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Calendar No. 396
109th Congress Report
2d Session 109-234
MICHIGAN LIGHTHOUSE AND MARITIME HERITAGE ACT
April 20, 2006.--Ordered to be printed
Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of April 7, 2006
Mr. Domenici, from the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources,
submitted the following
R E P O R T
[To accompany S. 1346]
The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was
referred the bill (S. 1346) to direct the Secretary of the
Interior to conduct a study of maritime sites in the State of
Michigan, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon
with an amendment and recommends that the bill, as amended, do
The amendment is as follows:
Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu
thereof the following:
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ``Michigan Lighthouse and Maritime
SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.
In this Act:
(1) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of
(2) State.--The term ``State'' means the State of Michigan.
SEC. 3. STUDY.
(a) In General.--The Secretary, in consultation with the State, the
State Historic Preservation Officer, and other appropriate State and
local public agencies and private organizations, shall conduct a
special resource study of resources related to the maritime heritage of
(b) Purpose.--The purpose of the study is to determine--
(1) suitable and feasible options for the long-term
protection of significant maritime heritage resources in the
(2) the manner in which the public can best learn about and
experience the resources.
(c) Requirements.--In conducting the study under subsection (a), the
(1) review Federal, State, and local maritime resource
inventories and studies to establish the potential for
interpretation and preservation of maritime heritage resources
in the State;
(2) recommend management alternatives that would be most
effective for long-term resource protection and providing for
public enjoyment of maritime heritage resources;
(3) address how to assist regional, State, and local partners
in increasing public awareness of and access to maritime
(4) identify sources of financial and technical assistance
available to communities for the preservation and
interpretation of maritime heritage resources; and
(5) identify opportunities for the National Park Service and
the State to coordinate the activities of appropriate units of
national, State, and local parks and historic sites in
furthering the preservation and interpretation of maritime
(d) Report.--Not later than 3 years after the date on which funds are
made available to carry out the study under subsection (a), the
Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of
Representatives a report that describes--
(1) the results of the study; and
(2) any findings and recommendations of the Secretary.
SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to
carry out this Act.
PURPOSE OF THE MEASURE
The purpose of S. 1346 is to direct the Secretary of the
Interior to conduct a study of maritime sites in the State of
BACKGROUND AND NEED
The State of Michigan has more miles of shoreline than any
State in the Continental United States. During the past 500
years, fur traders, sailing ship captains, and freighter pilots
have traveled this shoreline. Cities and towns were built along
the Lake, sometimes as ports or places of commerce, and
sometimes as summer resorts. These people and places have left
Michigan with a rich maritime heritage. The State is home to
more than 120 lighthouses, historic hotels, Coast Guard
stations, and other structures that reflect life on the Great
S. 1346 would require the Secretary of the Interior,
through the National Park Service, to work with the State of
Michigan and local communities to study the best ways to
protect Michigan's maritime resources and promote them through
recreation and education.
S. 1346 was introduced by Senators Stabenow and Levin on
June 30, 2005. The Subcommittee on National Parks of the
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held a hearing on S.
1346 on July 28, 2005. At its business meeting on March 8,
2006, the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources ordered S.
1346 favorably reported as amended.
The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, in open
business session on March 8, 2006, by unanimous voice vote of a
quorum present, recommends that the Senate pass S. 1346, if
amended as described herein.
During consideration of S. 1346, the Committee adopted an
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The substitute makes
the objectives of the study clearer and more consistent with
other National Park Service study legislation.
Section 1 entitles the bill, the ``Michigan Lighthouse and
Maritime Heritage Act.''
Section 2 defines key terms.
Section 3 describes the requirements for the content of the
study and the process by which it should be completed and
requires a report to be filed with the committee not later than
3 years after funds have been made available.
Section 4 authorizes $500,000 to be appropriated to carry
out this Act.
COST AND BUDGETARY CONSIDERATIONS
The following estimate of costs of this measure has been
provided by the Congressional Budget Office.
S. 1346--Michigan Lighthouse and Maritime Heritage Act
S. 1346 would direct the Department of the Interior to
conduct a special resource study of the maritime history of the
state of Michigan. The legislation would direct the department
to determine the potential economic and tourism benefits of
preserving, protecting, and interpreting Michigan's maritime
resources. S. 1346 would require the department to report on
its findings and recommendations within three years of
receiving funding for the study.
Based on information from the National Park Service, CBO
estimates that it would cost about $500,000 over the next three
years to complete the required study and report, assuming
appropriation of the necessary amounts. Enacting S. 1346 would
not affect direct spending or revenues.
S. 1346 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Matthew
Pickford. This estimate was approved by Peter H. Fontaine,
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.
REGULATORY IMPACT EVALUATION
In compliance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee makes the following
evaluation of the regulatory impact which would be incurred in
carrying out S. 1346. The bill is not a regulatory measure in
the sense of imposing Government-established standards or
significant economic responsibilities on private individuals
No personal information would be collected in administering
the program. Therefore, there would be no impact on personal
Little, if any, additional paperwork would result from the
enactment of S. 1346, as ordered reported.
The views of the Administration on S. 1346 were included in
testimony received by the Committee at a hearing on the bill on
July 28, 2005. This testimony follows:
Statement of Stephen P. Martin, Deputy Director, U.S. Department of the
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present the
views of the Department of the Interior on S. 1346, a bill to
authorize the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a special
resource study of the maritime heritage sites in the state of
The Department does not support S. 1346. While Michigan is
rich in historic treasures linked to its Great Lakes' heritage
and the coastlines of the state are home to important resources
such as wetlands, dunes, and threatened and endangered species
and plants, we believe the best of these cultural and natural
resources are already being conserved and interpreted for the
enjoyment of the public.
S. 1346 would authorize a study to determine the potential
economic and tourism benefits of preserving, protecting, and
interpreting the State's maritime resources. It would recommend
management alternatives for the most effective long-term
protection and interpretation of the resources. The study also
would address ways to link communities, waterways, monuments,
parkways, national and state parks, and state historic sites on
the national, regional, state and local levels into a Michigan
Maritime Heritage Destination Network. S. 1346 would require a
report to be submitted to Congress not later than 18 months
after funds are made available that describes the results of
the study. The bill would authorize funding of $500,000 for the
All four National Park Service (NPS) units in Michigan,
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Keweenaw National Historical
Park, Isle Royale National Park, and Sleeping Bear Dunes
National Lakeshore already preserve and interpret historic
maritime resources identified in the provisions of S. 1346.
These parks contain historic maritime landscapes of a size and
quality unique on the Great Lakes and rare elsewhere on the
United States coastlines. The maritime heritage resources at
all four NPS sites are interpreted and presented to the public
in a variety of ways. Symbols of the maritime history of Lake
Superior are preserved at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore at
three former Coast Guard stations and the Au Sable Light
Station, which is perhaps the finest example on the Great Lakes
of late 1800's vintage masonry lighthouses. At Keweenaw
National Historical Park, the majority of cultural resources
are related to copper mining. Some of the success of that
industry was attributed to the waterways of Lake Superior and
the role that copper played in building ships and boats to this
day. Thus, this site adds another dimension to the maritime
heritage of the area.
Copper mining on the island of Isle Royale and the growth
of Lake Superior shipping led to the establishment of four
lighthouses around Isle Royale National Park. These
lighthouses, three of which are listed on the National Register
of Historic Places, and numerous shipwrecks of both national
and state significance scattered throughout Isle Royale
National Park give clear indication of the traffic and danger
the waters of Lake Superior posed to sailing vessels throughout
history. The area was a base for a thriving commercial fishing
industry from the 1830's until the park's establishment in
The maritime resources at Sleeping Bear Dunes National
Lakeshore include an 1858 lighthouse, three original Life-
Saving Service/Coast Guard stations, eight historic rescue
boats, and hundreds of museum artifacts. Cultural landscapes
highlight the maritime and agricultural resources of the area.
The waters of Lake Michigan have played a key role in the
settlement of the state.
There are indoor and outside exhibits, walking tours,
living history, boat tours and audio-visual programs at these
park sites. Scores of school groups make trips to these sites
where history comes alive to enhance their social science
studies. During the summers, national park rangers, Volunteers-
in-Park (VIPs), and various park partners staff museums,
visitor centers, and historic structures to provide the general
public with enthusiasm and knowledge of the maritime heritage
The state of Michigan also has made great efforts to
preserve and protect important cultural and natural resources.
Michigan has listed over one thousand sites on the National
Register of Historic Places, which includes state parks,
historic houses, commercial and residential areas, farm and
factory complexes, cemeteries, monuments, as well as ships and
shipwreck sites. The state has developed a database that
includes the stories and details of wrecks and rescues of 1,500
shipwrecks as well as information on the 11 underwater
preserves and other important historical facts. There are 120
lighthouses along the coastline, the oldest ones being over 180
years old. And Michigan established the first fresh water
marine sanctuary in the Great Lakes area, the Thunder Bay
National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve, to maintain
stewardship over and interpret a large collection of
shipwrecks. There are numerous museums, hotels, historic ships
and boats, locks and ports, and underwater preserves related to
the maritime industry.
The Great Lakes are a critical part of Michigan's economy
and quality of life. Millions of people use the Great Lakes
each year to enjoy beaches, good fishing and boating. Pictured
Rocks National Lakeshore, Keweenaw National Historical Park,
Isle Royale National Park, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National
Lakeshore will continue to ensure that outstanding natural and
cultural resources will be protected for generations to come.
Mr. Chairman, this concludes my prepared testimony. I would
be pleased to answer any questions you or the committee may
CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW
In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee notes that no
changes in existing law are made by the bill S. 1346, as