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110th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                    110-254
======================================================================
 
SHIRLEY A. CHISHOLM UNITED STATES-CARIBBEAN EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE ACT OF 

                                  2007

                                _______
                                

 July 23, 2007.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Lantos, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 176]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Foreign Affairs, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 176) to authorize assistance to the countries of the 
Caribbean to fund educational development and exchange 
programs, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommends that the bill as amended do 
pass.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
The Amendment....................................................     2
Summary..........................................................     6
Background and Purpose for the Legislation.......................     7
Hearings.........................................................     9
Committee Consideration..........................................     9
Votes of the Committee...........................................     9
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................     9
New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures........................     9
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................     9
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................    10
Constitutional Authority Statement...............................    10
New Advisory Committees..........................................    10
Congressional Accountability Act.................................    10
Earmark Identification...........................................    11
Section-by-Section Analysis and Discussion.......................    11

                             The Amendment

  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE AND TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Shirley A. Chisholm 
United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Act of 2007''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title and table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.
Sec. 3. Findings and statement of purpose.
Sec. 4. Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational 
Exchange Program.
Sec. 5. Program to provide educational development assistance for 
CARICOM countries.
Sec. 6. Administrative provisions.
Sec. 7. Reporting requirements.
Sec. 8. Authorization of appropriations.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Administrator.--Except as otherwise provided, the term 
        ``Administrator'' means the Administrator of the United States 
        Agency for International Development.
          (2) Appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
                  (A) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the 
                Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
                Representatives; and
                  (B) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the 
                Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.
          (3) CARICOM country.--The term ``CARICOM country''--
                  (A) means a member country of the Caribbean Community 
                (CARICOM); but
                  (B) does not include--
                          (i) a country having observer status in 
                        CARICOM; or
                          (ii) a country the government of which the 
                        Secretary of State has determined, for purposes 
                        of section 6(j) of the Export Administration 
                        Act of 1979 (as continued in effect pursuant to 
                        the International Emergency Economic Powers 
                        Act), section 40 of the Arms Export Control 
                        Act, section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act 
                        of 1961, or any other provision of law, is a 
                        government that has repeatedly provided support 
                        for acts of international terrorism.
          (4) Secretary.--Except as otherwise provided, the term 
        ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of State.
          (5) United states cooperating agency.--The term ``United 
        States cooperating agency'' means--
                  (A) an accredited institution of higher education, 
                including, to the maximum extent practicable, an 
                historically Black college or university that is a part 
                B institution (as such term is defined in section 
                322(2) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                1061(2))) or an Hispanic-serving institution (as such 
                term is defined in section 502(5) of such Act (20 
                U.S.C. 1101a(5)));
                  (B) a higher education association;
                  (C) a nongovernmental organization incorporated in 
                the United States; or
                  (D) a consortium consisting of two or more such 
                institutions, associations, or nongovernmental 
                organizations.

SEC. 3. FINDINGS AND STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) The United States and CARICOM countries have enjoyed 
        long-standing friendly relations.
          (2) As an important regional partner for trade and democratic 
        values, the Caribbean region constitutes a ``Third Border'' of 
        the United States.
          (3) The decrease in tourism revenue in the aftermath of the 
        tragic terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, had an adverse 
        affect on the Caribbean region.
          (4) According to a 2005 World Bank Report on the Caribbean 
        region, high rates of unemployment, particularly youth 
        unemployment, have had severe implications on poverty and 
        income distributions, as well as drug trafficking and 
        addiction.
          (5) The 2005 World Bank Report also concludes that better 
        synchronization is needed between curricula in CARICOM 
        countries and the skills needed in evolving national and 
        regional job markets and economies.
          (6) Caribbean leaders have highlighted the need for increased 
        educational opportunities for Caribbean students in fields that 
        will contribute to and support an increasingly competitive 
        regional economy.
          (7) Enhancing United States cultural and educational exchange 
        programs in CARICOM countries will expand human resources, 
        provide opportunities that promote economic growth, and improve 
        regional security.
          (8) Many Caribbean leaders studied at the undergraduate or 
        graduate level in the United States before returning to their 
        respective countries to contribute toward the strengthening of 
        democracy, the economy, or the provision of social services.
          (9) From 2003 through 2005, 217 Caribbean leaders 
        participated in exchange programs with the United States that 
        focused on good governance, combating drug trafficking, anti-
        corruption, and other regional issues of concern.
          (10) The Department of State currently administers public 
        outreach programs that include cultural, academic, and citizen-
        exchange initiatives in CARICOM countries through the Embassy 
        Public Affairs Sections with support from the Office of Public 
        Diplomacy in the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs.
          (11) The Caribbean Center for Excellence in Teacher Training 
        (C-CETT), a Presidential Initiative funded by the United States 
        Agency for International Development and implemented by the 
        University of the West Indies, works to improve the quality of 
        reading instruction by training classroom and student teachers 
        in seven countries of the English-speaking Caribbean.   Belize, 
        Jamaica, Grenada, St. Lucia, Guyana, St.Vincent and the 
        Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago have participated in the C-
        CETT as a means to reducing illiteracy  in the most 
        disadvantaged urban and remote rural  areas.
          (12) In Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, 
        Belize, the Cayman Islands, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, 
        Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. 
        Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad 
        and Tobago, the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of 
        the Department of State sponsors educational advisors to 
        promote study in the United States.
          (13) In the 2004-2005 academic year, approximately 14,000 
        Caribbean students were enrolled in United States colleges and 
        universities.
          (14) Shirley Anita Chisholm, who served as a member of the 
        United States House of Representatives from 1968 to 1983, had 
        family roots in the Caribbean nation of Barbados, was a staunch 
        advocate for educational opportunity and access, and increased 
        support for historically Black colleges and universities and 
        other minority-serving institutions in the United States.
  (b) Statement of Purpose.--The purpose of this Act is to establish--
          (1) an educational exchange program between the United States 
        and CARICOM countries, to be known as the ``Shirley A. Chisholm 
        United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Program'', 
        pursuant to section 4 of this Act to assist in educating 
        promising students and scholars from CARICOM countries who will 
        invest the knowledge and experiences they gain in the United 
        States back into the community of CARICOM countries; and
          (2) a program to provide educational development assistance 
        for CARICOM countries pursuant to section 5 of this Act.

SEC. 4. SHIRLEY A. CHISHOLM UNITED STATES-CARIBBEAN EDUCATIONAL 
                    EXCHANGE PROGRAM.

  (a) Program Authorized.--The Secretary of State is authorized to 
establish an educational exchange program between the United States and 
CARICOM countries, to be known as the ``Shirley A. Chisholm United 
States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Program,'' under which--
          (1) secondary school students from CARICOM countries will--
                  (A) attend a public or private secondary school in 
                the United States;
                  (B) participate in activities designed to promote a 
                greater understanding of the values and culture of the 
                United States; and
                  (C) have the option to live with a United States host 
                family and experience life in a United States host 
                community; and
          (2) undergraduate students, graduate students, post-graduate 
        students, and scholars from CARICOM countries will--
                  (A) attend a public or private college or university, 
                including a community college, in the United States;
                  (B) participate in activities designed to promote a 
                greater understanding of the values and culture of the 
                United States; and
                  (C) have the option to live with a United States host 
                family and experience life in a United States host 
                community or live in an on-campus housing environment.
  (b) Elements of Program.--The program authorized under subsection (a) 
shall meet the following requirements:
          (1) The program will offer scholarships to students and 
        scholars based on merit and need. It is the sense of Congress 
        that scholarships should be offered under the program to 
        students and scholars who evidence merit, achievement, and 
        strong potential for the studies such students and scholars 
        wish to undertake under the program and 40 percent of 
        scholarships offered under the program should be based on 
        financial need.
          (2) The program will seek to achieve gender equality in 
        granting scholarships under the program.
          (3) The program will limit participation to--
                  (A) two years of study for secondary school students;
                  (B) four years of study for undergraduate students;
                  (C) 30 months of study for graduate students; and
                  (D) one year of study for post-graduate students and 
                scholars.
          (4) For a period of time equal to the period of time of 
        participation in the program, but not to exceed 2 years, the 
        program will require participants who are students and scholars 
        described in subsection (a)(2) to--
                  (A) agree to return to live in a CARICOM country and 
                maintain residence in such country, within 6 months of 
                completion of academic studies; or
                  (B) agree to obtain employment that directly benefits 
                the growth, progress, and development of one or more 
                CARICOM countries and the people of such countries.
          (5) The Secretary of State shall have the discretion to 
        waive, shorten the duration, or otherwise alter the 
        requirements of paragraph (5) in limited circumstances of 
        hardship, humanitarian needs, for specific educational 
        purposes, or in furtherance of the national interests of the 
        United States.
  (c) Role of United States Cooperating Agencies.--The Secretary shall 
consult with United States cooperating agencies in developing the 
program authorized under subsection (a) and shall make grants to United 
States cooperating agencies in carrying out the program authorized 
under subsection (a).
  (d) Monitoring and Evaluation of Program.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall establish and implement 
        a system to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness and 
        efficiency of the program authorized under subsection (a). In 
        carrying out the system, the Secretary shall evaluate the 
        program's positive or negative effects on brain-drain from the 
        participating CARICOM countries and suggest ways in which the 
        program may be improved to promote the basic goal of 
        alleviating brain-drain from the participating CARICOM 
        countries.
          (2) Requirements.--In carrying out paragraph (1), the 
        Secretary shall review on a regular basis--
                  (A) financial information relating to the program;
                  (B) budget plans for the program;
                  (C) adjustments to plans established for the program;
                  (D) graduation rates of participants in the program;
                  (E) the percentage of participants who are students 
                described in subsection (a)(1) who pursue higher 
                education;
                  (F) the percentage of participants who return to 
                their home country or another CARICOM country;
                  (G) the types of careers pursued by participants in 
                the program and the extent to which such careers are 
                linked to the political, economic, and social 
                development needs of CARICOM countries; and
                  (H) the impact of gender, country of origin, 
                financial need of students, and other relevant factors 
                on the data collected under subparagraphs (D) through 
                (G).
  (e) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Secretary should seek to work with CARICOM countries to establish an 
educational exchange program under which--
          (1) secondary school students from the United States will 
        attend a public or private equivalent school in CARICOM 
        countries; and
          (2) undergraduate students, graduate students, post-graduate 
        students, and scholars from the United States will attend a 
        public or private college or university in CARICOM countries.

SEC. 5. PROGRAM TO PROVIDE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR 
                    CARICOM COUNTRIES.

  (a) Program Authorized.--The Secretary of State, acting through the 
Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, is authorized to establish a program to provide 
educational development assistance for CARICOM countries.
  (b) Purpose of Program.--The purpose of the program authorized under 
subsection (a) is to improve primary and secondary education in CARICOM 
countries by enhancing teacher training, strengthening curriculum and 
instructional materials, and assisting improvements in school 
management and public administration of education.
  (c) Elements of Program.--The program authorized under subsection (a) 
shall extend and expand upon existing primary and secondary school 
programs in CARICOM countries to provide--
          (1) teacher-training methods and training in subject area 
        studies;
          (2) classroom and school management;
          (3) development and modernization of curriculum and 
        instructional materials;
          (4) increased community involvement in school activities; and
          (5) local, regional, and national government policy planning 
        on the elements described in paragraphs (1) through (4).
  (d) Role of United States Cooperating Agencies.--The Secretary shall 
consult with the Secretary of Education and United States cooperating 
agencies in developing the program authorized under subsection (a) and 
shall make grants to United States cooperating agencies in carrying out 
the program authorized under subsection (a).
  (e) Monitoring and Evaluation of Program.--The Secretary shall 
establish and implement a system to monitor and evaluate the 
effectiveness and efficiency of the program authorized under subsection 
(a).
  (f) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Secretary should seek to work with CARICOM countries to establish an 
educational development program under which education in the CARICOM 
countries is improved and access to quality education for children in 
CARICOM countries is increased.

SEC. 6. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

  (a) Funding From Private Sources and Partnerships With Other 
Appropriate Entities.--To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary 
of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for 
International Development should implement the programs authorized 
under sections 4 and 5 of this Act through utilization of funding from 
private sources to maximize the impact of United States funds under 
this Act, and through partnerships with appropriate United States 
organizations, institutions, and corporations.
  (b) Avoidance of Duplication.--The Secretary and the Administrator 
shall consult with the Secretary of Education to ensure that--
          (1) activities under the programs authorized under sections 4 
        and 5 of this Act are not duplicative of other United States 
        educational programs for CARICOM countries; and
          (2) United States cooperating agencies and partner 
        institutions in CARICOM countries are accredited by national or 
        regional accrediting bodies.
  (c) Reporting Under SEVIS.--To the extent necessary, the Secretary 
shall provide support to United States cooperating agencies that are 
participating in the program authorized under section 4 of this Act in 
order to fulfill the requirements for student data reporting under the 
Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

SEC. 7. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.

  (a) Report Required.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall submit to the 
appropriate congressional committees a report on plans to implement the 
programs authorized under sections 4 and 5 of this Act.
  (b) Matters to Be Included.--The report required by subsection (a) 
shall include--
          (1) with respect to implementation of the program authorized 
        under section 4--
                  (A) a plan for selecting participants in the program, 
                including an estimate of the number of secondary school 
                students, undergraduate students, graduate students, 
                post-graduate students, and scholars from each country, 
                by educational level, who will be selected as 
                participants in the program for each fiscal year;
                  (B) a timeline for selecting United States 
                cooperating agencies that will assist in implementing 
                the program and for those agencies to setup to 
                implement the program;
                  (C) a financial plan that--
                          (i) identifies budget plans for the program, 
                        identifying budgets for each educational level 
                        under the program; and
                          (ii) identifies plans or systems to ensure 
                        that the costs allocated to public school, 
                        college, and university education under the 
                        program and the costs allocated to private 
                        school, college, and university education under 
                        the program are reasonably allocated; and
                  (D) a plan to provide outreach to and linkages with 
                schools, colleges and universities, and nongovernmental 
                organizations in both the United States and CARICOM 
                countries for implementation of the program; and
          (2) a plan outlining implementation of the program authorized 
        under section 5, identifying the initial countries in which the 
        program will be implemented and a timeline for implementation.
  (c) Updates of Report.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall submit to the 
        appropriate congressional committees updates of the report 
        required by subsection (a) for each fiscal year for which 
        amounts are appropriated pursuant to the authorization of 
        appropriations under section 8 of this Act.
          (2) Matters to be included.--Such updates shall include the 
        following:
                  (A) Information on United States cooperating agencies 
                that are selected to assist in implementing the 
                programs authorized under sections 4 and 5 of this Act.
                  (B) An analysis of the positive and negative impacts 
                the program authorized under section 4 will have or is 
                having on brain-drain from the participating CARICOM 
                countries.
                  (C) A description of efforts made by the Secretary of 
                State, acting through the Administrator of the United 
                States Agency for International Development, to 
                implement the program authorized under section 5.
                  (D) A description of the programs established in each 
                CARICOM country receiving assistance under the program 
                authorized under section 5 that provides a detailed 
                explanation of the extent to which the program and the 
                assistance provided are contributing to the purpose of 
                the program described in section 5(b) in the CARICOM 
                country.
                  (E) An evaluation of additional educational 
                development goals in CARICOM countries, identifying 
                those goals that could be maximized or achieved with 
                United States assistance through the program authorized 
                under section 5. In addition to standard or necessary 
                areas of education review, the evaluation should give 
                attention to factors affecting academic achievement, 
                attrition, and graduation rates in CARICOM countries. 
                The evaluation should suggest ways to maximize success 
                factors and address factors contributing to poor 
                achievement through United States assistance.

SEC. 8. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  To carry out this Act, there are authorized to be appropriated such 
sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 
2012. Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of 
appropriations under this section are in addition to amounts otherwise 
available for such purposes.

                                Summary

    H.R. 176, the ``Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean 
Educational Exchange Act of 2007'' (the ``Act'') establishes an 
educational exchange program between the United States and the nations 
of the Caribbean Community and Common Market, also known as CARICOM, 
and provides educational-related development assistance for CARICOM 
countries.
    The Shirley A. Chisholm Educational Exchange Program will enable 
high school, undergraduate and graduate students, and scholars from 
CARICOM countries to attend public and private schools, colleges and 
universities in the United States. The program will emphasize 
activities designed to promote a greater understanding of the values 
and culture of the United States and will give students the option to 
live with a United States host family and experience life in a 
community. The scholarships will be offered to students who evidence 
merit, achievement and potential, and 40 percent of scholarships will 
be based on need. Participating students must agree to return to a 
CARICOM country within 6 months of completion of academic studies or 
agree to obtain employment that directly benefits the growth, progress, 
and development of a CARICOM country.
    In addition, the Act seeks to improve primary and secondary 
education in CARICOM nations and to increase access to quality 
education for children in CARICOM countries. The Act authorizes the 
Secretary of State, acting through the Administrator of the U.S. Agency 
for International Development (USAID), to extend and expand upon 
existing educational development programs to provide teacher training, 
curriculum development and improvements in school administration in 
primary and secondary schools in CARICOM countries. The Act would allow 
USAID to use public-private partnerships to implement the program and 
it encourages the participation of Historically Black Colleges and 
Universities and Hispanic Serving Institutions in this effort to 
improve education in these nations.

               Background and Purpose for the Legislation

    The U.S. continues a long tradition of close and friendly relations 
with the member nations of CARICOM. Currently, the CARICOM member 
states are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, 
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Lucia, St. 
Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad 
and Tobago. Geographic proximity has ensured strong economic relations 
between the U.S. and the CARICOM nations, and the U.S. continues to be 
a major trading partner for CARICOM nations and a significant source of 
foreign investment in the region. In addition, migration from CARICOM 
nations to the United States has been significant over the last few 
decades, creating sizable Caribbean populations in states such as New 
York and Florida. Many Americans of Caribbean heritage make significant 
contributions to our economy and culture throughout the United States.
    The Committee expects that the visit of CARICOM leaders to the 
United States in June of 2007 will serve as a key step forward in 
enhancing the depth and range of cooperation between the United States 
and the nations of the CARICOM region. This Act, and the educational 
exchange and development programs it creates, will play a significant 
role in expanding U.S. relations with CARICOM countries by investing in 
the people of these nations. In addition, the education initiatives in 
this bill will assist long-term U.S. efforts to address three key 
policy priorities for the region: promoting democracy, advancing free 
trade, and advancing poverty alleviation and social justice.
    Caribbean citizens have come to the United States to pursue higher 
education for decades. Close to 14,000 students from the Caribbean have 
studied in the U.S. annually over the last few years. Student exchange 
programs help increase mutual cultural understanding and assist in 
strengthening our ties with other nations. In particular, the Shirley 
A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Program will 
ensure closer ties between Americans and our Caribbean neighbors, and 
will help develop leaders in the Caribbean who will have enhanced 
knowledge of American systems of democracy and our free market economic 
system.
    Opportunities to study abroad have played a key role in the 
development of leadership throughout the CARICOM countries, impacting 
government, the economy and civil society in these nations. Many 
leaders in English-speaking countries have studied at the University of 
the West Indies, but many have also left the region to study in 
England, Canada and the United States. As an example, the current Prime 
Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, W. Baldwin Spencer, studied in 
England, Canada and Norway; the Prime Minister of Belize, Said Musa, 
studied in England; and the President of Haiti, Rene Preval, studied in 
Belgium. These leaders, and many others, chose to reinvest their 
education back into their nations and their home communities.
    Many of the Caribbean's best and brightest have come to study in 
the U.S. and later obtained jobs here. They have made significant 
contributions to American communities and to our nation as a whole. But 
with their immigration to the U.S., our gain has come at a great price 
for the Caribbean nations they left. Over the decades, there has been a 
significant brain drain of talent from the Caribbean to the United 
States and Europe particularly. This bill seeks to address that problem 
by targeting young scholars who are committed to returning home, and 
those who are determined to contribute the knowledge and skills they 
gain through education in the U.S. for the betterment of their nations. 
By becoming leaders in business, politics, education and teaching, 
religion and civil society, the beneficiaries of this program can 
enhance job creation and opportunity in their home country, or another 
CARICOM nation.
    CARICOM nations face significant political and social challenges 
and the United States shares an interest in working with these 
neighbors to address these issues of common concern. We continue to 
work with CARICOM nations on the problems of illegal drug trafficking 
and addiction, HIV/AIDS, severe forms of poverty and underdevelopment, 
income distribution distortions, and high rates of unemployment. In 
addition, these nations have continued to be good partners with the 
U.S. on regional security concerns and beneficial trade relationships. 
Section 2 of this Act makes explicit that assistance provided under the 
Act may not be provided to a country the government of which the 
Secretary of State has determined, for purposes of section 6(j) of the 
Export Administration Act of 1979 (as continued in effect pursuant to 
the International Emergency Economic Powers Act), section 40 of the 
Arms Export Control Act, section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961, or any other provision of law, is a government that has 
repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.
    The World Bank concluded that educational systems and curricula in 
CARICOM nations need to be adjusted to meet the needs of increasingly 
competitive national and regional job markets. Caribbean leaders have 
invited increased investment by the United States in their educational 
systems, and have highlighted the need for increased educational 
opportunities in fields that will contribute to further development of 
their economies in regional and international contexts.
    Educational systems in the Caribbean are generally marked with high 
levels of participation in primary school, with steady decreases in 
enrollment in secondary school. Grade repetition, attrition, and space 
or access limitations are significant challenges in many countries. In 
addition, the quality of education is below international goals in many 
countries, though most nations show successful levels of achievement at 
schools primarily accessed by the nation's social elites. In fact, 
private sector education is a key feature of educational systems in the 
Caribbean: in most Caribbean countries, private schools account for 
more than 80% of total enrollment. While gender parity exists in most 
primary school systems, it skews notably to favor girls in secondary 
systems in many countries (with the exception of Haiti where far more 
boys then girls receive secondary education). Caribbean school systems 
are also marked by outdated curricula, under-trained teachers and 
teachers with low qualifications. In some nations, a substantial 
percentage of teachers never finished secondary school themselves. 
These problems are reflected in the persistent low literacy rates 
throughout the Caribbean where 70% of adults, 55% of them women, are 
unable to read and write with understanding.
    Like much of the Western Hemisphere, school enrollment rates in the 
Caribbean are relatively high compared to many other countries in the 
developing world. However, primary school enrollment rates in the 
Caribbean lag behind those in Latin America. In 2004, Caribbean nations 
showed a net enrollment ratio in primary school of only 83% compared to 
95% for Latin America. Large numbers of children remain outside of the 
primary educational systems and many enter school late, or over-age, 
and unprepared to learn. Over half of children not enrolled in school 
are girls.
    Although participation in secondary school is generally expanding 
across the region, attrition continues to be a substantial problem in 
many countries. In the Bahamas, for example, the secondary school gross 
enrollment ratio (expressing enrollment as a percentage of the 
population in the corresponding age group) declined 30% between 1999 
and 2004. Thus school completion is a significant challenge in some 
countries, with boys tending to leave school or fail to complete at a 
greater rate than girls. Some school systems have had success with 
improvement in enrollment. This ratio increased in eleven Caribbean 
nations, including CARICOM members Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, 
Montserrat, and St. Kitts and Nevis. Nonetheless, national and 
international learning assessments continue to reveal poor literacy and 
numerical skills, especially for students from poor or culturally 
excluded families in the Caribbean.
    The Caribbean has particularly narrow access to tertiary education 
for students in the relevant age group. While the gross enrollment 
ratio is 29% in Latin America, it is only 6% in the Caribbean. The 
University of the West Indies plays an important role in providing 
quality university and graduate education to citizens of the Caribbean. 
By providing access to tertiary education in the United States, the 
Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange 
Program can expand the number of university graduates in the CARICOM 
countries, while ensuring that these nations benefit from the 
educational achievements of their citizens.
    In a large number of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, 
fewer than 80% of teachers have received pedagogical training. Six of 
the eleven countries in the world with more than 50% of their secondary 
teachers lacking training are in the Caribbean, and are all CARICOM 
members: Belize, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. 
Vincent and the Grenadines. The Bahamas showed a remarkable increase in 
teacher training in recent years (more than 60%), but the total number 
of teachers declined, leading to notably high student to teacher ratios 
and resulting overcrowded classrooms. Barbados and Montserrat showed 
declines in the percentage of trained teachers. In addition, 
requirements for teacher qualifications are sometimes low. In recent 
years only secondary education was required to teach in Antigua and 
Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In 
numerous countries, qualification requirements are not met. In Antigua 
and Barbuda, for example, fewer than 50% of primary school teachers 
finished secondary school.
    Many of these educational issues are noted in specific reports and 
assessments on national school systems. A 2004 national report on 
education produced by the Jamaican Government noted that ``a number of 
Jamaicans are under-educated and cannot take advantage of educational 
and economic opportunities that may arise. . . . There is concern that 
output from the system does not possess the attitude and the skills 
required to function effectively in today's society.'' That report also 
notes the formidable challenge of access to secondary education due to 
inadequate space and financial restraints on families.
    A 2007 World Bank project appraisal for an education program in 
Haiti notes that half a million children between the ages of 6 and 11 
do not attend school at all in Haiti, and only half of all 6-year-olds 
enroll in first grade. That report indicates that a small fraction of 
the needed teachers are certified each year and that ``teacher trainers 
emphasize out-dated teaching methods and trainees lack the materials 
they need to develop both theoretical and practical pedagogical 
competencies.'' The report notes that many children are not ready to 
learn; they arrive at school hungry and without energy. Furthermore, 
``Quality of instruction and learning is extremely poor. Curricula are 
outdated and in many cases inappropriate for over-age students who make 
up the bulk of the primary education population. Teaching practices are 
almost exclusively `chalk and talk,' requiring students to recite words 
and phrases they frequently cannot understand.''
    Though Haiti faces extreme development challenges, these two 
reports reflect challenges faced by numerous educational systems 
throughout the Caribbean and throughout CARICOM nations. The United 
Nations has determined that external assistance will be required to 
achieve international ``Education for All'' goals in this region, 
especially in the least developed countries with the lowest education 
indicators. The ``Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean 
Educational Exchange Act of 2007'' will contribute toward assisting the 
CARICOM countries in developing their capacity to meet the educational 
challenges and goals necessary for their people to become vibrant 
contributors in growing national, regional and international economies.

                                Hearings

    The Committee did not hold any hearings directly related to the 
subject matter of this bill.

                        Committee Consideration

    On June 26, 2007, the Committee marked up H.R. 176, and reported it 
favorably to the House, as amended, a quorum present.

                         Votes of the Committee

    There were no recorded votes during consideration of H.R. 176.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee reports that the findings and 
recommendations of the Committee, based on oversight activities under 
clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
are incorporated in the descriptive portions of this report.

               New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with Clause 3(c)(2) of House Rule XIII, the Committee 
adopts as its own the estimate of new budget authority, entitlement 
authority, or tax expenditures or revenues contained in the cost 
estimate prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, 
pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee sets forth, with respect to the 
bill, H.R.176, ``Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean 
Educational Exchange Act of 2007,'' the following estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, July 20, 2007.
Hon. Tom Lantos, Chairman,
Committee on Foreign Affairs,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has prepared the 
enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 176, the Shirley A. Chisholm United 
States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Act of 2007.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be pleased to 
provide them. The CBO staff contact is Sunita D'Monte, who can be 
reached at 226-2840.
            Sincerely,
                                           Peter R. Orszag.
Enclosure

cc:
        Honorable Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
        Ranking Member
H.R. 176--Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational 
        Exchange Act of 2007
    H.R. 176 would authorize a comprehensive program to improve primary 
and secondary education in nations in the Caribbean region and an 
educational exchange program with those same countries, and would 
authorize the appropriation of such sums as may be necessary over the 
2008-2012 period for both programs.
    The bill would authorize the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for 
International Development (USAID) to expand existing initiatives for 
teacher training and community involvement in school activities. Based 
on information from USAID, CBO estimates that implementing this 
provision would require funding of $15 million a year, and would cost 
$2 million in 2008 and $48 million over the 2008-2012 period, assuming 
appropriation of the estimated amounts.
    H.R. 176 also would authorize the Secretary of State to establish 
an exchange program for secondary and post-secondary students from the 
region to study in the United States, and to collaborate with Caribbean 
countries to establish similar opportunities for U.S. students. 
According to the State Department, H.R. 176 would duplicate existing 
efforts to facilitate exchange programs with Caribbean countries; thus, 
CBO estimates that implementing this provision would have no 
significant effect on spending subject to appropriation. Enacting the 
bill would not affect direct spending or receipts.
    H.R. 176 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates 
as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and would impose no 
costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Sunita D'Monte, who can 
be reached at 226-2840. This estimate was approved by Peter H. 
Fontaine, Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    The Act is intended to cultivate and educate future leaders in 
CARICOM nations by creating a student exchange program that enables 
CARICOM students to study in the United States and learn about U.S. 
culture, while insuring that these students invest their skills and 
education towards the betterment of CARICOM nations. In addition, the 
Act is intended to improve the quality of primary and secondary 
schooling in CARICOM countries, and access to that schooling, by 
improving teaching, curriculum, management and political operations of 
schools in CARICOM countries.

                   Constitutional Authority Statement

    Pursuant to clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives, the Committee finds the authority for this 
legislation in article I, section 8 of the Constitution.

                        New Advisory Committees

    H.R. 176 does not establish or authorize any new advisory 
committees.

                    Congressional Accountability Act

    H.R. 176 does not apply to the Legislative Branch.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 176 does not contain any congressional earmarks, limited tax 
benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in clause 9(d), 9(e), 
or 9(f) of rule XXI.

               Section-by-Section Analysis and Discussion

Section 1. Short Title and Table of Contents.
    This section provides that the short title of the Act is the 
``Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Act 
of 2007.''
Section 2. Definitions.
    This section provides for definitions for use in the Act.
Section 3. Findings and Statement of Purpose.
    This section establishes the fact that the U.S. and CARICOM have 
had long-standing friendly relations and that they are an important 
regional partner for trade and democratic values. This combination 
provides for characterization of the Caribbean region as a ``Third 
Border'' of the United States. This section also recognizes the adverse 
affect that 9/11 had on tourism revenue, which then lead to high rates 
of unemployment, poverty, drug trafficking and drug addiction.
    It further establishes the need for better synchronization between 
curricula in CARICOM counties and the skills needed in the national and 
regional markets. This section says that enhancing the U.S. cultural 
and educational exchange programs in CARICOM countries will expand 
human resources, provide opportunities that promote economic growth, 
and improve regional security. Education will also strengthen 
democracy, the economy and provision of social services. It states that 
the State Department currently administers public outreach programs 
which focus on these areas, and others of regional concern. This 
section establishes the purpose of the exchange program, which is to 
assist in educating promising students and scholars from CARICOM 
counties who will then invest the knowledge and experiences back into 
their home communities.
Section 4. Shirley Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational 
        Exchange Program.
    This section establishes the Shirley Chisholm United States-
Caribbean Educational Exchange Program, named after the former 
Representative from New York who was a strong advocate for the 
Caribbean and the first American woman to run for the office of 
President of the United States. This section authorizes an exchange 
program under which secondary, undergraduate and graduate students 
attend a public or private school, participate in activities designed 
to promote a greater understanding of the values and culture of the 
U.S., and have the option of living with a host family or on-campus 
housing.
    This section further establishes the elements of the program. It 
requires that the program offer scholarships based on merit and need, 
and will seek to achieve gender equality. This section limits the 
program to 2 years for secondary, 4 years for undergraduate, thirty 
months for graduate, and 1 year for post-graduate students and 
scholars. It further establishes that the participant agree to return 
to live in a CARICOM country and maintain residence in such country 
within 6 months, and that the residence be equal, but not exceeding 2 
years, to the period of time spent in the program. This section also 
requires that the participant obtain employment that directly benefits 
the growth, progress and development of one or more CARICOM counties. 
The Secretary of State is given discretion to waive, shorten or alter 
the requirements in limited circumstances.
    The Secretary is also required to consult with cooperating agencies 
and to make grants to those agencies. This section further requires the 
Secretary to establish a monitoring and evaluation program to review 
financial information, budget plans, adjustments to plans, graduation 
rates, progress of student achievements, and impacts on gender, country 
of origin, financial need of students and other relevant factors on the 
data collected. This section includes a sense of Congress that the 
Secretary of State should work with CARICOM countries to establish an 
educational exchange program that will enable American high school, 
undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students and scholars to 
study at schools or universities in the CARICOM nations.
Section 5. Program to Provide Educational Development Assistance for 
        CARICOM Countries.
    This section authorizes the Secretary, through USAID, to establish 
a program to provide educational development assistance for CARICOM 
countries. This program shall extend and expand on existing programs to 
provide teacher-training, classroom and school management, 
modernization of curriculum, increased community involvement, and 
policy planning. This section requires consultation with the Secretary 
of Education and U.S. cooperating agencies, and the establishment of a 
monitoring and evaluation of the program. This section notes the sense 
of Congress that the Secretary of State should work with CARICOM 
governments to establish an educational development program that will 
improve and increase access to quality education for children in these 
nations.
Section 6. Administrative Provisions.
    This section instructs the Secretary and the USAID administrator to 
use funds from private sources where possible, to implement the 
programs. It further requires that the Secretary shall consult with the 
Secretary of Education to ensure that the programs authorized are not 
duplicative of other U.S. educational programs for the CARICOM 
counties, and that the cooperating agencies and partner institutions in 
the CARICOM countries are accredited appropriately. This section 
instructs the Secretary to provide support to the cooperating agencies 
in fulfilling the requirements for student data reporting under the 
Student and Exchange Visitor Information System.
Section 7. Reporting Requirements.
    Plans to implement this program are to be reported no later than 90 
days after the date of the enactment of this Act. The report must 
include the following: a plan for selecting participants, timeline for 
selecting U.S. cooperating agencies, financial plan, outreach plan, and 
a plan for implementation which identifies the initial countries and 
projects a timeline for implementation.
    This section also instructs the Secretary to submit updates of the 
report for each fiscal year. The updates are to include information on 
cooperating agencies, analysis of the positive and negative impacts the 
program is or will have on ``brain drain'' from the participating 
CARICOM countries, a description of the efforts made by the Secretary 
to implement the program, a description of the programs implemented in 
the CARICOM countries, and an evaluation of additional educational 
development goals.
Section 8. Authorization of Appropriations.
    This section authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be 
necessary for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.