majority 
of Head Start children are from families earning less than 100 
percent of the Federal poverty level, $18,850 for a family of 
four (2004 HHS Poverty Guidelines), and in most Head Start 
families, neither parent hold more than a high school degree or 
general equivalency degree (GED). Research shows that Head 
Start clearly makes a difference for children living in 
poverty, yet experience has shown that the program itself 
cannot eradicate the overwhelming effects of poverty on 
children and their families.
    By its nature, Head Start requires community input in order 
to be responsive to community needs. Head Start programs have 
successfully reached out to community partners to help foster 
school readiness and transitions to school, provide health 
care, increase access to social services for families, and 
provide full-day, full-year services for children. Local 
programs may adapt their services to serve Indian tribes or 
migrant and seasonal farm worker communities, target homeless 
children or children of drug-addicted parents or help families 
transitioning off welfare. Built on the premise that effective 
intervention in the lives of children can be best accomplished 
through family and community involvement, Head Start attempts 
to involve communities and families in both the design and 
implementation of the program at the local level.
    Today, Head Start provides educational and other 
comprehensive support services to close to 1 million low-income 
preschool children in order to help prepare for and increase 
the success of Head Start participants in school. Head Start 
program currently provides services to children from a diverse 
population of eligible families, including migrant and Native 
American children, through nearly 19,000 centers and 829 home-
based programs in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, and the United States territories. The committee 
encourages consideration of this diversity to meet the goals of 
Head Start programs.
    Unlike other Federal social service programs that are 
funded through States the Department of Health and Human 
Services awards Head Start grants directly to local agencies, 
called grantees, which deliver program services. Grantees, 
estimated at 2,100, may contract with other organizations, 
called delegate agencies, to run all or part of their programs. 
Grantees had contracts with approximately 622 delegate agencies 
in fiscal year 2004. Grantees and delegate agencies include 
public and private school systems, community action agencies, 
faith-based organizations and other private nonprofit and for 
profit organizations, local governments, and Indian tribes.
    Since the inception of the program, Head Start has 
continuously improved the quality of the services it provides. 
As the needs of children and families changed, so has Head 
Start. Head Start was first enacted into law in 1965 as a 
summer program with a budget of $352 million. In 1995, an 
appropriation of $3.3 billion allowed more than 2,000 locally 
run Head Start programs to serve more than 730,000 children and 
their families. By fiscal year 2004, Head Start was funded at 
more than double that of 1995, where it received $6.8 billion 
in funding and supported programs in every State.
    The committee also recognizes that the face of poverty has 
changed dramatically since Head Start was created 40 years ago. 
Single parent families headed by women accounted for about one-
third of the poor in 1966; now they represent more than half of 
those living in poverty. Children have now replaced the elderly 
as the group most likely to be poor. One child in five in the 
United States lives in poverty. Disadvantaged children who are 
part of a racial or ethnic minority group face even harsher 
realities; 36 percent of all African American children, and 30 
percent of all Hispanic children, come from families earning 
less that the Federal poverty threshold (U.S. Census, 2003).
    Recognizing the harmful impacts of poverty on later 
educational attainment it is critical we prepare all children 
to enter school ready to learn in order to provide for their 
later success in school and to close the achievement gap. 
Studies document a wide gap between lower and higher income 
children before they enter kindergarten which, if unaddressed, 
often persists into later years in schooling and despite 
significant Federal investment, this gap persists. Research 
also shows that lower-income children are far less likely than 
their higher-income peers to participate in early childhood 
education programs before beginning elementary school. If we do 
not prepare all children to succeed and become lifelong 
learners, our global competitiveness in the 21st century 
economy will be jeopardized.
    The research shows that, on average Head Start helps to 
narrow the achievement gap between our Nation's poorest 
children and their more affluent peers. The committee believes 
that the program can be strengthened to build upon that success 
and lead to increased outcomes for Head Start children. Long-
term positive outcomes and cost-savings improved school 
performance to also include more positive behavior, reduced 
special education placement, lower in-grade retention and 
dropout rates, and increased lifelong earning potential.
    In 1993, Secretary of Health and Human Services Donna 
Shalala appointed an Advisory committee on Head Start Quality 
and Expansion to examine closely the Head Start program and to 
make recommendations for the future. The recommendations of the 
Advisory committee focused on three important areas:(1) the 
need to improve quality; (2) the need to expand services; and (3) the 
need to forge partnership with other community providers, including 
closer coordination with elementary schools, State, and locally 
sponsored programs, cooperating with the private sector and linking 
Head Start with other National initiatives. Reauthorizations of the 
Head Start Act in 1994 and 1998 enhanced teacher qualifications, 
increased attention to cognitive areas of development, created the 
Early Head Start program, and led to program standards and the Outcomes 
Framework that guide Head Start programs in their curriculum planning, 
instruction, and delivery of services, as well as in the ongoing 
assessment of the progress and accomplishments of children.
    The Head Start Improvements for School Readiness Act of 
2005 builds on the original foundation of the Head Start 
program and on past reauthorizations, by increasing the focus 
on continued program quality and the achievement of important 
educational and other outcomes for children across the range of 
developmental domains critical to ensuring their school 
readiness.

             III. Legislative History and Committee Action

    On May 25, 2005, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, 
Labor, and Pensions met in executive session and favorably 
reported the bill with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute unanimously.

Hearings and testimony--summary of witnesses

    The Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood 
Development held a hearing on April 5, 2005 at 9:30 a.m. 
entitled ``Head Start: Ensuring Dollars Benefit the Children''. 
The hearing focused on the Government Accountability Office's 
(GAO) recent report entitled ``Head Start: Comprehensive 
Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent 
Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses.'' The GAO study was 
requested in late 2003 by Senator Enzi, Senator Alexander, 
Senator Gregg, Congressman Boehner, and Congressman Castle 
following reports of alleged financial impropriety by Head 
Start executives in more than a dozen United States cities. 
Between January 2003 and the first months of 2005, multiple 
accounts from numerous communities across the country alleged 
serious financial abuses and irregularities by local 
individuals and/or entities entrusted with the responsibility 
of managing Federal Head Start funds meant to serve poor and 
at-risk children. The incidents identified involved the use of 
tens of millions in Federal Head Start funds that were intended 
to serve more than 10,000 disadvantaged U.S. children. The 
Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the program 
found a significant percent of local Head Start operators 
surveyed in 2000 had some form of financial irregularity, a 
portion of which were serious deficiencies. Three years later 
GAO found that more than half of those operators still had 
recurring financial management problems, and recommended more 
timely follow up, and enhanced training and technical 
assistance to develop the capacity of agencies to address such 
problems. GAO urged the Department of Health and Human Services 
(HHS) to develop a better system to identify local centers with 
financial problems. The Department of Health and Human Services 
has the oversight responsibility for Head Start grantees. This 
is a challenge considering there are almost 1,700 grantees, 
with over 20,000 centers containing more than 48,000 
classrooms. HHS's current system of accountability may not have 
the capacity for this oversight and the committee during this 
hearing examined ways to improve program monitoring by HHS and 
what other oversight and accountability alternatives exist.
    The following witnesses testified:
    Dr. Wade Horn, Assistant Secretary for the Head Start 
Bureau Administration for Children, Youth and Families, U.S. 
Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 
discussed strengthening the education component of Head Start 
and improving coordination and integration of State and local 
childhood services in support of President Bush's proposal. 
Additionally, he testified about the importance of monitoring 
to measure the quality of Head Start programs. He also 
described several efforts ACF has implemented to improve 
monitoring and accountability.
    Dr. Marnie S. Shaul, Director of Educating and Protecting 
Children, United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), 
Washington, DC, testified in regard to GAO's recent report on 
Head Start risk management which the committee requested. She 
discussed the Administration on Children and Families (ACF) 
processes to assess financial risks, specifically in regard to 
how these processes can be improved to ensure accuracy and 
reliability. In addition, she discussed the effectiveness of 
approaches ACF uses to make sure Head Start grantees address 
any financial management weaknesses in a timely manner. GAO had 
many recommendations including suggesting the ACF take steps to 
compete grants if the grantee fails to meet programmatic or 
financial management requirements.
    Mayor A.C. Wharton, Mayor of Shelby County, Memphis, TN, 
testified on Shelby County's ongoing efforts, as well as some 
of their planned efforts, to improve program oversight and 
stewardship. Several of GAO's findings mirrored weaknesses 
Shelby County had identified and were actively working to 
resolve in local Head Start programs.
    Yvonne Gates, Clark County Commissioner, Las Vegas, NV, 
discussed the promise of the Head Start Program and its goals 
to erase inequities among citizens and to give all children a 
level playing field for their future academic success. 
Therefore, she recommended that the committee expand local 
oversight of the chosen grantees. She testified about the 
importance of local government and the need for them to be more 
actively engaged in the local review and evaluative process for 
the use of these Federal programs. Local government is closer 
to the people, and has the opportunity to provide technical 
assistance to local agency partners, and additionally may be 
able to provide other resources to expand the scope of services 
of these programs.
    Jim Caccamo, Director, Metropolitan Council on Early 
Learning, Kansas City, MO, testified in regard to the financial 
and governance problem with the Kansas City Head Start grantee 
KCMC. The financial and governance problems at KCMC began to 
surface 4 years ago, in April 2001. The Controller/Chief 
Financial Officer was engaged in a kickback scheme and in 
February of 2002, pled guilty to bribery and money laundering. 
He was sentenced to 51 months in prison and ordered to pay over 
$800,000. Mr. Caccamo suggested that the fiscal mismanagement, 
excessive salaries, and the employee kickback problems could 
have been avoided with tighter oversight on the part of the 
Executive Director and Board.
    Olivia Golden, Senior Fellow at the Urban Institute, 
Washington, DC, testified primarily on effective strategies for 
building the strongest possible Federal oversight role to 
support high-quality, fiscally accountable, programmatically 
successful, and well-managed Head Start programs across the 
country. She described GAO's recommendations as practical and 
thought they would be useful and that thoughtful implementation 
of these recommendations would help Head Start programs attain 
the highest level of accountability. Additionally, Ms. Golden 
discussed the GAO report findings that contributed to this 
effort by identifying gaps in Federal oversight particularly in 
regard to Federal monitoring.

            IV. Explanation of the Bill and Committee Views


Enhancing the school readiness of Head Start children

    School readiness has always been central to Head Start's 
mission, and should continue to be a primary goal of Head Start 
programs. The committee's intent in the Head Start Improvements 
for School Readiness Act is to assist Head Start programs with 
further meeting the goal of promoting school readiness and 
closing the achievement gap among Head Start children.
    According to the National Institute for Child Health and 
Development and other experts, school readiness consists of a 
broad set of competencies such as cognitive, social, emotional, 
physical, and language development, motivation and approaches 
to learning, as well as discipline-specific domains including 
the arts, literacy, mathematics, science, and social studies. 
Researchers at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development 
Center, the University of North Carolina have defined school 
readiness as the condition of children when they enter school, 
and the capacity of schools to educate the children enrolled. 
According to the research team, ``the readiness puzzle can only 
be solved if the two pieces fit together'' (Bailey, 1999).
    The academic, cognitive, and social competencies that 
define school readiness begin developing long before children 
enter the elementary classroom. Knowledge about children's 
development and learning has increased greatly during the past 
two decades. Research in the neurobiological and behavioral 
sciences suggests the importance of a child's experience during 
the first years of life for healthy brain development; and 
demonstrating the importance of early intervention for at-risk 
infants and their parents, and the opportunity presented in 
early infancy for strengthening families. From birth through 
age 5, children rapidly develop the capabilities on which 
subsequent development builds. According to child development 
expert T. Berry Brazelton, M.D., ``A child's experiences in the 
first months and years of life determine whether he or she will 
enter school eager to learn or not.''
    The committee recognizes that the areas of a young child's 
development are strongly correlated with later school success 
are foundational in nature. Standards for early learning 
should, as much as practicable, seek to address the cognitive, 
social, emotional, physical, language development, and 
motivation influencing a young child's development. To 
accomplish this goal of ensuring that children participating in 
the Head Start program develop the cognitive, social, and 
emotional competencies necessary to succeed, the Head Start 
Improvements for School Readiness Act significantly enhances 
Head Start's emphasis on positive outcomes for school readiness 
in all domains, especially in cognitive development, while 
retaining the commitment to providing comprehensive social 
services.
    Studies indicate that children enrolled in Head Start make 
progress while in the program. Based on data from the 2000 
Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), children enter 
Head Start with cognitive, social, and emotional skills well 
below the National norm of most children their same age. Key 
findings from FACES reveal that participation in Head Start 
narrows the gap between Head Start children and the general 
population of preschool-aged children in domains representing 
key components of school readiness. With only 9 months of 
participation in the program, FACES data demonstrate a 
reduction in the school readiness gap between disadvantaged 
children and their peers with meaningful gains in their 
vocabulary, letter recognition, and writing skills. Children 
also improved in other cognitive, social, and emotional skills, 
demonstrating a reduction in problem behaviors, aggressive 
behaviors, hyperactive behaviors, and withdrawn behaviors. 
Physically, children showed high rates of immunizations, health 
screenings, treatment for disabilities, and enrollment in 
health insurance plans. And as Head Start continues to evolve, 
outcomes for children participating in the program continue to 
improve. Data from FACES show that, as compared to 1997, Head 
Start children show greater gains in book knowledge, letter 
recognition, and print conventions. According to such data, 
children previously participating in Head Start programs meet 
National norms by the end of their kindergarten year.
    Despite these gains, however, data show Head Start children 
still lag behind the National average in school readiness when 
they enter kindergarten. A 2003 publication by the U.S. 
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), ``Strengthening 
Head Start: What the Research Shows'', provides an analysis of 
outcomes for children and families served by the Head Start 
program. The HHS analysis concludes that both lower and higher 
achieving Head Start children have low scores on school 
readiness evaluations overall and show some limited progress 
after completion of the Head Start program. In other words, 
Head Start children enter and leave the program with below 
average skills and knowledge levels (HHS, 2003).
    The first year preliminary findings for the Head Start 
Impact Study released in June of 2005 provide further evidence 
of the importance of Head Start for low-income children and 
families. The study found that 3-year-olds in Head Start got 
the most benefits from the program. Results found that within 6 
to 8 months, both 3- and 4-year-olds, showed small to moderate 
improvements in pre-reading, pre-writing, vocabulary, and 
parental reports of children's literacy skills as compared to 
children not enrolled in Head Start programs. This report 
indicated that Head Start programs had small to moderate impact 
on the 5,000 preschoolers in the study. The committee is 
encouraged that within a year Head Start was able to cut in 
half the achievement gap that would have been expected if the 
children had not attended a Head Start program. Neither age 
group, showed a significant improvement in oral comprehension 
or early math skills, nor data also showed children leaving 
Head Start perform below National norms. The Impact Study 
follows children until they complete the first grade, and the 
committee is waiting for the final report in 2007 and hopes to 
see that the reduction in the achievement gap continues for the 
participants in the study.
    Because data indicate that many Head Start children enter 
kindergarten without the knowledge proven to be an excellent 
predictor of school success, the committee seeks to ensure that 
all children participating in Head Start receive the maximum 
benefit of its programs and services. The challenges that so 
many Head Start children face later in their academic careers 
begin well before they enter school. As such, the committee 
recognizes the importance of Head Start's services in helping 
children make gains toward achieving academic parity with their 
peers that are not eligible for the program, and to enter 
school ready to learn.
    Early literacy is one facet of children's learning and 
development that is critical to school readiness. The committee 
recognizes and applauds the work of Head Start programs to 
provide a more enriched literacy experience and instruction to 
children. Children who read well in the early grades are far 
more successful later in school, and scientific based research 
demonstrates the importance of a strong foundation for children 
before they are given formal reading instruction in 
kindergarten and first grade. Head Start's attention to the 
development of early language and literacy skills is key to 
helping children advance reading skills in the later grades.
    Head Start programs should provide children from low-income 
families a high quality, oral language and literature rich 
environment and establish appropriate literacy goals for 
children that are tied to instructional strategies adapted to 
their individual level of learning and development. The 
committee encourages Head Start to continue its pivotal role in 
promoting early literacy, consistent with scientific based 
research, such as the Early Reading First initiative. In 
addition to caring for the emotional and social needs of 
children under their care, Head Start programs must also 
encourage and promote cognitive development activities along 
with professional development for teachers and staff based on 
scientific based research in reading.
    Children who have limited preliteracy skills (i.e. weak 
phonological and weak phonemic awareness) are more likely to 
struggle in attaining age-appropriate reading instruction that 
should be taken into account by Head Start teachers. For 
example, if children can correctly and consistently identify 
letters of the alphabet before they enter kindergarten and 
understand that letters represent sounds that make up words, it 
is more likely that they will learn to read words in school 
faster than children who do not possess this knowledge. 
Research consistently confirms that children's knowledge of the 
alphabet is a strong predictor of their later progress in 
learning to read words accurately, quickly and automatically. 
Professional development and instructional activities should be 
designed to strengthen phonological awareness and instruction 
to help children understand that words are made up of letters, 
which correspond to sounds.
    The committee also recognizes the importance of other 
skills critical to the school readiness of young children. For 
example, promoting premathematics and prescience knowledge and 
skills are an important component of school readiness. These 
competencies may be promoted through early science and math 
experiences, including observing with senses, predicting, 
inferring, defining and controlling variables, working in 
teams, and communicating discoveries. Examples of science and 
math experiences may include planting different seeds, with 
various types of growing medium, light, and water; building 
towers with various block sizes; employing ramps and different 
balls; and watching ice melt in different environments.
    The Head Start Improvements for School Readiness Act 
updates the Head Start program quality standards and 
performance measures to reflect the areas of competence 
fundamental to children's school readiness. Head Start grantees 
are required to demonstrate the capacity to serve eligible 
children with scientifically based programs that promote school 
readiness and meet quality standards. Stronger quality 
standards under the bill will help facilitate children's 
development of the following: language skills; prereading 
knowledge, including an interest in and appreciation of books, 
reading and writing either alone or with others; premathematics 
knowledge, such as recognition of numbers and counting; 
cognitive abilities related to academic achievement; and, 
social development important for environments constructive for 
child development, early learning and school success. The 
committee bill continues to require limited English proficient 
(LEP) children to further develop their language skills through 
Head Start, such as making progress toward the acquisition of 
the English language, while also focusing on the other 
requirements for children in the program.
    The statutory improvements of the committee bill are 
expected to promote the acquisition of skills and competencies 
Head Start children need to enter school ready to learn. The 
committee also requires that the results based performance 
measures be reviewed and updated as needed, no less than every 
4 years, based on advances in the science of early childhood 
development.

Head Start alignment with K-12 education

    An alignment of goals and expectations extending from the 
early years into later schooling can support better transitions 
from infant toddler care through preschool programs to 
kindergarten and into the primary grades, as teachers work 
within a consistent framework across educational settings. 
Comprehensive standards, curricula, teaching practices and 
assessments must be age, developmentally, and linguistically 
appropriate for young children. These standards, curricula, 
teaching practices, and assessments must be supported by 
comprehensive services for children and by the professional 
development forstaff to support each child's positive 
development and educational growth. Care must be taken to ensure that 
curricula and other practices used in Head Start programs serve as a 
foundation for later learning in school. Studies show that many 
children, including and especially children from low-income families, 
enter school without the necessary skills and abilities to succeed. 
States report that between 20 percent to nearly half of all children 
entering school are not prepared to succeed in school. Evidence further 
suggests that children who start behind tend to stay behind. For these 
reasons, the committee recognizes the importance of building on Head 
Start's mission of school readiness to ensure that the program provides 
the foundation children will need to reach high standards later in 
school. The committee also urges greater coordination between preschool 
programs, including Head Start, and local educational agencies to 
appropriately align expectations and curricula and facilitate a smooth 
transition from Head Start into school.
    Because many children in Head Start enter the program with 
less exposure to print and to a wide-ranging vocabulary, Head 
Start's attention to all domains of child development and 
learning is necessary to ensure positive gains in cognitive 
development, including early literacy. Early development of 
language and literacy skills provide children with the 
foundation needed to later become proficient readers at their 
grade level. The No Child Left Behind Act authorizes 
significant funds for reading programs such as Early Reading 
First and Reading First, which establish clear and specific 
expectations for what can and should happen for all students by 
insisting that they have the necessary language, cognitive, and 
early reading and literacy skills for continued success in 
school. The committee intends to strengthen the ability of Head 
Start, local schools, and other preschool programs to provide a 
positive continuum of early literacy experiences and 
instruction.
    The Language Enrichment Activities Program (LEAP), 
developed by the Margaret H. Cone Head Start Center in Dallas, 
Texas has demonstrated that intensive professional development 
with a strong early literacy curriculum and a relationship with 
a community's local elementary school can advance and 
strengthen the cognitive and communications skills of low-
income children. Children attending the Cone Head Start Center 
have demonstrated that, while in the program, they can perform 
at levels comparable to children from a higher socioeconomic 
level when given a quality preschool experience that includes a 
strong curriculum aligned with the K-12 system, intensive 
teachers training, and onsite monitoring and support of teacher 
instruction and interaction with children.
    Like other complex skills, reading and writing are outcomes 
that result from the continual interaction of development and 
learning, and therefore a range of individual variation is to 
be expected in the rate and pace at which children gain 
literacy skills. The committee recognizes that effective 
curricula and training programs are available that promote the 
development of language and early literacy knowledge and skills 
among Head Start children, and encourages Head Start to make 
use of such curricula, materials, and instructional practices. 
The committee intends, to the extent possible, that 
scientifically-based curricula and training programs be 
utilized.
    The committee recognizes Head Start's mission is to prepare 
the Nation's most disadvantaged children to enter and later 
succeed in school. Therefore, the Head Start Improvements for 
School Readiness Act requires that Head Start curricula and 
assessments be aligned with the Head Start Child Outcomes 
Framework and, as appropriate, State early learning standards. 
In referencing the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework and 
Indicators (2000), the committee further recognizes that Head 
Start has pre-established, researched-based, and appropriate 
standards and outcomes for the program developed by independent 
experts and practitioners to help guide teachers and staff with 
curricula and assessments in all domains of child development. 
Research reports of the National Research Council such as 
Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Eager to 
Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers, and From Neurons to 
Neighborhoods state that standards and outcomes for young 
children must address a wide range of domains: cognitive, 
social, emotional, physical, language development, approaches 
to learning, as well as content areas of arts, literacy, 
mathematics, science, and social studies. The committee intends 
that Head Start's curricula, assessments, and services continue 
to be aligned to address all such domains, consistent with the 
Head Start Child Outcomes Framework.
    The committee also makes changes in the Head Start 
Improvements for School Readiness Act to ensure appropriate and 
greater alignment of Head Start services to early learning 
standards for preschool age children in respective States in 
which Head Start programs operate. The committee recognizes the 
benefits of alignment to State early learning standards and 
acknowledges that many States have developed early learning 
standards for preschool age children. However, some State 
standards do not cover the full range of child development and 
learning.
    In providing for the appropriate alignment under the Act, 
it is the committee's view that any alignment of standards to 
Head Start should recognize the continuity between early 
learning standards and standards for elementary and secondary 
grades. Curricula and assessments for preschool age children 
should be consistent with developmental and age appropriate 
standards, and address all areas of children's development and 
learning.
    The committee bill updates the Head Start educational 
standards regarding the skills children need to later succeed 
in school and intends such standards be consistent with the 
latest scientifically based research.
    The committee bill helps to ensure a seamless system of 
education for children of all ages by requiring States to 
consult with their Chief State School Officer, local 
educational agencies, and local Head Start agencies when 
developing early childhood standards and general plans for the 
coordinated delivery of early care and education services at 
both the State and local level.

Increased need for coordination and collaboration

    Head Start has a long history of coordinating with other 
programs to provide comprehensive child development and support 
services to young children and families with incomes at far 
below the poverty level receive the health, nutrition, and 
educational supports that they need to be successful and 
prepared to enter school ready to learn. The committee 
anticipates overtime that Head Start and Early Head Start 
programs will increase coordination with schools, child care, 
and other preschool programs to help meet the needs to working 
families and to create more cross-sector communication.
    In recent years, States have begun to expand their own 
early childhood development initiatives. The National Institute 
for Early Education Research reported in 2004 using data from 
fiscal year 2003, that 17 States used their own funds to 
supplement Head Start. States sponsoring preschool programs 
have expanded greatly over the past 30 years. In 1970, only 
seven States funded preschool programs. According to the 
National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) 40 
States and the District of Columbia had some form of State-
sponsored prekindergarten program in the 2002-03 school year. 
These 40 States provided early education to approximately 
738,000 of the Nation's 7.8 million 3- and 4-year-olds in 
prekindergarten programs, and spent over $2.54 billion to 
finance these programs.
    With so many different early childhood programs providing 
services to the same target population, some States have sought 
to improve coordination and collaboration among the programs in 
order to create a cohesive system that is more responsive to 
the needs of working parents, and supports opportunities for 
children to participate in high quality programs that involve 
communities in the planning and implementation of service 
delivery. The committee is concerned that a fragmented service 
delivery system and uncoordinated programs can hinder program 
improvement and prevent needy children and families from 
obtaining the full array of available services for which they 
qualify and could benefit.
    The committee has also addressed the importance of 
collaboration by further expanding the current role of the Head 
Start Collaborator in each State to not only collaborate and 
coordinate service delivery but also to promote alignment of 
Head Start services with State early learning standards, the 
Head Start Child Outcomes Framework, and State regulations for 
school readiness goals. Each Head Start State Collaboration 
Office will conduct a needs assessment of Head Start agencies 
in the State with respect to collaboration and coordination of 
services for children, align services with State early learning 
standards, the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework, and State 
regulations for school readiness goals, provide for greater 
opportunities for professional development for Head Start 
staff, and promote partnerships between Head Start and other 
organizations. With these changes, the committee also intends 
to reduce the duplication of services, prevent under 
enrollment, and allow gaps in services for Head Start children 
and families to be more easily addressed.
    The committee feels strongly that the Director of State 
Collaboration should be a position of significant authority, 
appointed by the Governor and preferably located within the 
Office of the Governor. This centralized authority will allow 
for a more comprehensive coordination of services statewide, 
which will assist in providing``wrap around'' child care 
services, health care, and employment services that are critical to the 
working poor.
    In an effort to engage all community stakeholders, the 
committee bill specifies that a variety of new entities 
participate in State collaboration activities. Some of these 
entities include: State and local educational agencies, State 
Departments of Health and Human Services, representatives of 
the State Head Start association, representatives from the 
State network for child care resource and referral agencies, 
and community and faith based organizations. The addition of 
these entities will allow all States to develop a more seamless 
system for the provision of services to needy children and 
families, as well as leveraging the experience, expertise, and 
resources of a variety of organizations and individuals.
    The committee encourages the Secretary, in awarding 
collaboration grants to the States, to award funds for 
designation of a Migrant and Seasonal Farm worker Collaboration 
Project Director position and an Indian Head Start 
Collaboration Project Director. Such positions should be 
assigned the same responsibilities assigned to the State 
Directors of Head Start Collaboration. While it is important 
that the State Directors of Head Start Collaboration engage 
with the migrant and Indian populations in their respective 
States, these special Project Directors will ensure that the 
specific issues faced by children and families served by 
Migrant and Seasonal Head Start, and Indian Head Start programs 
are addressed. These positions will also serve as a conduit for 
knowledge and understanding of these special populations served 
by the Head Start and Early Head Start programs.
    In the context of greater collaboration, the committee also 
recognizes the important role of partnerships between Head 
Start programs and school and public libraries in increasing 
the preliteracy skills of Head Start participants. Many 
librarians have worked extensively in the area of improving 
family literacy and achieved success in integrating research 
based literacy practices into their work with families with 
prekindergarten children. Some Head Start programs across the 
country have long had library partnerships, through which 
librarians provide literacy training to Head Start staff; 
utilize a lending library, mobile library van, or other efforts 
to provide books to children; foster greater parental 
involvement through reading programs; and offer outreach and 
programs for limited English proficiency populations. The 
committee is encouraged by these practices and urges their 
continuation and expansion.
    State Head Start Collaboration offices currently receive 
about $8 million in funding each year. Given the new, expanded 
role Head Start Collaboration offices will play under the bill, 
the committee urges the Secretary to increase the investment in 
collaboration offices, if it can be done without reducing the 
level of services to Head Start children.

State advisory councils

    The committee recognizes the importance of bolstering 
coordination and collaboration among Head Start and other early 
childhood education programs through the establishment of a 
State Advisory Council.
    In many States, as well as at the local level, there has 
been movement to enhance coordination among the variety of 
early childhood education programs through formal and 
comprehensive State coordination arrangements. In some States, 
significant coordination already exists among Head Start, Early 
Start, child care and State prekindergarten programs and public 
schools. In some cases, such coordination efforts have taken 
the form of Councils or Governor's Cabinets.
    In keeping with a desire for greater collaboration among 
Head Start, early learning programs, and other related programs 
serving young children in the State, the committee has 
attempted to formalize coordination efforts in all States in a 
highly inclusive way across the sectors and settings of early 
childhood programs. In such efforts, the committee intends to 
bring together a diverse and wide array of agencies, 
organizations, and early childhood professionals, including, 
but not limited to, Head Start, family and center-based child 
care, and State prekindergarten programs. For States with 
similar preexisting councils or entities, additional members 
may need to be included in order to meet the inclusive list of 
representatives for the council.
    The State Advisory Councils in the committee bill are 
intended to be consultative and encourage greater State level 
coordination of efforts and understanding of shared goals for 
young children, programs and the professionals who provide the 
critical early education for children from birth until school 
entry. In particular, the council is charged with conducting a 
periodic Statewide assessment of early care and education 
programs for children from birth to school entry; identifying 
barriers to, and opportunities for, collaboration and 
coordination between entities carrying out Federal and State 
child development, child care, and early childhood education 
programs; developing a professional development system with a 
career ladder plan for early care and education in the State; 
making recommendations for a Statewide, unified data collection 
system; and reviewing and approving a strategic plan to better 
serve children in Head Start programs. The committee requires 
each State Advisory Council to provide opportunities for 
genuine public input in both its needs assessment and its 
recommendations, as well as meet with sufficient regularity to 
review and revise the needs assessments and recommendations.
    The committee recognizes the use of Nationally established 
data fields for collecting data on the child care supply. 
Utilizing the data collected would strengthen the coordination 
of early childhood education and maximize the existing capacity 
of early childhood education in the United States. Efforts to 
develop a unified State data collection system for early care 
and education should incorporate child care data systems, such 
as those of child care resource and referral agencies.
    The committee intends to work further to strengthen the 
coordination and collaboration of early care and education 
programs for all needy children and families.

Training and technical assistance

    The committee bill changes the training and technical 
assistance set-aside from ``at least two percent'' in current 
law to ``two percent'' and directs that half of those funds be 
sent directly to local grantees so that programs have a 
reliable source of funding for training and technical 
assistance activities. The remaining 50 percent spent by the 
Secretary provides the Secretary adequate flexibility to 
conduct appropriate Federal training and technical assistance 
to help individual programs meet the Head Start quality 
standards.
    The committee bill allows training and technical assistance 
funds to support a regional or State system of early childhood 
education training and technical assistance. The committee 
encourages the Secretary to include in its regional system, 
assistance for the Migrant Seasonal Head Start program and the 
American Indian/Alaska Native programs. The committee 
encourages the Secretary to provide the training and technical 
assistance for these two programs through National awards by 
contractors with knowledge of, and experience in, working with 
the populations served by these programs.
    The committee bill also restricts the use of training and 
technical assistance funds for travel expenditures associated 
with attending conferences when similar training and technical 
assistance is available locally. It is the committee's view 
that occasional travel to conferences and events may be 
necessary but only as such conferences relate to the overall 
effectiveness and quality of Head Start programs and outcomes. 
Excessive travel to Head Start conferences and events, 
especially those outside the continental United States, is 
generally not the most appropriate or effective use of Federal 
training and technical assistance funds. Whenever possible, 
Head Start programs should utilize local or regionally based 
training opportunities and should limit travel to occasions 
when an identified training need cannot be met through local or 
regional resources. The committee urges the Secretary to ensure 
that expenditures are consistent with the needs identified in a 
grantee's annual plan for training and technical assistance.
    The committee believes that better information is needed on 
how funds for training and technical assistance are spent by 
both Head Start agencies and the Department. The committee 
urges the Department to require better data reporting on the 
use of training and technical assistance dollars so that 
Congress has access to more complete information when assessing 
the amount of funds needed for this purpose. Better data 
reporting also will help the Department and Congress identify 
the most effective uses of these funds so that Head Start 
instructors and administrators are gaining the knowledge needed 
to improve program management and the delivery of services to 
children and their families.

Quality improvement

    The Head Start Improvements for School Readiness Act 
provides greater support for improving program quality by 
significantly increasing the percentage of new dollars that 
must be spent on quality improvement.
    Quality Head Start programs contribute significantly to 
children's development. There is growing recognition that 
participation in high quality early childhood education and 
care programs are important indicators of success in school and 
in life. This is due in part to the fact that these programs 
impact children precisely at the point when children's 
development is rapid, dramatic, and multidimensional. Research 
has demonstrated that the experiences of young children greatly 
affect all aspects of their development, including cognitive 
development. The level of commitment to quality improvement 
demonstrated in the committee bill is critical if Head Start is 
to succeed in improving the school readiness of participating 
children.
    Therefore, the committee continues to place a significant 
emphasis on program quality and requires 30 percent of new 
funds for fiscal year 2006, and 40 percent for each of fiscal 
years 2007 through 2010 to be set aside for quality 
improvement. These funds are an effort to ensure that Head 
Start programs are of the highest possible quality, and to 
ensure that funds are available to assist Head Start programs 
to reach new goals for teacher quality. The committee 
recognizes that financial resources are needed to reach these 
new goals for teacher quality. The bill begins to address this 
need by ensuring that of the funds reserved (beyond those funds 
necessary to adjust programs for inflation) not less than half 
of all quality funds must be used to increase teacher salaries 
and assist programs in recruiting and retaining quality staff. 
Funds also may be spent on other functions that have been 
determined to improve program performance, such as providing 
ongoing professional development based on the latest early 
childhood research on curriculum and teaching methods, or 
improving outreach to families and external partners.
    Head Start programs are operating in a highly competitive 
job market due to the Nation's economic strength. Head Start 
employs over 198,000 dedicated staff members (including 51,000 
teachers) to provide the comprehensive array of educational and 
social services, which comprise the Head Start program. While 
program quality depends on the availability of quality 
materials, equipment, and community partners to provide 
comprehensive services, the quality of Head Start programs is 
primarily dependent upon staff quality. Therefore, staff 
development continues to be a high priority of this committee.
    Programs must be able to attract and retain qualified staff 
despite competition for skilled workers from a wide range of 
industries beyond child development and educational service 
areas and to develop and retain the qualified work force needed 
to ensure Head Start program quality. Improved academic 
achievement in the Head Start program cannot be accomplished 
without well qualified Head Start teachers who are trained in 
scientifically-based literacy techniques and understand the 
importance of a language rich, interactive environment for 
children.
    The committee recognizes that a well designed Head Start 
classroom with an effective prereading program delivered by a 
competent teacher is vital for later reading proficiencies and 
school readiness. Head Start teachers must be equipped with an 
understanding of how oral language, prereading and early 
literacy develops in children and how parental and classroom 
instruction and involvement can optimize that development. 
Children need exposure to concepts about print, open-ended 
conversations that grow their vocabularies and oral language 
skills, an understanding of the relationships between letters 
and sounds, ability in phonemic awareness and early writing as 
well as prereading development. Teachers need professional 
development throughout their careers to strengthen their 
knowledge and skills for promoting children's language, 
prereading and early writing, as well as other cognitive areas.

Head Start research and evaluation

    There is an ongoing need for high quality research about 
the effectiveness of Head Start. During the 1998 
reauthorization, Congress took a giant step forward by 
commissioning a National study on the impact of Head Start 
services to provide valuable data comparing the outcomes of 
children in Head Start programs with similar children who do 
not participate in the program. In June, 2005, Department of 
Health and Human Services published the first year preliminary 
findings of the Head Start Impact Study. The committee looks 
forward to the final report of the Head Start Impact Study in 
2007, which will be useful for the committee in helping reform 
the program so that all grantees can have a positive impact on 
children in the program.
    In 1997, Head Start launched the Family and Child 
Experiences Survey (known as FACES) to provide valuable 
information on child outcomes and program performance quality 
over time. FACES is a study of a National random sample of Head 
Start programs, but is not designed to compare Head Start 
participants to other children in other preschool programs 
serving a similar population or other situations if not 
enrolled in a Head Start program. Plans are currently underway 
by the Department of Health and Human Services for the third 
round of data under the FACES study. In addition to current 
research, with input from the Head Start community, research 
needs should be continually assessed so that Congress can 
identify ways in which Head Start programs can be strengthened 
to best meet the needs of the children it serves.
    The committee supports a one-time directive to the National 
Academy of Sciences to establish an independent panel of 
experts to review the current body of early childhood research. 
Because academic outcomes and assessments for young children 
are emerging areas of knowledge and practice, the act also 
includes a review of Head Start's outcomes by the National 
Academy of Sciences (NAS), to facilitate greater information 
and recommendations on their further development, 
appropriateness, and application. Once NAS completes its report 
and recommendations, the Department of Health and Human 
Services will use the results of such study to develop, inform 
and revise Head Start's outcomes. As such, any guidance or 
mandates for new outcomes will be grounded in independent 
research and informed by experts and practitioners in the child 
development and early care and education fields.
    This review is needed to provide recommendations on age and 
developmentally appropriate academic standards and measurable 
benchmarks for achievement, the types of services (including 
classroom instruction) necessary to ensure school readiness, 
and appropriate methods to assess child progress in preparing 
for school. This study also is needed to ensure a well informed 
approach to developing school readiness standards and will 
assist States in the process of developing and/or implementing 
such standards. The committee hopes that recommendations of 
this panel will be used by the Secretary to inform and guide 
the development and implementation of the recommended 
educational standards for Head Start program participants.
    The committee notes with some concern there is insufficient 
research focusing on American Indian and Alaska Native Head 
Start programs, thus limiting the availability of 
scientifically based research on these programs. The committee 
strongly recommends that the Secretary undertake a study or set 
of studies designed to focus on this population, with a focus 
on issues such as curriculum development, availability and need 
for services, appropriate research methodologies and measures 
for these populations, and best practices for teaching and 
educating American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start program 
participants. Furthermore, the committee underscores the 
importance of providing tribes and tribal organizations (such 
as the National Indian Head Start Directors Association) the 
opportunity to contribute to and collaborate on this research, 
with tribes retaining as much local control over this process 
as is practicable.

Family literacy

    Efforts to improve family literacy also are an important 
component of the Head Start program. Family literacy 
activities, including financial literacy services, are critical 
to ensure the cohesive delivery of services to families and to 
enhance parental involvement in their child's education, which 
is significantly challenged if parents themselves cannot read. 
In keeping with the goal of improving school readiness and 
valuing the role of parents in their children's education, the 
committee bill renews its support for training and technical 
assistance in the area of family literacy services.
    Since the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start, grantees have 
received exemplary services and nearly 50,000 children's books 
have been placed in Head Start classrooms. In addition, nearly 
2,000 Head Start parent-mentors have received training to 
better prepare them to support their child's language and 
literacy development and to encourage other parents to do the 
same. The committee commends the work of the Head Start Bureau 
and the National Center for Family Literacy in its conduct of 
the Head Start Family Literacy Project. Not only have program 
grantees found the project's training and technical assistance 
useful, but evaluations have proven the merit of this important 
work. The committee encourages the Secretary to ensure the 
continuity of these important services so that Head Start 
children will be better prepared for school and Head Start 
parents will be better able to fulfill their role as their 
child's first and best teacher.

Father involvement

    The committee hopes that Head Start agencies will take 
appropriate steps to encourage fathers and other adult role 
models (as appropriate) to participate in the academic, social, 
and emotional development of children enrolled in Head Start 
programs. The committee has included language requiring Head 
Startprograms to extend outreach to fathers, in appropriate 
cases, and feels that the involvement of both parents is crucial to the 
education of young children, and to the success of the Head Start 
program. The committee feels strongly that parent involvement provides 
a more stable learning environment and increased long-term emotional, 
social and health benefits.

Underserved and at-risk populations

    While all children served by the Head Start program are 
economically in need there are some subgroups of the eligible 
Head Start population that are particularly at risk, and often 
underserved. According to a study conducted by the Department 
of Health and Human Services in 2001, less than 19 percent of 
the eligible children of migrant and seasonal workers receive 
Head Start services. Similarly, the Indian Head Start program 
serves only 16 percent of eligible children. The committee bill 
attempts to increase the participation of these children by 
increasing the percentage set aside for Indian Head Start and 
for Migrant and Seasonal Head Start to 4 and 5 percent 
respectively.
    In an effort to address the unique challenges faced by 
American Indian and Alaska Native children, the committee bill 
includes representatives of Tribal Head Start programs serving 
large numbers of American Native and Alaska Native children as 
participants in State level collaboration and coordination of 
services and requires annual consultation with the Secretary. 
The committee believes that increased input from tribal 
programs that serve large numbers of American Indian and Alaska 
Native children will allow for a better understanding of their 
unique needs.
    Homeless children face substantial barriers when it comes 
to gaining and maintaining access to Head Start services. The 
Department of Education's fiscal year 2000 Report to Congress 
on the Education of Homeless Children and Youth identified 
limited program capacity and availability, transportation, and 
immunizations and residency requirements as representing 
significant barriers within the Head Start program for homeless 
children to access Head Start services. The committee bill 
attempts to address this issue by increasing efforts to conduct 
outreach to homeless families, and leveraging the experience of 
the homeless liaisons in public schools that are required under 
the McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Improvement Act. This 
coordination assists in identifying barriers to serving 
homeless children and facilitates a smooth transition when 
homeless children move from Head Start to elementary schools. 
The bill also addresses the issue of required paperwork, which 
is one of the biggest barriers to enrolling homeless children 
in Head Start. Homeless families often have difficulty 
producing the necessary documents, such as birth certificates 
and immunization records. The Head Start Improvements for 
School Readiness Act models provisions in the No Child Left 
Behind Act that allow eligible homeless students to enroll in 
Head Start while those documents are being obtained (consistent 
with State and local law). This will allow needy children to 
begin accessing critical Head Start services at the earliest 
possible opportunity.
    Through the comprehensive services provided to young 
children and their families, Head Start and Early Head Start 
programs can play an important role in preventing the abuse and 
neglect of children and in protecting children and ameliorating 
the affects of maltreatment they may have already suffered. 
Ensuring that children are ready to learn means ensuring that 
children are safe at home and receive the kind of nurturing and 
care that all children deserve.
    Research shows that abused and neglected children are more 
likely to have poor prospects for success in school; sexually 
abused and neglected children are at a higher risk for academic 
failure; that maltreatment appears to be an additional factor 
over and above poverty that affects the academic achievement of 
children; and a higher frequency of academic difficulties and 
school behavior problems is reported among abused children.
    The committee recognizes that abused and neglected children 
and children at risk of maltreatment are in need of preventive 
services and may benefit from Head Start and Early Head Start 
services. The committee bill builds upon provisions already 
existing in the Head Start statute that provide for (1) home 
based services to Head Start children and their families, (2) 
staff training in working with children who experience 
violence, (3) training to parents in parenting skills and basic 
child development, and (4) collaboration with other agencies 
and organizations involved in child and family services.

Homeless children in Head Start programs

    Over 40 percent of children living in homeless shelters are 
under the age of 5, and are at an age where early childhood 
education can have a significant positive impact on their 
development and future academic achievement. Homeless children 
experience more developmental delays, health problems, and 
other challenges, which make enrollment and access to Head 
Start programs important for success in school.
    Many barriers have limited homeless children's access to 
and participation in Head Start, including high mobility, lack 
of required documentation, lack of transportation, and lack of 
coordination. In order to overcome these barriers the committee 
urges Head Start grantees to increase their outreach, 
recruitment, and enrollment of families in homeless situations; 
to provide appropriate services to meet their needs; and to 
collaborate with relevant community agencies.
    To eliminate these barriers to homeless families' 
participation in Head Start, the Head Start Improvements for 
School Readiness Act includes many provisions specifically 
designed to increase the participation of homeless families in 
Head Start programs. It is the committee's intent that when the 
Secretary issues regulations to implement these provisions of 
the act that consideration is given to procedures that will 
eliminate and address the identified barriers to homeless 
families' participation in Head Start programs. The committee 
recognizes the Head Start Bureau's historical encouragement of 
local Head Start grantees to target homeless families whenever 
possible to address the challenges such families experience. 
Research has demonstrated the importance of early childhood 
education for homeless children, offering the stability and 
supports needed for a child to cope with his or her situation.
    In general, when a grantee works on its community needs 
assessment, it should ensure that it accounts for homeless 
families. The mean income of homeless families is 46 percent of 
the poverty line; homeless families are often so poor and so 
mobile that they are not accounted for in standard census 
measures. For this reason, extra efforts should be made to 
include homeless families in calculations of the concentration 
of low-income families in a geographic area. The Secretary may 
require that grantees in their community needs assessment take 
into account the percentage of homeless pre-school age children 
in the service area. Grantees should be particularly cognizant 
of all underserved populations in their community such as 
homeless children, children in foster care, and children with 
disabilities. The Secretary should ask grantees to report on 
efforts to remove barriers, facilitate enrollment, and 
prioritize children who are most in need of Head Start services 
in their community. Family transportation needs of underserved 
populations should be addressed in Head Start planning efforts.
    The goal of reducing underenrollment should not discourage 
grantees from serving underserved populations, including 
homeless children. Therefore, regulations should clarify that 
provisions designed to reduce under-enrollment are not meant to 
prohibit or discourage Head Start grantees from serving 
homeless children. If a homeless child moves out of the 
program's service area, to the extent feasible and at the 
request of the parent, such child can continue to participate 
in such program until the end of the year.
    Documentation for homeless children continues to be a 
barrier. The committee recognizes the difficulty in securing 
documents (e.g. proof of age, proof of residency, birth 
certificates, and immunization and other medical records) for 
homeless children and should be able to demonstrate that they 
are in the process of obtaining such documents from a relevant 
agency. Homeless families, when appropriate, should be allowed 
to produce alternative proofs of residency and evidence of such 
documents. To facilitate effective transitions, grantees should 
request records from previous service providers and transfer 
the records of former program participants in a timely manner. 
The committee encourages States and localities to review laws, 
policies, or regulations that act as barriers to the enrollment 
of homeless children in Head Start programs, in particular in 
respect to relevant documentation and records. It is the 
committee's intent that when the Secretary develops 
regulations, the Secretary considers such State or local 
reviews, especially with respect to documentation policies.
    It is important to the committee that better and more 
consistent data relating to homeless children and families is 
obtained. Therefore, the committee urges the Secretary to 
include a specific analysis of the status of homeless children 
and children in foster care in the report on the status of 
children participating in Head Start programs.

Limited English proficient children and families

    Approximately 28 percent of the children served by Head 
Start speak a language other than English at home and come to 
Head Start centers with limited English skills. These children 
speak over 140 languages. After English, the most common 
languages spoken by Head Start children are Spanish, Chinese, 
Hmong, and Vietnamese. Given demographic projections for the 
immigrantcommunity, the number of children who will come to the 
Head Start program speaking a language other than English will only 
increase in the foreseeable future.
    During this reauthorization of Head Start, the committee 
prioritized improving the delivery of services for limited 
English proficient children and their families. The bill 
establishes a requirement that grantees set policies to 
identify and serve limited English proficient children through 
linguistically appropriate approaches so that such children 
have a meaningful opportunity to participate in Head Start 
programs. The committee urges the Secretary and the Head Start 
Bureau to continue and enhance activities to ensure that 
limited English proficient children are served by high quality 
Head Start programs, including activities to assist Head Start 
grantees to adopt teaching strategies that provide language 
rich learning environments, literacy development, and materials 
appropriate for limited English proficient children.
    The committee recognizes the development of Native language 
immersion and cultural programs as an important strategy for 
meeting the needs of children served by Indian Head Start 
programs, guided by the discretion of the individual Tribal 
grantees.

Children with disabilities in Head Start

    Head Start grantees are required to enroll and provide 
comprehensive educational, medical, and social services to 
children with disabilities and their families. Since 1972, 
Congress has required that no less than 10 percent of the 
children a grantee serves are children with disabilities. 
Currently, children with disabilities comprise 13 percent of 
the total Head Start population.
    Today, over 134,000 children with disabilities participate 
in Head Start and Early Head Start programs, including children 
with speech and language impairments, autism, orthopedic 
impairments, mental retardation, developmental delays, and 
learning disabilities. Within Head Start programs, children 
with disabilities receive individualized services in an 
inclusive, integrated environment that prepares them to enter 
their neighborhood school. The population of children with 
disabilities served in Head Start has increased by 26,000 
children since 1997.
    The committee recognizes the important role that Head Start 
plays in seeking out, identifying and serving low-income 
children with disabilities. Therefore, it encourages grantees 
to maintain current strategies delineated in Federal 
performance standards for comprehensively addressing the needs 
of children with disabilities. Grantees must: continue outreach 
to identify and enroll children with disabilities; provide 
comprehensive educational, medical, and social services to 
children with disabilities; coordinate programs and systems 
(such as IDEA and Medicaid/EPSDT programs) to ensure that a 
wide range of needs are met; and provide funding for training 
and technical assistance specifically related to those who care 
for children with disabilities.

Assessments of young children

    Recent research on child development and learning has shown 
integrating a child's cognitive development with his or her 
social, emotional, and physical development promotes greater 
school readiness. Consistent with that research, Head Start 
programs are currently guided in their curriculum and program 
practice by the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework, which 
provides guidance toward an integrated approach of child 
development and learning, with a variety of indicators within 
each area of child development (i.e., social, emotional, 
physical, cognitive, etc.). The Framework also is helpful to 
programs in their efforts to analyze and use data on child 
outcomes in program self-assessment and continuous improvement.
    Recent reports conducted by the National Academy of 
Sciences, such as Neurons to Neighborhoods and Eager to Learn: 
Educating Our Preschoolers, have demonstrated the need to 
consider carefully the variation in each child of his or her 
development and background in developing standards for Head 
Start programs, expected outcomes for Head Start children, and 
effective and appropriate pedagogy and assessment. The 
committee believes that educational assessments are an 
essential component of program evaluation and improving student 
achievement. Through valid and reliable assessments, much can 
be learned about program strengths and weaknesses, what a child 
has or has not learned, and which instructional techniques work 
best with different children.
    Currently, Head Start programs use locally designed 
assessments to monitor child development and growth, and to 
improve instruction and services to maximize children's 
learning. The committee bill acknowledges the importance of 
assessments in Head Start and has included a requirement that 
agencies establish effective procedures and provide for the 
regular assessment of Head Start children, such as 
observational assessments, direct formal assessments, or parent 
and provider interviews, taking into consideration the age of 
the child. Because academic outcomes and assessments for young 
children are emerging areas of knowledge and practice, the 
committee recognizes the ongoing need to consult and rely on 
recommendations from independent experts in the development and 
application of such outcomes and assessments. The committee 
expects that Head Start agencies will have a process to assess 
each of the elements important to a child's school readiness 
and later performance in school, including cognitive abilities, 
motor and sensory development. The Head Start agency may choose 
the assessment so long as it is valid and reliable and meets 
recognized technical standards.
    The committee has included requirements in the act that the 
National Academy of Sciences review and make recommendations on 
appropriate academic requirements, benchmarks, and assessments 
for children in Head Start. The committee encourages the 
Secretary to take the panel's recommendations, as well as those 
of other experts in the field, into consideration when 
reviewing, developing, and revising outcomes and assessments in 
Head Start.

Teacher quality and staff qualifications

    The committee believes that well educated and skilled 
teachers are a key to early childhood program quality and 
better outcomes for children. Research consistently 
demonstrates a link between the achievement of children and the 
knowledge, skills, and competency of classroom teachers. 
Teachers in Head Start programs must be adequately trained and 
educated, particularly in effectively providing prereading, 
language, and premathematics instruction as well as social, 
emotional, and physical development.
    While Nationally, the Head Start program has met the 
requirement that 50 percent of its teachers have at least an 
Associates degree, the committee believes that improvements can 
be made. Nationally among existing State prekindergarten 
programs, about 75 percent of classroom teachers have either a 
bachelor's degree (BA) with specialized training in early 
childhood or a master's degree (MA) (Gilliam, 2005). In order 
to promote the highest quality instruction and learning 
environment as possible, the committee has taken a number of 
steps to strengthen the educational requirements for Head Start 
teachers.
    Over the next 5 years (by September 30, 2010), all Head 
Start teachers in center-based programs must have at least an 
Associate's Degree (AA) relating to early childhood development 
or an AA in a related educational area with coursework related 
to early childhood development; and, demonstrated teaching 
competencies as determined by the Head Start director.
    Over the next 3 years (by September 30, 2008), all Head 
Start curriculum specialists and education coordinators in 
center-based programs must have a Bachelor's Degree (BA) 
relating to early childhood development or a BA or advanced 
degree and coursework equivalent to a minor relating to early 
childhood development.
    Over the next 3 years (by September 30, 2008), all Head 
Start assistant teachers in center-based programs must have a 
Child Development Associate (CDA) credential or be enrolled in 
a CDA program to be completed within 2 years.
    Over the next 6 years (by September 30, 2011), at least 50 
percent of all Head Start teachers in each center-based program 
must have a BA relating to early childhood education or a BA 
with specialized training for prekindergarten and demonstrated 
teacher competencies.
    Head Start agencies in States with more rigorous standards 
for teaching prekindergarten must meet those standards.
    Head Start agencies must demonstrate continued progress 
each year in hiring more highly educated teaching staff for 
Head Start classrooms.
    The committee strongly believes that continuing 
professional development is also an important element to 
improving the Head Start teaching workforce. Each Head Start 
teacher shall have at least 15 clock hours of 
professionaldevelopment per year. Such professional development shall 
be high quality, sustained, intensive, and classroom focused in order 
to have a positive and lasting impact on classroom instruction.
    The committee believes that encouraging current Head Start 
staff to return to school is an important goal. If Head Start 
funds are used to provide financial assistance to pursue a 
degree in higher education, the Head Start employee must remain 
employed with Head Start for at least 3 years after receiving 
the degree or repays the total or prorated amount.
    The committee understands that there are State and Federal 
student financial aid programs available to Head Start 
personnel to pursue higher education degrees. It is the 
committee's intent that, to the extent possible, these sources 
of financial aid should be accessed to assist Head Start 
personnel to meet the teacher quality and staff qualification 
requirements under this act.
    The committee's primary objective is to improve outcomes 
for children in Head Start programs by strengthening the 
quality of the programs serving these children. According to 
the National Institute for Early Education Research, ``teachers 
who have earned a BA are better equipped to provide high 
quality preschool education than are teachers with a 2-year 
degree (AA), Child Development Associate (CDA) certificate, or 
High School diploma (even when these teachers have had training 
in child development).''
    Research clearly indicates that vocabulary is a critical 
building block to later literacy. Research also shows that the 
size and complexity of young children's vocabularies are 
directly related to the size and complexity of the vocabularies 
of the adults with whom children interact--both parents and 
teachers. Well educated teachers who themselves have strong 
literacy skills, rich vocabularies and employ complex speech 
patterns, provide stronger early literacy experiences to 
children than do teachers with lower levels of education. The 
National Adult Literacy Survey found that literacy and verbal 
skill levels are clearly linked to formal educational 
attainment levels and individuals who have earned a Bachelor's 
degree have a broader vocabulary than individuals who have an 
Associates degree.
    The committee understands that the requirement for the 
number of individuals with Bachelor's degrees set out in the 
legislation may be challenging for certain grantees, States, 
and regions. The challenges in securing and maintaining 
teaching staff with advanced degrees is particularly acute for 
Migrant and Seasonal Head Start programs, Indian Head Start 
programs and programs that require bilingual teaching staff, 
and rural grantees. The committee acknowledges that many of the 
challenges faced by these programs are systemic by virtue of 
how and where they operate and urges the Secretary to assist 
grantees in meeting these challenges.
    Upon request by the Head Start grantee, the Secretary may 
grant a waiver of the Head Start teacher requirements. The 
committee has given the Secretary broad waiver authority for 
grantees, including rural and seasonal programs that can 
demonstrate continued aggressive statewide and National efforts 
have been unsuccessful at recruiting staff to satisfy the 
degree requirements as provided in the committee bill. This 
authority provides for a renewable 1 year waiver to such 
grantees that are unable to meet the degree requirements.
    The committee also notes the challenge facing Indian Head 
Start programs which are often located in remote and isolated 
areas without access to post-secondary institutions. It is the 
committee's hope, however, that these challenges can be 
addressed by additional access to distance education. The 
committee bill includes a proposal to provide additional 
funding to Tribal Colleges and Universities. The committee 
intends for this funding to help the staff of Indian Head Start 
programs attend Tribal Colleges and Universities where such 
institutions exist, in order to meet the teacher requirements 
of this legislation in a way that respects the traditional 
values of Native American tribes.
    Finally, the committee views the teacher requirements as an 
important goal for all Head Start center-based programs. 
However, in implementing the requirements of this section, the 
Secretary shall not impose penalties or sanctions on individual 
Head Start programs or staff in the Head Start monitoring 
process, as a result of failing to meet the levels of teachers 
holding such credentials prescribed under this section.

Early Head Start

    Neurological research demonstrates that during the first 3 
years of life the brain undergoes its most dramatic 
development, and children acquire the ability to think, speak, 
learn, and reason. According to many brain researchers, the 
development between the prenatal period and the first years of 
life is more extensive than previously thought and susceptible 
to long lasting early environmental influences (Moughty, 2003). 
The groundbreaking report Starting Points: Meeting the Needs of 
Our Youngest Children cites, ``Babies raised by caring, 
attentive adults in safe, predictable environments are better 
learners than those raised with less attention in less secure 
settings.'' (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994).
    The critical development which occurs during the first 3 
years of a child's life is well documented: all infants and 
toddlers need positive learning experiences to foster their 
intellectual, social, and emotional development and to lay the 
foundation for later school success. Infants and toddlers 
living in high-risk environments need additional supports to 
promote their healthy growth and development. Disparities in 
children's cognitive and social abilities become evident well 
before they enter Head Start or Prekindergarten programs at age 
4.
    The Early Head Start program minimizes these disparities 
and ensures that children enter school ready to learn. The 
National Evaluation of Early Head Start--a rigorous, large 
scale, random-assignment evaluation--concluded that the Early 
Head Start program is making a positive difference in areas 
associated with children's success in school, family self-
sufficiency, and parental support of child development.
    In light of these findings, the committee has added 
amendments to expand the Early Head Start program which 
currently serves three percent of eligible children, increasing 
the current 10 percent set aside of total Head Start 
appropriations to 18 percent by 2010. The committee provides 
for such increase, so long as these increases will not reduce 
services for preschool age children in the Head Start programs.
    Services for parents to support their role as parents are a 
critical component of the Early Head Start program. According 
to the National Academy of Sciences, there is considerable 
evidence to support the notion that programs that combine child 
focused educational activities with explicit attention to 
parent-child interaction patterns and relationship building 
have the greatest impact for at-risk children. The National 
Evaluation of Early Head Start concluded that Early Head Start 
parents were more involved and provided more support for their 
child's language development and learning than control group 
parents. This clearly shows that the two generation focus is 
critical to the achievement and success of Early Head Start.
    The committee expects that Early Head Start programs will 
continue to offer required services to parents to support their 
role as parents and will continue to be responsible for the 
provision of services to parents that meet the Head Start 
Performance Standards. These services may continue to be 
provided either directly by the Early Head Start programs or 
through formal partnerships with community agencies. Early Head 
Start programs will continue to encourage parent participation 
in these services.
    Because so many infants and toddlers are in the care of 
relatives, friends, or neighbors, the committee intends that 
Early Head Start programs provide home-based services to family 
child care homes and kith and kin caregivers caring for infants 
and toddlers who also participate in Early Head Start services. 
These home-based services will enhance the ability of kith and 
kin caregivers to provide continuity in supporting children's 
physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development. The 
committee intends that Early Head Start should be able to 
implement successful models for kith and kin care emerging from 
the Department of Health and Human Service's Enhanced Home 
Visiting Project. The committee also feels that while training 
and services may be provided directly to other caregivers when 
parents are unable to attend, services under this section 
should also continue to be provided to children's immediate 
families.
    Given the recent changes in the overall Head Start training 
and technical assistance system, the committee encourages the 
Secretary to ensure that Early Head Start programs and staff 
continue to receive opportunities for specialized infant and 
toddler training and technical assistance.
    Further, it is critical that training for Early Head Start 
programs focus on the unique social and emotional development 
of infants and toddlers. Attending to the social and emotional 
development of very young children is important to their 
overall functioning, their ability to form and maintain 
relationships, their ability to learn, and their future success 
in school and life.

Designation and competition of Head Start agencies

    It is the committee's intent with this bill to improve the 
accountability, quality, and outcomes of Head Start programs 
for children and their families. This goal is accomplished in 
two ways: by ensuring that the funding for those grantees with 
significant or recurring deficiencies is suspended or 
terminated; and by assisting grantees in improving their 
performance through training and technical assistance.
    All grantees, even those with priority designation, are 
required to submit an application for funding every 5 years. 
For initial designation as a Head Start grantee, an entity must 
demonstrate the power, authority, and capability to administer 
a Head Start program, and shall establish program goals for 
improving the school readiness of Head Start children. Current 
grantees that are eligible to apply are those that have met or 
are making progress toward meeting program goals, the Head 
Start performance standards, and the Head Start Child Outcomes 
Framework. However, only those high performing grantees that 
are currently receiving funding, have met or exceeded program 
and financial requirements, have no unresolved deficiencies and 
have not had findings of deficiencies during their last 
triennial review, and can demonstrate active collaboration with 
other State or local providers of services to children, are 
eligible to receive priority designation. The committee 
believes expanding the universe of organizations eligible to 
compete and operate Head Start programs may result in improved 
program performance and stronger Head Start programs overall. 
The committee recognizes that all grantees, even high 
performing grantees, and ultimately the children will benefit 
from ongoing continuous improvement of the program.
    The committee understands the significance of a priority 
designation for grantees in the open competition process. 
Therefore, language in the bill clearly defines what 
constitutes a deficiency and an area of unresolved 
noncompliance. A deficiency is defined as a systemic or 
substantial failure of an agency in an area of performance that 
the Secretary determines involves: a threat to the health, 
safety, or civil rights of children or staff; a denial to 
parents to exercise their full roles and responsibilities 
related to program operations; a failure to comply with 
standards related to early childhood development and health 
services, family and community partnerships, or program design 
and management; the misuse of funds under this subchapter; loss 
of legal status or financial viability, loss of permits, 
debarment from receiving Federal grants or contracts, or the 
improper use of Federal funds; or the failure to meet any other 
Federal or State requirement that the agency has shown an 
unwillingness or inability to correct, after notice from the 
Secretary.
    An agency can also be deemed deficient by: a systemic 
failure of the board of directors if it fails to fully exercise 
its legal and fiduciary responsibilities; a substantial failure 
of an agency to meet the administrative requirements of section 
644(b); the failure of an agency to demonstrate that it has 
attempted to meet the coordination and collaboration 
requirements with entities described in section 
640(a)(5)(D)(iii)(I); or, having an area of unresolved 
noncompliance. By using the term systemic or substantial in 
nature, a deficiency is reserved for serious failure to conform 
to Head Start performance standards.
    The committee was very concerned with some of the findings 
of the GAO's February 28, 2005 report entitled Head Start: 
Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks 
Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. 
This report determined that 53 percent of grantees identified 
with noncompliance were again cited for noncompliance in their 
next reviews.
    The committee recognizes that a noncompliance is not the 
same level of severity as a deficiency. However, it was 
unsatisfactory to the committee that programs failed to correct 
a noncompliance in a timely manner. The committee defined the 
term unresolved area of noncompliance as a failure of a program 
to correct a noncompliance within 120 days or within additional 
time as authorized by the Secretary. A program failing to 
resolve an area of noncompliance within 120 days will be deemed 
deficient.
    The committee recognizes that some non-compliances are 
procedural in nature, and as such cannot be ``undone.'' In 
these cases, the committee expects that resolution of the 
noncompliance will involve the implementation of policies and 
procedures that will ensure future compliance with the Head 
Start statute and regulations.
    All grantees with a current deficiency or a deficiency 
identified in the last triennial review will be subject to an 
open competition without priority designation. Any eligible 
grantee that has had a deficiency is encouraged to compete for 
designation. If a Head Start agency resolves deficiencies and 
areas of non-compliance within the timeframe of the quality 
improvement plan, such agencies shall receive special 
consideration in such open competition. The committee also 
expects that the current practice of self-certification 
regarding the resolution of findings of noncompliance will be 
continued.
    The committee anticipates high performing grantees will be 
awarded a subsequent grant for 5 years and remain Head Start 
grantees because consistency is very important for the Head 
Start program especially for the children served by these 
grants. The committee also recognizes that many Head Start 
grantees are doing a very good job administering their grants. 
In the case of Indian Head Start programs, the committee 
intends that any grant awarded for these purposes will go to an 
Indian Head Start grantee. In the event that an eligible Indian 
Head Start grantee is not available, children shall continue to 
receive services until an Indian Head Start grantee becomes 
available and designated.

Head Start performance standards, educational standards and measures

    As a National laboratory for early childhood development, 
the Head Start program has always been concerned with the 
quality of its programs and its effects on children and 
families. Since 1975, the Head Start program has focused on the 
quality of services provided and has assessed quality through 
process indicators, such as the number of teachers with early 
childhood education degrees or child development credentials. 
These indicators have been measured primarily through 
compliance with the Head Start Performance Standards using the 
ON-Site Program Review Instrument (OSPRI) once every 3 years. 
Process indicators will continue to be important to the Head 
Start program because of the belief that the quality and 
quantity of services provided are inextricably linked to the 
effects of the program.
    Head Start's performance standards are also critical to 
maintaining the highest quality of services in Head Start 
centers. Such standards include mandatory regulations for Head 
Start grantees and prescribe the characteristics of a quality 
Head Start program. Beyond defining the process for providing 
services to children in the program, the Head Start Program 
Performance Standards guarantee comprehensive services such as 
immunizations, health services, nutrition, education, and the 
involvement of parent programs. The committee recognizes that 
the gains in development and school readiness outcomes made by 
Head Start children are closely associated with Head Start's 
performance standards.
    In 1995, Head Start joined efforts throughout the Federal 
Government to develop performance measures to promote 
accountability through the assessment of program quality and 
outcomes. These performance measures are helping the Head Start 
program change its focus from process to outcomes and toward 
results oriented evaluation in accordance with the Government 
Performance and Results Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-620), the 
recommendations of the 1993 Advisory Committee on Head Start 
Quality and Expansion and the mandate of Section 641A(b) of the 
1994 Reauthorization of the Head Start Act.
    The performance measures developed in response to enhanced 
educational focus are providing methods and procedures for 
assessing, annually and over long periods, the quality and 
effectiveness of programs operated by Head Start agencies.
    However, while the performance standards establish a 
minimally acceptable level of services, they do not directly 
measure program quality or effectiveness. Head Start's 
performance measures, on the other hand, which provide a 
measure of program quality and effectiveness, have not 
generally been applied to local grantees until the 1998 
reauthorization; rather, they have provided a snapshot of Head 
Start program quality.

The national reporting system and assessment

    In 1998, the committee included and Congress passed a 
provision requiring results-based national performance measures 
to be applied locally and specifically to all programs, as part 
of the monitoring and triennial compliance reviews and directed 
the Secretary to develop additional performance measures to 
assess the educational achievement of children in the Head 
Start program. In addition to the assessments, currently 
administered in the Head Start program, to measure child 
outcomes, the Department of Health and Human Services 
hasdeveloped the National Reporting System to fulfill the results based 
performance measurement requirement under this act.
    The NRS is a standardized test given at the beginning and 
end of each program year to assess on a limited set of 
language, literacy, and math indicators all 4 and 5 years old 
in the Head Start program. At this time, the National Reporting 
System does not assess the other six domains of child 
development.
    Children are assessed regularly in every Head Start program 
around the country. Researchers agree that multiple assessments 
of young children are needed to determine young children's 
learning and development.
    Currently, Head Start children participate in multiple 
assessments that are locally designed and implemented to 
improve instruction, services, and overall program quality. In 
some cases, while data from these assessments may be useful to 
inform the instructional needs of individual children at the 
local level, they cannot be used to evaluate and compare rates 
of progress and the readiness of children in Head Start 
programs nationwide. The National Reporting System is not 
designed to replace any of the current assessments used by 
local programs.
    The bill directs an independent panel of experts to make 
recommendations to the Secretary regarding assessment and 
outcomes for Head Start programs, including the following:
          1. The development of additional performance measures 
        (including social-emotional development) to assess the 
        achievement of children in the Head Start program, and 
        provide information on how the results will be used to 
        improve the quality and accountability of the Head 
        Start program, as well as targeted training and 
        technical assistance; and
          2. the process by which validity and reliability will 
        be incorporated.
    The committee encourages the Secretary to examine the 
impact of such assessments on Head Start practices and 
instruction, and how such assessments and data analysis will be 
conducted, including training for teachers. The committee does 
not intend that the results of National assessments be used as 
the sole measure to evaluate Head Start programs.
    It is the committee's view that a stronger accountability 
system is needed to ensure that Head Start children are 
prepared for school. The committee intends to give further 
consideration to the administration, implementation, and use of 
the National Reporting System.

Transition

    Successful transition from preschool into K-12 is one of 
Head Start's primary objectives. The committee has long 
recognized that transition activities are a partnership in 
which the Head Start and local education agencies must 
cooperate; therefore compatible transition requirements are 
outlined both in the Head Start statute and in the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act.
    Previously, the committee provided a set aside to fund 31 
demonstration projects designed to identify and replicate best 
practices for extending a Head Start-like model of 
comprehensive services into kindergarten and the first three 
grades of elementary school, thereby facilitating the 
transition of Head Start children into their local school 
systems. Based on the success of this initiative, two 
information memos sharing project results were disseminated to 
all Head Start grantees. In addition, three training guides 
have been developed and numerous training opportunities made 
available to assist grantees in incorporating best practices 
identified by this effort.
    These demonstration projects were discontinued in fiscal 
year 1996 consistent with the terms of their original awards. 
The committee feels strongly about the continuation of the 
transition activities, which have been demonstrated to be 
effective and should now be an integral part of every Head 
Start program.
    The committee commends the administration's efforts to 
foster an environment in which transition activities are 
integrated into program operations in a manner similar to each 
of the other vital services provided to families. It is the 
committee's intent that those efforts continue and that 
grantees be provided continued training and technical 
assistance to make that goal a reality.

Accountability

    The committee recognizes that, according to the latest 
monitoring report issued by the U.S. Department of Health and 
Human Services, 85 percent of current Head Start grantees are 
providing quality services. However, there are some grantees 
that are not fulfilling their obligation to ensure that our 
Nation's neediest children enter school with the skills and 
knowledge they need to succeed. Over the past 10 years the 
Department has terminated approximately 170 Head Start 
grantees.
    The committee believes the current Head Start monitoring 
system is not adequate to ensure that programs are consistently 
delivering the level of high quality services necessary for 
children to advance in all areas of development. Evidence that 
program quality varies greatly is a concern of Congress and of 
high performing grantees that are negatively impacted by the 
poor quality of lower performing grantees. It is the 
committee's view that the scheduled triennial review process, 
coupled with an automatic renewal of grants on an annual basis, 
does not provide adequate assurances to the Congress and the 
public about Head Start program operations. Therefore, the 
committee bill requires that grantees develop annual program 
goals and demonstrate that they have met, or are making 
progress toward meeting these goals as a condition of receiving 
priority in designation of their Head Start grant. All grantees 
are required to reapply every 5 years consistent with the terms 
for financial assistance under the Head Start Improvements for 
School Readiness Act.

Governing body

    The committee believes that there needs to be an entity 
with fiscal and legal liability that can be held accountable 
for program operations and oversight. The committee recognizes 
that, under current Head Start regulations, the Governing Body 
has fiscal and legal liability for Head Start programs. The 
committee believes that by establishing the roles and 
responsibilities of the Governing Body or Board in the Head 
Start statute, grantees structure will be strengthened and 
clarified. Policy Councils do not currently have fiscal and 
legal liability and the committee agrees that they are not the 
appropriate entity for such responsibilities. The Head Start 
Improvements for School Readiness Act takes a number of steps 
to ensure that Head Start agency has a Governing Body or Board 
that is actively engaged and can provide more effective 
oversight, which the committee believes is an important role 
given their fiscal and legal responsibility and liability for 
the program.
    The bill makes additional requirements regarding the 
composition of the Board. The Board must reflect the community 
being served, including at least one person with experience in 
fiscal management, and at least one person with experience in 
early childhood development. If feasible, the Board should 
include at least one individual with knowledge of the Head 
Start program and its performance standards. In the event that 
individuals with experience in fiscal management and early 
childhood development are not serving on the Board, the Board 
is encouraged to obtain help in these areas from consultants. 
The committee also intends for public agencies operating Head 
Start programs be permitted to make use of existing employees 
who have such expertise.
    The committee believes that the Board is responsible for 
developing internal controls to safeguard Federal funds and to 
comply with all applicable laws and regulations. The Board's 
role is to establish policies and procedures to detect or 
prevent program noncompliance, and develop procedures to 
facilitate meaningful consultation and collaboration.
    By strengthening the role of the Board in Head Start 
programs, the committee by no means is abolishing the Policy 
Councils and intends for Policy Councils to continue in their 
role and capacity of support for quality Head Start programs. 
Parents have long played a central role in the operations of 
Head Start programs. The committee is clear in its intent by 
requiring the Board to consult with the Policy Council in the 
areas set forth in the act, as well as for the Policy Council 
to have its own appropriate roles and responsibilities. The 
committee expects the Board to consult with the Policy Council, 
and has prescribed impasse procedures for when the Board and 
the Policy Council disagree, in order to resolve such disputes.
    The committee also encourages parents and others in the 
community in which Head Start operates to actively serve on the 
Board.
    To facilitate oversight and Head Start agency 
accountability, the Board shall receive regular and accurate 
information from the Head Start agency about program planning, 
policies and operations, including PIR and audit reports.
    The committee intends that training and technical 
assistance to be provided to the members of the Board and 
Policy Councils, if appropriate, to ensure that theyunderstand 
their oversight responsibilities and can effectively oversee the 
programs.

Oversight and Monitoring

    At least once every 3 years each Head Start and Early Head 
Start agency receives a comprehensive onsite review by the 
Department of Health and Human Services. These monitoring 
reviews play a vital role in assuring that Head Start agencies 
are providing high quality services.
    The committee believes that oversight by the Secretary of 
the Department of Health and Human Services is an important 
factor in ensuring that Head Start grantees meet the guidelines 
established for their program. Appropriate oversight ensures 
that program effectiveness can be assessed and measured, that 
only qualified programs continue to receive Federal funding, 
and that inefficient or abusive use of Federal funds is halted.
    The PRISM monitoring of Head Start grantees undertaken by 
the Department is critical to realizing the goals of adequate 
oversight of the program. Head Start's current monitoring 
system is the gold standard in the field of early care and 
education. As such, amendments are added to the Act to ensure 
that such monitoring is conducted in all Head Start centers, to 
provide for greater accountability and oversight.
    The committee believes that the PRISM reviews need to be 
conducted, to the greatest extent possible, in a consistent and 
reliable manner. It is the committee's intent that the conduct 
of such reviews of Head Start grantees provide for greater 
consistency across all variables such as time, reviewers and 
geographical location. No Head Start program should be 
recompeted without all the same advantages of a program in good 
standing simply because inconsistencies in the review process 
led to them being given a more severe evaluation than other 
similar programs. As such, amendments to the act ensure that a 
portion of the technical and training assistance dollars are 
allocated to provide training and improve the inter-rater 
reliability of the PRISM reviews.
    The committee recognizes that the monitoring process has 
new consequences associated with it because grantees can lose 
their priority designation in the recompetition process if they 
are found to be deficient. In order to ensure the integrity of 
the monitoring process by ACF, the committee has added 
provisions regarding interrater reliability.
    The committee also defines interrater reliability to mean 
the extent to which two different raters or observers 
consistently obtain the same result when using the same 
assessment.
    The committee bill allows the Department to contract out 
for activities associated with the monitoring of Head Start 
grantees. In order to ensure the integrity of the monitoring 
process, the committee believes the Department should be 
allowed to contract out monitoring responsibilities to 
impartial third parties who have a demonstrated expertise in 
early childhood development and Head Start program operations, 
including knowledge and expertise about the Head Start 
performance standards. The committee intends for the change to 
maintain the integrity of the monitoring process and prevent 
undue influence by personal relationships between grantees and 
the regional offices.
    Currently, ACF regional office employees serve the dual 
role of leading monitoring reviews and overseeing the provision 
of training and technical assistance. We share the goal of the 
Department in preserving the integrity of these two discrete 
processes. However, the committee believes that, because of 
their years of training and their expertise with the Head Start 
program, its regulations and policies, employees of the 
Department should (to the extent determined appropriate by the 
Secretary) continue to be included on teams sent out to monitor 
and evaluate Head Start programs.

Under-enrollment

    Under current law, Head Start grantees are expected to 
fully meet their funded enrollment and to maintain a waiting 
list. This is required in order to ensure program integrity and 
access to program services by eligible low-income children. The 
committee is concerned about reports indicating that some Head 
Start grantees have experienced problems achieving and 
maintaining their full funded enrollment and are operating with 
significant under-enrollment while others experience shortfalls 
in their capacity to provide or maintain services to eligible 
children. Given the importance of this issue and its 
implications for Head Start, the committee believes a statutory 
approach to dealing with under-enrolled grantees is warranted.
    While the full extent to which Head Start programs are 
under-enrolled is unknown, the committee believes, given very 
limited Federal resources, that under-enrollment at any level 
is an unacceptable and potentially serious problem, and one 
that needs an immediate solution.
    The committee bill provides for reduction of Head Start 
grants and redistribution of funds in cases of under-
enrollment. The committee bill has been carefully drafted to 
provide for shared accountability in addressing issues of 
enrollment of Head Start children. The bill requires each Head 
Start program to report on a monthly basis to the Secretary a 
figure which reflects the program's actual enrollment, 
including a description of an enrollment shortfall if such 
actual enrollment is less than the funded enrollment prescribed 
by the grant held by the Head Start agency.
    The bill also requires the Secretary (on a semi-annual 
basis) to determine which Head Start agencies are under-
enrolled, and directs the agency (in collaboration with the 
Secretary) to provide for a plan and timetable in which to 
address issues of under-enrollment in agencies operating with 
less than 95 percent of enrollment.
    In reviewing enrollment data, the committee bill directs 
the Secretary to take into consideration: the quality and 
extent of outreach, recruitment, and community needs 
assessments, changing demographics, mobility of populations, 
and the identification of new underserved low-income 
populations; facilities related issues that may impact 
enrollment; the ability to provide full-day programs, where 
needed, through Head Start funds or through collaboration with 
other funds or programs; the availability and use by families 
of other preschool and child care options (including parental 
care) in the local area; and agency management procedures that 
may impact efficient enrollment. Agencies identified by the 
Secretary shall be provided timely and on-going technical 
assistance to reduce under-enrollment, but are considered to be 
out of compliance immediately.
    Upon receipt of technical assistance, the Head Start agency 
will implement its plan to address under-enrollment. If after 9 
months, a Head Start agency is still operating with an actual 
enrollment that is less than 95 percent of the agency's funded 
enrollment, the Secretary may designate such agency as 
chronically under-enrolled and recapture, withhold, or reduce 
the base grant by a percentage equal to the percentage 
difference between funded and actual enrollment for the most 
recent year in which the agency is determined to be under-
enrolled.
    If the Secretary, after implementation of the plan, finds 
that the causes of under-enrollment are beyond the agency's 
control; the shortfall can reasonably be expected to be 
temporary; or the number of slots allotted to the agency is 
small enough that under-enrollment does not constitute a 
significant shortfall, the Secretary may waive or reduce the 
percentage reductions in the base grant.
    The Secretary shall use the recovered funds to distribute 
to other Head Start agencies within the State that demonstrate 
they will use such funds to increase enrollment in their Head 
Start programs. If there is no agency within a State that meets 
this requirement, the Secretary shall redirect such amounts to 
other Head Start agencies.

Financial audits

    In addition to conducting on-site inspections, regional ACF 
staff also monitors grantees' compliance with regulations by 
annually reviewing their financial audit reports. Auditors may 
select and review samples of financial transactions to 
determine whether a grantee has followed established procedures 
and program regulations. If a grantee administers more than one 
Federal grant, as is often the case with large nonprofit 
agencies, school districts, and municipalities, relatively 
small grants may not be reviewed in much detail.
    In addition to a lack of detail, financial audit reports 
may not provide timely information for monitoring current 
grantee operations. Grantees have 9 months to submit financial 
audit reports for any given year. It may take several 
additional months before officials in the HHS Office of 
Inspector General review the audit report, summarize the 
findings, and submit the findings to the appropriate regional 
officials. Grantees that are classified as ``high risk'' do not 
face termination of their funding unless they are also 
classified as deficient, which usually involves an on-site 
inspection. As a result, ACF may wait up to 3 years until the 
next regularly scheduled triennial inspection before it 
classifies a high-risk grantee as deficient and requires it to 
develop a quality improvement plan and face possible 
termination from the program.
    The committee is very concerned about this process and 
encourages the Secretary to adopt additional measures that 
would permit an annual review of grantee financial status.

Combat pay ineligibility

    The committee feels strongly that as our soldiers are 
overseas fighting to defend our freedom, it is our 
responsibility to look out for their children and families. 
When soldiers receive combat pay because they are working in 
dangerous situations this extra income should not adversely 
affect their family's eligibility for programs such as Head 
Start. During the 108th Congress, the Subcommittee on Children 
and Families held a series of joint hearings with the Armed 
Services Subcommittee on Personnel on issues affecting military 
families. The committee included language to address the 
problem of soldiers not being able to access certain benefits, 
such as Head Start, due to income ineligibility when such 
parents receive combat pay. This language is intended to ensure 
that families in the military receiving combat pay and who 
would otherwise be eligible for Head Start would not be deemed 
ineligible because of that income supplement.

Grantee responsibility to seriously deficient delegate agencies

    This legislation includes language that would strengthen 
the ability of Head Start grantees to defund delegate agencies 
that have serious deficiencies. Head Start grantees, in 
addition to the oversight already conducted by the Secretary, 
are asked to clearly define procedures for defunding a 
seriously deficient program as well as that program's appeals 
process. It is the intent of the committee that such procedures 
be fair to all parties but not unduly cumbersome or time-
consuming.
    Grantees are expected to define their procedures for 
evaluating delegate agencies to minimize the circumstances that 
would necessitate defunding and ensure that all of its delegate 
agencies are held accountable for performance and successfully 
address any deficiencies in a timely manner.
    Any delegate agency found seriously deficient must be 
notified of the possibility of termination. During the notice 
period, monthly monitoring visits and technical assistance may 
be provided by the Head Start grantee. The grantee could also 
elect to release funds on a reimbursement basis instead of in 
advance, particularly in the event of questionable fiscal 
practices by the delegate agency. After a reasonable notice 
period, if deficiencies are not corrected, termination will 
take effect. The grantee is then responsible for ensuring 
continuity of Head Start services for the children and families 
affected.

Accessibility to books

    To further expand the availability of books in Head Start 
classrooms, the committee bill recommends that State Head Start 
Collaboration offices promote partnerships between Head Start 
agencies and other organizations to enhance the Head Start 
curriculum, including partnerships to promote more books in 
Head Start classrooms.
    Because of the importance of creating a literacy rich 
environment for children in the Head Start program, the 
committee further encourages the Secretary to recommend a 
sufficient number of children's books for each Head Start 
classroom.
    The committee also recognizes the importance of enhancing 
linkages between Head Start programs and libraries. As such, 
the bill encourages Head Start programs to collaborate with 
local libraries, where available, that are interested in that 
collaboration, to develop innovative programs to excite 
children about the world of books. Such programs may involve 
taking children to the library for story hour; promoting use of 
library cards for families so that children can bring books 
home; developing a lending library or using a mobile library 
van; entering into a financial agreement with the library to 
provide the Head Start classroom book collection; to supplement 
the collection with books on various themes of the week or, to 
provide fresh books in the classroom on a regular basis; and 
carrying out other activities through partnerships, to promote 
literacy and excitement about the world of print.

Centers of excellence

    The committee bill includes the Centers of Excellence in 
Early Childhood, which was originally proposed by Senator 
Alexander on July 28, 2003.
    The committee supports the underlying goal of giving grants 
to Head Start programs that are exemplary and leveraging 
excellent programs to model best practices so that other 
programs can achieve excellence. The legislation authorizes the 
Governors to nominate and the Secretary of Health and Human 
Services (HHS) to create a nationwide network of 200 Centers of 
Excellence in Early Childhood built around exemplary Head Start 
programs.
    All Head Start centers need to excel in school readiness, 
accountability, and coordination of services; improving the 
performance of all centers in these areas is the focus of this 
legislation. States have primary responsibility for setting 
standards for and funding public education. A child who arrives 
at school too far behind the starting line may never catch up. 
In addition, the State is in the best position to help 
coordinate the variety of public and private programs that have 
been created since Head Start was established. In order to 
increase coordination between Head Start and the public school 
system and other State-run social service programs, such as 
Medicaid and the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) 
program, centers that have the potential to drive effective 
collaboration within their State would be nominated by their 
Governor.
    The Secretary of HHS would select 146 Centers of Excellence 
from among nominations submitted by the Governors. The 
Secretary would name an additional 54 centers, with a goal of 
having at least one Center of Excellence in each State, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico. It is also the committee's 
intent that one or more Indian Head Start, and Migrant and 
Seasonal Head Start programs will be recognized as Centers of 
Excellence. The bill permits exemplary Indian Head Start 
programs and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs to be 
nominated by their respective regional office (region 11 and 
region 12) instead of the Governor.
    In addition, it is the committee's intent that Governors 
are encouraged to look to Head Start centers offering Early 
Head Start programs. The significance of years 0-3 in child 
development is now widely understood, and it is important for 
Centers of Excellence to be able to encourage best practices in 
serving the very young.
    When making bonus grants the Secretary shall give a 
priority to programs that demonstrate that they are of 
exceptional quality and would serve as exemplary models for 
programs in their geographic region. The Secretary may also 
consider the population served by the applicant especially if 
they are serving an underserved population. Programs that have 
a record of doing an exceptional job of serving underserved 
populations should be given this priority as well.
    Head Start programs identified as Centers of Excellence 
would receive a Federal bonus grant of at least $200,000 and up 
to $500,000 in each of 5 years (in addition to its base 
funding). It is the committee's intent that bonus grant funding 
for the Centers would vary depending on the number of children 
served at a Center of Excellence. It is the hope of the 
committee that as we continue to work through the legislative 
process and when new money is available some of this money will 
be designated for the Centers of Excellence.
    The Centers of Excellence bonus grants will be used for 
centers to:
          1. work in their community to model the best of what 
        Head Start can do for at-risk children and families, 
        including getting those children ready for school and 
        ready for academic success;
          2. coordinate all early childhood services in their 
        community;
          3. offer training and support to all professionals 
        working with at-risk children;
          4. track these families and ensure seamless 
        continuity of services from birth to age 8, with an 
        emphasis on working in partnership with public schools 
        to ensure that Head Start children succeed in school;
          5. become models of excellence by all performance 
        measures and be willing to be held accountable for good 
        outcomes for our most disadvantaged children; and
          6. have the flexibility to serve additional Head 
        Start or Early Head Start children or provide more 
        full-day services to better meet the needs of working 
        parents.
    The committee intends that a Center for Excellence that 
uses its bonus grant for activities related to infants and 
toddlers must demonstrate existing expertise in providing 
services to this age group. The developmental needs of infants 
and toddlers are unique and require teachers that have 
knowledge of infant and toddler development.
    The committee has included Early Head Start, Migrant and 
Seasonal Head Start, and Indian Head Start programs as 
participants in the Centers of Excellence Program. The 
committee feels that all Head Start programs could benefit 
greatly by the exemplary practices modeled in Early Head Start 
programs for infants and toddlers, as well as practices 
tailored to the needs of children in Indian, Migrant, and 
Seasonal Head Start programs.

Funding

    The committee bill authorize the Head Start program at 
$7.215 billion for fiscal year 2006, $7.515 billion for fiscal 
year 2007, $7.815 billion for fiscal year 2008, and such sums 
for fiscal years 2009 and 2010. By increasing the authorization 
level in the Head Start program by $300 million in each of the 
next three fiscal years, the committee is affirming its desire 
to improve and enhance program quality while also reasonably 
expanding the program to reach additional eligible children and 
families living in poverty.

Participation in Head Start programs

    The committee recognizes that due in large part to the 
success of welfare reform, some low-income families earning a 
little above the Federal poverty level whose children would 
benefit from Head Start services are not able to participate in 
the program because they are not income eligible. The committee 
felt it was important to retain the 100 percent Federal poverty 
level in determining the formula allocation to States under the 
Head Start Program. However, the committee has raised the 
eligibility level from 100 percent to 130 percent of the 
Federal poverty level consistent with eligibility for the free 
school lunch, school breakfast and special milk programs. The 
committee intends for such policy to help families that strive 
to move off welfare to continue to access the Head Start 
program and to provide additional opportunities for 
participation of working poor families in Head Start programs. 
The 130 percent is intended to permit programs to serve 
children up to 130 percent of the Federal poverty level just as 
programs are currently allowed to serve 10 percent of over 
income children. The 130 percent would not count toward the 10 
percent of over income children served by programs. The 
committee does not intend that the 130 percent be taken into 
account when determining eligible children for the purpose of 
the formula or allotment of funds.

Migrant and seasonal Head Start programs and Indian Head Start programs

    The committee has included several provisions to improve 
access to Head Start services by children of migrant and 
seasonal farm workers, as well as by Indian children.
    According to a study conducted by the Department of Health 
and Human Services in 2001, the Migrant and Seasonal Head Start 
programs have consistently received less than four percent of 
the Head Start annual appropriation, enabling them to serve 
only 19 percent of eligible migrant and seasonal children, 
compared to 50 percent of the eligible population served by the 
regular Head Start program. Indian Head Start programs serve 
over 23,000 children each year; however that number represents 
only 16 percent of eligible children. The committee recognizes 
the need to expand services to additional eligible children.
    The committee has taken steps to address this issue by 
directing the Secretary to allocate five percent of the funds 
reserved under section 640a(2) to Migrant and Seasonal Head 
Start programs. The committee has also directed the Secretary 
to allocate four percent of the reserved funds to Indian Head 
Start programs. The committee intends that all new money 
available from the Secretary's 13 percent set aside under 
increases in annual appropriations for Head Start reserved by 
the Secretary under section 640a(2) be directed to such 
programs in a proportionate manner until the five percent 
allocations are achieved. The committee ensures that the 
programs do not reduce the number of children served in 
existing Head Start programs. The committee further intends 
that funding increases allow current programs to expand the 
number of children served, as well as establish new programs in 
areas that lack services to these populations of children.

Priority funding and regular Head Start expansion grants

    The committee bill provides any remaining funds after 
maintaining required reservations in section 640 and adjusting 
current Head Start programs for inflation shall be used for 
quality improvement funds. In fiscal year 2006, 30 percent of 
such funds shall be used for quality improvement activities and 
40 percent shall be used for each fiscal year 2007 through 2010 
for these purposes. The committee intends the remaining 
percentages be used for program expansion grants.
    In allocating the expansion funds, the committee made it a 
priority to eliminate apparent discrepancies in the allocation 
of Head Start dollars among the States. The committee is 
responding to the inclusion of a 1978 hold harmless provision 
that has created a disparity in how money was allocated between 
the States despite the increase in appropriations. Up to this 
point Head Start funds were not allocated through a formula. At 
the time the formula was instituted currently funded grantees 
were provided a hold harmless to ensure that they did not see a 
reduction in their funding.
    The result of the hold harmless is that 22 States receive 
funds above their share of child poverty population. For 
example, States such as Nevada are serving only 30 percent of 
their eligible population and other States such as Maine serve 
89 percent of their eligible population. The committee has 
taken steps to address this problem and ensure that States 
ability to serve their eligible population has not been 
compromised.
    In order to begin to address this inequity, the committee 
has included the requirement that 65 percent of any new money 
(expansion of the current program) for Head Start would be 
allocated on a priority basis to those States that are under 
funded (based on the percentage of eligible children being 
served in that State.) The committee intends for the Secretary 
in implementing this provision shall assign a priority to the 
28 States adversely affected by the 1978 hold harmless 
provision and shall distribute such funds in accordance with 
the current formula allocation in the Head Start Act. The 
remaining 35 percent of expansion funds shall be allocated 
among all States based upon the current formula. Although the 
committee acknowledges this is not a full resolution to the 
funding discrepancies between the States it begins to remedy 
this situation.

                            V. Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, June 7, 2005.
Hon. Mike Enzi,
Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. 
        Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 1107, the Head Start 
Improvements for School Readiness Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Kathleen 
FitzGerald.
            Sincerely,
                                     Elizabeth M. Robinson,
                               (For Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Director).
    Enclosure.

S. 1107--Head Start Improvements for School Readiness Act

    Summary: S. 1107 would reauthorize the Head Start program 
through 2010. The program was authorized through 2003 by Coats 
Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-285) 
and has since been extended through annual appropriation acts.
    CBO estimates that the bill would authorize additional 
appropriations of $7.3 billion in 2006 and about $39.1 billion 
over the 2006-2010 period, assuming that annual levels are 
adjusted for inflation when specific annual appropriation 
levels are not provided. (Without such inflation adjustments, 
the authorizations would total about $38.7 billion over the 
2006-2010 period.) CBO estimates that appropriation of the 
authorized levels would result in additional outlays of $35.2 
billion over the 2006-2010 period, assuming annual adjustments 
for inflation (and about $34.9 billion without adjustments for 
inflation). Enacting S. 1107 would not affect direct spending 
or receipts.
    S. 1107 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). 
Any costs to state, local, or tribal governments would result 
from complying with conditions for receiving federal 
assistance.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of S. 1107 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 500 
(education, training, employment, and social services).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                                                                   2005    2006    2007    2008    2009    2020
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Head Start Spending Under Current Law:
    Budget Authority 1..........................................   6,843   1,400       0       0       0       0
    Estimated Outlays...........................................   6,810   3,735     765      96      14       0
Proposed Changes:
    Head Start:
        Estimated Authorization Level...........................       0   7,215   7,515   7,815   7,958   8,102
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0   4,113   7,170   7,605   7,885   8,033
    Bonus Grants to Centers for Excellence in Early Childhood:
        Authorization Level.....................................       0      90      90      90      90      90
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       5      51      87      89      90
    Administrative Costs for Centers for Excellence in Early
     Childhood:
        Authorization Level.....................................       0       3       3       3       3       3
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       *       1       2       2       3
    Research Activities for Centers for Excellence in Early
     Childhood:
        Authorization Level.....................................       0       2       2       2       2       2
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       *       1       2       2       2
    Tribal Colleges and Universities Head Start Partnerships:
        Estimated Authorization Level...........................       0      10      10      10      11      11
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       1       7       9      10      10
        Total Proposed Changes:
            Estimated Authorization Level.......................       0   7,320   7,620   7,920   8,063   8,207
            Estimated Outlays...................................       0   4,118   7,230   7,706   7,988   8,138
Total Spending Under S. 1107:
    Estimated Authorization Level...............................   6,843   8,720   7,620   7,920   8,063   8,207
    Estimated Outlays...........................................   6,810   7,853   7,995   7,802   8,002   8,138
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The 2005 level is the amount appropriated for the Head Start program including an advance of $1.389 billion
  for the 2004-2005 academic year. The 2006 level is the amount appropriated in an advance appropriation for the
  2005-2006 academic year.

Notes: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding. * = less than $500,000.

    Basis of estimate: S. 1107 would reauthorize the Head Start 
program through 2010. The program is currently authorized 
through September 30, 2005, by the Consolidated Appropriations 
Act, 2005 (Public Law 108-447). For this estimate, CBO assumes 
that the bill will be enacted near the start of fiscal year 
2006, that the estimated amounts shown in the table will be 
appropriated for each year, and that outlays will follow 
historical spending patterns.
    CBO estimates that S. 1107 would authorize total funding of 
$39.1 billion over the 2006-2010 period assuming that ``such 
sums'' amounts provided after 2006 reflect adjustments for 
inflation. If the authorized amounts are appropriated, outlays 
would increase by $4.1 billion in 2006 and by $35.2 billion 
over the 5-year period.
    The above table presents CBO's estimates for the different 
components of the bill. For the overall Head Start program, the 
bill would specify authorized amounts for fiscal years 2006 
through 2008 and would authorize the appropriation of such sums 
as may be necessary in 2009 and 2010. CBO's estimate of 
authorized levels in 2009 and 2010 is the authorized amount for 
2008 adjusted for inflation. The amounts authorized for bonus 
grants, administration, and research for the Centers of 
Excellence in Early Childhood are specified in each year. For 
the Tribal Colleges and Universities Head Start Partnerships 
program, the bill specifies a 2006 level, and CBO's estimate of 
the authorizations from 2007 through 2010 is that amount 
inflated.

Head Start

    S. 1107 would revise and reauthorize the Head Start program 
through 2010. The Head Start program provides comprehensive 
child development services to low-income children. Services 
include education, health, nutrition, and social services with 
the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young 
children in low-income families.
    The bill would authorize the appropriation of $7.215 
billion in 2006 (in addition to the $1.4 billion already 
appropriated for that year), $7.515 billion in 2007, $7.815 
billion in 2008, and such sums as may be necessary in 2009 and 
2010. CBO estimates that the total authorizations for the 2006-
2010 period would be about $38.6 billion, assuming adjustments 
for inflation, with resulting outlays of $34.8 billion over 
those 5 years.
    Funding for this program currently is provided on a 
program-year basis through appropriations in two separate 
fiscal years: a current fiscal year appropriation and an 
advance appropriation available October 1 of the next fiscal 
year. Although the program has been funded by two separate 
appropriations since 2001, funding does not need to be 
authorized separately because all of the funds for a program 
year could be provided in one appropriation.

Centers for Excellence in Early Childhood

    The bill would permanently authorize appropriations of 
about $95 million a year for a new Centers for Excellence in 
Early Childhood grant program. The Secretary of Health and 
Human Services (HHS) could designate 200 exemplary Head Start 
agencies as such Centers of Excellence. These centers would 
receive bonus grants to carry out various activities including 
enrolling additional children and providing training to 
teachers. The Secretary also would be authorized to make a 
grant to an independent organization to conduct research on the 
ability of centers to improve school readiness of the children 
receiving Head Start services and to measure the success of the 
centers. The bill would authorize $90 million a year for bonus 
grants, $2.5 million annually for HHS administrative costs, and 
$2 million a year for research. CBO estimates that providing 
these amounts would result in outlays of $338 million over the 
next 5 years.

Tribal colleges and universities Head Start partnerships

    S. 1107 would create a new Tribal Colleges and Universities 
Head Start Partnership program and authorize the appropriation 
of $10 million in 2006 and such sums as may be necessary from 
2007 through 2010. The bill would authorize the Secretary of 
HHS to award 5-year grants to tribal colleges and universities 
to create education programs on tribal culture and language, to 
increase the number of Indian Head Start staff members and 
parents with advanced degrees in early childhood education and 
related fields, and for other purposes. CBO estimates that 
providing the necessary amounts would result in outlays of $37 
million over the 2006-2010 period.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: S. 1107 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined by UMRA. The bill would authorize over $7 billion 
annually for fiscal years 2006 through 2010 to support Head 
Start and Early Head Start program activities, including new 
standards for the education and professional development of 
teachers serving program participants. Any costs incurred by 
State, local, or tribal governments would result from complying 
with conditions for receiving Federal assistance.
    Previous CBO estimate: On June 2, 2005, CBO transmitted a 
cost estimate for H.R. 2123, the School Readiness Act of 2005, 
as ordered reported by the House Committee on Education and the 
Workforce on May 18, 2005. That bill would authorize the 
overall Head Start program from 2006 through 2011 (as opposed 
to 2006 through 2010) and would authorize slightly less funding 
in those years than S. 1107. The Senate bill will authorize two 
new grant programs that are not included in the House bill.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Kathleen FitzGerald; 
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Lisa Ramirez-
Branum; Impact on the Private Sector: Meena Fernandes.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

            VI. Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1, the Congressional 
Accountability Act (CAA) requires a description of the 
application of this bill to the legislative branch. This bill 
does not amend any act that applies to the legislative branch.

                    VII. Regulatory Impact Statement

    The committee has determined that there will be minimal 
increases in the regulatory burden imposed by this bill.

                   VIII. Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

    This act may be cited as the ``Head Start Improvements for 
School Readiness Act.''

Section 2. Statement of purpose

    This section modifies section 636 by adding the goal of 
educational instruction in prereading, premathematics and 
language skills in the promotion of school readiness and 
development.

Section 3. Definitions

    This section amends Section 637 by adding community-based 
organizations to the definition of potential delegate agencies 
(2). Section 637(17) is amended to remove the Federated States 
of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the 
Republic of Palau from the definition of ``State.'' Section 
637(18) defines ``homeless child'' as one who lacks a regular 
or adequate nighttime residence or whose residence is a 
temporary shelter as defined in the McKinney-Vento Homeless 
Assistance Act. Section 637(19) defines ``limited English 
proficient'' with respect to a child as someone enrolled or 
preparing to enroll in Head Start, someone who was not born in 
the United States or whose native language is not English, or 
someone whose difficulty in speaking or understanding English 
may be sufficient to deny such child the opportunity to 
participate fully in society or the ability to successfully 
achieve in a classroom in which the language of instruction is 
English.
    Section 637(20) defines ``deficiency'' as a systemic or 
substantial failure of an agency in an area of performance that 
the Secretary determines involves: a threat to the health, 
safety, or civil rights of children or staff; a denial to 
parents to exercise their full roles and responsibilities 
related to program operations; a failure to comply with 
standards related to early childhood development and health 
services, family and community partnerships, or program design 
and management; the misuse of funds under this subchapter; loss 
of legal status or financial viability, loss of permits, 
debarment from receiving Federal grants or contracts, or the 
improper use of Federal funds; or the failure to meet any other 
Federal or State requirement that the agency has shown an 
unwillingness or inability to correct, after notice from the 
Secretary. A systemic failure of the board of directors if it 
fails to fully exercise its legal and fiduciary 
responsibilities. A substantial failure of an agency to meet 
the administrative requirements of section 644(b). A failure of 
an agency to demonstrate that is has attempted to meet the 
coordination and collaboration requirements and entities 
described in section 640(a)(5)(D)(iii)(I). An agency having an 
area of unresolved noncompliance.
    Section 637 (21) defines ``unresolved area of 
noncompliance'' means failure to correct a noncompliance item 
within 120 days or within such additional time (if any) 
authorized by the Secretary, after receiving from the Secretary 
notice of such noncompliance item, pursuant to section 641A(d).
    Section 637 (22) defines ``inter-rater reliability'' means 
the extent to which two different raters or observers 
consistently obtain the same result when using the same 
assessment

Section 4. Financial assistance for Head Start programs

    This section amends section 638 to reauthorize financial 
assistance to Head Start agencies for 5 years.

Section 5. Authorization of appropriations

    This section amends section 639 to reauthorize the Head 
Start Act at $7.215 billion for fiscal year 2006, $7.515 
billion for fiscal year 2007, $7.815 billion for fiscal year 
2008, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2009 
and 2010.
    From the amount appropriated, the Secretary can make 
available up to $20 million for fiscal year 2006 to carry out 
research, demonstration, and evaluation activities including 
longitudinal studies under Section 649, and such sums for 
fiscal years 2007-10, of which no more than $7 million used for 
impact studies under Section 649(g) for fiscal years 2006-10.

Section 6. Allotment of funds

    This section amends section 640 by requiring the Secretary 
to reserve a sum each fiscal year for Indian Head Start and 
migrant and seasonal Head Start programs that is the total of 
not less than 4 percent of the amount appropriated for Indian 
programs under section 639 for that fiscal year and not less 
than 5 percent of that appropriated amount for migrant and 
seasonal programs, except that if reserving such percentages 
would reduce the number of children served by Head Start 
programs relative to the number of children served upon the 
date of enactment of this act. After ensuring that each grant 
recipient for Indian and migrant and seasonal Head Start 
programs have received 4 percent and 5 percent respectively, 
the Secretary shall distribute 65 percent of the remaining 
funds to priority grant recipients in the States serving the 
smallest percentages of eligible children and distributing the 
remaining 35 percent on a competitive basis.
    This section outlines rules in the provision and 
administration of technical and training assistance in great 
detail including limiting assistance as described in section 
648 in an amount for each fiscal year equal to 2 percent of the 
amount appropriated under section 639 of which: 50 percent 
shall be made available to agencies to comply with the 
standards in section 641A(a)(1) and 50 percent shall be made 
available to the Secretary to support a regional or State 
system of early childhood education training and technical 
assistance and to assist local programs including Indian and 
migrant and seasonal programs or which not less than $3 million 
shall be made available to carry out the activities described 
in section 648(d)(4). In order to provide assistance, this 
section requires the Secretary to reserve 30 percent of such 
excess amount for fiscal year 2006, and 40 percent of such 
excess amount for each fiscal year 2007-10.
    This section requires that funds for quality improvement 
may be used to ensure such programs have adequate numbers of 
qualified staff and that such staff is furnished adequate 
training; developing and financing the salary scales and 
benefits standards under sections 644(a) and 653 to ensure that 
salary scales and benefits standards under section 644(a) and 
section 653, in order to ensure that salary levels and benefits 
are adequate to attract and retain qualified staff for such 
programs. Quality improvement funds may be used for salary 
increases to assist with implementation of quality programs and 
improve staff qualifications; ensure that staff can promote the 
language skills and literacy growth of children and can provide 
children with a variety of skills that have been identified, 
through scientifically based early reading research, as 
predictive of later reading achievement, as well as additional 
skills identified in section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii); and encourage 
staff to continually improve their skills and expertise by 
informing the staff of the availability of Federal and State 
incentive and loan forgiveness programs for professional 
development.
    Quality improvement from reserved funds may also take the 
form of a collaboration grant from the Secretary to each State 
to facilitate collaboration between Head Start agencies and 
entities that carry out other activities designed to benefit 
low-income families and children from birth to school entry. 
Such grants shall be used to promote alignment of Head Start 
services with State early learning standards, the Head Start 
Child Outcomes Framework, and State regulations for school 
readiness; encourage Head Start agencies to coordinate 
activities with the State agency responsible for administering 
the State program carried out under the Child Care and 
Development Block Grant Act of 1990; promote better linkages 
between Head Start agencies and other child and familyagencies 
that provide health, mental health or family services, or other child 
or family supportive services; and carry out activities of the State 
Director of Head Start Collaboration. To improve coordination and 
delivery of early education services to children in the State, a State 
that receives such a grant is required to appoint a State Director of 
Head Start Collaboration; ensure that the Director holds a position 
with sufficient authority and access to ensure that the collaboration 
is effective and involves a range of State agencies; and involve the 
State Head Start Association in the selection of the Director and 
involve the Association in determinations relating to the ongoing 
direction of the collaboration office. Not later than 1 year after the 
date of enactment of this act, the Director must conduct an assessment 
that addresses the needs of Head Start agencies in the State with 
respect to collaborating, coordinating services, and implementing State 
early learning and school readiness goals and standards to better serve 
children enrolled in Head Start programs. Such assessment will be 
updated annually and shall be made available to the public.
    This section also mandates an assessment of the 
availability of high quality prekindergarten services for low-
income children in the State and requires the Director to 
develop a strategic plan based on the assessment that will: (1) 
enhance collaboration and coordination of Head Start services 
with other entities providing early childhood programs and 
services, health care, mental health care, welfare, child 
protective services, education and community service 
activities; family literacy services, reading readiness 
programs, services related to disabled children and other 
programs and services for LEP and homeless children; (2) assist 
Head Start agencies to develop a plan for the provision of a 
full working day, full calendar year services for children 
enrolled in Head Start programs who need such care; (3) assist 
Head Start agencies to align services with State early learning 
and school readiness goals and standards and to facilitate 
collaborative efforts to develop local school readiness 
standards; (4) enable agencies in the State to better 
coordinate professional development opportunities for Head 
Start staff such as assisting 2- and 4-year public and private 
institutions of higher education to develop articulation 
agreements; awarding grants to such institutions to develop 
model early childhood education programs; working with local 
Head Start agencies to meet the degree requirements in section 
648A(a)(2)(A); enabling State Head Start agencies to better 
coordinate outreach to eligible families; (5) promote 
partnership between Head Start agencies, State governments, and 
the private sector to help ensure that low-income pre-school 
children are receiving comprehensive services to prepare them 
to enter school ready to learn; and (6) promote partnerships 
between Head Start agencies, schools, law enforcement, and 
substance abuse and mental health treatment agencies to 
strengthen family and community environments and to reduce the 
impact on child development of substance abuse, child abuse and 
other high risk behaviors that compromise healthy development.
    This section requires the Governor of a State to establish 
a council to serve as the State advisory council on 
collaboration on early care and education activities for 
children from birth to school entry. The State Advisory Council 
shall include: the State Director of Head Start Collaboration; 
a representative of the appropriate regional office of the 
Administration for Children and Families; a representative of 
the State educational agency and local educational agencies; a 
representative of institutions of higher education; a 
representative of the State agency responsible for mental 
health care; a representative of the State agency responsible 
for teacher professional standards; certification and 
licensing; a representative of the State agency responsible for 
child care; early childhood education professionals; 
kindergarten teachers and teachers in grades 1 through 3; 
health care professionals; child development specialists; a 
representative of the State agency responsible for assisting 
children with developmental disabilities; a representative of 
the State agency responsible for programs under part C of the 
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; a representative 
of the State interagency coordinating councils established 
under Section 641 of the Individuals with Disabilities 
Education Act; a representative of the State Head Start 
Association where appropriate; a representative of the State 
network of child care resource and referral agencies; a 
representative of community-based organizations; a 
representative of State and local providers of early education 
and child care; a representative of migrant and seasonal Head 
Start programs and Indian Head Start programs; parents; 
religious and business leaders; the head of the State library 
administrative agency; representatives of State and local 
organizations and other entities providing professional 
development to early care and education providers; and a 
representative of other entities determined to be relevant by 
the chief executive officer of the State.
    The State Advisory Council is responsible for conducting a 
periodic Statewide needs assessment concerning early care and 
education programs; identifying barriers to and opportunities 
for collaboration and coordination between entities carrying 
out Federal and State child development, child care, and early 
childhood education programs; developing recommendations 
regarding means of establishing a unified data collection 
system for early care and education programs throughout the 
State; developing a statewide professional development and 
career ladder plan for early care and education in the State. 
The Council shall hold public hearings on the needs assessment 
and recommendations described in this subsection and the 
Council shall submit a statewide strategic report concerning 
the needs assessment and recommendations to the State Director 
of Head Start Collaboration and the chief executive officer of 
the State. After submitting the report, the Council shall meet 
periodically to review any implementation of the 
recommendations and any changes in State and local needs.
    The Secretary is required to use from amounts reserved and 
allotted for programs described in section 645A(a) of this 
subchapter 11 percent for fiscal year 2006, 13 percent for 
fiscal year 2007, 15 percent for fiscal year 2008, 17 percent 
for fiscal year 2009, and 18 percent for fiscal year 2010, of 
the amount appropriated pursuant to section 639(a).
    This section requires the Secretary to establish procedures 
to enable Head Start agencies to develop locally designed or 
specialized service delivery models to address local community 
needs including models that leverage existing capacity and 
procedures to provide for the conversion of part-day programs 
to full-day programs or part-day slots to full-day slots.
    This section requires the Secretary to issue regulations to 
ensure the appropriate supervision and background checks of 
individuals with whom Head Start agencies contract to transport 
Head Start children.
    This section requires the Secretary to conduct an annual 
consultation in each affected Head Start region, with tribal 
governments operating Head Start and Early Head Start programs 
and such consultations will be for the purpose of better 
meeting the needs of American Indian and Alaska Native children 
and families, taking into consideration funding allocations, 
distribution formulas, and other issues affecting Head Start 
services within tribal communities. Notice of the consultation 
will be published in the Federal Register prior to the 
consultations and a detailed report of such consultation shall 
be prepared and made available to all tribal governments 
receiving funds under this subchapter.
    This section requires the Secretary to issue regulations 
and remove barriers to the enrollment and participation of 
eligible homeless children in Head Start.
    This subchapter does not require a State to establish a 
program of early education for children in the State, nor does 
it require any child to participate in a program of early 
education in order to attend preschool, or to participate in 
any initial screening prior to participation in such program.
    This section requires all funded curricula under this 
subchapter to be scientifically-based, age appropriate and 
available for parents to examine.

Section 7. Designation of Head Start agencies

    This section amends section 641 by giving the Secretary 
discretionary authority to designate any local public or 
private non-profit or for-profit within a community, including 
community-based organizations, as a Head Start agency. To be 
designated as Head Start agencies they must establish program 
goals for improving school readiness of children, including 
goals for meeting the performance and educational standards as 
described in section 641A and shall establish results-based 
school readiness goals that are aligned with requirements and 
expectations of local public schools. To continue to receive 
grants, agencies must demonstrate progress toward meeting such 
goals.
    In designation and redesignation the Secretary shall, in 
consultation with each State's chief executive officer, give 
priority to high performing, eligible agencies that: are 
already receiving funds under Head Start, meet or exceed 
program and financial management requirements or standards 
described in section 641(a)(1), has no unresolved deficiencies 
and has not had findings of deficiencies during the last 
triennial review under section 641A(c), and can demonstrate, 
through agreements such as memoranda of understanding, active 
collaboration with the State or local community in the 
provision of services for children (such as the provision of 
extended day services, education, professional development and 
training for staff, and other types of cooperative endeavors).
    The Secretary shall designate a Head Start agency from 
among qualified applicants in such community after conducting 
an open competition.
    This section includes a rule of construction that State not 
withstanding any other provisions of law, under no condition 
may a non-Indian Head Start agency receive a grant to carry out 
an Indian Head Start program.
    The Secretary shall conduct an open competition and shall 
consider the effectiveness of each such applicant to provide 
Head Start services based on the plan of such applicant: (1) to 
consider past performance of applicants in providing comparable 
services to Head Start services; (2) to provide health, 
nutritional, education, and social to prepare children to 
succeed in school; (3) to use scientifically based programs 
that promote school readiness; (4) the plan of such applicant 
to meet standards outlined in section 641A(a)(1); (5) the plan 
of such applicant to coordinate the proposed Head Start program 
with other local preschool programs, State prekindergarten 
programs, child care programs, local educational agencies, and 
reading readiness; (6) to coordinate with public and private 
entities who are willing to commit resources to assist the Head 
Start program meet its program needs; (7) to collaborate with a 
local library to excite children about the world of books; (8) 
to involve parents in the education of their children at home 
and at the center and to give them the opportunity to 
participate in the development and performance of the program 
at the local level; to offer parents either directly or through 
referral family literacy services, parenting skills training, 
counseling (such as substance abuse and mental health 
counseling); to offer parents the option to offer training in 
basic child development, assistance in developing communication 
skills, opportunities for parents to share experiences with 
other parents, any other activity designed to help parents 
become full partners in the education of their children; to 
provide each participating family a family needs assessment 
that includes consultation with such parents about the benefits 
of involvement in their child's education; to extend outreach 
to fathers to strengthen the role of fathers in families and in 
the education of their young children, and in Head Start 
programs, by working directly with fathers and father figures; 
(9) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of: LEP 
children and their families including procedures to identify 
such children, plans to provide trained personnel and plans to 
assist children in making progress toward the acquisition of 
the English language; (10) to meet the needs of children with 
disabilities; (11) who chooses to assist younger siblings of 
children who will participate in the Head Start program to 
obtain health services from other sources; (12) and the plan of 
such applicant to collaborate with other entities carrying out 
early childhood education and child care programs in the 
community; (13) to meet the needs of homeless children and 
children in foster care; and (14) the plan of such applicant to 
recruit and retain qualified staff.

Section 8. Quality standards; monitoring of Head Start agencies and 
        programs

    This section amends section 641A by requiring additional 
educational performance standards and minimum levels of 
accomplishment based on recommendations of the National Academy 
of Sciences panel (described in section 649(h)) and other 
experts in the field of early childhood education relating to: 
(1) language skills related to listening, understanding, 
speaking, and communicating including: understanding and use of 
a diverse vocabulary (including knowing the names of colors) 
and knowledge of how to use oral language to communicate for 
various purposes; narrative abilities used, for example, to 
comprehend, tell and respond to a story, or to comprehend 
instructions; ability to detect and produce sounds of the 
language the child speaks or is learning; and clarity of 
pronunciation and speaking in syntactically and grammatically 
correct sentences; (2) prereading knowledge and skills, 
including: alphabet knowledge, knowing the letter names and 
associating letters with their shapes and sounds in the 
language the child speaks or is learning; phonological 
awareness and processes that support reading, for example, 
rhyming, recognizing speech sounds and separate syllables in 
spoken words, and putting speech sounds together to make words; 
knowledge, interest in, and appreciation of books, reading and 
writing, and knowledge that books have parts such as front, 
back and title page; early writing, including the ability to 
write one's own name and other words and phrases; and print 
awareness and concepts, including recognizing different forms 
of print and understanding the association between spoken and 
written words; (3) premathematics knowledge and skills, 
including number recognition; use of early number concepts and 
operations, including counting, simple adding and subtracting, 
and knowledge of quantitative relationships such as part versus 
whole and comparison of numbers of objects; use of early space 
and location concepts including recognizing shapes, 
classification, striation, and understanding directionality; 
and early pattern skills and measurement, including recognizing 
and extending simple patterns and measuring length, weight and 
time; (4) scientific abilities including, building awareness 
about scientific skills and methods, such as gathering, 
describing, and recording information, making observations, 
explanations and predictions, and expanding scientific 
knowledge of the environment, time, temperature, and cause and 
effect relationships; (5) general cognitive abilities relate to 
academic achievement and child development including, 
reasoning, planning, and problem-solving skills; ability to 
engage, sustain attention, and persist on challenging tasks; 
intellectual curiosity, initiative, and task engagement; and 
motivation to achieve and master concepts and skills; (6) 
social and emotional development related to early learning and 
school success including developing: the ability to develop 
social relationships, demonstrate cooperative behaviors, and 
relate to teachers and peers in positive and respectful ways; 
an understanding of the consequences of actions, following 
rules, and appropriately expressing feelings; a sense of self, 
such as self-awareness, independence, and confidence; the 
ability to control negative behaviors with teachers and peers 
that include impulsiveness, aggression, and noncompliance; and 
knowledge of civic society and surrounding communities; (7) 
physical development including developing fine motor skills 
such as strength, manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination; 
and gross motor skills, such as balance and coordinated 
movements; and (8) in the case of LEP children, progress toward 
acquisition of the English language while making meaningful 
progress in attaining the knowledge, skills, abilities, and 
development described in the aforementioned areas.
    This section requires that facilities used by Head Start 
agencies for regularly scheduled center-based and combination 
program option classroom activities be in compliance with State 
and local requirements concerning licensing for such facilities 
and that such facility shall be accessible by State and local 
authorities for purposes of monitoring and ensuring compliance.
    Additionally, this section requires the Secretary in 
developing standards, to consider the unique challenges faced 
by individual programs, including seasonal, short term or those 
that serve rural populations, when developing standards 
regulations. The Secretary is also required to consult with 
Indian tribes, American Indian and Alaska Native experts in 
early childhood development, linguists, and the National Indian 
Head Start Directors Association in program standards review 
and promulgation, and educational performance measures for 
language acquisition and school readiness.
    This section amends section 641A by adding a new section, 
``Evaluation is and Corrective Actions for Delegation Agencies; 
section (641A(a)(4)).'' This section requires the Secretary to 
establish procedures for evaluating delegate agencies as well 
as procedures for defunding delegate agencies and procedures 
for appealing such defunding decisions. Each Head Start agency 
shall evaluate its delegate agencies using procedures 
established in this act and shall inform the delegate agencies 
of the deficiencies to be corrected. To ensure corrective 
actions, the Head Start agency may: initiate procedures to 
terminate the designation of the agency unless the agency 
corrects the deficiency; conduct monthly monitoring visits to 
such delegate agency until all deficiencies are corrected or 
the Head Start agency decides to defund such delegate agency; 
and release funds to such delegate agency only as 
reimbursements until all deficiencies are corrected or the Head 
Start agency decides to defund such delegate agency.
    This section requires performance measures to be 
appropriate for the population served and be reviewed not less 
than every 4 years based on advances in early childhood 
development science.
    This section requires results-based outcome measures to be 
designed for the purpose of promoting the competencies of Head 
Start children with an emphasis on measuring those competencies 
that have a strong scientifically-based predictability of a 
child's school readiness and later performance in school. This 
section permits Head Start agencies to establish and implement 
additional local results-based educational performance measures 
and goals.
    This section mandates unannounced site inspections for 
health and safety of Head Start Centers and sets rules for 
prompt follow-up reviews to agencies and programs that fail to 
meet one or more of the performance measures developed by the 
Secretary, and in the case of programs cited with substantial 
deficiencies a review is required within 6 months of the 
initial citation. Reviews may incorporate without or with 
limited prior notice as is necessary to ensure the 
participation of parents and key staff members. Reviews will be 
conducted by teams that include individuals who are 
knowledgeable about Head Start and other early childhood 
programs and, to the maximum extent practicable, the diverse 
needs of eligible children and LEP children and their families. 
Review will include assessment of program effectiveness 
measured in accordance with the results-based measures 
developed by the Secretary. Reviews will seek information from 
communities and States about innovative or effective 
collaborative efforts, barriers to collaboration, and 
collaboration efforts of Head Start agencies. Review teams will 
also review and assess whether a program is in conformity with 
the income eligibility requirements and regulations of 
section645. Reviews will assess whether programs are adequately 
addressing the population and community needs (including LEP, migrant 
and seasonal farmworker children). Reviews will also assess outcomes 
and performance as they relate to State-, local-, and agency-determined 
school readiness goals.
    This section also requires that in order for a Head Start 
agency to retain designation and continue to receive funds if 
it has failed to meet quality standards or results-based 
performance measures it must develop in a timely manner a 
quality improvement plan subject to the Secretary's approval or 
(in some cases) the sponsoring agency. The Secretary or 
sponsoring agency must respond to the proposed improvement plan 
within 30 days of receiving it from an agency, either approving 
it, or giving reasons for not approving it. This section 
requires within 120 days of the fiscal year's end the Secretary 
to publish a summary on the outcome findings which must be made 
widely available to the public as well as to the parents of 
Head Start children.
    This section establishes rules allowing for the reduction 
of grants and redistribution of funds in cases of under-
enrollment. Each Head Start agency is required to report actual 
enrollment to the Secretary monthly and if that number is below 
the funded enrollment stated in the base grant, the agency must 
explain the enrollment shortfall. The Secretary must determine 
which agencies are under-enrolled based on at least 4 months of 
data. In cases of less than 95 percent enrollment, the 
Secretary will develop in collaboration with the agency, a plan 
and timetable for correcting under-enrollment considering 
quality, extent of outreach, community needs assessment, 
changing demographics, identification of new underserved low-
income populations, any facilities-related issues affecting 
enrollment, ability to provide full-day programs where needed 
through Head Start funds or through collaboration with other 
funding sources where available, the availability and use by 
families of other preschool and child care options, and agency 
management procedures that may impact enrollment.
    This section requires that the Secretary provide timely and 
ongoing technical assistance to an agency for the purpose of 
implementing the plan but if, 1 year after the plan is 
implemented and under-enrollment persists the Secretary shall 
continue to provide technical assistance where determined 
appropriate. After 9 months of being under-enrolled the 
Secretary may designate such agency as chronically under-
enrolled and may recapture, withhold or reduce the base grant 
by a percentage equal to the percentage difference between 
funded and actual enrollment. But if the enrollment shortfall 
is beyond the agency's control, is expected to be temporary or 
the number of slots allotted to the agency is small enough that 
under-enrollment does not constitute a significant shortfall, 
the Secretary may waive or reduce percentage reductions.
    In terms of redistribution of funds, the Secretary may use 
amounts recovered through reductions in a fiscal year to 
redirect funds to other Head Start agencies within the State to 
increase enrollment in their programs. In the case that there 
is no agency in the State that qualifies for the additional 
grant money, the Secretary may redirect funds to Head Start 
agencies in other States that do meet the requirements. 
Recaptured funds from under-enrolled agencies serving Indian or 
migrant children shall be awarded to other agencies serving 
those same special populations.
    The Secretary will adjust as necessary the funded 
enrollment indicated in the grant award of a Head Start agency 
receiving redistributed amounts.

Section 9. Centers of excellence in early childhood

    Subject to the availability of funds, this new section 641B 
requires the Secretary to establish a program in which he 
designates up to 200 exemplary Head Start agencies (including 
Early Head Start agencies, Indian Head Start agencies, and 
migrant and seasonal Head Start agencies) as Centers of 
Excellence in Early Childhood, with at least one designee per 
State and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico as well as 
not less than one Indian Head Start program and not less than 
one migrant and seasonal Head Start program, for a 5-year term. 
During the period of that designation and subject to the 
availability of appropriations, the agency shall be eligible to 
receive a bonus grant. State Governors shall nominate centers 
and applications must contain such information as the Secretary 
may require, and in case of Indian, migrant and seasonal Head 
Start programs, program branches shall nominate centers for 
this distinction.
    Applications shall include: (1) evidence that the Head 
Start program has significantly improved the school readiness 
and academic outcomes of Head Start children; (2) evidence that 
the program meets or exceeds Head Start standards and 
performance measures in section 641A (a) and (b) as evidenced 
by successful completion of programmatic and monitoring reviews 
and has no substantial deficiencies; (3) evidence that the 
program is making progress toward attaining the goals in 
section 648A; (4) evidence demonstrating the existence of a 
collaborative partnership between the agency and the State or a 
State agency; (5) a nomination letter from the Governor 
demonstrating the agency's ability to carry out the 
coordination, transition and training services of the program 
to be carried out under the bonus grant, including coordination 
of activities with State and local agencies that provide early 
childhood services to children and families in the community; 
and (6) information demonstrating the existence of a local 
council for excellence in early childhood education which shall 
include representatives of all institutions, agencies, and 
groups involved in the work of the center for eligible children 
and other at risk children and their families.
    The Secretary shall base the amount of the bonus grant on 
the number of children served at the center of excellence and 
subject to the availability of funding, make such a bonus grant 
in an amount not less than $200,000 a year which may be used 
to: (1) provide services to additional eligible children; (2) 
better meet the needs of working families in the community 
served by the center by serving more children in Early Head 
Start or full-working-day, full calendar year Head Start 
programs; (3) model and disseminate best practices for 
achieving early academic success including achieving school 
readiness and developing rereading and premathematics skills 
for at-risk children and achieving the English acquisition for 
limited English proficient children, and to provide seamless 
service delivery for eligible children and their families; (4) 
coordinate early childhood and social services available in the 
community served by the center for at-risk children from birth 
through age 8, including pregnant mothers, and their families; 
(5) provide training for Head Start teachers and staff and 
develop agency leaders; (6) provide effective transitions 
between Head Start programs and elementary school and to 
provide training and technical assistance to help the providers 
increase their ability to work with low-income, at-risk 
children and their families; and (7) carry out other activities 
determined by the center to improve the overall quality of the 
Head Start program.
    The Secretary may revoke an agency's designation if it is 
determined that the agency is not demonstrating adequate 
performance.
    The center will work with its delegate agencies, other Head 
Start agencies and other providers of early childhood services 
in the community to encourage the agencies and providers to 
carry out model programs.
    This section requires the Secretary to make a grant to an 
independent organization to conduct research on the ability of 
the centers of excellence to improve the school readiness of 
Head Start children and to positively impact school results in 
the earliest grades and shall also conduct research to measure 
the success of the centers at encouraging delegate agencies and 
additional Head Start agencies to meet measurable improvements 
in the area of school readiness. The report is required no 
later than 4 years after the date of enactment of the Head 
Start Improvements for School Readiness Act of 2005 and is to 
be submitted to the Secretary and Congress.
    Under this section, $9 million is appropriated for fiscal 
year 2006 and each subsequent year to make bonus grants to 
centers of excellence including $2.5 million to pay for the 
Secretary's administrative costs in carrying out this section 
and $2 million for the research activities described under this 
subsection.

Section 10. Powers and functions of Head Start agencies

    This section amends section 642 to require that in order to 
be designated as a Head Start agency, an agency must have 
authority under its charter or applicable law to receive and 
administer funds and contributions from private or local public 
sources which may be used in support of a Head Start program, 
and funds under any Federal or State assistance program 
pursuant to which a public or private nonprofit or for profit 
agency, could act as grantee, contractor, or sponsor of 
projects appropriate for inclusion in a Head Start program. 
Such agency must also be empowered to transfer funds and 
delegate powers of its governing board and its overall program 
responsibilities. These powers must include the power to make 
transfers and delegations covering component projects in all 
cases where this will contribute to efficiency and 
effectiveness or further program objectives.
    This section also requires that in order to be designated a 
Head Start agency, an agency must: (1) establish a program with 
all standards set forth in section 641A(a)(1); (2) demonstrate 
the capacity to serve eligible children with scientifically 
based curricula and other services that promote school 
readiness; (3) establish effective procedures and provide for 
the regulator assessment of Head Start children including 
observational and direct formal assessment where appropriate; 
(4) seek the involvement of parents, community members, and 
local businesses in the design and implementation of the 
program; (5) provide for the regular participation of parents 
and community members in the implementation ofsuch programs; 
(6) provide technical and other support needed to enable such parents 
and area residents to secure available assistance from public and 
private sources; (7) establish effective procedures to facilitate the 
involvement of parents of Head Start children in activities designed to 
help such parents become full partners in the education of their 
children; (8) conduct outreach to schools in which Head Start children 
will enroll, local educational agencies, the local business community, 
community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, museums and 
libraries to generate support and leverage the resources of the entire 
local community in order to improve school readiness; (9) offer 
services or referrals to parents of Head Start children family literacy 
services and parenting skills training, drug and alcohol counseling, 
including information on the effect of drug exposure on infants and 
fetal alcohol syndrome; and (10) at the option of such agency offer to 
such parents training in basic child development and cognition, 
assistance in developing literacy and communication skills, 
opportunities to share experiences with other parents, regular in home 
visitation, and any other activity designed to help parents become full 
partners in the education of their children; (11) provide participating 
families a family needs assessment that includes consultation with such 
parents (including foster parents and grandparents, where applicable) 
about the benefits of parent involvement; (12) consider providing 
services to assist younger siblings of Head Start children to obtain 
health services from other sources; (13) perform community outreach to 
encourage volunteers for the Head Start program; (14) inform custodial 
parents in single parents families that participate in programs and 
activities about the availability of child support services for 
purposes of establishing paternity and acquiring child support, and 
refer eligible parents to the child support offices of State and local 
governments; (15) provide parents of limited English proficient 
children outreach and information in an understandable and uniform 
format and, to the extent practicable, in a language that the parents 
can understand; and (16) at the option of an agency, partner with an 
institution of higher education and a nonprofit organization to provide 
college students with the opportunity to serve as mentors or reading 
coaches to Head Start participants.
    Each Head Start agency shall take steps to ensure to the 
maximum extent possible that children maintain the 
developmental and educational gains achieved in Head Start 
programs and build upon such gains in further schooling.
    In communities where both public prekindergarten programs 
and Head Start programs operate, the Head Start agency shall 
collaborate and coordinate activities with the local 
educational agency or other prekindergarten program and 
providers of prekindergarten, including outreach to identify 
eligible children. With parental permission, Head Start staff 
will also work with elementary schools to discuss teaching 
strategies and options and ensure a smooth elementary school 
transition for such children. The head of each Head Start 
agency shall coordinate activities and collaborate with the 
State agency responsible for administering the State program 
carried out under the Child Care and Development Block Grant 
Act of 1990 and other programs carrying out early childhood 
education and development programs. Head Start agencies will 
also collaborate with local educational agencies on shared use 
of transportation and facilities, and to reduce duplication of 
services while increasing participation of underserved 
populations of eligible children and exchanging information on 
the provision of non-educational services to such children.
    To promote continued parental involvement when children 
transition to school, this section requires Head Start agencies 
to provide training to parents: to inform them about their 
rights and responsibilities regarding their children's 
education; to enable them to understand and work with schools 
in order to communicate with teachers and other school 
personnel; and to support the schoolwork of the children and to 
participate to appropriate decisions relating to the education 
of their children.
    This section mandates that each Head Start agency shall 
consult with child development experts and classroom teachers 
to develop teacher hiring and evaluation assessments which 
shall measure: whether the teacher possesses an appropriate 
literacy level to implement Head Start curricula and whether 
the teacher has mastered other functions outlined in section 
648A(a)(1) of this bill.
    Head Start agencies are expected to enroll 100 percent of 
its funded enrollment and maintain an active waiting list at 
all times with ongoing outreach to communities to identify 
underserved populations.

Section 11. Head Start transition and alignment with K-12 education

    This section renames Section 642A ``The Head Start 
Transition and Alignment with K-12 Education.'' This section is 
amended to require each agency to coordinate with local 
educational agencies and schools in which Head Start children 
will enroll to: (1) develop and implement a systematic 
procedure for transferring, with parental consent, Head Start 
program records for each participating child to the school 
which such child will enroll; (2) establish ongoing channels of 
communication between Head Start staff and school counterparts 
to facilitate program coordination; (3) develop continuity of 
developmentally appropriate curricula and practice between the 
Head Start agency and local educational agency to ensure an 
effective transition and appropriate shared expectations for 
learning and development as the children make the transition to 
school; (4) conduct parent-teacher meetings; (5) organize and 
participate in joint training, including transition-related 
training of school and Head Start staff; (6) develop and 
implement family outreach and support programs, taking LEP 
families into consideration; (7) assist families, 
administrators and teachers in enhancing educational and 
developmental continuity and continuity of parental involvement 
in activities between Head Start services and elementary school 
classes; (8) link the services provided in the Head Start 
program with the education services, including services related 
to language, numeracy, and literacy provided by local 
educational agencies; (9) help parents understand the 
importance of parental involvement in a child's academic 
success while teaching the parents strategies for maintaining 
parental involvement as their child moves from the Head Start 
program to elementary school; (10) develop and implement a 
system to increase participation of underserved eligible 
children in program; and (11) coordinate activities and 
collaborate to ensure that curricula used in the Head Start 
program is aligned with State early learning standards 
regarding cognitive, social, emotional, and physical 
competencies that children entering kindergarten are expected 
to demonstrate.

Section 12. Submission of plans to governors

    This section amends section 643 to require approval from a 
State Governor of a proposed Head Start plan for a contract, 
agreement, grant, or other assistance before an agency may 
carry out a Head Start program in the State. Governor approval 
is not required, however, for Indian Head Start and migrant and 
seasonal Head Start programs. The timeline for a State Governor 
approval or disapproval has been shortened from 45 days to 30 
days of such submission.

Section 13. Participation in Head Start programs

    This section amends section 645(a)(1)(A) by allowing Head 
Start programs to serve children whose families are below 130 
percent of the poverty line.
    This section also deems a homeless child eligible for Head 
Start services.
    This section requires that military housing upgrades and 
special pay relating to duty subject to hostile fire or combat 
not be considered income for the purposes of determining Head 
Start program eligibility of the children of uniformed services 
members section 645(a)(3)(B).

Section 14. Early Head Start programs

    This section renames Section 645A ``Early Head Start 
Programs.'' Section 645A is amended by requiring Head Start 
agencies to provide additional services to parents to support 
their role as parents including parenting skills and basic 
child development training. Such training includes home-based 
services and family support services. This section also 
requires that Early Head Start agencies develop a systematic 
transitioning process for children and parents from Early Head 
Start into Head Start or other local early childhood education 
programs, as well as establish communication channels between 
Early Head Start and Head Start staffs to coordinate programs.
    This section amends section 645A to include agencies 
responsible for administering Section 106 of the Child Abuse 
Prevention and Treatment Act as a group with which Early Head 
Start agencies shall ensure formal linkages.
    This section expands the definition of ``Eligible Services 
Providers'' to include tribal governments and entities 
operating migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, as well as 
community-based organizations that meet program participation 
standards.
    This section also allows the Secretary to use funds for 
training and technical assistance to provide professional 
development and personnel enhancement activities on effective 
methods of conducting parent education, home visiting, and 
promoting quality early childhood development, on methods of 
recruiting and retaining qualified staff and on methods to 
increase program participation for underserved populations of 
eligible children.
    This section mandates that not later than September 30, 
2010, all teachers providing direct services to Early Head 
Start children and families have aminimum of a child 
development associate credential or an associate degree and have been 
trained in early childhood development or equivalent coursework.
    This section requires the Secretary to establish standards 
for training, qualification, and the conduct of home visits for 
home visitor staff in Early Head Start programs to further 
enhance the quality of services provided to families of 
participating children. Such standards established by the 
Secretary shall include: structured child-focused home visiting 
that promotes parents' ability to support the child's 
cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development; 
effective strengths-based parent education, including methods 
to encourage parents as their child's first teachers; early 
childhood development with respect to children from birth 
through age 3; methods to help parents promote emergent 
literacy in their children from birth to age 3; health, vision, 
hearing and developmental screenings; strategies for helping 
families coping with crisis; and the relationship of health and 
well-being of pregnant women to prenatal and early child 
development.

Section 15. Appeals, notice, and hearing and records and audits

    This section amends section 646(a) by terminating or 
reducing financial assistance and an application for refunding 
may be denied after the recipient has been afforded reasonable 
notice and opportunity for a full and fair hearing. 
Additionally, this section amends the timelines for a full and 
fair hearing to include a right to file a notice of appeal of a 
decision to termination within 30 days of notice of the 
decision from the Secretary; and access to a full and fair 
hearing of the appeal, not later than 120 days from receipt by 
the Secretary of the notice of appeal.
    This section prohibits a Head Start agency from expending 
financial assistance awarded for the purpose of paying legal 
fees pursuant to an appeal, except that such fees shall be 
reimbursed by the Secretary if the agency prevails in their 
appeal.
    This section allows the Secretary to suspend funds to a 
grantee in the case of a grantee having multiple and recurring 
deficiencies for a period of 6 months and has not made 
substantial and significant progress toward meeting the goals 
of the grantee's quality improvement plan or eliminating all 
deficiencies.
    The section amends section 647(a) by requiring each Head 
Start agency receiving financial assistance to maintain and 
submit a complete accounting of their administrative expenses 
including salaries and compensation annually to the Secretary.

Section 16. Technical assistance and training

    This section amends section 648 by requiring the secretary 
to make available funds set aside in section 640(a)(2)(C)(ii) 
to support a regional or State system of early childhood 
education training and technical assistance that improves the 
capacity of Head Start programs within a region or State to 
deliver services in accordance with the Head Start standards 
described in section 641A(a)(1). The Secretary shall: ensure 
that agencies with demonstrated expertise in providing high 
quality training and technical assistance to improve the 
delivery of Head Start services, including the State Head Start 
Association, State agencies, migrant and seasonal Head Start 
programs, and other entities currently providing training and 
technical assistance in early education are included in the 
planning and coordination of the system; and encourage States 
to supplement the funds authorized in section 640(a)(2)(C)(ii) 
with Federal, State, or local funds other than Head Start 
funds, to expand training and technical assistance activities 
beyond Head Start agencies to include other providers of early 
childhood services within a region or State.
    In allocating resources for technical assistance and 
training under this section, the Secretary shall also assist 
Head Start agencies and programs in increasing the program 
participation of eligible homeless children. In addition to 
including the assessment of the needs of homeless children and 
their families when conducting and participating in 
communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment.
    This section recognizes Head Start personnel from community 
and faith-based organizations as eligible to receive grants for 
training in the use of the performing and visual arts to 
include community and faith-based organizations.
    This section requires the Secretary to provide, either 
directly or through grants or other arrangements, funds to 
provide services to children determined to be abused or 
neglected, training for personnel providing services to 
children referred by entities providing child welfare services 
or receiving child welfare services. The Secretary shall also 
provide training and technical assistance funding for Head 
Start personnel that addresses the unique needs of migrant and 
seasonal farmworking families, LEP families, and homeless 
families.
    This section requires that funds used under this section 
shall be used to provide high quality, sustained and intensive 
training and technical assistance in order to have a positive 
and lasting impact on classroom instruction. Such funds shall 
be used to carry out activities related to one or more of the 
following: education and early childhood development; child 
health, nutrition, and safety; family and community 
partnerships; other areas that impact the quality or overall 
effectiveness of Head Start programs.
    This section does not permit training and technical 
assistance funds to be used for long distance travel expenses 
for training activities available locally or regionally or for 
activities that are substantially similar to locally or 
regionally available training activities. Such funds shall be 
used for needs identified annually by a grant applicant or 
delegate agency in its program improvement plan.
    Funds may be used to support local efforts to enhance early 
language and preliteracy development of children in Head Start 
programs and to provide children with high quality oral 
language skills and environments that are rich in literature in 
which to acquire language and preliteracy skills. Each agency, 
in coordination with the appropriate State office and the 
relevant State Head Start collaboration office shall ensure 
that all of the agency's teachers receive ongoing training in 
language and emergent literacy. Such training shall include 
methods to promote phonological and phonemic awareness and 
vocabulary development in age-appropriate and culturally and 
linguistically appropriate manner. Literacy training shall be 
culturally and linguistically appropriate and support 
children's development in their home language. Literacy 
training shall also include training in how to work with 
parents to enhance positive language and early literacy 
development at home. Literacy training shall also include 
specific methods to best address the needs of children who have 
speech and language delays or have other disabilities.

Section 17. Staff qualifications and development

    This section amends section 648A by requiring all center-
based Head Start teachers to have at least an associate degree 
or equivalent coursework in early childhood or related 
educational area and teachers must also demonstrate teaching 
competencies including at a minimum, an appropriate level of 
literacy, a demonstrated capacity to be highly engaged with 
children and the ability to effectively implement and early 
childhood curriculum as determined by the program director by 
September 30, 2010.
    This section also requires all center-based Head Start 
curriculum specialists and education coordinators to have the 
capacity to offer assistance to other teachers in the 
implementation and adaptation of curricula to the group and 
individual needs of a class and to have a baccalaureate or 
advanced degree and coursework equivalent relating to early 
childhood by September 30, 2008.
    By September 30, 2008, all center-based Head Start teaching 
assistants must: have at least a child development associate 
credential; be enrolled in a program leading to an associate or 
baccalaureate degree; or be enrolled in a child development 
associate credential program to be completed within 2 years.
    This section requires alignment, by September 30, 2011, 
with State prekindergarten teacher requirements where teacher 
requirements for State prekindergarten programs are 
established. If a State's teacher requirements for 
prekindergarten program is less than those required by the Head 
Start program. In addition, in States that do not have an 
established State prekindergarten program or in States that do 
not have established teacher requirements for their State 
prekindergarten programs, 50 percent of all Head Start teachers 
in each center-based program must have a baccalaureate degree 
relating to early childhood and demonstrated teaching 
competencies.
    This section also requires each Head Start teacher to 
attend an average of not less than 15 clock hours of 
professional development per year. Each Head Start agency and 
program is required to create a professional development plan 
for all staff who provide direct services to children in 
consultation with all employees, including a plan for classroom 
teachers and curriculum specialists to meet the degree 
requirements.
    The Secretary is to require Head Start agencies to 
demonstrate continued progress and to submit an annual report 
indicating the number and percentage ofcenter-based classroom 
instructors with child development associate credential or associate, 
baccalaureate or graduate degrees. The Secretary is required to compile 
and submit such program reports to the House Committee on Education and 
the Workforce and the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and 
Pensions. A Head Start agency may demonstrate progress by partnering 
with institutions of higher education or other programs that recruit, 
train, place, and support college students to deliver an innovative 
early learning program to preschool children.
    Head Start staff who receive financial assistance to pursue 
a degree are required to teach or work in a Head Start program 
for at least 3 years after the degree is obtained or repay the 
total or prorated amount of the financial assistance received 
based on the length of service completed after receiving the 
degree.
    The Secretary may waive post-secondary degree requirements 
for an agency (1) that can demonstrate aggressive recruitment 
efforts that have been unsuccessful with people who meet the 
requirements, (2) or if there is limited access to degree 
programs due to remote location of the program involved, or (3) 
if current Head Start staff is enrolled in a program that 
grants the required degree and will be completed in a year. An 
agency that receives such a waiver shall ensure that Head Start 
teachers for the agency who have not met the post-secondary 
degree requirements but are otherwise highly qualified and 
competent shall be directly and appropriately supervised by a 
teacher who has met or exceeded the degree requirements. The 
Secretary may not grant a waiver that exceeds 1 year, however 
the grant is renewable.

Section 18. Tribal colleges and universities Head Start partnership

    This section amends the act by authorizing the Secretary to 
award at least 5-year grants to Tribal college and universities 
to promote school readiness in Indian children by implementing 
tribal culture and language programs and increasing the number 
of degrees in early childhood education and related fields 
among Indian Head Start agency staff, parents of Head Start 
children, and members of the tribal community involved in 
Indian Head Start. Such programs shall develop and implement 
technology-mediated formats, and grants may be used for 
technology literacy programs for those served by or associated 
with Indian Head Start. The Secretary will ensure that the 
American Indian Programs Branch of the Head Start Bureau of the 
Department of Health and Human Services is sufficiently staffed 
to administer the programs in this section and to provide 
appropriate technical assistance to the Tribal Colleges and 
universities receiving grants. To receive grants, Tribal 
Colleges and universities must submit applications to the 
Secretary for consideration, including a certification that a 
partnership has been established with at least one Indian Head 
Start agency for the purpose of conducting these activities. 
This section authorizes $10 million to carry out this section 
for fiscal year 2006 and such sums for fiscal years 2007-10.

Section 19. Research, demonstration, and evaluation

    This section amends section 649 so that the Secretary will 
also consider abused or neglected children when developing, 
testing, and disseminating new ideas for addressing the needs 
of low-income children.
    This section requires the Secretary to contract with the 
Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Research 
Council, the Board on Testing and Assessments and the Institute 
of Medicine of the National Academies to establish an 
independent panel of experts to review and synthesize research 
and theories in the social, behavioral, and biological sciences 
regarding early childhood, and make recommendations regarding: 
(1) age and developmentally appropriate Head Start academic 
requirements and outcomes including the standards described in 
section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii); (2) differences in the type, length, 
mix, and intensity of services necessary to ensure school 
readiness for children from challenging backgrounds; (3) 
appropriate assessments of children including formal and 
systematic observations in a child's natural environment; 
assessments of children's development through parent and 
provider interviews; assessments of appropriate accommodations 
for children with disabilities, LEP, and from different 
cultural backgrounds; (4) identification of existing or 
recommendations for the development of, scientifically-based, 
valid and reliable assessments that are capable of measuring 
child outcomes in the areas important to school readiness, 
including language skills, prereading ability, premathematics 
ability, cognitive ability, scientific ability, social and 
emotional development, and physical development; and (5) 
appropriate use and application of valid and reliable 
assessments for such Head Start programs.
    The panel will consist of multiple experts in child 
development and child education, professional development, 
assessments of young children (including children with 
disabilities and limited English proficient children), 
including screening, diagnostic, and classroom based 
instructional assessments, and this panel shall be selected and 
appointed by the National Academy of Sciences, after 
consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
    The panel will be established no later than 90 days after 
the enactment of this Act and not later than 1 year after the 
panel is established shall it complete and submit such 
recommendations to the Secretary. Amendments made to section 
641A(a)(1)(B)(ii) shall not be implemented by the Secretary 
until the panel submits the report.
    The Secretary shall, in appropriate cases, use the panel's 
results and recommendations to develop and revise educational 
standards and the performance measures, and assessments 
utilized in the Head Start programs.
    The Secretary shall also conduct a study on the status of 
LEP children and their families in Head Start programs and no 
later than September 30, 2009 shall the Secretary prepare and 
submit a report containing the results of the study to Congress 
including information on: the demographics of LEP children from 
birth through age 5, including the number of such children 
receiving Head Start services and the geographic distribution 
of such children; the nature of Head Start services provided to 
LEP children and their families including types, duration, 
intensity, costs of family services and language assistance; 
procedures in Head Start programs for the assessment of 
language needs and the transition of LEP children to 
kindergarten including the extent to which Head Start programs 
meet the requirements of section 642A for LEP children; the 
extent to which Head Start programs make use of funds under 
section 640(a)(3) to improve the quality of Head Start services 
provided to LEP children and their families; and the 
qualifications and training provided to Head Start teachers 
serving LEP children and families; the rate of progress made by 
LEP children and their families in Head Start programs 
including: (1) their rate of progress toward meeting 
educational standards described in section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii) 
while enrolled in Head Start, measured between 1990 and 2004; 
(2) the correlation between such progress and the type of 
instruction and educational program provided to LEP children; 
and (3) the correlation between such progress and the health 
and family services provided by Head Start programs to LEP 
children and their families.

Section 20. Reports

    Section 650(a) is amended so that the Secretary will also 
consider homelessness, children in foster care in reports 
concerning the status of children. This section also updates 
the name of the Senate committee charged with oversight of this 
legislation to ``Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.''

Section 21. Comparability of wages

    Section 653 is amended as to mandate that no individual is 
to be compensated with Federal funds in excess of the salary of 
the Secretary. If this is violated, the Secretary shall 
withhold from the base grant of the Head Start agency involved 
for the next fiscal year, an amount equal to the aggregate 
amount by which the salary that resulted in the violation 
exceeded the salary of the Secretary.

Section 22. Limitation with respect to certain unlawful activities

    This section amends section 655 to forbid participation in 
civil disturbance, rioting, or unlawful demonstration by 
individuals assigned by or employed in Head Start agencies.

Section 23. Political activities

    This section amends section 656(b) to forbid the 
participation of any Head Start employee during the hours in 
which such individual is working on behalf of such program in 
any political activity associated with an election, or 
contending faction or group, in an election for public or party 
office, or any activity to provide voters or prospective voters 
with transportation to the polls, or any voter registration 
activity. The Secretary may issue rules and regulations to 
enforce this section.

Section 24. Parental consent requirement for health services

    This section amends the act to require written parental 
consent before administrating or referring any health care 
services or procedures including non-emergency intrusive 
physical examination of a child in connection with 
participation in a program. Such services that require written 
parental permission include examinations: not immediately 
necessary to protect the health or safety of a child, those 
that require incision or those which involve exposure of 
private body parts. This section does not prohibit agencies 
from using established methods for handling cases of child 
abuse and neglect that comply with Federal, State or tribal 
law.

                      IX. Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with rule XXVI paragraph 12 of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, the following provides a print of the 
statute or the part or section thereof to be amended or 
replaced (existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in 
black brackets, new matter is printed in italic, existing law 
in which no change is proposed is shown in roman).

HEAD START ACT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 636. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

    It is the purpose of this subchapter to promote school 
readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of 
low-income children through educational instruction in 
prereading skills, premathematics skills, and language and 
through the provision, to low-income children and their 
families, of health, educational, nutritional, social, and 
other services that are determined, based on family needs 
assessments, to be necessary.

                              DEFINITIONS

    Sec. 637. For purposes of this subchapter:
          (1) The term ``child with a disability'' means--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) * * *
          (2) The term ``delegate agency'' means a public, 
        private nonprofit (including a community-based 
        organization), or for-profit organization or agency to 
        which a grantee has delegated all or part of the 
        responsibility of the grantee for operating a Head 
        Start program.
          (3) * * *
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  (C) Parent literacy, including financial 
                literacy, training that leads to economic self-
                sufficiency.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (17) The term ``State'' means a State, the 
        Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, 
        Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United 
        States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern [Mariana 
        Islands, but for fiscal years ending before October 1, 
        2001 (and fiscal year 2002, if the legislation 
        described in section 640(a)(2)(B)(iii) has not been 
        enacted before September 30, 2001), also means the 
        Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the 
        Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau.] Mariana 
        Islands.
          (18) The term ``homeless child'' means a child 
        described in section 725(2) of the McKinney-Vento 
        Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11434a(2)).
          (19) The term ``limited English proficient'', used 
        with respect to a child, means--
                  (A) who is enrolled or preparing to enroll in 
                a Head Start program, Early Head Start program, 
                or other early care and education program;
                  (B)(i) who was not born in the United States 
                or whose native language is a language other 
                than English;
                  (ii)(I) who is a Native American, Alaska 
                Native, or a native resident of a United State 
                territory; and
                  (II) who comes from an environment where a 
                language other than English has had a 
                significant impact on the child's level of 
                English language proficiency; or
                  (iii) who is migratory, whose native language 
                is a language other than English, and who comes 
                from an environment where a language other than 
                English is dominant; and
                  (C) whose difficulty in speaking or 
                understanding the English language may be 
                sufficient to deny such child--
                          (i) the ability to successfully 
                        achieve in a classroom in which the 
                        language of instruction is English; or
                          (ii) the opportunity to participate 
                        fully in society.
          (20) The term ``deficiency'' means--
                  (A) a systemic or substantial failure of an 
                agency in an area of performance that the 
                Secretary determines involves--
                          (i) a threat to the health, safety, 
                        or civil rights of children or staff;
                          (ii) a denial to parents of the 
                        exercise of their full roles and 
                        responsibilities related to program 
                        operations;
                          (iii) a failure to comply with 
                        standards related to early childhood 
                        development and health services, family 
                        and community partnerships, or program 
                        design and management;
                          (iv) the misuse of funds under this 
                        subchapter;
                          (v) loss of legal status or financial 
                        viability, loss of permits, debarment 
                        from receiving Federal grants or 
                        contracts, or the improper use of 
                        Federal funds; or
                          (vi) failure to meet any other 
                        Federal or State requirement that the 
                        agency has shown an unwillingness or 
                        inability to correct, after notice from 
                        the Secretary, within the period 
                        specified;
                  (B) system failure of the board of directors 
                of an agency to fully exercise its legal and 
                fiduciary responsibilities;
                  (C) substantial failure of an agency to meet 
                the administrative requirements of section 
                644(b);
                  (D) failure of an agency to demonstrate that 
                the agency attempted to meet the coordination 
                and collaboration requirements with entities 
                described in section 640(a)(5)(D)(iii)(I); or
                  (E) having an unresolved area of 
                noncompliance.
          (21) The term ``unresolved area of noncompliance'' 
        means failure to correct a noncompliance item within 
        120 days, or within such additional time (if any) 
        authorized by the Secretary, after receiving from the 
        Secretary notice of such noncompliance item, pursuant 
        to section 641A(d).
          (22) The term ``interrater reliability'' means the 
        extent to which 2 different raters or observers 
        consistently obtain the same result when using the same 
        assessment tool.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


              FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR HEAD START PROGRAMS

    Sec. 638. The Secretary may, upon application by an agency 
which is eligible for designation as a Head Start agency 
pursuant to section 641, provide financial assistance to such 
agency for a period of 5 years for the planning, conduct, 
administration, and evaluation of a Head Start program focused 
primarily upon the children from low-income families who have 
not reached the age of compulsory school attendance which (1) 
will provide such comprehensive health, education, parental 
involvement, nutritional, social, and other services as will 
enable the children to attain their full potential and attain 
school readiness; and (2) will provide for direct participation 
of the parents of such children in the development, conduct, 
and overall program direction at the local level.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                    [AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    [Sec. 639. (a) There are authorized to be appropriated for 
carrying out the provisions of this subchapter such sums as may 
be necessary for fiscal years 1999 through 2003.
    [(b) From the amount appropriated under subsection (a), the 
Secretary shall make available--
          [(1) for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2003 to 
        carry out activities authorized under section 642A, not 
        more than $35,000,000 but not less than the amount that 
        was made available for such activities for fiscal year 
        1998;
          [(2) not more than $5,000,000 for each of fiscal 
        years 1999 through 2003 to carry out impact studies 
        under section 649(g); and
          [(3) not more than $12,000,000 for fiscal year 1999, 
        and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal 
        years 2000 through 2003, to carry out other research, 
        demonstration, and evaluation activities, including 
        longitudinal studies, under section 649.]

SEC. 639. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
for carrying out the provisions of this subchapter 
$7,215,000,000 for fiscal year 2006, $7,515,000,000 for fiscal 
year 2007, $7,815,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, and such sums 
as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2009 and 2010.
    (b) Specific Programs.--From the amount appropriated under 
subsection (a), the Secretary shall make available to carry out 
research, demonstration, and evaluation activities, including 
longitudinal studies under section 649, not more than 
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2006, and such sums as may be 
necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010, of which 
not more than $7,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 
2010 shall be available to carry out impact studies under 
section 649(g).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


             ALLOTMENT OF FUNDS, LIMITATIONS ON ASSISTANCE

    Sec. 640 (a)(1) * * *
    (2) The Secretary shall reserve 13 percent of the amount 
appropriated for each fiscal year for use in accordance with 
the following order of priorities--
          [(A) Indian Head Start programs, services for 
        children with disabilities, and migrant and seasonal 
        Head Start programs, except that there shall be made 
        available for each fiscal year for use by Indian Head 
        Start programs and by migrant and seasonal Head Start 
        programs, on a nationwide basis, not less than the 
        amount that was obligated for use by Indian Head Start 
        programs and by migrant and seasonal Head Start 
        programs for fiscal year 1998;]
          (A) Indian Head Start programs, services for children 
        with disabilities, and migrant and seasonal Head Start 
        programs, except that the Secretary shall reserve for 
        each fiscal year for use by Indian Head Start and 
        migrant and seasonal Head Start programs (referred to 
        in this paragraph as covered programs), on a nationwide 
        basis, a sum that is the total of 4 percent of the 
        amount appropriated under section 639 for that fiscal 
        year (for Indian Head Start programs), and 5 percent of 
        that appropriated amount (for migrant and seasonal Head 
        Start programs), except that--
                  (i) if reserving the specified percentages 
                for Indian Head Start programs and migrant and 
                seasonal Head Start programs would reduce the 
                number of children served by Head Start 
                programs, relative to the number of children 
                served on the date of enactment of the Head 
                Start Improvements for School Readiness Act, 
                taking into consideration an appropriate 
                adjustment for inflation, the Secretary shall 
                reserve percentages that approach, as closely 
                as practicable, the specified percentages and 
                that do not cause such a reduction; and
                  (ii) notwithstanding any other provision of 
                this subparagraph, the Secretary shall reserve 
                for each fiscal year for use by Indian Head 
                Start programs and by migrant and seasonal Head 
                Start programs, on a nationwide basis, not less 
                than the amount that was obligated for use by 
                Indian Head Start programs and by migrant and 
                seasonal Head Start programs for the previous 
                fiscal year;
          (B)* * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(C) training and technical assistance activities 
        which are sufficient to meet the needs associated with 
        program expansion and to foster program and management 
        improvement activities as described in section 648 of 
        this subchapter, in an amount for each fiscal year 
        which is not less than 2 percent of the amount 
        appropriated for such fiscal year, of which not less 
        than $3,000,000 of the amount appropriated for such 
        fiscal year shall be made available to carry out 
        activities described in section 648(c)(4);]
          (C) training and technical assistance activities that 
        are sufficient to meet the needs associated with 
        program expansion and to foster program and management 
        improvement activities as described in section 648, in 
        an amount for each fiscal year that is equal to 2 
        percent of the amount appropriated under section 639 
        for such fiscal year, of which--
                  (i) 50 percent shall be made available to 
                Head Start agencies to use directly, or by 
                establishing local or regional agreements with 
                community experts, colleges and universities, 
                or private consultants, for any of the 
                following training and technical assistance 
                activities, including--
                          (I) activities that ensure that Head 
                        Start programs meet or exceed the 
                        program performance standards described 
                        in section 641A(a)(1);
                          (II) activities that ensure that Head 
                        Start programs have adequate numbers of 
                        trained, qualified staff who have 
                        skills in working with children and 
                        families, including children and 
                        families who are limited English 
                        proficient and children with 
                        disabilities;
                          (III) activities to pay expenses, 
                        including direct training for expert 
                        consultants working with any staff, to 
                        improve the management and 
                        implementation of Head Start services 
                        and systems;
                          (IV) activities that help ensure that 
                        Head Start programs have qualified 
                        staff who can promote language skills 
                        and literacy growth of children and who 
                        can provide children with a variety of 
                        skills that have been identified as 
                        predictive of later reading 
                        achievement, school success, and other 
                        educational skills described in section 
                        641A;
                          (V) activities to improve staff 
                        qualifications and to assist with the 
                        implementation of career development 
                        programs and to encourage the staff to 
                        continually improve their skills and 
                        expertise, including developing 
                        partnerships with programs that 
                        recruit, train, place, and support 
                        college students in Head Start centers 
                        to deliver an innovative early learning 
                        program to preschool children;
                          (VI) activities that help local 
                        programs ensure that the arrangement, 
                        condition, and implementation of the 
                        learning environments in Head Start 
                        programs are conducive to providing 
                        effective program services to children 
                        and families;
                          (VII) activities to provide training 
                        necessary to improve the qualifications 
                        of Head Start staff and to support 
                        staff training, child counseling, 
                        health services, and other services 
                        necessary to address the needs of 
                        children enrolled in Head Start 
                        programs, including children from 
                        families in crises, children who 
                        experience chronic violence or 
                        homelessness, and children who 
                        experience substance abuse in their 
                        families, and children under 3 years of 
                        age, where applicable;
                          (VIII) activities to provide classes 
                        or in-service-type programs to improve 
                        or enhance parenting skills, job 
                        skills, adult and family literacy, 
                        including financial literacy, or 
                        training to become a classroom aide or 
                        bus driver in a Head Start program;
                          (IX) additional activities deemed 
                        appropriate to the improvements of Head 
                        Start agencies' programs, as determined 
                        by the agencies' technical assistance 
                        and training plans; or
                          (X) any other activities regarding 
                        the use of funds as determined by the 
                        Secretary;
                  (ii) 50 percent shall be made available to 
                the Secretary to support a regional or State 
                system of early childhood education training 
                and technical assistance, and to assist local 
                programs (including Indian Head Start programs 
                and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs) 
                in meeting the standards described in section 
                641A(a)(1) and
                  (iii) not less than $3,000,000 of the amount 
                in clause (ii) appropriated for such fiscal 
                year shall be made available to carry out 
                activities described in section 648(d)(4);
          (D) discretionary payments made by the Secretary 
        (including payments for all costs (other than 
        compensation of Federal employees) of reviews of Head 
        Start agencies and programs under section 641A(c), and 
        of activities carried out under paragraph (1), (2), or 
        (3) of section 641A(d) related to correcting 
        deficiencies and conducting proceedings to terminate 
        the designation of Head Start [agencies;] agencies); 
        and
          (E) * * *
No funds reserved under this paragraph or paragraph (3) may be 
combined with funds appropriated under any other Act if the 
purpose of combining funds is to make a single discretionary 
grant or a single discretionary payment, unless such funds 
appropriated under this subchapter are separately identified in 
such grant or payment and are used for the purposes of this 
subchapter. No Freely Associated State may receive financial 
assistance under this subchapter after fiscal year 2002. In no 
case shall the Secretary use funds reserved under this 
paragraph to expand or create additional slots for services in 
non-Indian and non-migrant and seasonal Head Start programs 
until the 4 and 5 percent amounts specified in subparagraph (A) 
are reached. The Secretary shall assure that any additional 
funding appropriated in any of fiscal years 2006 through 2010 
that is available to the Secretary under the authority of this 
paragraph shall be used to increase the funding levels of 
migrant and seasonal Head Start programs and Indian Head Start 
programs until such point as migrant and seasonal Head Start 
programs are receiving not less than 5 percent of the total 
funds appropriated under section 639 and Indian Head Start 
programs are receiving not less than 4 percent of the total 
funds appropriated under section 639. After ensuring that the 4 
and 5 percent amounts described in subparagraph (A) and the 2 
percent amount described in subparagraph (C) have been reached 
and after allotting the funds reserved under paragraph (3)(A) 
as specified in paragraph (3)(D), the Secretary may distribute 
any remaining funds available to the Secretary under this 
paragraph to covered programs, and if the Secretary decides to 
distribute such remaining funds available under this paragraph 
to covered programs, the Secretary shall distribute the funds 
by distributing 65 percent of the remainder by giving priority 
to grant recipients in the States serving the smallest 
percentages (as determined by the Secretary) of children less 
than 5 years of age from families whose income is below the 
poverty line, and distributing 35 percent of the remainder on a 
competitive basis. The Secretary shall require each Head Start 
agency to report at the end of each budget year on how funds 
provided to carry out subparagraph (C)(i) were used.
    (3)(A)(i) * * *
          (I) [60 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 
        1999, 50 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 
        2000, 47.5 percent of such excess amount for fiscal 
        year 2001, 35 percent of such excess amount for fiscal 
        year 2002, and] 25 percent of such excess amount for 
        fiscal year 2003, 30 percent of such excess amount for 
        fiscal year 2006, and 40 percent of such excess amount 
        for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010; and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (B) *  *  *
          (i) Ensuring that Head Start programs meet or exceed 
        [performance standards pursuant to section 
        641A(a)(1)(A).] standards and measures pursuant to 
        section 641A.
          [(ii) Ensuring that such programs have adequate 
        numbers of qualified staff, and that such staff are 
        furnished adequate training, including developing 
        skills in working with children with non-English 
        language background and children with disabilities, 
        when appropriate.]
          (ii) Ensuring that such programs have adequate 
        numbers of qualified staff, and that such staff is 
        furnished adequate training, including training to 
        promote the development of language skills, 
        premathematics skills, and prereading in young children 
        and in working with limited English proficient 
        children, children in foster care, children referred by 
        child welfare services, and children with disabilities, 
        when appropriate.
          [(iii) Ensuring that salary levels and benefits are 
        adequate to attract and retain qualified staff for such 
        programs.]
          (iii) Developing and financing the salary scales and 
        benefits standards under section 644(a) and section 
        653, in order to ensure that salary levels and benefits 
        are adequate to attract and retain qualified staff for 
        such programs.
          [(iv) Using salary increases to improve staff 
        qualifications, and to assist with the implementation 
        of career development programs, for the staff of Head 
        Start programs, and to encourage the staff to 
        continually improve their skills, and expertise by 
        informing the staff of the availability of Federal and 
        State incentive and loan forgiveness programs for 
        professional development.]
          (iv) Using salary increases to--
                  (I) assist with the implementation of quality 
                programs and improve staff qualifications;
                  (II) ensure the staff can promote the 
                language skills and literacy growth of children 
                and can provide children with a variety of 
                skills that have been identified, through 
                scientifically based early reading research, as 
                predictive of later reading achievement, as 
                well as additional skills identified in section 
                641A(a)(1)(B)(ii); and
                  (III) encourage the staff to continually 
                improve their skills and expertise by informing 
                the staff of the availability of Federal and 
                State incentive and loan forgiveness programs 
                for professional development.
          (v) Improving community-wide strategic planning and 
        needs assessments for such programs and collaboration 
        efforts for such programs, including collaborations to 
        increase program participation by underserved 
        populations of eligible children
          (vi) *  *  *
          [(vii) Ensuring that such programs have qualified 
        staff that can promote language skills and literacy 
        growth of children and that can provide children with a 
        variety of skills that have been identified, through 
        scientifically based reading research, as predictive of 
        later reading achievement.]
          (vii) Providing assistance to complete postsecondary 
        coursework including scholarships or other financial 
        incentives, such as differential and merit pay, to 
        enable Head Start teachers to improve competencies and 
        the resulting child outcomes.
          [(viii) Making such other improvements in the quality 
        of such programs as the Secretary may designate.]
          (viii) Promoting the regular attendance and stability 
        of all Head Start children with particular attention to 
        highly mobile children, including children from migrant 
        and seasonal farmworking families (where appropriate), 
        homeless children, and children in foster care.
          (ix) Making such other improvements in the quality of 
        such programs as the Secretary may designate.
    (C) Quality improvement funds shall be used to carry out 
any or all of the following activities:
          (i)(I) Not less than one-half of the amount reserved 
        under this paragraph, to improve the compensation 
        (including benefits) of classroom teachers and other 
        staff of Head Start agencies and thereby enhance 
        recruitment and retention of qualified staff, including 
        recruitment and retention pursuant to achieving the 
        requirements set forth in section 648A(a). The 
        expenditure of funds under this clause shall be subject 
        to section 653. [Preferences in awarding salary 
        increases, in excess of cost-of-living allowances, with 
        such funds shall be granted to classroom teachers and 
        staff who obtain additional training or education 
        related to their responsibilities as employees of a 
        Head Start program.] Salary increases, in excess of 
        cost-of-living allowances, provided with such funds 
        shall be subject to the specific standards governing 
        salaries and salary increases established pursuant to 
        section 644(a).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (ii) To train classroom teachers and other staff to 
        meet the [education performance] additional educational 
        standards described in section 641A(a)(1)(B), through 
        activities--
                  (I) to promote children's language, 
                prereading, and literacy growth, through 
                techniques identified through scientifically 
                based reading research;
                  [(II) to promote the acquisition of the 
                English language for non-English background 
                children and families;]
                  (II) to help limited English proficient 
                children attain the knowledge, skills, and 
                development specified in section 
                641A(a)(1)(B)(ii) and to promote the 
                acquisition of the English language by such 
                children and families;
                  (III) * * *
                  [(IV) to provide training necessary to 
                improve the qualifications of the staff of the 
                Head Start agencies and to support staff 
                training, child counseling, and other services 
                necessary to address the problems of children 
                participating in Head Start programs, including 
                children from dysfunctional families, children 
                who experience chronic violence in their 
                communities, and children who experience 
                substance abuse in their families.]
                          (IV) to provide education and 
                        training necessary to improve the 
                        qualifications of Head Start staff, 
                        particularly assistance to enable more 
                        instructors to be fully competent and 
                        to meet the degree requirements under 
                        section 648A(a)(2)(A), and to support 
                        staff training, child counseling, and 
                        other services necessary to address the 
                        challenges of children participating in 
                        Head Start programs, including children 
                        from immigrant, refugee, and asylee 
                        families, children from families in 
                        crisis, homeless children, children in 
                        foster care, children referred to Head 
                        Start programs by child welfare 
                        agencies, and children who are exposed 
                        to chronic violence or substance abuse.
          (iii) To employ additional Head Start staff, 
        including staff necessary to reduce the child-staff 
        ratio, educational staff who have the qualifications 
        described in section 648A(a), and staff necessary to 
        coordinate a Head Start program with other services 
        available to children participating in such program and 
        to their families.
          (iv) * * *
          (v) To supplement amounts provided under paragraph 
        (2)(C) to provide training necessary to improve the 
        qualifications of the staff of the Head Start agencies, 
        and to support staff training, child counseling, and 
        other services necessary to address the problems of 
        children participating in Head Start [programs, 
        including children from dysfunctional families, 
        children who experience chronic violence in their 
        communities, and children who experience substance 
        abuse in their families.] programs.
          (vi) To conduct outreach to homeless families in an 
        effort to increase the program participation of 
        eligible homeless children.
          (vii) To conduct outreach to migrant and seasonal 
        farmworking families and families with limited English 
        proficient children.
          (viii) To partner with institutions of higher 
        education and nonprofit organizations, including 
        community-based organizations, that recruit, train, 
        place, and support college students to serve as mentors 
        and reading coaches to preschool children in Head Start 
        programs.
          (ix) To upgrade the qualifications and skills of 
        educational personnel to meet the professional 
        standards described in section 648AA(a)(1), including 
        certification and licensure as bilingual education 
        teachers and for other educational personnel who serve 
        limited English proficient students.
          [(vi)](x) Such other activities as the Secretary may 
        designate.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (4) ***
          (A) each State receives an amount which is equal to 
        the amount the State received for fiscal year [1998] 
        2005; and
          [(B) any amount available after all allotments are 
        made under subparagraph (A) for such fiscal year shall 
        be distributed proportionately on the basis of the 
        number of children less than 5 years of age from 
        families whose income is below the poverty line.]
          (B) any amount available after all allotments are 
        made under subparagraph (A) for such fiscal year shall 
        be distributed as follows:
                  (i) Each State shall receive an amount 
                sufficient to serve the same number of children 
                in Head Start programs in each State as were 
                served on the date of enactment of the Head 
                Start Improvements for School Readiness Act, 
                taking into consideration an appropriate 
                adjustment for inflation.
                  (ii) After ensuring that each State has 
                received the amount described in clause (i) and 
                after allotting the funds reserved under 
                paragraph (3)(A) as specified in paragraph 
                (3)(D), the Secretary shall distribute the 
                remaining balance, by--
                          (I) distributing 65 percent of the 
                        balance by giving priority to States 
                        serving the smallest percentages (as 
                        determined by the Secretary) of 
                        children less than 5 years of age from 
                        families whose income is below the 
                        poverty line; and
                          (II) distributing 35 percent of the 
                        balance on a competitive basis.
    (5)(A) From amounts reserved and allotted pursuant to 
paragraph (4), the Secretary shall reserve such sums as may be 
necessary to award the collaboration grants described in 
subparagraphs (B) and (D).
    [(B) From the reserved sums, the Secretary may award a 
collaboration grant to each State to facilitate collaboration 
regarding activities carried out in the State under this 
subchapter, and other activities carried out in, and by, the 
State that are designed to benefit low-income children and 
families and to encourage Head Start agencies to collaborate 
with entities involved in State and local planning processes 
(including the State lead agency administering the financial 
assistance received under the Child Care and Development Block 
Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) and the entities 
providing resource and referral services in the State) in order 
to better meet the needs of low-income children and families.
    [(C) A State that receives a grant under subparagraph (B) 
shall--
          [(i) appoint an individual to serve as a State 
        liaison between--
                  [(I) the appropriate regional office of the 
                Administration for Children and Families and 
                agencies and individuals carrying out Head 
                Start programs in the State; and
                  [(II) agencies (including local educational 
                agencies) and entities carrying out programs 
                serving low-income children and families;
          [(ii) involve the State Head Start Association in the 
        selection of the individual, nd involve the association 
        in determinations relating to the ongoing direction of 
        the collaboration;
          [(iii) ensure that the individual holds a position 
        with sufficient authority and access to ensure that the 
        collaboration described in subparagraph (B) is 
        effective and involves a range of State agencies;
          [(iv) ensure that the collaboration described in 
        subparagraph (B) involves coordination of Head Start 
        services with health care, welfare, child care, 
        education, and community service activities, family 
        literacy services, activities relating to children with 
        disabilities (including coordination of services with 
        those State officials who are responsible for 
        administering part C and section 619 of the Individuals 
        with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1431-1444, 
        1419)), and services for homeless children;
          [(v) include representatives of the State Head Start 
        Association and local Head Start agencies in unified 
        planning regarding early care and education services at 
        both the State and local levels, including 
        collaborative efforts to plan for the provision of 
        full-working-day, full calendar year early care and 
        education services for children; and
          [(vi) encourage local Head Start agencies to appoint 
        a State level representative to represent Head Start 
        agencies within the State in conducting collaborative 
        efforts described in subparagraphs (B) and (D), and in 
        clause (v).
      [(D) Following the award of collaboration grants describe 
in subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall provide, from the 
reserved sums, supplemental funding for collaboration grants--
          [(i) to States that (in consultation with their State 
        Head Start Associations) develop statewide, regional, 
        or local unified plans for early childhood education 
        and child care that include the participation of Head 
        Start agencies; and
          [((ii) to States that engage in other innovative 
        collaborative initiatives, including plans for 
        collaborative training and professional development 
        initiatives for child care, early childhood education 
        and Head Start service managers, providers, and staff.]
    (B)(i) From the reserved sums, the Secretary shall award a 
collaboration grant to each State to facilitate collaboration 
between Head Start agencies and entities (including the State) 
that carry out other activities designed to benefit low-income 
families and children from birth to school entry.
    (ii) Grants described in clause (i) shall be used to--
          (I) encourage Head Start agencies to collaborate with 
        entities involved in State and local planning processes 
        to better meet the needs of low-income families and 
        children from birth to school entry;
          (II) encourage Head Start agencies to coordinate 
        activities with the State agency responsible for 
        administering the State program carried out under the 
        Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 
        U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) and entities providing resources 
        and referral services in the State to make full-
        working-day and full calendar year services available 
        to children;
          (III) promote alignment of Head Start services with 
        State early learning and school readiness goals and 
        standards, including the Head Start Child Outcomes 
        Framework;
          (IV) promote better linkages between Head Start 
        agencies and other child and family agencies, including 
        agencies that provide health, mental health, or family 
        services, or other child or family supportive services; 
        and
          (V) carry out the activities of the State Director of 
        Head Start Collaboration authorized in subparagraph 
        (D).
    (C) In order to improve coordination and delivery of early 
education services to children in the State, a State that 
receives a grant under subparagraph (B) shall--
          (i) appoint an individual to serve as the State 
        Director of Head Start Collaboration;
          (ii) ensure that the State Director of Head Start 
        Collaboration holds a position with sufficient 
        authority and access to ensure that the collaboration 
        described in subparagraph (B) is effective and involves 
        a range of State agencies; and
          (iii) involve the State Head Start Association in the 
        selection of the Director and involve the Association 
        in determinations relating to the ongoing direction of 
        the collaboration office.
    (D) The State Director of Head Start Collaboration, after 
consultation with the State Advisory Council described in 
subparagraph (E), shall--
          (i) not later than 1 year after the date of enactment 
        of the Head Start Improvements for School Readiness 
        Act, conduct an assessment that--
                  (I) addresses the needs of Head Start 
                agencies in the State with respect to 
                collaborating, coordinating services, and 
                implementing State early learning and school 
                readiness goals and standards to better serve 
                children enrolled in Head Start programs in the 
                State;
                  (II) shall be updated on an annual basis; and
                  (III) shall be made available to the general 
                public within the State;
          (ii) assess the availability of high quality pre-
        kindergarten services for low-income children in the 
        State;
          (iii) develop a strategic plan that is based on the 
        assessment described in clause (i) that will--
                  (I) enhance collaboration and coordination of 
                Head Start services with other entities 
                providing early childhood programs and services 
                (such as child care and services offered by 
                museums), health care, mental health care, 
                welfare, child protective services, education 
                and community service activities, family 
                literacy services, reading readiness programs 
                (including such programs offered by public and 
                school libraries), services relating to 
                children with disabilities, other early 
                childhood programs and services for limited 
                English proficient children and homeless 
                children, and services provided for children in 
                foster care and children referred to Head Start 
                programs by child welfare agencies, including 
                agencies and State officials responsible for 
                such services;
                  (II) assist Head Start agencies to develop a 
                plan for the provision of full-working-day, 
                full calendar year services for children 
                enrolled in Head Start programs who need such 
                care;
                  (III) assist Head Start agencies to align 
                services with State early learning and school 
                readiness goals and standards and to facilitate 
                collaborative efforts to develop local school 
                readiness standards; and
                  (IV) enable agencies in the State to better 
                coordinate professional development 
                opportunities for Head Start staff, such as 
                by--
                          (aa) assisting 2- and 4-year public 
                        and private institutions of higher 
                        education to develop articulation 
                        agreements;
                          (bb) awarding grants to institutions 
                        of higher education to develop model 
                        early childhood education programs, 
                        including practica or internships for 
                        students to spend time in a Head Start 
                        or prekindergarten program;
                          (cc) working with local Head Start 
                        agencies to meet the degree 
                        requirements described in section 
                        648A(a)(2)(A), including providing 
                        distance learning opportunities for 
                        Head Start staff, where needed to make 
                        higher education more accessible to 
                        Head Start staff; and
                          (dd) enabling the State Head Start 
                        agencies to better coordinate outreach 
                        to eligible families;
          (iv) promote partnerships between Heat Start 
        agencies, State governments, and the private sector to 
        help ensure that preschool children from low-income 
        families are receiving comprehensive services to 
        prepare the children to enter school ready to learn;
          (v) consult with the chief State school officer, 
        local educational agencies, and providers of early 
        childhood education and care to conduct unified 
        planning regarding early care and education services at 
        both the State and local levels, including undertaking 
        collaborative efforts to develop and make improvements 
        in school readiness standards;
          (vi) promote partnerships (such as the partnerships 
        involved with the Free to Grow initiative) between Head 
        Start agencies, schools, law enforcement, and substance 
        abuse and mental health treatment agencies to 
        strengthen family and community environments and to 
        reduce the impact on child development of substance 
        abuse, child abuse, domestic violence, and other high 
        risk behaviors that compromise healthy development;
          (vii) promote partnerships between Head Start 
        agencies and other organizations in order to enhance 
        the Head Start curriculum, including partnerships to 
        promote inclusion of more books in Head Start 
        classrooms and partnerships to promote coordination of 
        activities with the Ready-to-Learn Television program 
        carried out under subpart 3 of part D of title II of 
        the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 6775 et seq.); and
          (viii) identify other resources and organizations 
        (both public and private) for the provision of in-kind 
        services to Head Start agencies in the State.
    (E)(i) The Governor of the State shall designate or 
establish a council to serve as the State advisory council on 
collaboration on early care and education activities for 
children from birth to school entry (in this subchapter 
referred to as the State Advisory Council).
    (ii) The Governor may designate an existing entity to serve 
as the State Advisory Council, if the entity includes 
representatives described in subclauses (I) through (XXIV) of 
clause (iii).
    (iii) Members of the State Advisory Council shall include, 
to the maximum extent possible--
          (I) the State Director of Head Start Collaboration;
          (II) a representative of the appropriate regional 
        office of the Administration for Children and Families;
          (III) a representative of the State educational 
        agency and local educational agencies;
          (IV) a representative of institutions of higher 
        education;
          (V) a representative (or representatives) of the 
        State agency (or agencies) responsible for health or 
        mental health care;
          (VI) a representative of the State agency responsible 
        for teacher professional standards, certification, and 
        licensing, including prekindergarten teacher 
        professional standards, certification standards, 
        certification, and licensing, where applicable;
          (VII) a representative of the State agency 
        responsible for child care;
          (VIII) early childhood education professionals, 
        including professionals with expertise in second 
        language acquisition and instructional strategies in 
        teaching limited English proficient children;
          (IX) kindergarten teachers and teachers in grades 1 
        through 3;
          (X) health care professionals;
          (XI) child development specialists, including 
        specialists in prenatal, infant, and toddler 
        development;
          (XII) a representative of the State agency 
        responsible for assisting children with developmental 
        disabilities;
          (XIII) a representative of the State agency 
        responsible for programs under part C of the 
        Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 
        1431 et seq.)
          (XIV) a representative of the State interagency 
        coordinating council established under section 641 of 
        the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 
        U.S.C. 1441);
          (XV) a representative of the State Head Start 
        Association (where appropriate), and other 
        representatives of Head Start programs in the State;
          (XVI) a representative of the State network of child 
        care resource and referral agencies;
          (XVII) a representative of community-based 
        organizations;
          (XVIII) a representative of the State and local 
        providers of early childhood education and child care;
          (XIX) a representative of migrant and seasonal Head 
        Start programs and Indian Head Start programs (where 
        appropriate);
          (XX) parents;
          (XXI) religious and business leaders;
          (XXII) the head of the State library administrative 
        agency;
          (XXIII) representatives of State and local 
        organizations and other entities providing professional 
        development to early care and education providers; and
          (XXIV) a representative of other entities determined 
        to be relevant by the chief executive officer of the 
        State.
    (iv)(I) The State Advisory Council shall be responsible 
for, in addition to responsibilities assigned to the council by 
the chief executive officer of the State--
          (aa) conducting a periodic statewide needs assessment 
        concerning early care and education programs for 
        children from birth to school entry;
          (bb) identifying barriers to, and opportunities for, 
        collaboration and coordination between entities 
        carrying out Federal and State child development, child 
        care, and early childhood education programs;
          (cc) developing recommendations regarding means of 
        establishing a unified data collection system for early 
        care and education programs throughout the State;
          (dd) developing a statewide professional development 
        and carrier ladder plan for early care and education in 
        the State; and
          (ee) reviewing and approving the strategic plan, 
        regarding collaborating and coordinating services to 
        better serve children enrolled in Head Start programs, 
        developed by the State Director of Head Start 
        Collaboration under subparagraph (D)(iii).
    (II) The State Advisory Council shall hold public hearings 
and provide an opportunity for public comment on the needs 
assessment and recommendations described in subclause (I). The 
State Advisory Council shall submit a statewide strategic 
report containing the needs assessment and recommendations 
described in subclause (I) to the State Director of Head Start 
Collaboration and the chief executive officer of the State.
    (III) After submission of a statewide strategic report 
under subclause (II), the State Advisory Council shall meet 
periodically to review any implementation of the 
recommendations in such report and any changes in State and 
local needs.
    [(E)](F)(i) The Secretary shall--
          (I) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [(F)](G) As used in this paragraph, the term ``low-
income'', used with respect to children or families, shall not 
be considered to refer only to children or families that meet 
the low-income criteria prescribed pursuant to section 
645(a)(1)(A).
    (6)(A) From amounts reserved and allotted pursuant to 
paragraphs (2) and (4), the Secretary shall use, the grants for 
programs described in section 645A(a), a portion of the 
combined total of such amounts equal to [7.5 percent for fiscal 
year 1999, 8 percent for fiscal year 2000, 9 percent for fiscal 
year 2001, 10 percent for fiscal year 2002, and 10 percent for 
fiscal year 2003, of the amount appropriated pursuant to 
section 639(a), except as provided in subparagraph (B).] 11 
percent for fiscal year 2006, 13 percent for fiscal year 2007, 
15 percent for fiscal year 2008, 17 percent for fiscal year 
2009, and 18 percent for fiscal year 2010, of the amount 
appropriated pursuant to section 639(a).
    [(B)(i) If the Secretary does not submit an interim report 
on the preliminary findings of the Early Head Start impact 
study currently being conducted by the Secretary (as of the 
date of enactment of the Head Start Amendments of 1998) to the 
appropriate committees by June 1, 2001, the amount of the 
reserved portion for fiscal year 2002 that exceeds the reserved 
portion for fiscal year 2001, if any, shall be used for quality 
improvement activities described in section 640(a)(3) and shall 
not be used to serve an increased number of eligible children 
under section 645A.
    [(ii) If the Secretary does not submit a final report on 
the Early Head Start impact study to the appropriate committees 
by June 1, 2002, or if the Secretary finds in the report that 
there are substantial deficiencies in the program carried out 
under section 645A, the amount of the reserved portion for 
fiscal year 2003 that exceeds the reserved portion for fiscal 
year 2002, if any, shall be used for quality improvement 
activities described in section 640(a)(3) and shall not be used 
to serve an increased number of eligible children under section 
645A.
    [(iii) In this subparagraph:
          [(I) The term ``appropriate committees'' means the 
        Committee on Education and the Workforce and the 
        Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human 
        Resources and the Committee on Appropriations of the 
        Senate.
          [(II) The term ``reserved portion'', used with 
        respect to a fiscal year, means the amount required to 
        be used in accordance with subparagraph (A) for that 
        fiscal year.]
    [(C)](B)(i) For any fiscal year for which the Secretary 
determines that the amount appropriated under section 639(a) is 
not sufficient to permit the Secretary to reserve the portion 
described in subparagraph (A) without reducing the number of 
children served by Head Start programs or adversely affecting 
the quality of Head Start services, relative to the number of 
children served and the quality of the services during the 
preceding fiscal year, the Secretary may reduce the percentage 
of funds required to be reserved for the portion described in 
subparagraph (A) for the fiscal year for which the 
determination is made, but not below the percentage [required 
to be] so reserved for the preceding fiscal year.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (f) The Secretary shall establish procedures to enable Head 
Start agencies to develop locally designed or specialized 
service delivery models to address local community [needs.] 
needs, including--
          (1) models that leverage the capacity and 
        capabilities of the delivery system of early childhood 
        education and child care; and
          (2) procedures to provide for the conversion of part-
        day programs to full-day programs or part-day slots to 
        full-day slots.
    (g)(1) * * *
    (2) For the purpose of expanding Head Start programs, in 
allocating funds to an applicant within a State, from amounts 
allotted to a State pursuant to subsection (a)(4), the 
Secretary shall take into consideration--
          (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(C) the extent to which the applicant has undertaken 
        community-wide strategic planning and needs assessments 
        involving other community organizations and public 
        agencies serving children and families (including 
        organizations serving families in whose homes English 
        is not the language customarily spoken), and 
        organizations and public entities serving children with 
        disabilities;]
          (C) the extent to which the applicant has undertaken 
        communitywide strategic planning and needs assessments 
        involving other community organizations and Federal, 
        State, and local public agencies serving children and 
        families (including organizations and agencies 
        providing family support services and protective 
        services to children and families and organizations 
        serving families in whose homes English is not the 
        language customarily spoken), and individuals, 
        organizations, and public entities serving children 
        with disabilities, children in foster care, and 
        homeless children including the local educational 
        agency liaison designated under section 
        722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless 
        Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii));
          (D) the extent to which the family and community 
        needs assessment of the applicant reflects a need to 
        provide full-working-day or full calendar year services 
        and the extent to which, and manner in which, the 
        applicant demonstrates the ability to collaborate and 
        participate with [other local] the State and local 
        community providers of child care or preschool services 
        to provide full-working-day full calendar year 
        services;
          (E) the numbers of eligible children in each 
        community who would like to participate but are not 
        participating in a Head Start program or any other 
        early childhood program;
          (F) * * *
          (G) the extent to which the applicant proposes to 
        foster partnerships with other service providers in a 
        manner that will leverage the existing delivery systems 
        of such services and enhance the resource capacity of 
        the applicant; and
          (H) the extent to which the applicant, in providing 
        services, plans to coordinate with the local 
        educational agency serving the community involved, 
        including the local educational agency liaison 
        designated under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the 
        McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 
        11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)), and with schools in which children 
        participating in a Head Start program operated by such 
        agency will enroll following such program, regarding 
        such services and the education services provided by 
        such local educational agency.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (i) The Secretary shall issue regulations establishing 
requirements for the safety features, and the safe operation, 
of vehicles used by Head Start agencies to transport children 
participating in Head Start programs and requirements to ensure 
the appropriate supervision and background checks of 
individuals with whom the agencies contract to transport those 
children.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (l)(1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [(3) In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall 
continue the administrative arrangement responsible for meeting 
the needs of children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and 
Indian children and shall ensure that appropriate funding is 
provided to meet such needs.]
    (3) In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall 
continue the administrative arrangement at the national or 
regional level for meeting the needs of Indian children and 
children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and shall ensure--
          (A) that appropriate funding is provided to meet such 
        needs, including training and technical assistance 
        provided by staff with knowledge of and experience in 
        working with such populations; and
          (B) the appointment of a national migrant and 
        seasonal Head Start program collaboration director and 
        a national Indian Head Start collaboration director.
    (4)(A) For the purposes of paragraph (3), the Secretary 
shall conduct an annual consultation in each affected Head 
Start region, with tribal governments operating Head Start and 
Early Head Start programs.
    (B) The consultations shall be for the purpose of better 
meeting the needs of American Indian and Alaska Native children 
and families pertinent to subsections (a), (b), and (c) of 
section 641, taking into consideration funding allocations, 
distribution formulas, and other issues affecting the delivery 
of Head Start services within tribal communities.
    (C) The Secretary shall publish a notification of the 
consultations in the Federal Register prior to conducting the 
consultations.
    (D) A detailed report of each consultation shall be 
prepared and made available, on a timely basis, to all tribal 
governments receiving funds under this subchapter.
    (m) Enrollment of Homeless Children.--The Secretary shall 
issue regulations to remove barriers to the enrollment and 
participation of homeless children in Head Start programs. Such 
regulations shall require Head Start agencies to--
          (1) implement policies and procedures to ensure that 
        homeless children are identified and receive 
        appropriate priority for enrollment;
          (2) allow homeless children to apply to, enroll in, 
        and attend Head Start programs while required 
        documents, such as proof of residency, proof of 
        immunization, and other medical records, birth 
        certificates, and other documents, are obtained within 
        a reasonable timeframe; and
          (3) coordinate individual Head Start programs with 
        efforts to implement subtitle B of title VII of the 
        McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 
        et seq.).
    (n) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this subchapter shall 
be construed to require a State to establish a program of early 
education for children in the State, to require any child to 
participate in a program of early education in order to attend 
preschool, or to participate in any initial screening prior to 
participation in such program, except as provided under section 
612(a)(3) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
(20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(3)) and consistent with section 614(a)(1)(C) 
of such Act (20 U.S.C. 1414(a)(1)(C)).
    (o) Materials.--All curricula funded under this subchapter 
shall be scientifically based, and developmentally and 
linguistically based (to the extent practicable), and age 
appropriate. Parents shall have the opportunity to examine any 
such curricula or instructional materials funded under this 
subchapter.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                  [DESIGNATION OF HEAD START AGENCIES

    [Sec. 641. (a) The Secretary is authorized to designate as 
a Head Start agency any local public or private nonprofit or 
for-profit agency, within a community, which (1) has the power 
and authority to carry out the purposes of this subchapter and 
perform the functions set forth in section 642 within a 
community; and (2) is determined by the Secretary (in 
consultation with the chief executive officer of the State 
involved, if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out 
Head Start programs) to be capable of planning, conducting, 
administering, and evaluating, either directly or by other 
arrangements, a Head Start program.
    [(b) For purposes of this subchapter, a community may be a 
city, county, or multicity or multicounty unit within a State, 
an Indian reservation (including Indians in any off-reservation 
area designated by an appropriate tribal government in 
consultation with the Secretary), or a neighborhood or other 
area (irrespective of boundaries or political subdivisions) 
which provides a suitable organizational base and possesses the 
commonality of interest needed to operate a Head Start program.
    [(c)(1) In the administration of the provisions of this 
section (subject to paragraph (2)), the Secretary shall, in 
consultation with the chief executive officer of the State 
involved if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out 
Head Start programs, give priority in the designation of Head 
Start agencies to any local public or private nonprofit or for-
profit agency which is receiving funds under any Head Start 
program on the date of the enactment of this Act unless the 
Secretary determines that the agency involved fails to meet 
program and financial management requirements, performance 
standards described in section 641A(a)(1), results-based 
performance measures developed by the Secretary under section 
641A(b), or other requirements established by the Secretary.
    [(2) If there is no agency of the type referred to in 
paragraph (1) because of any change in the assistance furnished 
to programs for economically disadvantaged persons, the 
Secretary shall, in consultation with the chief executive 
officer of the State if such State expends non-Federal funds to 
carry out Head Start programs, give priority in the designation 
of Head Start agencies to any successor agency that is 
operating a Head Start program in substantially the same manner 
as the predecessor agency that did receive funds in the fiscal 
year preceding the fiscal year for which the determination is 
made.
    [(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this 
subsection, the Secretary shall not give such priority to any 
agency with respect to which financial assistance has been 
terminated, or an application for refunding has been denied, 
under this subchapter by the Secretary after affording such 
agency reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair 
hearing in accordance with section 646(a)(3).
    [(d) If no entity in a community is entitled to the 
priority specified in subsection (c), then the Secretary may 
designate a Head Start agency from among qualified applicants 
in such community. In selecting from among qualified applicants 
for designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall 
give priority to any qualified agency that functioned as a Head 
Start delegate agency in the community and carried out a Head 
Start program that the Secretary determines met or exceeded 
such performance standards and such results-based performance 
measures. In selecting from among qualified applicants for 
designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall 
consider the effectiveness of each such applicant to provide 
Head Start services, based on--
          [(1) any past performance of such applicant in 
        providing services comparable to Head Start services, 
        including how effectively such applicant provided such 
        comparable services;
          [(2) the plan of such applicant to provide 
        comprehensive health, nutritional, educational, social, 
        and other services needed to aid participating children 
        in attaining their full potential;
          [(3) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the 
        Head Start program it proposes to carry out, with other 
        preschool programs, including Even Start programs under 
        part B of chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et 
        seq.) and programs under part C and section 619 of the 
        Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 
        1431-1444, 1419), and with the educational programs 
        such children will enter at the age of compulsory 
        school attendance;
          [(4) the plan of such applicant--
                  [(A) to seek the involvement of parents of 
                participating children in activities (at home 
                and in the center involved where practicable) 
                designed to help such parents become full 
                partners in the education of their children;
                  [(B) to afford such parents the opportunity 
                to participate in the development, conduct, and 
                overall performance of the program at the local 
                level;
                  [(C) to offer (directly or through referral 
                to local entities, such as entities carrying 
                out Even Start programs under part B of chapter 
                1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary 
                Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.), 
                public and school libraries, and family support 
                programs) to such parents--
                          [(i) family literacy services; and
                          [(ii) parenting skills training;
                  [(D) to offer to parents of participating 
                children substance abuse counseling (either 
                directly or through referral to local 
                entities), including information on drug-
                exposed infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;
                  [(E) at the option of such applicant, to 
                offer (directly or through referral to local 
                entities) to such parents--
                          [(i) training in basic child 
                        development;
                          [(ii) assistance in developing 
                        communication skills;
                          [(iii) opportunities for parents to 
                        share experiences with other parents; 
                        or
                          [(iv) any other activity designed to 
                        help such parents become full partners 
                        in the education of their children; and
                  [(F) to provide, with respect to each 
                participating family, a family needs assessment 
                that includes consultation with such parents 
                about the benefits of parent involvement and 
                about the activities described in subparagraphs 
                (C) (D), and (E) in which such parents may 
                choose to become involved (taking into 
                consideration their specific family needs, work 
                schedules, and other responsibilities);
          [(5) the ability of such applicant to carry out the 
        plans described in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4);
          [(6) other factors related to the requirements of 
        this subchapter;
          [(7) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        non-English background children and their families, 
        including needs related to the acquisition of the 
        English language;
          [(8) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        children with disabilities;
          [(9) the plan of such applicant who chooses to assist 
        younger siblings of children who will participate in 
        the proposed Head Start program to obtain health 
        services from other sources; and
          [(10) the plan of such applicant to collaborate with 
        other entities carrying out early childhood education 
        and child care programs in the community.
    [(e) If no agency in the community receives priority 
designation under subsection (c), and there is no qualified 
applicant in the community, the Secretary shall designate a 
qualified agency to carry out the Head Start program in the 
community on an interim basis until a qualified applicant from 
the community is so designated.
    [(f) The Secretary shall require that the practice of 
significantly involving parents and area residents affected by 
the program in selection of Heat Start agencies be continued.
    [(g) If the Secretary determines that a nonprofit agency 
and a for-profit agency have submitted applications for 
designation of equivalent quality under subsection (d), the 
Secretary may give priority to the nonprofit agency. In 
selecting from among qualified applicants for designation as a 
Head Start agency under subsection (d), the Secretary shall 
give priority to applicants that have demonstrated capacity in 
providing comprehensive early childhood services to children 
and their families.]

SEC. 641. DESIGNATION OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

    (a) Designation.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary is authorized to 
        designate as a Head Start agency any local public or 
        private nonprofit or for-profit agency, within a 
        community, including a community-based organization 
        that--
                  (A) has power and authority to carry out the 
                purpose of this subchapter and perform the 
                functions set forth in section 642 within a 
                community; and
                  (B) is determined to be capable of planning, 
                conducting, administering, and evaluating, 
                either directly or by other arrangements, a 
                Head Start program.
          (2) Required goals for designation.--In order to be 
        designated as a Head Start agency, an entity described 
        in paragraph (1) shall establish program goals for 
        improving the school readiness of children 
        participating in a program under this subchapter, 
        including goals for meeting the performance standards 
        and additional educational standards described in 
        section 641A and shall establish results-based school 
        readiness goals that are aligned with Head Start Child 
        Outcomes Framework, State early learning standards (if 
        applicable), and requirements and expectations for 
        local public schools.
          (3) Eligibility for subsequent grants.--In order to 
        receive a grant under this subchapter subsequent to the 
        initial grant provided following the date of enactment 
        of the Head Start Improvements for School Readiness 
        Act, an entity described in paragraph (1) shall 
        demonstrate that the entity has met or is making 
        progress toward meeting the goals described in 
        paragraph (2).
          (4) Governing body.--
                  (A) In general.--
                          (i) Ensuring high quality programs.--
                        In order to be designated as a Head 
                        Start agency, an entity described in 
                        paragraph (1) shall have a governing 
                        body--
                                  (I) with legal and fiscal 
                                responsibility for 
                                administering and overseeing 
                                programs under this subchapter; 
                                and
                                  (II) that fully participates 
                                in the development, planning, 
                                implementation, and evaluation 
                                of the programs to ensure the 
                                operation of programs of high 
                                quality.
                          (ii) Ensuring compliance with laws.--
                        The governing body shall be responsible 
                        for ensuring compliance with Federal 
                        laws and regulations, including the 
                        performance standards described in 
                        section 641A, as well as applicable 
                        State, Tribal, and local laws and 
                        regulations, including laws defining 
                        the nature and operations of the 
                        governing body.
                  (B) Composition of governing body.--
                          (i) In general.--The governing body 
                        shall be composed as follows:
                                  (I) Not less than 1 member of 
                                the governing body shall have a 
                                back-ground in fiscal 
                                management.
                                  (II) Not less than 1 member 
                                of the governing body shall 
                                have a background in early 
                                childhood development.
                                  (III) Membership that 
                                reflects the community to be 
                                served.
                          (ii) Consultants.--In the case that 
                        persons described in clause (i) are not 
                        available to serve as members of the 
                        governing body, the governing body 
                        shall make use of consultants in the 
                        areas described in clause (i) to work 
                        directly with the governing body.
                          (iii) Conflict of interest.--Members 
                        of the governing body shall--
                                  (I) not have a conflict of 
                                interest with the Head Start 
                                agency or delegate agencies; 
                                and
                                  (II) not receive compensation 
                                for service to the Head Start 
                                agency.
                  (C) Responsibilities.--
                          (i) In general.--The governing body 
                        shall be responsible, in consultation 
                        with the policy council or the policy 
                        committee of the Head Start agency, 
                        for--
                                  (I) the selection of delegate 
                                agencies and such agencies' 
                                service areas;
                                  (II) establishing criteria 
                                for defining recruitment, 
                                selection, and enrollment 
                                priorities;
                                  (III) all funding 
                                applications and amendments to 
                                funding applications for 
                                programs under this subchapter;
                                  (IV) the annual self-
                                assessment of the Head Start 
                                agency or delegate agency's 
                                progress in carrying out the 
                                programmatic and fiscal intent 
                                of such agency's grant 
                                application, including planning 
                                or other actions that may 
                                result from the review of the 
                                annual audit, self-assessment, 
                                and findings from the Federal 
                                monitoring review;
                                  (V) providing guidance for 
                                the composition of the policy 
                                council or the policy committee 
                                of the Head Start agency;
                                  (VI) developing procedures 
                                for how members of the policy 
                                council or the policy committee 
                                of the Head Start agency are 
                                selected, including procedures 
                                for how parents of children 
                                currently participating in a 
                                Head Start or Early Head Start 
                                program are selected to serve 
                                on the policy council or the 
                                policy committee of the Head 
                                Start agency;
                                  (VII) audits, accounting, and 
                                reporting;
                                  (VIII) personnel policies and 
                                procedures including decisions 
                                with regard to salary scales 
                                (and changes made to the 
                                scale), salaries of the 
                                Executive Director, Head Start 
                                Director, the Director of Human 
                                Resources, and the Chief Fiscal 
                                Officer, and decisions to hire 
                                and terminate program staff; 
                                and
                                  (IX) the community 
                                assessment, including any 
                                updates to such assessment.
                          (ii) Conduct of responsibilities.--
                        The governing body shall--
                                  (I) develop an internal 
                                control structure to facilitate 
                                these responsibilities in order 
                                to--
                                          (aa) safeguard 
                                        Federal funds;
                                          (bb) comply with laws 
                                        and regulations that 
                                        have an impact on 
                                        financial statements;
                                        (cc) detect or prevent 
                                        non-compliance with 
                                        this subchapter; and
                                          (dd) receive audit 
                                        reports and direct and 
                                        monitor staff 
                                        implementation of 
                                        corrective actions; and
                                  (II) develop procedures to 
                                facilitate meaningful 
                                consultation and collaboration 
                                and solicit input from the 
                                policy council or the policy 
                                committee of the Head Start 
                                agency regarding matters of 
                                recruitment, enrollment, 
                                funding applications, and 
                                programmatic design, including 
                                processes to resolve internal 
                                disputes.
                  (D) Receipt of information.--To facilitate 
                oversight and Head Start agency accountability, 
                the governing body shall receive regular and 
                accurate information about program planning, 
                policies, and Head Start agency operations, 
                including--
                          (i) monthly financial statements 
                        (including detailed credit card account 
                        expenditures for any employee with a 
                        Head Start agency credit card or who 
                        seeks reimbursement for charged 
                        expenses):
                          (ii) monthly program information 
                        summaries;
                          (iii) program enrollment reports, 
                        including attendance reports for 
                        children whose care is partially 
                        subsidized by another public agency;
                          (iv) monthly report of meals and 
                        snacks through programs of the 
                        Department of Agriculture;
                          (v) the annual financial audit;
                          (vi) the annual self-assessment, 
                        including any findings related to the 
                        annual self-assessment;
                          (vii) the community assessment of the 
                        Head Start agency's service area and 
                        any applicable updates; and
                          (viii) the program information 
                        reports.
                  (E) Training and technical assistance.--
                Appropriate training and technical assistance 
                shall be provided to the members of the 
                governing body to ensure that the members 
                understand the information the members receive 
                and can effectively oversee and participate in 
                the programs of the Head Start agency.
    (b) Communities.--For purposes of this subchapter, a 
community may be a city, county, or multicity or multi-county 
unit within a State, an Indian reservation (including Indians 
in an off-reservation area designated by an appropriate tribal 
government in consultation with the Secretary), or a 
neighborhood or other area (irrespective of boundaries or 
political subdivisions) that provides a suitable organizational 
base and possesses the commonality of interest needed to 
operate a Head Start program.
    (c) Priority in Designation.--In administering the 
provisions of this section, the Secretary shall, in 
consultation with the chief executive officer of the State 
involved, give priority in the designation (including 
redesignation) of Head Start agencies to any Head Start agency 
or delegate agency that is high performing, as determined by 
meeting each of the following criterion.
          (1) Is receiving assistance under this subchapter.
          (2) Meets or exceeds program and financial management 
        requirements or standards described in section 
        641A(a)(1).
          (3) Has no unresolved deficiencies and has not had 
        findings of deficiencies during the last triennial 
        review under Section 641A(c).
          (4) Can demonstrate, through agreements such as 
        memoranda of understanding, active collaboration with 
        the State or local community in the provision of 
        services for children (such as the provision of 
        extended day services, education, professional 
        development and training for staff, and other types of 
        cooperative endeavors).
    (d) Designation When Entity Has Priority.--If no entity in 
a community is entitled to the priority specified in subsection 
(c), the Secretary shall, after conducing an open competition, 
designate a Head Start agency from among qualified applicants 
in such community.
    (e) Rule of Construction.--Notwithstanding any other 
provision of law, under no condition may a non-Indian Head 
Start agency receive a grant to carry out an Indian Head Start 
program.
    (f) Effectiveness.--In selecting from among qualified 
applicants for designation as Head Start agency, the Secretary 
shall consider the effectiveness of each such applicant to 
provide Head Start services, based on--
          (1) any past performance of such applicant in 
        providing services comparable to Head Start services, 
        including how effectively such applicant provided such 
        comparable services;
          (2) the plan of such applicant to provide 
        comprehensive health, educational, nutritional, social, 
        and other services needed to aid participating children 
        in attaining their full potential, and to prepare 
        children to succeed in school;
          (3) the capacity of such applicant to serve eligible 
        children with programs that use scientifically based 
        research that promote school readiness of children 
        participating in the program;
          (4) the plan of such applicant to meet standards set 
        forth in section 641A(a)(1), with particular attention 
        to the standards set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) 
        of such section;
          (5) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the Head 
        Start program the applicant proposes to carry out with 
        other preschool programs, including--
                  (A) the Early Reading First and Even Start 
                programs under subparts 2 and 3 part B of title 
                I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act 
                of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6371 et seq., 6381 et seq.);
                  (B) programs under section 619 and part C of 
                the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
                (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.);
                  (C) State prekindergarten programs;
                  (D) child care programs;
                  (E) the educational programs that the 
                children in the Head Start program involved 
                will enter at the age of compulsory school 
                attendance; and
                  (F) reading readiness programs such as those 
                conducted by public and school libraries;
          (6) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the Head 
        Start program that the applicant proposes to carry out 
        with public and private entities who are willing to 
        commit resources to assist the Head Start program in 
        meeting its program needs;
          (7) the plan of such applicant to collaborate with a 
        local library, where available, that is interested in 
        that collaboration, to--
                  (A) develop innovative programs to excite 
                children about the world of books, such as 
                programs that involve--
                          (i) taking children to the library 
                        for a story hour;
                          (ii) promoting the use of library 
                        cards;
                          (iii) developing a lending library or 
                        using a mobile library van; and
                          (iv) providing fresh books in the 
                        Head Start classroom on a regular 
                        basis;
                  (B) assist in literacy training for Head 
                Start teachers; and
                  (C) support parents and other caregivers in 
                literacy efforts;
          (8) the plan of such applicant--
                  (A) to seek the involvement of parents of 
                participating children in activities (at home 
                and in the center involved where practicable) 
                designed to help such parents become full 
                partners in the education of their children;
                  (B) to afford such parents the opportunity to 
                participate in the development and overall 
                conduct of the program at the local level, 
                including through providing transportation 
                costs;
                  (C) to offer (directly or through referral to 
                local entities, such as entities carrying out 
                Even Start programs under subpart 3 of part B 
                of title I of the Elementary and Secondary 
                Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6381 et seq.), 
                public and school libraries, and entities 
                carrying out family support programs) to such 
                parents--
                          (i) family literacy services; and
                          (ii) parenting skills training;
                  (D) to offer to parents of participating 
                children substance abuse counseling (either 
                directly or through referral to local 
                entities), including information on the effect 
                of drug exposure on infants and fetal alcohol 
                syndrome;
                  (E) at the option of such applicant, to offer 
                (directly or through referral to local 
                entities) to such parents--
                          (i) training in basic child 
                        development (including cognitive 
                        development);
                          (ii) assistance in developing 
                        literacy and communication skills;
                          (iii) opportunities to share 
                        experiences with other parents 
                        (including parent mentor 
                        relationships);
                          (iv) regular in-home visitation; or
                          (v) any other activity designed to 
                        help such parents become full partners 
                        in the education of their children;
                  (F) to provide, with respect to each 
                participating family, a family needs assessment 
                that includes consultation with such parents 
                about the benefits of parent involvement and 
                about the activities described in subparagraphs 
                (C), (D), and (E) in which such parents may 
                choose to become involved (taking into 
                consideration their specific family needs, work 
                schedules, and other responsibilities); and
                  (G) to extend outreach to fathers, in 
                appropriate cases, in order to strengthen the 
                role of fathers in families, in the education 
                of their young children, and in the Head Start 
                program, by working directly with fathers and 
                father figures through activities such as--
                          (i) in appropriate cases, including 
                        fathers in home visits and providing 
                        opportunities for direct father-child 
                        interactions; and
                          (ii) targeting increased male 
                        participation in the conduct of the 
                        program;
          (9) the ability of such applicant to carry out the 
        plans described in paragraphs (2), (4), and (5);
          (10) other factors related to the requirements of 
        this subchapter;
          (11) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        limited English proficient children and their families, 
        including procedures to identify such children, plans 
        to provide trained personnel, and plans to provide 
        services to assist the children in making progress 
        toward the acquisition of the English language;
          (12) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        children with disabilities;
          (13) the plan of such applicant who chooses to assist 
        younger siblings of children who will participate in 
        the Head Start program, to obtain health services from 
        other sources;
          (14) the plan of such applicant to collaborate with 
        other entities carrying out early childhood education 
        and child care programs in the community;
          (15) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        homeless children and children in foster care, 
        including the transportation needs of such children; 
        and
          (16) the plan of such applicant to recruit and retain 
        qualified staff.
    (g) Interim Basis.--If there is not a qualified applicant 
in a community for designation as a Head Start agency, the 
Secretary shall designate a qualified agency to carry out the 
Head Start program in the community on an interim basis until a 
qualified applicant from the community is so designated.
    (h) Involvement of Parents and Area Residents.--The 
Secretary shall continue the practice of involving parents and 
area residents who are affected by programs under this 
subchapter in the selection of qualified applicants for 
designation as Head Start agencies.
    (i) Priority.--In selecting from among qualified applicants 
for designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall 
give priority to applicants that have demonstrated capacity in 
providing effective, comprehensive, and well-coordinated early 
childhood services to children and their families.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 641A. QUALITY STANDARDS; MONITORING OF HEAD START AGENCIES AND 
                    PROGRAMS.

    (a) Quality Standards.--
          (1) Establishment of standards.-- * * *
                  (A) performance standards with respect to 
                services required to be provided, including 
                health, parental involvement, nutritional, 
                social, transition activities described in 
                section [642(d)] 642(c), and other services;
                  (B)(i) [education performance standards] 
                educational performance standards to ensure the 
                school readiness of children participating in a 
                Head Start program, on completion of the Head 
                Start program and prior to entering school; and
                  [(ii) additional education performance 
                standards to ensure that the children 
                participating in the program, at a minimum--
                  [(I) develop phonemic, print, and numeracy 
                awareness;
                  [(II) understand and use language to 
                communicate for various purposes;
                  [(III) understand and use increasingly 
                complex and varied vocabulary;
                  [(IV) develop and demonstrate an appreciation 
                of books; and
                  [(V) in the case of non-English background 
                children, progress toward acquisition of the 
                English language.]
                  (ii) additional educational standards based 
                on the recommendations of the National Academy 
                of Sciences panel described in section 649(h) 
                and other experts in the field, to ensure that 
                the curriculum involved addresses, and that the 
                children participating in the program show 
                appropriate progress toward developing and 
                applying, the recommended educational outcomes, 
                after the panel considers the appropriateness 
                of additional educational standards relating to
                          (I) language skills related to 
                        listening, understanding, speaking, and 
                        communicating, including--
                                  (aa) understanding and use of 
                                a diverse vocabulary (including 
                                knowing the names of colors) 
                                and knowledge of how to use 
                                oral language to communicate 
                                for various purposes;
                                  (bb) narrative abilities 
                                used, for example, to 
                                comprehend, tell, and respond 
                                to a story, or to comprehend 
                                instructions;
                                  (cc) ability to detect and 
                                produce sounds of the language 
                                the child speaks or is 
                                learning; and
                                  (dd) clarity of pronunciation 
                                and speaking in syntactically 
                                and grammatically correct 
                                sentences;
                          (II) prereading knowledge and skills, 
                        including--
                                  (aa) alphabet knowledge 
                                including knowing the letter 
                                names and associating letters 
                                with their shapes and sounds in 
                                the language the child speaks 
                                or is learning;
                                  (bb) phonological awareness 
                                and processes that support 
                                reading, for example, rhyming, 
                                recognizing speech sounds and 
                                separate syllables in spoken 
                                words, and putting speech 
                                sounds together to make words;
                                  (cc) knowledge, interest in, 
                                and appreciation of books, 
                                reading, and writing (either 
                                alone or with others), and 
                                knowledge that books have parts 
                                such as the front, back, and 
                                title page;
                                  (cc) early writing, including 
                                the ability to write one's own 
                                name and other words and 
                                phrases; and
                                  (ee) print awareness and 
                                concepts, including recognizing 
                                different forms of print and 
                                understanding the association 
                                between spoken and written 
                                words;
                          (III) premathematics knowledge and 
                        skills, including--
                                  (aa) number recognition;
                                  (bb) use of early number 
                                concepts and operations, 
                                including counting, simple 
                                adding and subtracting, and 
                                knowledge of quantitative 
                                relationships, such as part 
                                versus whole and comparison of 
                                numbers of objects;
                                  (cc) use of early space and 
                                location concepts, including 
                                recognizing shapes, 
                                classification, striation, and 
                                understanding directionality; 
                                and
                                  (dd) early pattern skills and 
                                measurement, including 
                                recognizing and extending 
                                simple patterns and measuring 
                                length, weight, and time;
                          ``(IV) scientific abilities, 
                        including--
                                  (aa) building awareness about 
                                scientific skills and methods, 
                                such as gathering, describing, 
                                and recording information, 
                                making observations, and making 
                                explanations and predictions; 
                                and
                                  (bb) expanding scientific 
                                knowledge of the environment, 
                                time, temperature, and cause-
                                and-effect relationships;
                          (V) general cognitive abilities 
                        related to academic achievement and 
                        child development, including--
                                  (aa) reasoning, planning, and 
                                problem-solving skills;
                                  (bb) ability to engage, 
                                sustain attention, and persist 
                                on challenging tasks;
                                  (cc) intellectual curiosity, 
                                initiative, and task 
                                engagement; and
                                  (dd) motivation to achieve 
                                and master concepts and skills;
                          (VI) social and emotional development 
                        related to early learning and school 
                        success, including developing--
                                  (aa) the ability to develop 
                                social relationships, 
                                demonstrate cooperative 
                                behaviors, and relate to 
                                teachers and peers in positive 
                                and respectful ways;
                                  (bb) an understanding of the 
                                consequences of actions, 
                                following rules, and 
                                appropriately expressing 
                                feelings;
                                  (cc) a sense of self, such as 
                                self-awareness, independence, 
                                and confidence;
                                  (dd) the ability to control 
                                negative behaviors with 
                                teachers and peers that include 
                                impulsiveness, aggression, and 
                                noncompliance; and
                                  (ee) knowledge of civic 
                                society and surrounding 
                                communities;
                          (VII) physical development, including 
                        developing--
                                  (aa) fine motor skills, such 
                                as strength, manual dexterity, 
                                and hand-eye coordination; and
                                  (bb) gross motor skills, such 
                                as balance and coordinated 
                                movements; and
                          (VIII) in the case of limited English 
                        proficient children, progress toward 
                        acquisition of the English language 
                        while making meaningful progress in 
                        attaining the knowledge, skills, 
                        abilities, and development described in 
                        subclauses (I) through (VII);
                  (C) * * *
                  (D) standards relating to the condition and 
                location of facilities for such agencies, 
                programs, and [projects; and] projects, 
                including regulations that require that the 
                facilities used by Head Start agencies 
                (including Early Head Start agencies) and 
                delegate agencies for regularly scheduled 
                center-based and combination program option 
                classroom activities--
                          (i) shall be in compliance with State 
                        and local requirements concerning 
                        licensing for such facilities; and
                          (ii) shall be accessible by State and 
                        local authorities for purposes of 
                        monitoring and ensuring compliance; and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (2) Considerations in developing standards.-- * * *
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) take into consideration--
                          (i) past experience with use of the 
                        standards in effect under this 
                        subchapter on [the date of enactment of 
                        this section] the date of enactment of 
                        the Head Start Improvements for School 
                        Readiness Act;
                          (ii) changes over the period since 
                        [the date of enactment of this Act] the 
                        date of enactment of the Head Start 
                        Improvements for School Readiness Act 
                        in the circumstances and problems 
                        typically facing children and families 
                        served by Head Start agencies;
                          (iii) developments concerning best 
                        practices with respect to early 
                        childhood education and development, 
                        children with disabilities, homeless 
                        children, children in foster care, 
                        family services, program 
                        administration, and financial 
                        management;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                          (vi) changes in the population of 
                        children who are eligible to 
                        participate in Head Start programs, 
                        including the language background and 
                        family structure of such children 
                        (including children in foster care and 
                        the number of homeless children)[; 
                        and];
                          (vii) the need for, and state-of-the-
                        art developments relating to, local 
                        policies and activities designed to 
                        ensure that children participating in 
                        Head Start programs make a successful 
                        transition to [public schools] the 
                        schools that the children will be 
                        attending; and
                          (viii) the unique challenges faced by 
                        individual programs, including those 
                        programs that are seasonal or short 
                        term and those programs that serve 
                        rural populations;
                  (C)(i) review and revise as necessary the 
                performance standards in effect under this 
                subsection; and
                  (ii) ensure that any such revisions in the 
                performance standards will not result in the 
                elimination of or any reduction in the scope or 
                types of health, education, parental 
                involvement, nutritional, social, or other 
                services required to be provided under such 
                standards as in effect on [the date of 
                enactment of the Coats Human Services 
                Reauthorization Act of 1998.] the date of 
                enactment of the Head Start Improvements for 
                School Readiness Act; and
                  (D) consult with Indian tribes, American 
                Indian and Alaska Native experts in early 
                childhood development, linguists, and the 
                National Indian Head Start Directors 
                Association on the review and promulgation of 
                program standards and measures (including 
                standards and measures for language acquisition 
                and school readiness).
          (3) Standards relating to obligations to delegate 
        agencies.-- * * *
          (4) Evaluations and corrective actions for delegate 
        agencies.--
                  (A) Procedures.--
                          (i) In general.--Subject to clause 
                        (ii), the Head Start agency shall 
                        establish procedures relating to its 
                        delegate agencies, including--
                                  (I) procedures for evaluating 
                                delegate agencies;
                                  (II) procedures for defunding 
                                delegate agencies; and
                                  (III) procedures for 
                                appending a defunding decision 
                                relating to a delegate agency.
                          (ii) Termination.--The Head Start 
                        agency may not terminate a delegate 
                        agency's contract or reduce a delegate 
                        agency's service area without showing 
                        cause or demonstrating the cost-
                        effectiveness of such a decision.
                  (B) Evaluations.--Each Head Start agency--
                          (i) shall evaluate its delegate 
                        agencies using the procedures 
                        established pursuant to this section, 
                        including subparagraph (A); and
                          (ii) shall inform the delegate 
                        agencies of the deficiencies identified 
                        through the evaluation that shall be 
                        corrected.
                  (C) Remedies to ensure corrective actions.--
                In the event that the Head Start agencies 
                identifies a deficiency for a delegate agency 
                through the evaluation, the Head Start agency 
                may--
                          (i) initiate procedures to terminate 
                        the designation of the agency unless 
                        the agency corrects the deficiency;
                          (ii) conduct monthly monitoring 
                        visits to such delegate agency until 
                        all deficiencies are corrected or the 
                        Head Start agency decides to defund 
                        such delegate agency; and
                          (iii) release funds to such delegate 
                        agency only as reimbursements until all 
                        deficiencies are corrected or the Head 
                        Start agency decides to defund such 
                        delegate agency.
                  (D) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this 
                paragraph shall be construed to impact or 
                obviate the responsibilities of the Secretary 
                with respect to Head Start agencies or delegate 
                agencies receiving funding under this 
                subchapter.
    (b) Results-Based Performance Measures.--
          (1) In general.-- * * *
          [(2) Characteristics of measures.--] (2) 
        Characteristics and use of measures._The performance 
        measures developed under this subsection shall--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) be adaptable for use in self-assessment, 
                peer review, and program evaluation of 
                individual Head Start agencies and programs[, 
                not later than July 1, 1999; and];
                  (C) be developed for other program purposes 
                as determined by the Secretary[.];
        [The performance measures shall include the performance 
        standards described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii).]
                  (D) measure characteristics that are strongly 
                predictive (as determined on a scientific 
                basis) of a child's school readiness and later 
                performance in school;
                  (E) be appropriate for the population served; 
                and
                  (F) be reviewed not less than every 4 years, 
                based on advances in the science of early 
                childhood development.
        The performance measures shall include the performance 
        standards and additional educational standards 
        described in subparagraph (A) and (B) of subsection 
        (a)(1).
          (3) Use of measures.--The Secretary shall use the 
        performance measures developed pursuant to this 
        subsection--
                  (A) to identify strengths and weaknesses in 
                the operation of Head Start programs 
                nationally, regionally, and locally[; and];
                  (B) to identify problem areas that may 
                require additional training and technical 
                assistance resources[.]; and
                  (C) to enable Head Start agencies to 
                individualize programs of instruction to better 
                meet the needs of the child involved.
          [(4) Educational performance measures.--Such results-
        based performance measures shall include educational 
        performance measures that ensure that children 
        participating in Head Start programs--
                  [(A) know that letters of the alphabet are a 
                special category of visual graphics that can be 
                individually named;
                  [(B) recognize a word as a unit of print;
                  [(C) identify at least 10 letters of the 
                alphabet; and
                  [(D) associate sounds with written words.]
          (4) Results-based outcome measures.--Results-based 
        outcome measures shall be designed for the purpose of 
        promoting the knowledge, skills, abilities, and 
        development, described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii), of 
        children participating in Head Start programs that are 
        strongly predictive (as determined on a scientific 
        basis) of a child's school readiness and later 
        performance in school.
          [(5) Additional local results-based performance 
        measures.--In addition to other applicable results-
        based performance measures, Head Start agencies may 
        establish local results-based educational performance 
        measures.]
          (5) Additional local results-based educational 
        measures and goals.--Head Start agencies may establish 
        and implement additional local results-based 
        educational measures and goals.
    (c) Monitoring of Local Agencies and Programs.--
          (1) In general.--In order to determine whether Head 
        Start agencies meet standards established under this 
        subchapter and results-based performance measures 
        developed by the Secretary under subsection (b) with 
        respect to program, administrative, financial 
        management, and other requirements, the Secretary shall 
        conduct the following reviews of designated Head Start 
        agencies, and of the Head Start programs and Head Start 
        centers operated by such agencies:
                  (A) A full review of each [such agency] Head 
                Start center at least once during each 3-year 
                period.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  [(C) Followup reviews including prompt return 
                visits to agencies and programs that fail to 
                meet the standards.]
                  (C) Unannounced site inspections of Head 
                Start centers for health and safety reasons, as 
                appropriate.
                  (D) Notwithstanding subparagraph (C), 
                followup reviews, including--
                          (i) prompt return visits to agencies, 
                        programs, and centers that fail to meet 
                        1 or more of the performance measures 
                        developed by the Secretary under 
                        subsection (b);
                          (ii) a review of programs with 
                        citations that include findings of 
                        deficiencies not later than 6 months 
                        after the date of such citation; and
                          (iii) followup reviews that 
                        incorporate a monitoring visit without 
                        prior notice of the visit to the agency 
                        involved or with such limited prior 
                        notice as is necessary to ensure the 
                        participation of parents and key staff 
                        members.
                  [(D)] (E) Other reviews as appropriate.
          [(2) Conduct of reviews.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that reviews described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) 
        of paragraph (1)--
                  [(A) are performed, to the maximum extent 
                practicable, by employees of the Department of 
                Health and Human Services who are knowledgeable 
                about Head Start program;
                  [(B) are supervised by such an employee at 
                the site of such Head Start agency;
                  [(C) are conducted by review teams that shall 
                include individuals who are knowledgeable about 
                Heat Start programs and, to the maximum extent 
                practicable, the diverse (including linguistic 
                and cultural) needs of eligible children 
                (including children with disabilities) and 
                their families;
                  [(D) include as part of the reviews of the 
                programs, a review and assessment of program 
                effectiveness, as measured in accordance with 
                the results-based performance measures 
                developed by the Secretary pursuant to 
                subsection (b) and with the performance 
                standards established pursuant to subparagraphs 
                (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1); and
                  [(E) seek information from the communities 
                and the States involved about the performance 
                of the programs and the efforts of the Head 
                Start agencies to collaborate with other 
                entities carrying out early childhood education 
                and child care programs in the community.]
          (2) Conduct of reviews.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure 
                that reviews described in paragraph (1)--
                          (i) are performed, to the maximum 
                        extent practicable, by employees of the 
                        Department of Health and Human Services 
                        who are knowledgeable about Head Start 
                        programs;
                          (ii) are conducted by review teams 
                        that shall include individuals who are 
                        knowledgeable about Head Start and 
                        other early childhood education 
                        programs and, to the maximum extent 
                        practicable, the diverse (including 
                        linguistic and cultural) needs of 
                        eligible children (including children 
                        with disabilities, homeless children, 
                        and children in foster care) and 
                        limited English proficient children and 
                        their families, and personnel 
                        management, financial accountability, 
                        and systems development and monitoring;
                          (iii) include as part of the reviews 
                        of the programs, a review and 
                        assessment of program effectiveness, as 
                        measured in accordance with the 
                        results-based performance measures 
                        developed by the Secretary pursuant to 
                        subsection (b) and with the standards 
                        established pursuant to subparagraphs 
                        (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1);
                          (iv) seek information from the 
                        communities and States where Head Start 
                        programs exist about innovative or 
                        effective collaborative efforts, 
                        barriers to collaboration, and the 
                        efforts of the Head Start agencies to 
                        collaborate with the entities carrying 
                        out early childhood education and child 
                        care programs in the community;
                          (v) include as part of the reviews of 
                        the programs, a review and assessment 
                        of whether the programs are in 
                        conformity with the income eligibility 
                        requirements under section 645 and 
                        regulations promulgated under such 
                        section;
                          (vi) include as part of the reviews 
                        of the programs, a review and 
                        assessment of whether programs have 
                        adequately addressed the population and 
                        community needs (including needs of 
                        populations of limited English 
                        proficient children and children of 
                        migrant and seasonal farmworking 
                        families); and
                          (vii) include as part of the reviews 
                        of the programs, data from the results 
                        of periodic child assessments, and a 
                        review and assessment of child outcomes 
                        and performance as they relate to 
                        State, local, and agency-determined 
                        school readiness goals.
                  (B) Training; quality and consistency.--The 
                Secretary, from funds available under section 
                640(a)(2)(C)(ii), shall provide periodic 
                training for supervisors and members of review 
                teams in such topics as program management and 
                financial audit performance. The Secretary 
                shall ensure the quality and consistency across 
                and within regions of PRISM reviews and non-
                compliance and deficiency determinations by 
                conducting periodic interrater reliability 
                checks.
    (d) Corrective Action; Termination.--
          (1) Determination.--If the Secretary determines, on 
        the basis of a review pursuant to subsection (c), that 
        a Head Start agency designated pursuant to section 641 
        fails to meet the standards described in subsection (a) 
        or results-based performance measures developed by the 
        Secretary under subsection (b), or fails to address the 
        community needs and strategic plan identified in 
        section 640(g)(2)(C), the Secretary shall--
                  (A) inform the agency of the deficiencies 
                that shall be corrected and identify the 
                technical assistance to be provided consistent 
                with paragraph (3);

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Summaries of Monitoring Outcomes.--Not later than 120 
days after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall 
publish a summary report on the findings of reviews conducted 
under subsection (c) and on the outcomes of quality improvement 
plans implemented under subsection (d), during such fiscal 
year. [Such report shall be widely disseminated and available 
for public review in both written and electronic formats.] The 
information contained in such report shall be made available to 
all parents with children receiving assistance under this 
subchapter in an understandable and uniform format, and to the 
extent practicable, provided in a language that the parents can 
understand. Such information shall be made widely available 
through public means such as distribution through public 
agencies, and, at a minimum, by posting such information on the 
Internet immediately upon publication.
    (f) Self-Assessments.--
          (1) In general.--Not less frequently than once each 
        program year, with the consultation and participation 
        of policy groups and, as appropriate, other community 
        members, each agency receiving funds under this 
        subchapter shall conduct a comprehensive self-
        assessment of the effectiveness and progress in meeting 
        programs goals and objectives and in implementing and 
        complying with Head Start program performance 
        standards.
          (2) Report and improvement plans.--
                  (A) Report.--An agency conducting a self-
                assessment shall report the findings of the 
                self-assessment to the relevant policy council, 
                policy committee, governing body, and regional 
                office of the Administration for Children and 
                Families of the Department of Health and Human 
                Services. Each self-assessment shall identify 
                areas of strength and weakness.
                  (B) Improvement plan.--The agency shall 
                develop an improvement plan approved by the 
                governing body of the agency to strengthen any 
                areas identified in the self-assessment as 
                weaknesses or in need of improvement.
          (3) Ongoing monitoring.--Each Head Start agency, 
        Early Head Start agency, and delegate agency shall 
        establish and implement procedures for the ongoing 
        monitoring of their Head Start and Early Head Start 
        programs, to ensure that the operations of the programs 
        work toward meeting program goals and objectives and 
        Head Start performance standards.
          (4) Training and technical assistance.--Funds may be 
        made available, through section 648(d)(13), for 
        training and technical assistance to assist agencies in 
        conducting self-assessments.
    (g) Reduction of Grants and Redistribution of Funds in 
Cases of Under-Enrollment.--
          (1) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                  (A) Actual enrollment.--The term ``actual 
                enrollment'' means, with respect to the program 
                of a Head Start agency, the actual number of 
                children enrolled in such program and reported 
                by the agency (as required in paragraph (2)) in 
                a given month.
                  (B) Base grant.--The term ``base grant'' 
                means, with respect to a Head Start agency for 
                a fiscal year, that portion of the grant 
                derived--
                          (i) from amounts reserved for use in 
                        accordance with section 640(a)(2)(A), 
                        for a Head Start agency administering 
                        an Indian Head Start program or migrant 
                        and seasonal Head Start program;
                          (ii) from amounts reserved for 
                        payments under section 640(a)(2)(B); or
                          (iii) from amounts available under 
                        section 640(a)(2)(D) or allotted among 
                        States under section 640(a)(4).
                  (C) Funded enrollment.--The term ``funded 
                enrollment'' means, with respect to the program 
                of a Head Start agency in a fiscal year, the 
                number of children that the agency is funded to 
                serve through a grant for the program during 
                such fiscal year, as indicated in the grant 
                agreement.
          (2) Enrollment reporting requirement for current 
        fiscal year.--Each entity carrying out a Head Start 
        program shall report on a monthly basis to the 
        Secretary and the relevant Head Start agency--
                  (A) the actual enrollment in such program; 
                and
                  (B) if such actual enrollment is less than 
                the funded enrollment, any apparent reason for 
                such enrollment shortfall.
          (3) Secretarial review and plan.--The Secretary 
        shall--
                  (A) on a semiannual basis, determine which 
                Head Start agencies are operating with an 
                actual enrollment that is less than the funded 
                enrollment based on not less than 4 consecutive 
                months of data;
                  (B) for each such Head Start agency operating 
                a program with an actual enrollment that is 
                less than 95 percent of its funded enrollment, 
                as determined under subparagraph (A), develop, 
                in collaboration with such agency, a plan and 
                timetable for reducing or eliminating under-
                enrollment taking into consideration--
                          (i) the quality and extent of the 
                        out-reach, recruitment, and community 
                        needs assessment conducted by such 
                        agency;
                          (ii) changing demographics, mobility 
                        of populations, and the identification 
                        of new underserved low-income 
                        populations;
                          (iii) facilities-related issues that 
                        may impact enrollment;
                          (iv) the ability to provide full-day 
                        programs, where needed, through Head 
                        Start funds or through collaboration 
                        with entities carrying out other 
                        preschool or child care programs, or 
                        programs with other funding sources 
                        (where available);
                          (v) the availability and use by 
                        families of other preschool and child 
                        care options (including parental care) 
                        in the local catchment area; and
                          (vi) agency management procedures 
                        that may impact enrollment; and
                  (C) provide timely and ongoing technical 
                assistance to each agency described in 
                subparagraph (B) for the purpose of 
                implementing the plan described in such 
                subparagraph.
          (4) Implementation.--Upon receipt of the technical 
        assistance described in paragraph (3)(C), a Head Start 
        agency shall immediately implement the plan described 
        in paragraph (3)(B).
          (5) Secretarial action for continued under-
        enrollment.--If, 1 year after the date of 
        implementation of the plan described in paragraph 
        (3)(B), the Head Start agency continues to operate a 
        program at less than full enrollment, the Secretary 
        shall, where determined appropriate, continue to 
        provide technical assistance to such agency.
          (6) Secretarial review and adjustment for chronic 
        under-enrollment.--
                  (A) In general.--If, after receiving 
                technical assistance and developing and 
                implementing a plan to the extent described in 
                paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) for 9 months, a 
                Head Start agency is still operating a program 
                with an actual enrollment that is less than 95 
                percent of its funded enrollment, the Secretary 
                may--
                          (i) designate such agency as 
                        chronically under-enrolled; and
                          (ii) recapture, withold, or reduce 
                        the base grant for the program by a 
                        percentage equal to the percentage 
                        difference between funded enrollment 
                        and actual enrollment for the program 
                        for the most recent year in which the 
                        agency is determined to be under-
                        enrolled under paragraph (2)(B).
                  (B) Waiver or limitation of reductions--If 
                the Secretary, after the implementation of the 
                plan described in paragraph (3)(B), finds 
                that--
                          (i) the causes of the enrollment 
                        shortfall, or a portion of the 
                        shortfall, are beyond the agency's 
                        control (such as serving significant 
                        numbers of migrant or seasonal 
                        farmworker children, homeless children, 
                        children in foster care, or other 
                        highly mobile children);
                          (ii) the shortfall can reasonably be 
                        expected to be temporary; or
                          (iii) the number of slots allotted to 
                        the agency is small enough that under-
                        enrollment does not constitute a 
                        significant shortfall, the Secretary 
                        may, as appropriate, waive or reduce 
                        the percentage recapturing, 
                        withholding, or reduction otherwise 
                        required by subparagraph (A).
                  (C) Procedural requirement; effective date.--
                The actions taken by the Secretary under this 
                paragraph with respect to a Head Start agency 
                shall take effect 1 day after the date on 
                which--
                          (i) the time allowed for appeal under 
                        section 646(a) expires without an 
                        appeal by the agency; or
                          (ii) the action is upheld in an 
                        administrative hearing under section 
                        646.
          (7) Redistribution of funds.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall use 
                amounts recovered from a Head Start agency 
                through recapturing, withholding, or reduction 
                under paragraph (6) in a fiscal year--
                          (i) in the case of a Head Start 
                        agency administering an Indian Head 
                        Start program or a migrant and seasonal 
                        Head Start program, whose base grant is 
                        derived from amounts specified in 
                        paragraph (1)(C)(i), to redirect funds 
                        to 1 or more agencies that--
                                  (I) are administering Head 
                                Start programs serving the same 
                                special population; and
                                  (II) demonstrate that the 
                                agencies will use such 
                                redirected funds to increase 
                                enrollment in their Head Start 
                                programs in such fiscal year; 
                                or
                          (ii) in the case of a Head Start 
                        agency in a State, whose base grant is 
                        derived from amounts specified in 
                        clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph 
                        (1)(C), to redirect funds to 1 or more 
                        agencies that--
                                  (I) are administering Head 
                                Start programs in the same 
                                State; and
                                  (II) make the demonstration 
                                described in clause (i)(II).
                  (B) Special rule.--If there is no agency 
                located in a State that meets the requirements 
                of subclauses (I) and (II) of subparagraph 
                (A)(ii), the Secretary shall use amounts 
                described in subparagraph (A) to redirect funds 
                to Head Start agencies located in other States 
                that make the demonstration described in 
                subparagraph (A)(i)(II).
                  (C) Adjustment to funded enrollment.--The 
                Secretary shall adjust as necessary the 
                requirements relating to funding enrollment 
                indicated in the grant agreement of a Head 
                Start agency receiving redistributed amounts 
                under this paragraph.
    (h) Contract With Nonprofit Intermediary Organization.--
From funds reserved under clause (i) or (ii) of section 
640(a)(2)(C) or from whatever other resources the Secretary 
determines appropriate, in carrying out the provisions of this 
section, the Secretary or a Head Start agency may contract with 
a nonprofit intermediary organization that--
          (1) provides evaluations and technical assistance to 
        improve overall performance management; and
          (2) has an exclusive focus of improving the 
        performance management and the use of technology in 
        assessing performance and meeting Head Start 
        regulations and can provide on-site, hands-on guidance 
        with the implementation of the recommendations.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 641B. CENTERS FOR EXCELLENCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    (a) Definition.--In this section, the term ``center of 
excellence'' means a Center for Excellence in Early Childhood 
designated under subsection (b).
    (b) Designation and Bonus Grants.--The Secretary shall, 
subject to the availability of funds under this subchapter, 
including under subsection (f), establish a program under which 
the Secretary shall--
          (1) designate not more than 200 exemplary Head Start 
        agencies (including Early Head Start agencies, Indian 
        Head Spirit agencies, and migrant and seasonal Head 
        Start agencies) as Centers of Excellence in Early 
        Childhood; and
          (2) make bonus grants to the centers of excellence to 
        carry out the activities described in subsection (d).
    (c) Application and Designation.--
          (1) Application.--
                  (A) Nomination and submission.--
                          (i) In general.--To be eligible to 
                        receive a designation as a center of 
                        excellence under subsection (b), except 
                        as provided in clause (ii), a Head 
                        Start agency in a State shall be 
                        nominated by the Governor of the State 
                        and shall submit an application to the 
                        Secretary at such time, in such manner, 
                        and containing such information as the 
                        Secretary may require.
                          (ii) Indian and migrant and seasonal 
                        head start programs.--In the case of an 
                        Indian Head Start agency or a migrant 
                        or seasonal Head Start agency, to be 
                        eligible to receive designation as a 
                        center of excellence under subsection 
                        (b), such an agency shall be nominated 
                        by the head of the appropriate regional 
                        office of the Department and Health and 
                        Human Services and shall submit an 
                        application to the Secretary in 
                        accordance with clause (i).
                  (B) Contents.--At a minimum, the application 
                shall include--
                          (i) evidence that the Head Start 
                        program carried out by the agency has 
                        significantly improved the school 
                        readiness of, and enhanced academic 
                        outcomes for, children who have 
                        participated in the program;
                          (ii) evidence that the program meets 
                        or exceeds standards and performance 
                        measures described in subsections (a) 
                        and (b) of section 641A, as evidenced 
                        by successful completion of 
                        programmatic and monitoring receives, 
                        and has no findings of deficiencies 
                        with respect to the standards and 
                        measures;
                          (iii) evidence that the program is 
                        making progress toward meeting the 
                        requirements described in section 648A
                          (iv) evidence demonstrating the 
                        existence of a collaborative 
                        partnership among the Head Start 
                        agency, the State (or a State agency), 
                        and other early care and education 
                        providers in the local community 
                        involved;
                          (v) a nomination letter from the 
                        Governor, or appropriate regional 
                        office, demonstrating the agency's 
                        ability to carry out the coordination, 
                        transition, and training services of 
                        the program to be carried out under the 
                        bonus grant involved, including 
                        coordination of activities with State 
                        and local agencies that provide only 
                        childhood services to children and 
                        families in the community served by the 
                        agency.
                          (vi) information demonstrating the 
                        existence of a local council for 
                        excellence in early childhood, which 
                        shall include representatives of all 
                        the institutions, agencies, and groups 
                        involved in the work of the center for, 
                        and the local provisions of services 
                        to, eligible children and other at-
                        risk-children, and their families; and
                          (vii) a description of how the 
                        Center, in order to expand 
                        accessibility and continuity of quality 
                        early care and education, will 
                        coordinate the early care and education 
                        activities assisted under this section 
                        with--
                                  (I) program carried out under 
                                the Child Care and Development 
                                Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 
                                U.S.C. 9858 et seq.);
                                  (II) other programs carried 
                                out under this subchapter, 
                                including the Early Head Start 
                                programs carried out under 
                                section 645A;
                                  (III)(aa) Early Reading First 
                                and Even Start programs carried 
                                out under subparts 2 and 3 of 
                                part B of title I of the 
                                Elementary and Secondary 
                                Education Act of 1965 (20 
                                U.S.C. 6371 et seq., 6381 et 
                                seq.);
                                  (bb) other preschool programs 
                                carried out under title I of 
                                that Act (20 U.S.C. 6301 et 
                                seq.); and
                                  (cc) the Ready-to-Learn 
                                Television program carried out 
                                under subpart 3 of part D of 
                                title II of that Act (20 U.S.C. 
                                6775 et seq.);
                                  (IV) programs carried out 
                                under part C of the Individuals 
                                with Disabilities Education Act 
                                (20 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.);
                                  (V) State prekindergarten 
                                programs; and
                                  (VI) other early care and 
                                education programs.
          (2) Selection.--In selecting agencies to designate as 
        centers of excellence under subsection (b), the 
        Secretary shall designate not less than 1 from each of 
        the 50 States, the District of Columbia, an Indian Head 
        Start program, a migrant and seasonal Head Start 
        program, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
          (3) Priority.--In making bonus grant determinations 
        under this section, the Secretary shall give priority 
        to programs that, through their applications, 
        demonstrate that they are of exceptional quality and 
        would serve as exemplary models for programs in the 
        same geographic region. The Secretary may also consider 
        the population served by the applicant, such as 
        programs that serve large proportions of limited 
        English proficient students or other underserved 
        populations, and may make bonus grants to programs that 
        do an exceptional job meeting the needs of such 
        children.
          (4) Term of designation.--
                  (A) In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), 
                the Secretary shall designate a Head Start 
                agency as a center of excellence for a 5-year 
                term. During the period of that designation, 
                subject to the availability of appropriations, 
                the agency shall be eligible to receive a bonus 
                grant under subsection (b).
                  (B) Revocation.--The Secretary may revoke an 
                agency's designation under subsection (b) if 
                the Secretary determines that the agency is not 
                demonstrating adequate performance or has had 
                findings of deficiencies described in paragraph 
                (1)(B)(ii).
          (5) Amount of bonus grant.--The Secretary shall base 
        the amount of funding provided through a bonus grant 
        made under subsection (b) to a center of excellence on 
        the number of children eligible for Head Start services 
        in the community involved. The Secretary shall, subject 
        to the availability of funding, make such a bonus grant 
        in an amount of not less than $200,000 per year.
    (d) Use of Funds.--
          (1) Activities.--A center of excellence that receives 
        a bonus grant under subsection (b) may use the funds 
        made available through the bonus grant--
                  (A) to provide Head Start services to 
                additional eligible children;
                  (B) to better meet the needs of working 
                families in the community served by the center 
                by serving more children in existing Early Head 
                Start programs (existing as of the date the 
                center is designated under this section) or in 
                full-working-day, full calendar year Head Start 
                programs;
                  (C) to model and disseminate best practices 
                for achieving early academic success, including 
                achieving school readiness and developing 
                prereading and premathematics skills for at-
                risk children and achieving the acquisition of 
                the English language for limited English 
                proficient children, and to provide seamless 
                service delivery for eligible children and 
                their families;
                  (D) to further coordinate early childhood and 
                social services available in the community 
                served by the center for at-risk children 
                (birth through age 8), their families, and 
                pregnant women;
                  (E) to provide training and cross training 
                for Head Start teachers and staff, child care 
                providers, public and private preschool and 
                elementary school teachers, and other providers 
                of early childhood services, and training and 
                cross training to develop agency leaders;
                  (F) to provide effective transitions between 
                Head Start programs and elementary school, to 
                facilitate ongoing communication between Head 
                Start and elementary school teachers concerning 
                children receiving Head Start services, and to 
                provide training and technical assistance to 
                providers who are public elementary school 
                teachers and other staff of local educational 
                agencis, child care providers, family service 
                providers, and other providers of early 
                childhood services, to help the providers 
                described in this subparagraph increase their 
                ability to work with low-income, at-risk 
                children and their families;
                  (G) to develop or maintain partnerships with 
                institutions of higher education and nonprofit 
                organizations, including community-based 
                organizations, that recruit, train, place, and 
                support college students to serve as mentors 
                and reading coaches to preschool children in 
                Head Start programs; and
                  (H) to carry out other activities determined 
                by the center to improve the overall quality of 
                the Head Start program carried out by the 
                agency and the program carried out under bonus 
                grant involved.
          (2) Involvement of other head start agencies and 
        providers.--A center that receives a bonus grant under 
        subsection (b), in carrying out activities under this 
        subsection, shall work with the center's delegate 
        agencies, several additional Head Start agencies, and 
        other providers of early childhood services in the 
        community involved, to encourage the agencies and 
        providers described in this sentence to carry out model 
        programs.
    (e) Research and Reports.--
          (1) Research.--The Secretary shall, subject to the 
        availability of funds to carry out this subsection, 
        make a grant to an independent organization to conduct 
        research on the ability of the centers of excellence to 
        improve the school readiness of children receiving Head 
        Start services, and to positively impact school results 
        in the earliest grades. The organization shall also 
        conduct research to measure the success of the centers 
        of excellence at encouraging the center's delegate 
        agencies, additional Head Start agencies, and other 
        providers of early childhood services in the 
        communities involved to meet measurable improvement 
        goals, particularly in the area of school readiness.
          (2) Report.--Not later than 48 months after the date 
        of enactment of the Head Start Improvements for School 
        Readiness Act, the organization shall prepare and 
        submit to the Secretary and Congress a report 
        containing the results of the research described in 
        paragraph (1).
    (f) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated for fiscal year 2006 and each subsequent 
fiscal year--
          (1) $90,000,000 to make bonus grants to centers of 
        excellence under subsection (b) to carry out activities 
        described in subsection (d);
          (2) $2,500,000 to pay for the administrative costs of 
        the Secretary in carrying out this section, including 
        the cost of a conference of centers for excellence; and
          (3) $2,000,000 for research activities described in 
        subsection (e).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


              [POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD START AGENCIES

    [Sec. 642 (a) In order to be designated as a Head Start 
agency under this subchapter, an agency must have authority 
under its charter or applicable law to receive and administer 
funds under this subchapter, funds and contributions from 
private or local public sources which may be used in support of 
a Head Start program, and funds under any Federal or State 
assistance program pursuant to which a public or private 
nonprofit or for-profit agency (as the case may be) organized 
in accordance with this subchapter, could act as grantee, 
contractor, or sponsor of projects appropriate for inclusion in 
a Head Start program. Such an agency must also be empowered to 
transfer funds so received, and to delegate powers to other 
agencies, subject to the powers of its governing board and its 
overall program responsibilities. The power to transfer funds 
and delegate powers must include the power to make transfers 
and delegations covering component projects in all cases where 
this will contribute to efficiency and effectiveness or 
otherwise further program objectives.
    [(b) In order to be so designated, a Head Start agency 
shall also--
          [(1) establish effective procedures by which parents 
        and area residents concerned will be enabled to 
        directly participate in decisions that influence the 
        character of programs affecting their interests;
          [(2) provide for their regular participation in the 
        implementation of such programs;
          [(3) provide technical and other support needed to 
        enable parents and area residents to secure on their 
        own behalf available assistance from public and private 
        sources;
          [(4) seek the involvement of parents of participating 
        children in activities designed to help such parents 
        become full partners in the education of their 
        children, and to afford such parents the opportunity to 
        participate in the development, conduct, and overall 
        performance of the program at the local level;
          [(5) offer (directly or through referral to local 
        entities, such as entities carrying out Even Start 
        programs under part B of chapter 1 of title I of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)), to parents of participating 
        children, family literacy services and parenting skills 
        training;
          [(6) offer to parents of participating children 
        substance abuse counseling (either directly or through 
        referral to local entities), including information on 
        drug-exposed infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;
          [(7) at the option of such agency, offer (directly or 
        through referral to local entities), to such parents--
                  [(A) training in basic child development;
                  [(B) assistance in developing communication 
                skills;
                  [(C) opportunities to share experiences with 
                other parents;
                  [(D) regular in-home visitation; or
                  [(E) any other activity designed to help such 
                parents become full partners in the education 
                of their children;
          [(8) provide, with respect to each participating 
        family, a family needs assessment that includes 
        consultation with such parents about the benefits of 
        parent involvement and about the activities described 
        in paragraphs (4) through (7) in which such parents may 
        choose to be involved (taking into consideration their 
        specific family needs, work schedules, and other 
        responsibilities);
          [(9) consider providing services to assist younger 
        siblings of children participating in its Head Start 
        program to obtain health services from other sources;
          [(10) perform community outreach to encourage 
        individuals previously unaffiliated with Head Start 
        programs to participate in its Head Start programs as 
        volunteers; and
          [(11)(A) inform custodial parents in single-parent 
        families that participate in programs, activities, or 
        services carried out or provided under this subchapter 
        about the availability of child support services for 
        purposes of establishing paternity and acquiring child 
        support; and
          (B) refer eligible parents to the child support 
        offices of State and local governments.
    [(c) The head of each Head Start agency shall coordinate 
and collaborate with the State agency responsible for 
administering the State program carried out under the Child 
Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et 
seq.), and other early childhood education and development 
programs, including Even Start programs under part B of chapter 
1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.) and programs under part C and 
section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
(20 U.S.C. 1431-1444, 1419), serving the children and families 
served by the Head Start agency to carry out the provisions of 
this subchapter.
    [(d)(1) Each Head Start agency shall take steps to ensure, 
to the maximum extent possible, that children maintain the 
developmental and educational gains achieved in Head Start 
programs and build upon such gains in further schooling.
    [(2) A Head Start agency may take steps to coordinate with 
the local educational agency serving the community involved and 
with schools in which children participating in a Head Start 
program operated by such agency will enroll following such 
program, including--
          [(A) collaborating on the shared use of 
        transportation and facilities; and
          [(B) exchanging information on the provision of 
        noneducational services to such children.
    [(3) In order to promote the continued involvement of the 
parents of children that participate in Head Start programs in 
the education of their children upon transition to school, the 
Head Start agency shall--
          [(A) provide training to the parents--
                  [(i) to inform the parents about their rights 
                and responsibilities concerning the education 
                of their children; and
                  [(ii) to enable the parents to understand and 
                work with schools in order to communicate with 
                teachers and other school personnel, to support 
                the school work of their children, and to 
                participate as appropriate in decisions 
                relating to the education of their children; 
                and
          [(B) take other actions, as appropriate and feasible, 
        to support the active involvement of the parents with 
        schools, school personnel, and school-related 
        organizations.
    [(4) The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of 
Education, shall--
          [(A) evaluate the effectiveness of the projects and 
        activities funded under section 642A;
          [(B) disseminate to Head Start agencies information 
        (including information from the evaluation required by 
        subparagraph (A)) on effective policies and activities 
        relating to the transition of children from Head Start 
        programs to public schools; and
          [(C) provide technical assistance to such agencies to 
        promote and assist such agencies to adopt and implement 
        such effective policies and activities.
    [(e) Head Start agencies shall adopt, in consultation with 
experts in child development and with classroom teachers, an 
assessment to be used when hiring or evaluating any classroom 
teacher in a center-based Head Start program. Such assessment 
shall measure whether such teacher has mastered the functions 
described in section 648A(a)(1).]

SEC. 642. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

    (a) In General.--In order to be designated as a Head Start 
agency under this subchapter, an agency shall have authority 
under its charter or applicable law to receive and administer 
funds provided under this subchapter, funds and contributions 
from private or local public sources that may be used in 
support of a Head Start program, and funds provided under any 
Federal or State assistance program pursuant to which a public 
or private nonprofit or for-profit agency (as the case may be) 
organized in accordance with this subchapter, could act as a 
grantee, contractor, or sponsor of projects appropriate for 
inclusion in a Head Start program. Such an agency shall also be 
empowered to transfer funds so received, and to delegate powers 
to transfer funds so received, and to delegate powers to other 
agencies, subject to the powers of its governing board and its 
overall program responsibilities. The power to transfer funds 
and delegate powers shall include the power to make transfers 
and delegations covering component projects in all cases in 
which that power will contribute to efficiency and 
effectiveness or otherwise further program objectives.
    (b) Additional Requirements.--In order to be designated as 
a Head Start agency under this subchapter, a Head Start agency 
shall also--
          (1) establish a program with all standards set forth 
        in section 641A(a)(1), with particular attention to the 
        standards set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of 
        such section;
          (2) demonstrate the capacity to serve eligible 
        children with scientifically based curricula and other 
        interventions and support services that help promote 
        the school readiness of children participating in the 
        program;
          (3) establish effective procedures and provide for 
        the regular assessment of Head Start children, 
        including observational and direct formal assessment, 
        where appropriate;
          (4) seek the involvement of parents, area residents, 
        and local business in the design and implementation of 
        the program;
          (5) provide for the regular participation of parents 
        and area residents in the implementation of the 
        program;
          (6) provide technical and other support needed to 
        enable such parents and area residents to secure, on 
        their own behalf, available assistance from public and 
        private sources;
          (7) establish effective procedures to facilitate the 
        involvement of parents of participating children in 
        activities designed to help such parents become full 
        partners in the education of their children, and to 
        afford such parents the opportunity to participate in 
        the development and overall conduct of the program at 
        the local level;
          (8) conduct outreach to schools in which Head Start 
        children will enroll, local educational agencies, the 
        local business community, community-based 
        organizations, faith-based organizations, museums, and 
        libraries to generate support and leverage the 
        resources of the entire local community in order to 
        improve school readiness;
          (9) offer (directly or through referral to local 
        entities, such as entities carrying out Even Start 
        programs under subpart 3 of part B of title I of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 6381 et seq.)), to parents of participating 
        children, family literacy services, and parenting 
        skills training;
          (10) offer to parents of participating children 
        substance abuse and other counseling (either directly 
        or through referral to local entities), if needed, 
        including information on the effect of drug exposure on 
        infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;
          (11) at the option of such agency, offer (directly or 
        through referral to local entities), to such parents--
                  (A) training in basic child development 
                (including cognitive development);
                  (B) assistance in developing literacy and 
                communication skills;
                  (C) opportunities to share experiences with 
                other parents (including parent mentor 
                relationships);
                  (D) regular in-home visitation; or
                  (E) any other activity designed to help such 
                parents become full partners in the education 
                of their children;
          (12) provide, with respect to each participating 
        family, a family needs assessment that includes 
        consultation with such parents (including foster 
        parents and grandparents, where applicable) about the 
        benefits of parent involvement and about the activities 
        described in this subsection in which such parents may 
        choose to be involved (taking into consideration their 
        specific family needs, work schedules, and other 
        responsibilities);
          (13) consider providing services to assist younger 
        siblings of children participating in its Head Start 
        program, to obtain health services from other sources;
          (14) perform community outreach to encourage 
        individuals previously unaffiliated with Head Start 
        programs to participate in its Head Start program as 
        volunteers;
           (15)(A) inform custodial parents in single-parent 
        families that participate in programs, activities, or 
        services carried out or provided under this subchapter 
        about the availability of child support services for 
        purposes of establishing paternity and acquiring child 
        support; and
          (B) refer eligible parents to the child support 
        offices of State and local governments;
          (16) provide parents of limited English proficient 
        children outreach and information in an understandable 
        and uniform format and, to the extent practicale, in a 
        language that the parents can understand; and
          (17) at the option of such agency, partner with an 
        institution of higher education and a nonprofit 
        organization to provide college students with the 
        opportunity to serve as mentors or reading coaches to 
        Head Start participants.
       (c) Transition Activities To Facilitate Continued 
Progress.--
          (1) In general.--Each Head Start agency shall 
        collaborate with the entities listed in this 
        subsection, to the maximum extent possible, to ensure 
        the successful transition of Head Start children to 
        school, so that such children are able to build upon 
        the developmental and educational gains achieved in 
        Head Start programs in further schooling.
          (2) Coordination.--
                  (A) Local educational agency.--In communities 
                where both public prekindergarten programs and 
                Head Start programs operate, a Head Start 
                agency shall collaborate and coordinate 
                activities with the local educational agency or 
                other public agency responsible for the 
                operation of the prekindergarten program and 
                providers of prekindergarten, including 
                outreach activities to identify eligible 
                children.
                  (B) Elementary schools.--Head Start staff 
                shall, with the permission of the parents of 
                children enrolled in Head Start programs, 
                regularly communicate with the elementary 
                schools such children will be attending to--
                          (i) share information about such 
                        children;
                          (ii) get advice and support from the 
                        teachers in such elementary schools 
                        regarding teaching strategies and 
                        options; and
                          (iii) ensure a smooth transition to 
                        elementary school for such children.
                  (C) Other programs.--The head of each Head 
                Start agency shall coordinate activities and 
                collaborate with the State agency responsible 
                for administering the State program carried out 
                under the Child Care and Development Block 
                Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.), 
                other entities carrying out early childhood 
                education and development programs, and the 
                agencies responsible for administering section 
                106 of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment 
                Act (42 U.S.C. 5106a), parts B and E of title 
                IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 620 et 
                seq. and 670 et seq.), programs under subtitle 
                B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless 
                Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.), Even 
                Start programs under subpart 3 of part B of 
                title I of the Elementary and Secondary 
                Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6381 et seq.), 
                and programs under section 619 and part C of 
                the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
                (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.), serving the 
                children and families served by the Head Start 
                agency.
          (3) Collaboration.--A Head Start agency shall take 
        steps to coordinate activities with the local 
        educational agency serving the community involved and 
        with schools in which children participating in a Head 
        Start program operated by such agency will enroll 
        following such program, including--
                  (A) collaborating on the shared use of 
                transportation and facilities;
                  (B) collaborating to reduce the duplication 
                of services while increasing the program 
                participation of underserved populations of 
                eligible children; and
                  (C) exchanging information on the provision 
                of noneducational services to such children.
          (4) Parental involvement.--In order to promote the 
        continued involvement of the parents of children that 
        participate in Head Start programs in the education of 
        their children upon transition to school, the Head 
        Start agency shall--
                  (A) provide training to the parents--
                          (i) to inform the parents about their 
                        rights and responsibilities concerning 
                        the education of their children; and
                          (ii) to enable the parents--
                                  (I) to understand and work 
                                with schools in order to 
                                communicate with teachers and 
                                other school personnel;
                                  (II) to support the 
                                schoolwork of their children; 
                                and
                                  (III) to participate as 
                                appropriate in decisions 
                                relating to the education of 
                                their children; and
                  (B) take other actions, as appropriate and 
                feasible, to support the active involvement of 
                the parents with schools, school personnel, and 
                school-related organizations.
    (d) Assessment.--Each Head Start agency shall adopt, in 
consultation with experts in child development and with 
classroom teachers, an assessment to be used when hiring or 
evaluating any classroom teacher in a center-based Head Start 
program. Such assessment shall measure whether such teacher has 
mastered the functions described in section 648A(a)(1) and 
attained a level of literacy appropriate to implement Head 
Start curricula.
    (e) Funded Enrollment; Waiting List.--Each Head Start 
agency shall enroll 100 percent of its funded enrollment and 
maintain an active waiting list at all times with ongoing 
outreach to the community and activities to identify 
underserved populations.
    (f) Technical Assistance and Training Plan.--In order to 
receive funds under this subchapter, a Head Start agency shall 
develop an annual technical assistance and training plan. Such 
plan shall be based on the agency's self-assessment, the 
community needs assessment, and the needs of parents to be 
served by such agency.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 642A. HEAD START TRANSITION.

    [Each Head Start agency shall take steps to coordinate with 
the local educational agency serving the community involved and 
with schools in which children participating in a Head Start 
program operated by such agency will enroll following such 
program, including--
          [(1) developing and implementing a systematic 
        procedure for transferring, with parental consent, Head 
        Start program records for each participating child to 
        the school in which such child will enroll;
          [(2) establishing channels of communication between 
        Head Start staff and their counterparts in the schools 
        (including teachers, social workers, and health staff) 
        to facilitate coordination of programs;
          [(3) conducting meetings involving parents, 
        kindergarten or elementary school teachers, and Head 
        Start program teachers to discuss the educational, 
        developmental, and other needs of individual children;
          [(4) organizing and participating in joint 
        transition-related training of school staff and Head 
        Start staff;
          [(5) developing and implementing a family outreach 
        and support program in cooperation with entities 
        carrying out parental involvement efforts under title I 
        of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 
        (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.);
          [(6) assisting families, administrators, and teachers 
        in enhancing educational and developmental continuity 
        between Head Start services and elementary school 
        classes; and
          [(7) linking the services provided in such Head Start 
        program with the education services provided by such 
        local educational agency.]

SEC. 642A. HEAD START TRANSITION AND ALIGNMENT WITH K-12 EDUCATION.

    Each Head Start agency shall take steps to coordinate 
activities with the local educational agency serving the 
community involved and with schools in which children 
participating in a Head Start program operated by such agency 
will enroll following such program, including--
          (1) developing and implementing a systematic 
        procedure for transferring, with parental consent, Head 
        Start program records for each participating child to 
        the school in which such child will enroll;
          (2) establishing ongoing channels of communication 
        between Head Start staff and their counterparts in the 
        schools (including teachers, social workers, health 
        staff, and local educational agency liaisons designated 
        under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento 
        Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii))) 
        to facilitate coordination of programs;
          (3) developing continuity of developmentally 
        appropriate curricula and practice between the Head 
        Start agency and local educational agency to ensure an 
        effective transition and appropriate shared 
        expectations for children's learning and development as 
        the children make the transition to school;
          (4) conducting meetings involving parents, 
        kindergarten or elementary school teachers, and Head 
        Start teachers to discuss the educational, 
        developmental, and other needs of individual children;
          (5) organizing and participating in joint training, 
        including transition-related training of school staff 
        and Head Start staff;
          (6) developing and implementing a family outreach and 
        support program, in cooperation with entities carrying 
        out parental involvement efforts under title I of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 6301 et seq.), and family outreach and support 
        efforts under subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-
        Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et 
        seq.), taking into consideration the language needs of 
        limited English proficient parents;
          (7) assisting families, administrators, and teachers 
        in enhancing educational and developmental continuity 
        and continuity of parental involvement in activities 
        between Head Start services and elementary school 
        classes;
          (8) linking the services provided in such Head Start 
        program with the education services, including services 
        relating to language, literacy, and numeracy, provided 
        by such local educational agency;
          (9) helping parents understand the importance of 
        parental involvement in a child's academic success 
        while teaching the parents strategies for maintaining 
        parental involvement as their child moves from the Head 
        Start program to elementary school;
          (10) developing and implementing a system to increase 
        program participation of underserved populations of 
        eligible children, including children with 
        disabilities, homeless children, children in foster 
        care, and limited English proficient children; and
          (11) coordinating activities and collaborating to 
        ensure that curricula used in the Head Start program is 
        aligned with State early learning standards with regard 
        to cognitive, social, emotional, and physical 
        competencies that children entering kindergarten are 
        expected to demonstrate.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                    SUBMISSION OF PLANS TO GOVERNORS

    Sec. 643. In carrying out the provisions of this 
subchapter, no contract, agreement, grant, or other assistance 
shall be made for the purpose of carrying out a Head Start 
program within a State unless a plan setting forth such 
proposed contract, agreement, grant, of other assistance has 
been submitted to the chief executive officer of the State, and 
such plan has not been disapproved by such officer within [45] 
30 days of such submission, or, if disapproved (for reasons 
other than failure of the program to comply with State health, 
safety, and child care laws, including regulations applicable 
to comparable child care programs in the State), has been 
reconsidered by the Secretary and found by the Secretary to be 
fully consistent with the provisions and in furtherance of the 
purposes of this subchapter, as evidenced by a written 
statement of the Secretary's findings that is transmitted to 
such officer. Funds to cover the costs of the proposed 
contract, agreement, grant, or other assistance shall be 
obligated from the appropriation which is current at the time 
the plan is submitted to such officer. This section shall not, 
however, apply to contracts, agreements, grant, loans, or other 
assistance to Indian and migrant and seasonal Head Start 
programs in existence on the date of enactment of the Head 
Start Improvements for School Readiness Act, or to any 
institution of higher education in existence on the date of the 
enactment of this Act.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                  PARTICIPATION IN HEAD START PROGRAMS

    Sec. 645. (a)(1) The Secretary shall be regulation 
prescribe eligibility for the participation of persons in Head 
Start programs assisted under this subchapter. Except as 
provided in paragraph (2), such criteria may provide--
          (A) that children from low-income families shall be 
        eligible for participation in programs assisted under 
        this subchapter if their families' incomes are below 
        130 percent of the poverty line, or if their families 
        are eligible or, in the absence of child care, would 
        potentially be eligible for public assistance; and
          (B) pursuant to such regulations as the Secretary 
        shall prescribe, that--
                  (i) programs assisted under this subchapter 
                may include, to a reasonable extent, 
                participation of children in the area served 
                who would benefit from such programs but whose 
                families do not meet the low-income criteria 
                prescribed pursuant to subparagraph (A); and
                  (ii) a child who has been determined to meet 
                the low-income criteria and who is 
                participating in a Head Start program in a 
                program year shall be considered to continue to 
                meet the low-income criteria through the end of 
                the succeeding program year.
In determining for purposes of this paragraph, whether a child 
who has applied for enrollment in a Head Start program meets 
the low-income criteria, an entity may consider evidence of 
family income during the 12 months preceding the month in which 
the application is submitted, or during the calendar year 
preceding the calendar year in which the application is 
submitted, whichever more accurately reflects the needs of the 
family at the time of application. A homeless child shall be 
deemed eligible for Head Start services.
    (2) Whenever a Head Start program is operated in a 
community with a population of 1,000 or less individuals and-- 
*  *  *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

      (3)(A) In this paragraph:
          (i) The term ``dependent'' has the meaning given the 
        term in paragraphs (2)(A) and (4)(A)(i) of section 
        401(a) of title 37, United States Code.
          (ii) The terms ``member'' and ``uniformed services'' 
        have the meanings given the terms in paragraphs (23) 
        and (3), respectively, of section 101 of title 37, 
        United States Code.
    (B) The following amounts of pay and allowance of a member 
of the uniformed services shall not be considered to be income 
for purposes of determining the eligibility of a dependent of 
such member for programs funded under this subchapter:
          (i) The amount of any special pay payable under 
        section 310 of title 37, United States Code, relating 
        to duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger.
          (ii) The amount of basic allowance payable under 
        section 403 of such title, including any such amount 
        that is provided on behalf of the member for housing 
        that is acquired or constructed under the alternative 
        authority for the acquisition and improvement of 
        military housing under subchapter IV of chapter 169 of 
        title 10, United States Code, or any other related 
        provision of law.
    (4) After demonstrating a need through a community needs 
assessment, a Head Start agency may apply to the Secretary to 
convert part-day sessions, particularly consecutive part-day 
sessions, into full-day sessions.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 645A. EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS FOR FAMILIES WITH INFANTS AND 
                    TODDLERS.]

SEC. 645A. EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS.

    (a) In General.-- *  *  *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (b) Scope and Design of Programs.--In carrying out a 
program described in subsection (a), an entity receiving 
assistance under this section shall--
          (1) *  *  *
          (2) *  *  *
          (3) *  *  *
          (4) [provide services to parents to support their 
        role as parents] provide additional services to parents 
        to support their role as parents (including parenting 
        skills training and training in basic child 
        development) and to help the families move toward self-
        sufficiency (including educational and employment 
        services as appropriate);
          (5) where appropriate and in conjunction with 
        services provided under this section to the children's 
        immediate families (or as approved by the Secretary), 
        provide home-based services to family child care homes 
        and kin caregivers caring for infants and toddlers who 
        also participate in Early Head Start programs, to 
        provide continuity in supporting the children's 
        physical, social, emotional, and intellectual 
        development;
          [5](6) coordinate services with services (including 
        home-based services) provided by programs in the State 
        and programs in the community (including programs for 
        infants and toddlers with disabilities and homeless 
        infants and toddlers) to ensure a comprehensive array 
        of services such as health and mental health services, 
        and family support services);
          [6](7) ensure formal linkages with local Head Start 
        programs in order to provide for continuity of services 
        for children and families;
          (8) develop and implement a systematic procedure for 
        transitioning children and parents from an Early Head 
        Start program into a Head Start program or another 
        local early childhood education program;
          (9) establish channels of communication between staff 
        of Early Head Start programs and staff of Head Start 
        programs or other local early childhood education 
        programs, to facilitate the coordination of programs;
          [7](10) in the case of a Head Start agency that 
        operates a program and that also provides Head Start 
        services through the age of mandatory school 
        attendance, ensure that children and families 
        participating in the program receive such services 
        through such age;
          [8](11) ensure formal linkages with the agencies and 
        entities described in section 644(b) of the Individuals 
        with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1444(b)) 
        [and providers] providers of early intervention 
        services for infants and toddlers with disabilities 
        under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
        (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq., and the agencies responsible 
        for administering section 106 of the Child Abuse 
        Prevention and Treatment Act (42 U.S.C. 5106a) and 
        parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act 
        (42 U.S.C. 620 et seq. and 670 et seq.); and
          [9](12) meet such other requirements concerning 
        design and operation of the program described in 
        subsection (a) as the Secretary may establish.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Eligible Service Providers.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (1) entities operating Head Start programs under this 
        subchapter, including tribal governments and entities 
        operating migrant and seasonal Head Start programs; and
          (2) other public entities, and nonprofit or for-
        profit private entities, including community-based 
        organizations, capable of providing child and family 
        services that meet the standards for participation in 
        programs under this subchapter and meet such other 
        appropriate requirements relating to the activities 
        under this section as the Secretary may establish.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (g) Monitoring, Training, Technical Assistance, and 
Evaluation.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (2) Training and technical assistance account.--
                  (A) In general.-- * * *
                  (B) Activities.--Funds in the account may be 
                used by the Secretary for purposes including--
                          (i) * * *
                          (ii) * * *
                          (iii) * * *
                          [(iv) providing professional 
                        development and personnel enhancement 
                        activities, including the provision of 
                        funds to recipients of grants under 
                        subsection (a) for the recruitment and 
                        retention of qualified staff with an 
                        appropriate level of education and 
                        experience.]
                          (iv) providing professional 
                        development and personnel enhancement 
                        activities, including the provision of 
                        funds to recipients of grants under 
                        subsection (a), relating to--
                                  (I) effective methods of 
                                conducting parent education, 
                                home visiting, and promoting 
                                quality early childhood 
                                development;
                                  (II) recruiting and retaining 
                                qualified staff; and
                                  (III) increasing program 
                                participating for underserved 
                                populations of eligible 
                                children.
    (h) Staff Qualifications and Development.--
          (1) Center-based staff.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that, not later than September 30, 2010, all teachers 
        providing direct services to Early Head Start children 
        and families in Early Head Start centers have a minimum 
        of a child development associate credential or an 
        associate degree, and have been trained (or have 
        equivalent course work) in early childhood development.
          (2) Home visitor staff.--
                  (A) Standards.--In order to further enhance 
                the quality of home visiting services provided 
                to families of children participating in home-
                based, center-based, or combination program 
                options under this subchapter, the Secretary 
                shall establish standards for training, 
                qualifications, and the conduct of home visits 
                for home visitor staff in Early Head Start 
                programs.
                  (B) Contents.--The standards for training, 
                qualifications, and the conduct of home visits 
                shall include content related to--
                          (i) structured child-focused home 
                        visiting that promotes parents' ability 
                        to support the child's cognitive, 
                        social, emotional, and physical 
                        development;
                          (ii) effective strengths-based parent 
                        education, including methods to 
                        encourage parents as their child's 
                        first teachers;
                          (iii) early childhood development 
                        with respect to children from birth 
                        through age 3;
                          (iv) methods to help parents promote 
                        emergent literacy in their children 
                        from birth through age 3, including use 
                        of research-based strategies to support 
                        the development of literacy and 
                        language skills for children who are 
                        limited English proficient;
                          (v) health, vision, hearing, and 
                        development screenings;
                          (vi) strategies for helping families 
                        coping with crisis; and
                          (vii) the relationship of health and 
                        well-being of pregnant women to 
                        prenatal and early child development.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                      APPEALS, NOTICE, AND HEARING

    Sec. 646. (a) The Secretary shall prescribe procedures to 
assure that--
          (1) * * *
          (2) * * *
          [(3) financial assistance under this subchapter shall 
        not be terminated or reduce, an application for 
        refunding shall not be denied, and a suspension of 
        financial assistance shall not be continued for longer 
        than 30 days, unless the recipient has been afforded 
        reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair 
        hearing; and
          [(4) the Secretary shall develop and publish 
        procedures (including mediation procedures) to be used 
        in order to--
                  [(A) resolve in a timely manner conflicts 
                potentially leading to adverse action between--
                          [(i) recipients of financial 
                        assistance under this subchapter; and
                  [(B) avoid the need for an administrative 
                hearing on an adverse action].
          (3) financial assistance under this subchapter may be 
        terminated or reduced, and an application for refunding 
        may be denied, after the recipient has been afforded 
        reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair 
        hearing, including--
                  (A) a right to file a notice of appeal of a 
                decision within 30 days of notice of the 
                decision from the Secretary; and
                  (B) access to a full and fair hearing of the 
                appeal, not later than 120 days from receipt by 
                the Secretary of the notice of appeal;
          (4) the Secretary shall develop and publish 
        procedures (including mediation procedures) to be used 
        in order to--
                  (A) resolve in a timely manner conflicts 
                potentially leading to an adverse action 
                between--
                          (i) recipients of financial 
                        assistance under this subchapter; and
                          (ii) delegate agencies or Head Start 
                        Parent Policy Councils;
                  (B) avoid the need for an administrative 
                hearing on an adverse action; and
                  (C) prohibit a Head Start agency from 
                expending financial assistance awarded under 
                this subchapter for the purpose of paying legal 
                fee pursuant to an appeal under paragraph (3), 
                except that such fees shall be reimbursed by 
                the Secretary if the agency prevails in such 
                decision; and
          (5) the Secretary may suspend funds to a grantee 
        under this subchapter--
                  (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), 
                for not more than 30 days; or
                  (B) in the case of a grantee under this 
                subchapter that has multiple and recurring 
                deficiencies for a period of 6 months and has 
                not made substantial and significant progress 
                toward meeting the goals of the grantee's 
                quality improvement plan or eliminating all 
                deficiencies identified by the Secretary, 
                during the hearing of an appeal described in 
                paragraph (3), for any amount of time, 
                including permanently.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                           RECORDS AND AUDITS

    Sec. 647. (a) [Each recipient of] Each Head Start agency, 
Head Start center, or Early Head Start center receiving 
financial assistance under this subchapter shall keep such 
records as the Secretary shall prescribe, including records 
which fully disclose the amount and disposition by such 
recipient of the proceeds of such financial assistance, the 
total cost of the project or undertaking in connection with 
which such financial assistance is given or used, the amount of 
that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied 
by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an 
effective audit.
    (b) The Secretary and the Comptroller General of the United 
States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall 
have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any 
books, documents, papers, and records of the recipients that 
are pertinent to the financial assistance received under this 
subchapter.
    (c) Each Head Start agency, Head Start center, or Early 
Head Start center receiving financial assistance under this 
subchapter shall maintain, and annually submit to the 
Secretary, a complete accounting of its administrative 
expenses, including expenses for salaries and compensation 
funded under this subchapter and provide such additional 
documentation as the Secretary may require.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING

    Sec. 648. (a) The Secretary shall provide, directly or 
through grants or other arrangements (1) technical assistance 
to communities in developing, conducting, and administering 
programs under this subchapter; and (2) training for 
specialized or other personnel needed in connection with Head 
Start programs, in accordance with the process, and the 
provisions for allocating resources, set forth in subsections 
[(b), and (c)] (b), (c), and (d).
    (b) The Secretary shall make available funds set aside in 
section 640(a)(2)(C)(ii) to support a regional or State system 
of early childhood education training and technical assistance 
that improves the capacity of Head Start programs to deliver 
services in accordance with the standards described in section 
641A(a)(1), with particular attention to the standards 
described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such section. The 
Secretary shall--
          (1) ensure that agencies with demonstrated expertise 
        in providing high-quality training and technical 
        assistance to improve the delivery of Head Start 
        services, including the State Head Start Associations, 
        State agencies, migrant and seasonal Head Start 
        programs, and other entities providing training and 
        technical assistance in early education, for the region 
        or State are included in the planning and coordination 
        of the system; and
          (2) encourage States to supplement the funds 
        authorized in section 640(a)(2)(C)(ii) with Federal, 
        State, or local funds other than Head Start funds, to 
        expand training and technical assistance activities 
        beyond Head Start agencies to include other providers 
        of other early childhood services within a region or 
        State.
    [(b)](c) The process for determining the technical 
assistance and training activities to be carried out under this 
section shall--
        (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [c](d) In allocating resources for technical assistance and 
training under this section, the Secretary shall--
          (1) give priority consideration to--
                  (A) activities to correct program and 
                management deficiencies identified through 
                reviews carried out pursuant to section 641A(c) 
                (including the provision of assistance to local 
                programs in the development of quality 
                improvement plans under section 641A(d)(2)); 
                and
                  (B) assisting Head Start agencies in--
                          (i) ensuring the school readiness of 
                        children; and
                          (ii) meeting the [educational 
                        performance measures] measures 
                        described in section 641A(b)(4);
          (2) supplement amounts provided under section 
        640(a)(3)(C)(ii) in order to address the training and 
        career development needs of classroom staff (including 
        instruction for providing services to children with 
        disabilities and for activities described in section 
        1221(b)(3) of the Elementary and Secondary Education 
        Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6371(b)(3))) and nonclassroom 
        staff, including home visitors and other staff working 
        directly with families, including training relating to 
        increasing parent involvement and services designed to 
        increase family literacy and improve parenting skills;
          (3) * * *
          (4) * * *
          (5) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        conducting and participating in communitywide strategic 
        planning and needs assessment, including assessing the 
        needs of homeless children and their families;
          (6) * * *
          (7) * * *
          (8) * * *
          (9) * * *
          (10) assist Head Start agencies in developing 
        innovative program models, including mobile and home-
        based programs[; and];
          (11) provide support for Head Start agencies 
        (including policy councils and policy committees, as 
        defined in regulation) that meet the standards 
        described in section 641A(a) but that have, as 
        documented by the Secretary through reviews conducted 
        pursuant to section 641A(c), significant programmatic, 
        quality, and fiscal issues to address[.];
          (12) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        increasing the program participation of homeless 
        children;
          (13) provide training and technical assistance to 
        members of governing bodies to ensure that the members 
        can fulfill the functions described in section 
        641(a)(4);
          (14) provide training and technical assistance to 
        Head Start agencies to assist such agencies in 
        conducting self-assessments; and
          (15) assist Head Start agencies and Head Start 
        programs in improving outreach to, and quality of 
        services available to, limited English proficient 
        children and their families, including such services to 
        help such families learn English, particularly in 
        communities that have experienced a large percentage 
        increase in the population of limited English 
        proficient individuals, as measured by the Bureau of 
        the Census.
    [(d)](e) The Secretary may provide, either directly or 
through grants to public or private nonprofit entities, 
including community-based organizations, training for Head 
Start personnel in the use of the performing and visual arts 
and interactive programs using electronic media to enhance the 
learning experience of Head Start children. Special 
consideration shall be given to entities that have demonstrated 
effectiveness in educational programming for preschool children 
that includes components for parental involvement, care 
provider training, and developmentally appropriate related 
activities.
    [(e)](f) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or 
through grants or other arrangements, funds from programs 
authorized under this subchapter to support an organization to 
administer a centralized child development and national 
assessment program leading to recognized credentials for 
personnel working in early childhood development and child care 
programs, training for personnel providing services to non-
English language background children (including services to 
promote the acquisition of the English language), or providing 
services to children determined to be abused or neglected, 
training for personnel providing services to children referred 
by entities providing child welfare services or receiving child 
welfare services, training for personnel in helping children 
cope with community violence, and resource access projects for 
personnel working with disabled children.
    (g) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or through 
grants or other arrangements, funds for training of Head Start 
personnel in addressing the unique needs of migrant and 
seasonal farmworking families, families with limited English 
proficiency, and homeless families.
    (h) Funds used under this section shall be used to provide 
high quality, sustained, and intensive, training and technical 
assistance in order to have a positive and lasting impact on 
classroom instruction. Funds shall be used to carry out 
activities related to 1 or more of the following:
          (1) Education and early childhood development.
          (2) Child health, nutrition, and safety.
          (3) Family and community partnerships.
          (4) Other areas that impact the quality or overall 
        effectiveness of Head Start programs.
    (i) Funds used under this section for training shall be 
used for needs identified annually by a grant applicant or 
delegate agency in its program improvement plan, except that 
funds shall not be used for long-distance travel expenses for 
training activities--
          (1) available locally or regionally; or
          (2) substantially similar to locally or regionally 
        available training activities.
    (j)(1) To support local efforts to enhance early language 
and preliteracy development of children in Head Start programs, 
and to provide the children with high-quality oral language 
skills, and environments that are rich in literature, in which 
to acquire language and preliteracy skills, each Head Start 
agency, in coordination with the appropriate State office and 
the relevant State Head Start collaboration office, shall 
ensure that all of the agency's Head Start teachers received 
ongoing training in language and emergent literacy (referred to 
in this subsection as ``literacy training''), including 
appropriate curricula and assessments to improve instruction 
and learning. Such training shall include training in methods 
to promote phonological and phonemic awareness and vocabulary 
development in an age-appropriate and culturally and 
linguistically appropriate manner.
    (2) The literacy training shall be provided at the local 
level in order--
          (A) to be provided, to the extent feasible, in the 
        context of the Head Start programs of the State 
        involved and the children the program serves; and
          (B) to be tailored to the early childhood literacy 
        background and experience of the teachers involved.
    (3) The literacy training shall be culturally and 
linguistically appropriate and support children's development 
in their home language.
    (4) The literacy training shall include training in how to 
work with parents to enhance positive language and early 
literacy development at home.
    (5) The literacy training shall include specific methods to 
best address the needs of children who are English language 
learners or are limited English proficient.
    (6) The literacy training shall include specific methods to 
best address the needs of children who have speech and language 
delays, including problems with articulation, or have other 
disabilities.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 648A. STAFF QUALIFICATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    (a) Classroom Teachers.--
          (1) Professional requirements.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(2)] Degree requirements.--
                  [(A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure 
                that not later than September 30, 2003, at 
                least 50 percent of all Head Start teachers 
                nationwide in center-based programs have--
                          [(i) an associate, baccalaureate, or 
                        advanced degree in early childhood 
                        education; or
                          [(ii) an associate, baccalaureate, or 
                        advanced degree in a field related to 
                        early childhood education, with 
                        experience in teaching preschool 
                        children.
          [(B) Progress.--The Secretary shall require Head 
        Start agencies to demonstrate continuing progress each 
        year to reach the result described in subparagraph 
        (A).]
          (2) Degree requirements.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure 
                that--
                          (i) not later than September 30, 
                        2010, all Head Start teachers in 
                        center-based programs have at least--
                                  (I)(aa) an associate degree 
                                (or equivalent coursework) 
                                relating to early childhood; or
                                  (bb) an associate degree in a 
                                related educational area and, 
                                to the extent practicable, 
                                coursework relating to early 
                                childhood; and
                                  (II) demonstrated teaching 
                                competencies, as determined by 
                                the program director involved 
                                (including, at a minimum, an 
                                appropriate level of literacy, 
                                a demonstrated capacity to be 
                                highly engaged with children, 
                                and a demonstrated ability to 
                                effectively implement an early 
                                childhood curriculum); and
                          (ii) not later than September 30, 
                        2008, all Head Start curriculum 
                        specialists and education coordinators 
                        in center-based programs have--
                                  (I) the capacity to offer 
                                assistance to other teachers in 
                                the implementation and 
                                adaptation of curricula to the 
                                group and individual needs of a 
                                class; and
                                  (II)(aa) a baccalaureate or 
                                advanced degree relating to 
                                early childhood; or
                                  (bb) a baccalaureate or 
                                advanced degree and coursework 
                                equivalent to a major relating 
                                to early childhood;
                          (iii) not later than September 30, 
                        2008, all Head Start teaching 
                        assistants in center-based programs 
                        have--
                                  (I) at least a child 
                                development associate 
                                credential;
                                  (II) enrolled in a program 
                                leading to an associate or 
                                baccalaureate degree; or
                                  (III) enrolled in a child 
                                development associate 
                                credential program to be 
                                completed within 2 years; and
                          (iv) not later than September 30, 
                        2011--
                                  (I) in States that have 
                                established teacher 
                                requirements for State 
                                prekindergarten programs, all 
                                Head Start teachers in center-
                                based programs--
                                          (aa) if such 
                                        requirements are not 
                                        less than those 
                                        requirements described 
                                        in subclause (II), meet 
                                        such teacher 
                                        requirements for State 
                                        prekindergarten 
                                        programs; and
                                          (bb) if such 
                                        requirements are less 
                                        than those requirements 
                                        described in subclause 
                                        (II), meet the 
                                        requirements described 
                                        in subclause (II); and
                                  (II) in States that do not 
                                have an established State 
                                prekindergarten program or in 
                                States that do not have 
                                established teacher 
                                requirements for their State 
                                prekindergarten programs, 50 
                                percent of all Head Start 
                                teachers in each center-based 
                                program have a baccalaureate 
                                degree relating to early 
                                childhood (or a related 
                                educational area or a 
                                baccalaureate degree that meets 
                                State specialized training 
                                requirements for 
                                prekindergarten teachers, such 
                                as State licensure, 
                                endorsement, or certification 
                                for prekindergarten or other 
                                early childhood area), and 
                                demonstrated teaching 
                                competencies, as determined by 
                                the program director involved 
                                (including, at a minimum, an 
                                appropriate level of literacy, 
                                a demonstrated capacity to be 
                                highly engaged with children, 
                                and a demonstrated ability to 
                                effectively implement an early 
                                childhood curriculum).
                  (B) Teacher in-service requirement.--Each 
                Head Start teacher shall attend an average of 
                not less than 15 clock hours of professional 
                development per year. Such professional 
                development shall be high quality, sustained, 
                intensive, and classroom-focused in order to 
                have a positive and lasting impact on classroom 
                instruction and the teacher's performance in 
                the classroom, and regularly evaluated for 
                effectiveness.
                  (C) Progress.--
                          (i) Report.--The Secretary shall--
                                  (I) require Head Start 
                                agencies to--
                                          (aa) demonstrate 
                                        continuing progress 
                                        each year to reach the 
                                        result described in 
                                        subparagraph (A);
                                          (bb) submit to the 
                                        Secretary a report 
                                        indicating the number 
                                        and percentage of 
                                        classroom instructors 
                                        in center-based 
                                        programs with child 
                                        development associate 
                                        credentials or 
                                        associate, 
                                        baccalaureate, or 
                                        graduate degrees; and
                                  (II) compile and submit a 
                                summary of all program reports 
                                described in subclause (I)(bb) 
                                to the Committee on Education 
                                and the Workforce of the House 
                                of Representatives and the 
                                Committee on Health, Education, 
                                Labor, and Pensions of the 
                                Senate.
                          (ii) Demonstrate progress.--A Head 
                        Start agency may demonstrate progress 
                        by partnering with institutions of 
                        higher education or other programs that 
                        recruit, train, place, and support 
                        college students to deliver an 
                        innovative early learning program to 
                        preschool children.
                  (D) Service requirements.--The Secretary 
                shall establish requirements to ensure that, in 
                order to enable Head Start agencies to comply 
                with the requirements of subparagraph (A), 
                individuals who receive financial assistance 
                under this subchapter to pursue a degree 
                described in subparagraph (A) shall--
                          (i) teach or work in a Head Start 
                        program for a minimum of 3 years after 
                        receiving the degree; or
                          (ii) repay the total or a prorated 
                        amount of the financial assistance 
                        received based on the length of service 
                        completed after receiving the degree.
          [(3) Alternative credentialing requirements.--The 
        Secretary shall ensure that, for center-based programs, 
        each Head Start classroom that does not have a teacher 
        that meets the requirements of clause (i) or (ii) of 
        paragraph (2)(A) is assigned one teacher who has--
                  [(A) a child development associate credential 
                that is appropriate to the age of the children 
                being served in center-based programs;
                  [(B) a State-awarded certificate for 
                preschool teachers that meets or exceeds the 
                requirements for a child development associate 
                credential; or
                  [(C) a degree in a field related to early 
                childhood education with experience in teaching 
                preschool children and a State-awarded 
                certificate to teach in a preschool program.]
          [(4) Waiver.--
                  [(A) In general.--On request, the Secretary 
                shall grant a 180-day waiver of the 
                requirements of paragraph (3), for a Had Start 
                agency that can demonstrate that the agency has 
                unsuccessfully attempted to recruit an 
                individual who has a credential, certificate, 
                or degree described in paragraph (3), with 
                respect to an individual who--
                          [(i) is enrolled in a program that 
                        grants any such credential, 
                        certificate, or degree; and
                          [(ii) will receive such credential, 
                        certificate, or degree under the terms 
                        of such program not later than 180 days 
                        after beginning employment as a teacher 
                        with such agency.
                  [(B) Limitation,--The Secretary may not grant 
                more than one such waiver with respect to such 
                individual.]
          (3) Waiver.--
                  (A) In general.--On request, the Secretary 
                may grant a waiver of the postsecondary degree 
                requirements of paragraph (2) for 1 or more 
                Head Start agencies, either individually, 
                statewide, or throughout a region, that can 
                demonstrate--
                          (i) that continuing aggressive 
                        statewide and national efforts have 
                        been unsuccessful at recruiting an 
                        individual to serve as a Head Start 
                        teacher or curriculum specialist or 
                        education coordinator who meets the 
                        requirements of paragraph (2)(A);
                          (ii) limited access to degree 
                        programs (including quality distance 
                        learning programs), due to the remote 
                        location of the program involved; or
                          (iii) that Head Start staff members 
                        are, as of the day the waiver is 
                        granted, enrolled in a program that--
                                  (I) grants the required 
                                degree; and
                                  (II) will be completed within 
                                1 year.
                  (B) Limitation.--An agency that receives a 
                waiver under subparagraph (A) shall ensure that 
                Head Start teachers for the agency, as of the 
                day the waiver is granted, who have not met the 
                postsecondary degree requirements of paragraph 
                (2) but are otherwise highly qualified and 
                competent shall be directly and appropriately 
                supervised by a teacher who has met or exceeded 
                the requirements of this subchapter.
                  (C) Duration.--The Secretary may not grant a 
                waiver under subparagraph (A) for a period that 
                exceeds 1 year.
    (b) Mentor Teachers.--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (c) Family Service Workers.--In order to improve the 
quality and effectiveness of staff providing in-home and other 
services (including needs assessment, development of service 
plans, family advocacy, and coordination of service delivery) 
to families of children participating in Head Start programs, 
the Secretary, in coordination with concerned public and 
private agencies and organizations examining the issues of 
standards and training for family service workers, shall--
          (1) review and, as necessary, revise or develop new 
        qualification standards for Head Start staff providing 
        such services;
          (2) promote the development of model curricula (on 
        subjects including parenting training and family 
        literacy) designed to ensure the attainment of 
        appropriate competencies by individuals working or 
        planning to work in the field of early childhood and 
        family services; [and]
          (3) promote the establishment or a credential that 
        indicates attainment of the competencies and that is 
        accepted nationwide[.]; and
          (4) promote the use of appropriate strategies to meet 
        the needs of special populations (including limited 
        English proficient populations).
    (d) Head Start Fellowships.--
          (1) Authority.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (3) Assignments of fellows.--
                  (A) Placement sites.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  (C) No placement in lobbying organization.--
                Head Start Fellowship positions may not be 
                located in any agency, including a center, 
                whose primary purpose, or one of whose major 
                purposes, is to influence Federal, State, or 
                local legislation.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Model Staffing Plans.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (f) Professional Development Plans.--Every Head Start 
agency and center shall create, in consultation with employees 
of the agency or center (including family service workers), a 
professional development plan for employees who provide direct 
services to children, including a plan for classroom teachers, 
curriculum specialists, and education coordinators to meet the 
requirements set forth in subsection (a).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 648B. TRIBAL COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY HEAD START PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM.

    (a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to promote 
social competencies and school readiness in Indian children.
    (b) Tribal College or University Head Start Partnership 
Program.--
          (1) Grants--The Secretary is authorized to award 
        grants, for periods of not less than 5 years, to Tribal 
        Colleges and Universities to--
                  (A) implement education programs that include 
                education concerning tribal culture and 
                language and increase the number of associate, 
                baccalaureate, and graduate degrees in early 
                childhood education and related fields that are 
                earned by Indian Head Start agency staff 
                members, parents of children served by an 
                agency, and members of the tribal community 
                involved.
                  (B) develop and implement the programs under 
                subparagraph (A) in technology-mediated 
                formats, including providing the programs 
                through such means as distance learning and use 
                of advanced technology, as appropriate; and
                  (C) provide technology literacy programs for 
                Indian Head Start agency staff members and 
                children and families of children served by 
                such an agency.
          (2) Staffing.--The Secretary shall ensure that the 
        American Indian Programs Branch of the Head Start 
        Bureau of the Department of Health and Human Services 
        shall have staffing sufficient to administer the 
        programs under this section and to provide appropriate 
        technical assistance to Tribal Colleges and 
        Universities receiving grants under this section.
      (c) Application.--Each Tribal College or University 
desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application 
to the Secretary, at such time, in such manner, and containing 
such information as the Secretary may require, including a 
certification that the Tribal College or University has 
established a partnership with 1 or more Indian Head Start 
agencies for the purpose of conducting the activities described 
in subsection (b).
    (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to carry out this section, $10,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2006 and such sums may be necessary for each of 
fiscal years 2007 through 2010.
    (e) Definitions.--In this section:
          (1) Institution of Higher Education.--The term 
        ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning 
        given such term in section 101(a) of the Hither 
        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
          (2) Tribal college or university.--The term ``Tribal 
        College or University''--
                  (A) has the meaning given such term in 
                section 316 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 
                (20 U.S.C. 1059c); and
                  (B) means an institition determined to be 
                accredited or a candidate for accreditation by 
                a national recognized accrediting agency or 
                association.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 649. RESEARCH, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND EVALUATION.

    (a) In General.--
          (1) Requirement; general purposes.--The Secretary 
        shall carry out a continuing program of research, 
        demonstration, and evaluation activities, in order to--
                  (A) foster continuous improvement in the 
                quality of the Head Start programs under this 
                subchapter and in their effectiveness in 
                enabling participating children and their 
                families to succeed in school and otherwise; 
                and
                  (B) use the Head Start programs to develop, 
                test, and disseminate new ideas and approaches 
                for addressing the needs of low-inome preschool 
                children (including chilren with disabilities, 
                children determined to be abused or neglected, 
                homeless children, and children in foster care) 
                and their families and communities (including 
                demonstrations of innovative noncenter-based 
                program models such as home-based and mobile 
                programs, and otherwise to further the purposes 
                of this subchapter.
    (b) Conduct of Research, Demonstration, and Evaluation 
Activities.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (c) Consultation and Collaboration.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Specific Objectives.--The research, demonstration, and 
evaluation activities under this chapter shall indicate 
components designed to--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (8) promote exploration of areas in which knowledge 
        is insufficient, and that will otherwise contribute to 
        fulfilling the purposes of this subchapter; and
          [(9) study the experiences of small, medium, and 
        large States with Head Start programs in order to 
        permit comparisons of children participating in the 
        programs with eligible children who did not participate 
        in the programs, which study--
                  [(A) may include the use of a data set that 
                existed prior to the initiation of the study; 
                and
                  [(B) shall compare the educational 
                achievement, social adaptation, and health 
                status of the participating children and the 
                eligible nonparticipating children; and]
          [10] (9) provide for--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) * * *
                  (C) * * *
                  (D) * * *
                  (E) * * *
[The Secretary shall ensure that an appropriate entity carries 
out a study described in paragraph (9), and prepares and 
submits to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
containing the results of the study, not later than September 
30, 2002.]
    (e) Longitudinal Studies.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (f) Ownership of Results.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (g) National Head Start Impact Research.--
          (1) Expert panel.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall appoint 
                an independent panel consisting of experts in 
                program evaluation and research, education, and 
                early childhood programs--
                          [(i) To review, and make 
                        recommendations on, the design and plan 
                        for the research (whether conducted as 
                        a single assessment or as a series of 
                        assessments) described in paragraph 
                        (2), within 1 year after the date of 
                        enactment of the Coats Human Services 
                        Reauthorization Act of 1998:]
                          [(ii)] (i) to maintain and advise the 
                        Secretary regarding the progress of the 
                        research; and
                          [iii] (ii) to comment, if the panel 
                        so desires, on the interim and final 
                        research reports submitted under 
                        paragraph (7).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (7) Reports.--
                  (A) Submission of interim reports.-- * * *
                  (B) Submission of final report.-- * * *
                  (C) Transmittal of reports to congress.--
                          (i) In general.--The Secretary shall 
                        transmit, to the committees described 
                        in clause (ii), the first interim 
                        report by September 30, 1999, the 
                        second interim report by September 30, 
                        2001, and the final report by September 
                        30, [2003] 2007.
                          (ii) Committees.--The Committees 
                        referred to in clause (i) are the 
                        Committee on Education and the 
                        Workforce of the House of 
                        Representatives and the Committee on 
                        [Labor and Human Resources] Health, 
                        Education, Labor, and Pensions of the 
                        Senate.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [(h) Quality Improvement Study.--
          [(1) Study.--The Secretary shall conduct a study 
        regarding the use and effects of use of the quality 
        improvement funds made available under section 
        640(a)(3) since fiscal year 1991.
          [(2) Report.--The Secretary shall prepare and submit 
        to Congress not later than September 2000 a report 
        containing the results of the study, including 
        information on--
                  [(A) the types of activities funded with the 
                quality improvement funds;
                  [(B) the extent to which the use of the 
                quality improvement funds has accomplished the 
                goals of section 640(a)(3)(B);
                  [(C) the effect of use of the quality 
                improvement funds on teacher training, 
                salaries, benefits, recruitment, and retention; 
                and
                  [(D) the effect of use of the quality 
                improvement funds on the development of 
                children receiving services under this 
                subchapter.]
    (h) National Academy of Sciences Study.--
          (1) In general.-- The Secretary shall enter into a 
        contract with the Board on Children, Youth, and 
        Families of the National Research Council, the Board on 
        Testing and Assessments, and the Institute of Medicine, 
        of the National Academy of Sciences to establish an 
        independent panel of experts to review and synthesize 
        research and theories in the social, behavioral, and 
        biological sciences regarding early childhood, and make 
        recommendations with regard to each of the following:
                  (A) Age- and developmentally appropriate Head 
                Start academic requirements and outcomes, 
                including the standards described in section 
                641A(a)(1)(B)(ii).
                  (B) Differences in the type, length, mix, and 
                intensity of services that are necessary to 
                ensure that children from challenging family or 
                social backgrounds (including low-income 
                children, children with disabilities, and 
                limited English proficient children) enter 
                kindergarten ready to succeed.
                  (C) Appropriate assessments of young children 
                for the purposes of improving instruction, 
                services, and program quality, including--
                          (i) formal and systematic 
                        observational assessments in a child's 
                        natural environment;
                          (ii) assessments of children's 
                        development through parent and provider 
                        interviews;
                          (iii) appropriate accommodations for 
                        children with disabilities and limited 
                        English proficient children;
                          (iv) appropriate assessments for 
                        children with disabilities, limited 
                        English proficient children, and 
                        children from different cultural 
                        backgrounds; and
                          (v) other assessments used in Head 
                        Start programs.
                  (D) Identification of existing, or 
                recommendations for the development of, 
                scientifically based, valid and reliable 
                assessments that are capable of measuring child 
                outcomes in the domains important to school 
                readiness, including language skills, 
                prereading ability, premathematics ability, 
                cognitive ability, scientific ability, social 
                and emotional development, and physical 
                development.
                  (E) Appropriate use and application of valid 
                and reliable assessments for Head Start 
                programs identified in accordance with 
                subparagraph (D).
          (2) Composition.--
                  (A) In general.--The panel described in 
                paragraph (1) shall consist of multiple experts 
                in each of the following areas:
                          (i) Child development (including 
                        cognitive, social, emotional, and 
                        physical development) and child 
                        education (including approaches to 
                        learning).
                          (ii) Professional development, 
                        including preparation of individuals 
                        who teach young children.
                          (iii) Assessment of young children 
                        (including children with disabilities 
                        and limited English proficient 
                        children), including screening, 
                        diagnostic, and classroom-based 
                        instructional assessment.
                  (B) Representatives.--The panel described in 
                paragraph (1) shall be selected and appointed 
                by the National Academy of Sciences, after 
                consultation with the Secretary of Health and 
                Human Services.
          (3) Timing.--
                  (A) Establishment.--Not later than 90 days 
                after the date of enactment of the Head Start 
                Improvements for School Readiness Act, the 
                Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the 
                National Research Council, the Board on Testing 
                and Assessments, and the Institute of Medicine, 
                of the National Academy of Sciences shall 
                establish the panel described in paragraph (1), 
                including selecting and appointing the members 
                of the panel. Representatives described in 
                paragraph (2) shall be selected and appointed 
                after consultation with the Secretary.
                  (B) Recommendations.--Not later than 1 year 
                after the panel described in paragraph (1) is 
                established, the panel shall complete, and 
                submit to the Secretary a report containing, 
                the recommendations described in paragraph (1). 
                The Secretary shall not implement the 
                amendments made to section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii) by 
                the Head Start Improvements for School 
                Readiness Act until the panel submits the 
                report.
          (4) Application of panel report.--The Secretary shall 
        use the results of the review and recommendations 
        described in paragraph (1) to (where appropriate) 
        develop, inform, and revise--
                  (A) the educational standards, and the 
                performance measures, described in section 
                641A; and
                  (B) the assessments utilized in the Head 
                Start programs.
    (i) Services to Limited English Proficient Children and 
Families.--
          (1) Study.--The Secretary shall conduct a study on 
        the status of limited English proficient children and 
        their families in Head Start or Early Head Start 
        programs.
          (2) Report.--The Secretary shall prepare and submit 
        to Congress, not later than September 2009, a report 
        containing the results of the study, including 
        information on--
                  (A) the demographics of limited English 
                proficient children from birth through age 5, 
                including the number of such children receiving 
                Head Start or Early Head Start services and the 
                geographic distribution of children described 
                in this subparagraph;
                  (B) the nature of Head Start or Early Head 
                Start services provided to limited English 
                proficient children and their families, 
                including the types, content, duration, 
                intensity, and costs of family services, 
                language assistance, and educational services;
                  (C) procedures in Head Start programs for the 
                assessment of language needs and the transition 
                of limited English proficient children to 
                kindergarten, including the extent to which 
                Head Start programs meet the requirements of 
                section 642A for limited English proficient 
                children;
                  (D) the qualifications and training provided 
                to Head Start and Early Head Start teachers 
                serving limited English proficient children and 
                their families;
                  (E) the rate of progress made by limited 
                English proficient children and their families 
                in Head Start programs and Early Head Start 
                programs, including--
                          (i) the rate of progress of the 
                        limited English proficient children 
                        toward meeting the additional 
                        educational standards described in 
                        section 641(a)(1)(B)(ii) while enrolled 
                        in Head Start programs, measured 
                        between 1990 and 2004;
                          (ii) the correlation between such 
                        progress and the type of instruction 
                        and educational program provided to the 
                        limited English proficient children; 
                        and
                          (iii) the correlation between such 
                        progress and health and family services 
                        provided by Head Start programs to 
                        limited English proficient children and 
                        their families; and
                  (F) the extent to which Head Start programs 
                make use of funds under section 640(a)(3) to 
                improve the quality of Head Start services 
                provided to limited English proficient children 
                and their families.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 650 REPORTS.

    (a) Status of Children.--At least once during every 2-year 
period, the Secretary shall prepare and submit, to the 
Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on [Labor and Human 
Resources] Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the 
Senate, a report concerning the status of children (including 
disabled and non-English language background children) in Head 
Start programs, including the number of children and the 
services being provided to such children. Such report shall 
include--
          (1) a statement for the then most recently concluded 
        fiscal year specifying--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (8) information concerning children participating in 
        programs that receive Head Start funding, including 
        information on family income, racial and ethnic 
        background, homelessness, children in foster care, 
        disability, and receipt of benefits under part A of 
        title IV of the Social Security Act;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (14) * * *
Promptly after submitting such report to the Committee on 
Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on [Labor and Human Resources] Health, Education, 
Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, the Secretary shall publish 
in the Federal Register a notice indicating that such report is 
available to the public and specifying how such report may be 
obtained.
    (b) Facilities.--At least once during every 5-year period, 
the Secretary shall prepare and submit, to the Committee on 
Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on [Labor and Human Resources] Health, Education, 
Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, a report concerning the 
condition, location, and ownership of facilities used, or 
available to be used, by Indian Head Start agencies (including 
Native Alaskan Head Start agencies) and Native Hawaiian Head 
Start agencies.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                         COMPARABILITY OF WAGES

    Sec. 653. [The Secretary shall take] (a) The Secretary 
shall take such action as may be necessary to assure that 
persons employed in carrying out programs financed under this 
subchapter shall not receive compensation at a rate which is 
(1) in excess of the average rate of compensation paid in the 
area where the program is carried out to a substantial number 
of the persons providing substantially comparable services, or 
in excess of the average rate of compensation paid to a 
substantial number of the persons providing substantially 
comparable services in the area of the person's immediately 
preceding employment, whichever is higher; [or (2)] (2) in 
excess of the salary of the Secretary, in the case of an 
individual compensated with funds awarded under this subchapter 
or the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9901 et 
seq.); or (3) less than the minimum wage rate prescribed in 
section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The 
Secretary shall encourage Head Start agencies to provide 
compensation according to salary scales that are based on 
training and experience.
    (b) If in any fiscal year the restriction described in 
subsection (a)(2) is violated, the Secretary shall withhold 
from the base grant of the Head Start agency involved (as 
defined in section 641A(g)(1)) for the next fiscal year, an 
amount equal to the aggregate amount by which the salary that 
resulted in the violation exceeded the salary of the Secretary.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


         LIMITATION WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN UNLAWFUL ACTIVITIES

    Sec. 655. No individual employed or assigned by or in any 
Head Start agency or other agency assisted under this 
subchapter shall, pursuant to or during the performance of 
services rendered in connection with any program or activity 
conducted or assisted under this subchapter by such Head Start 
agency or such other agency, plan, initiate, participate in, or 
otherwise aid or assist in the conduct of any unlawful 
demonstration, rioting, or civil disturbance.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                         [POLITICAL ACTIVITIES

    [Sec. 656. (a) For purposes of]

SEC. 656. POLITICAL ACTIVITIES.

    (a) State or Local Agency._For purposes of chapter 15 of 
title 5, United States Code, any agency which assumes 
responsibility for planning, developing, and coordinating Head 
Start programs and receives assistance under this subchapter 
shall be deemed to be a State or local agency. For purposes of 
clauses (1) and (2) of section 150(2)(a) of such title, any 
agency receiving assistance under this subchapter shall be 
deemed to be a State or local agency.
    [(b) Programs assisted under this subchapter shall not be 
carried on in a manner involving the use of program funds, the 
provision of services, or the employment or assignment of 
personnel in a manner supporting or resulting in the 
identification of such programs with (1) any partisan or 
nonpartisan political activity or any other political activity 
associated with a candidate, or contending faction or group, in 
an election for public or party office; (2) any activity to 
provide voters or prospective voters with transportation to the 
polls or similar assistance in connection with any such 
election; or (3) any voter registration activity. The 
Secretary, after consultation with the Office of Personnel 
Management, shall issue rules and regulations to provide for 
the enforcement of this section, which shall include provisions 
for summary suspension of assistance or other action necessary 
to permit enforcement on an emergency basis.]
    (b) Restrictions.--
          (1) In general.--A program assisted under this 
        subchapter, and any individual employed by, or assigned 
        to, a program assessed under this subchapter (during 
        the hours in which such individual is working on behalf 
        of such program), shall not engage in--
                  (A) any partisan or nonpartisan political 
                activity or any other political activity 
                associated with a candidate, or contending 
                faction or group, in an election for public or 
                party office;
                  (B) any activity to provide voters or 
                prospective voters with transportation to the 
                polls or similar assistance in connection with 
                any such election; or
                  (C) any voter registration activity.
          (2) Rules and regulaltions.--The Secretary, after 
        consultation with the Director of the Office of 
        Personnel Management, may issue rules and regulations 
        to provide for the enforcement of this section, which 
        may include provisions for summary suspension of 
        assistance or other action necessary to permit 
        enforcement on an emergency basis.

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                            ADVANCE FUNDING

    Sec. 657. For the purpose of affording adequate notice of 
funding available under this subchapter, appropriations for 
carrying out this subchapter are authorized to be included in 
an appropriation Act for the fiscal year preceding the fiscal 
year for which they are available for obligation.

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SEC. 657A. PARENTAL CONSENT REQUIREMENT FOR NON-EMERGENCY INTRUSIVE 
                    PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS.

    (a) Definition.--The term ``nonemergency intrusive physical 
examination'' means, with respect to a child, a physical 
examination that--
          (1) is not immediately necessary to protect the 
        health or safety of the child or the health or safety 
        of another individual; and
          (2) requires incision or is otherwise invasive, or 
        involves exposure of private body parts.
    (b) Requirement.--A Head Start agency shall obtain written 
parental consent before administration of, or referral for, any 
health care service provided or arranged to be provided, 
including any nonemergency intrusive physical examination of a 
child in connection with participation in a program under this 
subchapter.
    (c) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to prohibit agencies from using established methods, 
for handling cases of suspected or known child abuse and 
neglect, that are in compliance with applicable Federal, State, 
or tribal law.

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