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                                                       Calendar No. 396
109th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session                                                     109-234

======================================================================



 
             MICHIGAN LIGHTHOUSE AND MARITIME HERITAGE ACT

                                _______
                                

                 April 20, 2006.--Ordered to be printed

   Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of April 7, 2006

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Domenici, from the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 1346]

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was 
referred the bill (S. 1346) to direct the Secretary of the 
Interior to conduct a study of maritime sites in the State of 
Michigan, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommends that the bill, as amended, do 
pass.
    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Michigan Lighthouse and Maritime 
Heritage Act''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of 
        the Interior.
          (2) State.--The term ``State'' means the State of Michigan.

SEC. 3. STUDY.

  (a) In General.--The Secretary, in consultation with the State, the 
State Historic Preservation Officer, and other appropriate State and 
local public agencies and private organizations, shall conduct a 
special resource study of resources related to the maritime heritage of 
the State.
  (b) Purpose.--The purpose of the study is to determine--
          (1) suitable and feasible options for the long-term 
        protection of significant maritime heritage resources in the 
        State; and
          (2) the manner in which the public can best learn about and 
        experience the resources.
  (c) Requirements.--In conducting the study under subsection (a), the 
Secretary shall--
          (1) review Federal, State, and local maritime resource 
        inventories and studies to establish the potential for 
        interpretation and preservation of maritime heritage resources 
        in the State;
          (2) recommend management alternatives that would be most 
        effective for long-term resource protection and providing for 
        public enjoyment of maritime heritage resources;
          (3) address how to assist regional, State, and local partners 
        in increasing public awareness of and access to maritime 
        heritage resources;
          (4) identify sources of financial and technical assistance 
        available to communities for the preservation and 
        interpretation of maritime heritage resources; and
          (5) identify opportunities for the National Park Service and 
        the State to coordinate the activities of appropriate units of 
        national, State, and local parks and historic sites in 
        furthering the preservation and interpretation of maritime 
        heritage resources.
  (d) Report.--Not later than 3 years after the date on which funds are 
made available to carry out the study under subsection (a), the 
Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources 
of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of 
Representatives a report that describes--
          (1) the results of the study; and
          (2) any findings and recommendations of the Secretary.

SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to 
carry out this Act.

                         PURPOSE OF THE MEASURE

    The purpose of S. 1346 is to direct the Secretary of the 
Interior to conduct a study of maritime sites in the State of 
Michigan.

                          BACKGROUND AND NEED

    The State of Michigan has more miles of shoreline than any 
State in the Continental United States. During the past 500 
years, fur traders, sailing ship captains, and freighter pilots 
have traveled this shoreline. Cities and towns were built along 
the Lake, sometimes as ports or places of commerce, and 
sometimes as summer resorts. These people and places have left 
Michigan with a rich maritime heritage. The State is home to 
more than 120 lighthouses, historic hotels, Coast Guard 
stations, and other structures that reflect life on the Great 
Lakes.
    S. 1346 would require the Secretary of the Interior, 
through the National Park Service, to work with the State of 
Michigan and local communities to study the best ways to 
protect Michigan's maritime resources and promote them through 
recreation and education.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    S. 1346 was introduced by Senators Stabenow and Levin on 
June 30, 2005. The Subcommittee on National Parks of the 
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held a hearing on S. 
1346 on July 28, 2005. At its business meeting on March 8, 
2006, the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources ordered S. 
1346 favorably reported as amended.

                        COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, in open 
business session on March 8, 2006, by unanimous voice vote of a 
quorum present, recommends that the Senate pass S. 1346, if 
amended as described herein.

                          COMMITTEE AMENDMENT

    During consideration of S. 1346, the Committee adopted an 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The substitute makes 
the objectives of the study clearer and more consistent with 
other National Park Service study legislation.

                      SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS

    Section 1 entitles the bill, the ``Michigan Lighthouse and 
Maritime Heritage Act.''
    Section 2 defines key terms.
    Section 3 describes the requirements for the content of the 
study and the process by which it should be completed and 
requires a report to be filed with the committee not later than 
3 years after funds have been made available.
    Section 4 authorizes $500,000 to be appropriated to carry 
out this Act.

                   COST AND BUDGETARY CONSIDERATIONS

    The following estimate of costs of this measure has been 
provided by the Congressional Budget Office.

S. 1346--Michigan Lighthouse and Maritime Heritage Act

    S. 1346 would direct the Department of the Interior to 
conduct a special resource study of the maritime history of the 
state of Michigan. The legislation would direct the department 
to determine the potential economic and tourism benefits of 
preserving, protecting, and interpreting Michigan's maritime 
resources. S. 1346 would require the department to report on 
its findings and recommendations within three years of 
receiving funding for the study.
    Based on information from the National Park Service, CBO 
estimates that it would cost about $500,000 over the next three 
years to complete the required study and report, assuming 
appropriation of the necessary amounts. Enacting S. 1346 would 
not affect direct spending or revenues.
    S. 1346 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Matthew 
Pickford. This estimate was approved by Peter H. Fontaine, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                      REGULATORY IMPACT EVALUATION

    In compliance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee makes the following 
evaluation of the regulatory impact which would be incurred in 
carrying out S. 1346. The bill is not a regulatory measure in 
the sense of imposing Government-established standards or 
significant economic responsibilities on private individuals 
and businesses.
    No personal information would be collected in administering 
the program. Therefore, there would be no impact on personal 
privacy.
    Little, if any, additional paperwork would result from the 
enactment of S. 1346, as ordered reported.

                        EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS

    The views of the Administration on S. 1346 were included in 
testimony received by the Committee at a hearing on the bill on 
July 28, 2005. This testimony follows:

Statement of Stephen P. Martin, Deputy Director, U.S. Department of the 
                                Interior

    Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present the 
views of the Department of the Interior on S. 1346, a bill to 
authorize the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a special 
resource study of the maritime heritage sites in the state of 
Michigan.
    The Department does not support S. 1346. While Michigan is 
rich in historic treasures linked to its Great Lakes' heritage 
and the coastlines of the state are home to important resources 
such as wetlands, dunes, and threatened and endangered species 
and plants, we believe the best of these cultural and natural 
resources are already being conserved and interpreted for the 
enjoyment of the public.
    S. 1346 would authorize a study to determine the potential 
economic and tourism benefits of preserving, protecting, and 
interpreting the State's maritime resources. It would recommend 
management alternatives for the most effective long-term 
protection and interpretation of the resources. The study also 
would address ways to link communities, waterways, monuments, 
parkways, national and state parks, and state historic sites on 
the national, regional, state and local levels into a Michigan 
Maritime Heritage Destination Network. S. 1346 would require a 
report to be submitted to Congress not later than 18 months 
after funds are made available that describes the results of 
the study. The bill would authorize funding of $500,000 for the 
study.
    All four National Park Service (NPS) units in Michigan, 
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Keweenaw National Historical 
Park, Isle Royale National Park, and Sleeping Bear Dunes 
National Lakeshore already preserve and interpret historic 
maritime resources identified in the provisions of S. 1346. 
These parks contain historic maritime landscapes of a size and 
quality unique on the Great Lakes and rare elsewhere on the 
United States coastlines. The maritime heritage resources at 
all four NPS sites are interpreted and presented to the public 
in a variety of ways. Symbols of the maritime history of Lake 
Superior are preserved at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore at 
three former Coast Guard stations and the Au Sable Light 
Station, which is perhaps the finest example on the Great Lakes 
of late 1800's vintage masonry lighthouses. At Keweenaw 
National Historical Park, the majority of cultural resources 
are related to copper mining. Some of the success of that 
industry was attributed to the waterways of Lake Superior and 
the role that copper played in building ships and boats to this 
day. Thus, this site adds another dimension to the maritime 
heritage of the area.
    Copper mining on the island of Isle Royale and the growth 
of Lake Superior shipping led to the establishment of four 
lighthouses around Isle Royale National Park. These 
lighthouses, three of which are listed on the National Register 
of Historic Places, and numerous shipwrecks of both national 
and state significance scattered throughout Isle Royale 
National Park give clear indication of the traffic and danger 
the waters of Lake Superior posed to sailing vessels throughout 
history. The area was a base for a thriving commercial fishing 
industry from the 1830's until the park's establishment in 
1931.
    The maritime resources at Sleeping Bear Dunes National 
Lakeshore include an 1858 lighthouse, three original Life-
Saving Service/Coast Guard stations, eight historic rescue 
boats, and hundreds of museum artifacts. Cultural landscapes 
highlight the maritime and agricultural resources of the area. 
The waters of Lake Michigan have played a key role in the 
settlement of the state.
    There are indoor and outside exhibits, walking tours, 
living history, boat tours and audio-visual programs at these 
park sites. Scores of school groups make trips to these sites 
where history comes alive to enhance their social science 
studies. During the summers, national park rangers, Volunteers-
in-Park (VIPs), and various park partners staff museums, 
visitor centers, and historic structures to provide the general 
public with enthusiasm and knowledge of the maritime heritage 
resources.
    The state of Michigan also has made great efforts to 
preserve and protect important cultural and natural resources. 
Michigan has listed over one thousand sites on the National 
Register of Historic Places, which includes state parks, 
historic houses, commercial and residential areas, farm and 
factory complexes, cemeteries, monuments, as well as ships and 
shipwreck sites. The state has developed a database that 
includes the stories and details of wrecks and rescues of 1,500 
shipwrecks as well as information on the 11 underwater 
preserves and other important historical facts. There are 120 
lighthouses along the coastline, the oldest ones being over 180 
years old. And Michigan established the first fresh water 
marine sanctuary in the Great Lakes area, the Thunder Bay 
National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve, to maintain 
stewardship over and interpret a large collection of 
shipwrecks. There are numerous museums, hotels, historic ships 
and boats, locks and ports, and underwater preserves related to 
the maritime industry.
    The Great Lakes are a critical part of Michigan's economy 
and quality of life. Millions of people use the Great Lakes 
each year to enjoy beaches, good fishing and boating. Pictured 
Rocks National Lakeshore, Keweenaw National Historical Park, 
Isle Royale National Park, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National 
Lakeshore will continue to ensure that outstanding natural and 
cultural resources will be protected for generations to come.
    Mr. Chairman, this concludes my prepared testimony. I would 
be pleased to answer any questions you or the committee may 
have.

                        CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee notes that no 
changes in existing law are made by the bill S. 1346, as 
ordered reported.