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110th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                    110-303

======================================================================



 
           SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH AND ADVANCEMENT ACT OF 2007

                                _______
                                

 August 3, 2007.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Gordon of Tennessee, from the Committee on Science and Technology, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 2774]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Science and Technology, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 2774) to support the research, development, and 
commercial application of solar energy technologies, and for 
other purposes, having considered the same, report favorably 
thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill as 
amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................5
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................5
  IV. Hearing Summary.................................................7
   V. Committee Actions...............................................8
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, As Reported............9
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section), As Reported10
VIII. Committee View.................................................11
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................13
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................13
  XI. Compliance with Public Law 104-4...............................15
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............15
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........15
 XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................16
  XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................16
 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act...............................16
XVII. Earmark Identification.........................................16
XVIII.Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........16

 XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........16
  XX. Committee Recommendations......................................16
 XXI. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup.........................17
XXII. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................30

                              I. Amendment

  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research and Advancement 
Act of 2007''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  For purposes of this Act:
          (1) The term ``Department'' means the Department of Energy.
          (2) The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of Energy.

SEC. 3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

  (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a program of 
research and development to provide lower cost and more viable thermal 
energy storage technologies to enable the shifting of electric power 
loads on demand and extend the operating time of concentrating solar 
power electric generating plants.
  (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this section $5,000,000 
for fiscal year 2008, $7,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, $9,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2010, $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, and $12,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2012.

SEC. 4. CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER COMMERCIAL APPLICATION STUDIES.

  (a) Integration.--The Secretary shall conduct a study on methods to 
integrate concentrating solar power into regional electricity 
transmission systems, and to identify new transmission or transmission 
upgrades needed to bring electricity from high concentrating solar 
power resource areas to growing electric power load centers throughout 
the United States. The study shall analyze and assess cost-effective 
approaches for management and large-scale integration of concentrating 
solar power into regional electric transmission grids to improve 
electric reliability, to efficiently manage load, and to reduce demand 
on the natural gas transmission system for electric power. The 
Secretary shall submit a report to Congress on the results of this 
study not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act.
  (b) Water Consumption.--Not later than 6 months after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to 
Congress a report on the results of a study on methods to reduce the 
amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems.

SEC. 5. SOLAR ENERGY CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND CERTIFICATION GRANTS.

  (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish in the Office of 
Solar Energy Technologies a competitive grant program to create and 
strengthen solar industry workforce training and internship programs in 
installation, operation, and maintenance of solar energy products. The 
goal of this program is to ensure a supply of well-trained individuals 
to support the expansion of the solar energy industry.
  (b) Authorized Activities.--Grant funds may be used to support the 
following activities:
          (1) Creation and development of a solar energy curriculum 
        appropriate for the local educational, entrepreneurial, and 
        environmental conditions, including curriculum for community 
        colleges.
          (2) Support of certification programs, such as the North 
        American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, for 
        individual solar energy system installers, instructors, and 
        training programs.
          (3) Internship programs that provide hands-on participation 
        by students in commercial applications.
          (4) Activities required to obtain certification of training 
        programs and facilities by the Institute of Sustainable Power 
        or an equivalent industry-accepted quality-control 
        certification program.
          (5) Incorporation of solar-specific learning modules into 
        traditional occupational training and internship programs for 
        construction-related trades.
          (6) The purchase of equipment necessary to carry out 
        activities under this section.
          (7) Support of programs that provide guidance and updates to 
        solar energy curriculum instructors.
  (c) Administration of Grants.--Grants may be awarded under this 
section for up to 3 years. The Secretary shall award grants to ensure 
sufficient geographic distribution of training programs nationally. 
Grants shall only be awarded for programs certified by the Institute of 
Sustainable Power or an equivalent industry-accepted quality-control 
certification institution, or for new and growing programs with a 
credible path to certification. Due consideration shall be given to 
women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities.
  (d) Report.--The Secretary shall make public, via the website of the 
Department or upon request, information on the name and institution for 
all grants awarded under this section, including a brief description of 
the project as well as the grant award amount.
  (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this section $10,000,000 
for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

SEC. 6. DAYLIGHTING SYSTEMS AND DIRECT SOLAR LIGHT PIPE TECHNOLOGY.

  (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a program of 
research and development to provide assistance in the demonstration and 
commercial application of direct solar renewable energy sources to 
provide alternatives to traditional power generation for lighting and 
illumination, including light pipe technology, and to promote greater 
energy conservation and improved efficiency. All direct solar renewable 
energy devices supported under this program shall have the capability 
to provide measurable data on the amount of kilowatt-hours saved over 
the traditionally powered light sources they have replaced.
  (b) Reporting.--The Secretary shall transmit to Congress an annual 
report assessing the measurable data derived from each project in the 
direct solar renewable energy sources program and the energy savings 
resulting from its use.
  (c) Definitions.--For purposes of this section--
          (1) the term ``direct solar renewable energy'' means energy 
        from a device that converts sunlight into useable light within 
        a building, tunnel, or other enclosed structure, replacing 
        artificial light generated by a light fixture and doing so 
        without the conversion of the sunlight into another form of 
        energy; and
          (2) the term ``light pipe'' means a device designed to 
        transport visible solar radiation from its collection point to 
        the interior of a building while excluding interior heat gain 
        in the nonheating season.
  (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this section $3,500,000 
for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

SEC. 7. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

  (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a research, 
development, and demonstration program to promote less costly and more 
reliable decentralized distributed solar-powered air conditioning for 
individuals and businesses.
  (b) Authorized Activities.--Grants made available under this section 
may be used to support the following activities:
          (1) Advancing solar thermal collectors, including 
        concentrating solar thermal and electric systems, flat plate 
        and evacuated tube collector performance.
          (2) Achieving technical and economic integration of solar-
        powered distributed air-conditioning systems with existing hot 
        water and storage systems for residential applications.
          (3) Designing and demonstrating mass manufacturing capability 
        to reduce costs of modular standardized solar-powered 
        distributed air conditioning systems and components.
          (4) Improving the efficiency of solar-powered distributed 
        air-conditioning to increase the effectiveness of solar-powered 
        absorption chillers, solar-driven compressors and condensors, 
        and cost-effective precooling approaches.
          (5) Researching and comparing performance of solar-powered 
        distributed air conditioning systems in different regions of 
        the country, including potential integration with other onsite 
        systems, such as solar, biogas, geothermal heat pumps, and 
        propane assist or combined propane fuel cells, with a goal to 
        develop site-specific energy production and management systems 
        that ease fuel and peak utility loading.
  (c) Cost Sharing.--The non-Federal share of research and development 
projects supported under this section shall be not less than 20 
percent, and for demonstration projects shall be not less than 50 
percent.
  (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this section $2,500,000 
for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

SEC. 8. PHOTOVOLTAIC DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Secretary shall establish a program of grants to 
States to demonstrate advanced photovoltaic technology.
  (b) Requirements.--
          (1) Ability to meet requirements.--To receive funding under 
        the program under this section, a State must submit a proposal 
        that demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that 
        the State will meet the requirements of subsection (f).
          (2) Compliance with requirements.--If a State has received 
        funding under this section for the preceding year, the State 
        must demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that it 
        complied with the requirements of subsection (f) in carrying 
        out the program during that preceding year, and that it will do 
        so in the future, before it can receive further funding under 
        this section.
          (3) Funding allocation.--Each State submitting a qualifying 
        proposal shall receive funding under the program based on the 
        proportion of United States population in the State according 
        to the 2000 census. In each fiscal year, the portion of funds 
        attributable under this paragraph to States that have not 
        submitted qualifying proposals in the time and manner specified 
        by the Secretary shall be distributed pro rata to the States 
        that have submitted qualifying proposals in the specified time 
        and manner.
  (c) Competition.--If more than $25,000,000 is available for the 
program under this section for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall 
allocate 75 percent of the total amount of funds available according to 
subsection (b)(3), and shall award the remaining 25 percent on a 
competitive basis to the States with the proposals the Secretary 
considers most likely to encourage the widespread adoption of 
photovoltaic technologies.
  (d) Proposals.--Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment 
of this Act, and in each subsequent fiscal year for the life of the 
program, the Secretary shall solicit proposals from the States to 
participate in the program under this section.
  (e) Competitive Criteria.--In awarding funds in a competitive 
allocation under subsection (c), the Secretary shall consider--
          (1) the likelihood of a proposal to encourage the 
        demonstration of, or lower the costs of, advanced photovoltaic 
        technologies; and
          (2) the extent to which a proposal is likely to--
                  (A) maximize the amount of photovoltaics 
                demonstrated;
                  (B) maximize the proportion of non-Federal cost 
                share; and
                  (C) limit State administrative costs.
  (f) State Program.--A program operated by a State with funding under 
this section shall provide competitive awards for the demonstration of 
advanced photo-voltaic technologies. Each State program shall--
          (1) require a contribution of at least 60 percent per award 
        from non-Federal sources, which may include any combination of 
        State, local, and private funds, except that at least 10 
        percent of the funding must be supplied by the State;
          (2) endeavor to fund recipients in the commercial, 
        industrial, institutional, governmental, and residential 
        sectors;
          (3) limit State administrative costs to no more than 10 
        percent of the grant;
          (4) report annually to the Secretary on--
                  (A) the amount of funds disbursed;
                  (B) the amount of photovoltaics purchased; and
                  (C) the results of the monitoring under paragraph 
                (5);
          (5) provide for measurement and verification of the output of 
        a representative sample of the photovoltaics systems 
        demonstrated throughout the average working life of the 
        systems, or at least 20 years; and
          (6) require that applicant buildings must have received an 
        independent energy efficiency audit during the 6-month period 
        preceding the filing of the application.
  (g) Unexpended Funds.--If a State fails to expend any funds received 
under subsection (b) or (c) within 3 years of receipt, such remaining 
funds shall be returned to the Treasury.
  (h) Reports.--The Secretary shall report to Congress 5 years after 
funds are first distributed to the States under this section--
          (1) the amount of photovoltaics demonstrated;
          (2) the number of projects undertaken;
          (3) the administrative costs of the program;
          (4) the amount of funds that each State has not received 
        because of a failure to submit a qualifying proposal, as 
        described in subsection (b)(3);
          (5) the results of the monitoring under subsection (f)(5); 
        and
          (6) the total amount of funds distributed, including a 
        breakdown by State.
  (i) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for the purposes of carrying out this 
section--
          (1) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
          (2) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
          (3) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
          (4) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and
          (5) $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.

                              II. Purpose

    The purpose of the H.R. 2774 is to support the research, 
development, and commercial application of solar energy 
technologies.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    The first two sections of H.R. 2774 are specifically 
related to furthering the development of concentrating solar 
power (CSP). A 2006 report by the Western Governors' 
Association assessed the overall near-term potential for CSP 
capacity in the American Southwest, taking into account areas 
of high solar ray intensity, near-level land, non-sensitivity 
to CSP use, and proximity to transmission. The resulting set of 
potential plant sites totaled 200 GW of potential power 
production. To put this in perspective, the electric generating 
capacity of the entire United States is currently about 1,000 
GW. Some significant challenges remain to widespread 
implementation of CSP, however.
    CSP plants produce electric power by converting the sun's 
energy into high-temperature heat using various mirror 
configurations. The heat is then channeled through a 
conventional generator. These plants consist of two parts: one 
that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, and another 
that converts heat energy to electricity. Thermal energy 
storage technology allows this heat to be retained for later 
use in generating electricity, such as during periods of 
passing clouds or into the evening. The Energy Policy Act of 
2005 establishes a CSP research and development program, but 
storage is not included in the language. Witnesses at a hearing 
before the Subcommittee on June 19, 2007 agreed that storage 
technology is critical to the viability of CSP as a significant 
energy option. Dr. Dan Arvizu, the Director of the National 
Renewable Energy Laboratory, noted that ``the ability of CSP 
technologies to store energy presents an opportunity . . . [to] 
produce baseload power at about 5 cents per kilowatt-hour. Such 
systems would include 13-17 hours of thermal storage and would 
compete with the cost of power from coal plants using carbon 
sequestration technology. It is expected that an aggressive R&D; 
program could achieve the cost goal by 2020.'' H.R. 2774 
establishes a program dedicated to advancing research and 
development in thermal energy storage for CSP, authorizing $5 
million for this program in fiscal year (FY) 2008, and steadily 
increasing to $12 million in FY 2012.
    The bill also tasks the Department of Energy (DOE) with 
conducting two studies. The first would examine methods to 
integrate concentrating solar power with regional electricity 
transmission systems, and to identify new transmission or 
transmission upgrades needed to bring electricity from high 
concentrating solar power resource areas to growing electric 
power load centers throughout the United States. Along with Dr. 
Arvizu, Mr. Herbert Hayden, Solar Technology Coordinator for 
the Arizona Public Service (APS), lent his support to this 
study, explaining that: ``Intermittent renewable resources such 
as wind and solar present special economic challenges for 
transmission investment because they do not efficiently utilize 
the transmission investment at all times . . . We believe CSP 
has a significant potential to provide large amounts of 
renewable energy to the U.S. and that a Federal study on 
transmission for large scale CSP would be beneficial and 
appropriate.''
    The second study would report on methods to reduce the 
amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems, 
given the strain on water resources in the Southwest. As in 
typical power plants, water is a necessary component in CSP 
plants, as the heat collected is used to boil water, and this 
steam pushes turbines which generate electricity. A significant 
amount of water is usually also used as a cooling agent to 
transfer waste heat in the plant's thermodynamic cycle to the 
environment. A CSP plant with wet (typical) cooling can use 
800-1000 gallons of water per MWh. Mr. Hayden and Dr. Arvizu 
both agreed that minimizing water usage is an important factor 
in reducing cost and making CSP a more attractive option in the 
desert climates where such plants will most likely be built. 
The results of both of these studies will help define a roadmap 
for large-scale implementation of CSP to meet the Nation's 
growing energy needs.
    The third component of H.R. 2774 addresses the solar 
industry in general. Having a certified, well-trained workforce 
to install and maintain solar energy products is critical to 
the success of the industry. DOE estimates that approximately 
5,000 trained installers may be needed by 2015 to accomplish 
its new Solar America Initiative, and to date, there are just 
365 certified solar electric installers and 40 certified solar 
thermal installers in the U.S.
    Some States, such as New York and Florida, working with 
local community colleges, businesses, the Interstate Renewable 
Energy Council (IREC), and the North American Board of 
Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) have recently 
established successful programs to create a workforce to meet 
local demand, however there is currently no Federal program 
dedicated to helping establish or improve these training 
programs across the Nation. H.R. 2774 creates such a program, 
authorizing $10 million in each year from FY 2008 through FY 
2012. The bill instructs DOE to ensure sufficient geographic 
distribution of training programs nationally. DOE will award 
grants to expand programs certified by the Institute of 
Sustainable Power or equivalent industry-accepted quality-
control certification institutions, or to establish new 
programs with a credible path to certification. At the hearing, 
testimony supporting this provision was given by Ms. Jane 
Weissman, Executive Director of the Interstate Renewable Energy 
Council and Vice-Chair of the North American Board of Certified 
Energy Practitioners, as well as from Professor Joseph Sarubbi, 
Chair of the Building Systems Technology Department at Hudson 
Valley Community College. Ms. Weissman said that ``if market 
past performance continues and current projections are 
realized, [current] training opportunities fall far short of 
expected demand for qualified workers . . . We need more 
classroom and hands-on training tailored to meet local labor 
needs . . .'' She also noted that ``training needs to be based 
on industry standards so that students are taught the right 
skills with the right equipment.''
    In summary, the research, demonstration, and education 
provisions in H.R. 2774 take several steps beyond what was 
included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to make solar power a 
more viable option in the Nation's energy portfolio.

                          IV. Hearing Summary

    The Energy and Environment Subcommittee held a hearing on 
Tuesday, June 19, 2007 to hear testimony on a Discussion Draft 
of this legislation from the following witnesses:
     Mr. Herbert Hayden is the Arizona Public Service 
(APS) Solar Technology Coordinator. Mr. Hayden testified on how 
thermal storage research and development and the bill's 
proposed studies on grid integration and water usage will help 
advance the implementation of concentrating solar power.
     Mr. Rhone Resch is the President of the Solar 
Energy Industries Association (SEIA). Mr. Resch testified on 
the status of the solar industry in general, and on how a 
proposed research and information program for the industry 
would help to support research and promote the adoption of 
solar power across the Nation.
     Ms. Jane Weissman is the Executive Director of the 
Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), and the Vice-Chair 
of the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners 
(NABCEP). Ms. Weissman testified on the current status of 
workforce training in solar installation and maintenance across 
the country, and the need for a national solar workforce 
training program.
     Prof. Joseph Sarubbi is the Chair of the Building 
Systems Technology Department at Hudson Valley Community 
College. Prof. Sarubbi testified on his ground-level experience 
in creating a solar workforce training program, including his 
partnership with local businesses and the State of New York in 
developing a successful curriculum.
     Dr. David Arvizu is the Director of the Department 
of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Dr. Arvizu 
testified on the DOE's current solar research and development 
activities, and on his views regarding the proposed 
legislation.
    Witnesses at this hearing agreed that thermal storage 
technology is critical to the viability of CSP as a significant 
energy option. Dr. Arvizu noted that ``the ability of CSP 
technologies to store energy presents an opportunity . . . [to] 
produce baseload power at about 5 cents per kilowatt-hour. Such 
systems would include 13-17 hrs of thermal storage and would 
compete with the cost of power from coal plants using carbon 
sequestration technology. It is expected that an aggressive R&D; 
program could achieve the cost goal by 2020.'' Mr. Hayden 
further described the importance of storage technology for CSP.
    Along with Dr. Arvizu, Mr. Hayden lent his support to the 
CSP grid integration study as well, explaining that: 
``Intermittent renewable resources such as wind and solar 
present special economic challenges for transmission investment 
because they do not efficiently utilize the transmission 
investment at all times . . . We believe CSP has a significant 
potential to provide large amounts of renewable energy to the 
U.S. and that a federal study on transmission for large scale 
CSP would be beneficial and appropriate.'' Mr. Hayden and Dr. 
Arvizu also agreed that minimizing water usage is an important 
factor in reducing cost.
    Testimony supporting a workforce training component was 
given by Ms. Weissman and Professor Sarubbi. Ms. Weissman said 
that ``if market past performance continues and current 
projections are realized, [current] training opportunities fall 
far short of expected demand for qualified workers . . . We 
need more classroom and hands-on training tailored to meet 
local labor needs . . .'' She noted that DOE estimates that 
5,000 trained installers could be needed by 2015 to meet the 
goals of its Solar America Initiative, and to date, we have 
only 365 certified solar electric installers and 40 certified 
solar thermal installers. She also noted that ``training needs 
to be based on industry standards so that students are taught 
the right skills with the right equipment.''
    Mr. Resch provided testimony on the growth opportunities 
for the solar industry as a whole in the United States, as well 
as on the need for a solar research and information program, 
also known as a ``check-off program'', modeled after several 
similar product promotion programs for agricultural products 
that are funded by industry and managed in conjunction with the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. He explained that such a 
program would pool industry resources to increase awareness of 
solar energy as an option across the Nation, and ensure that 
consumers know what quality control standards to look for in 
the purchase and installation of solar energy equipment.

                          V. Committee Actions

    On June 19, 2007, Rep. Gabrielle Giffords introduced H.R. 
2774, The Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act of 2007.
    The Subcommittee on Energy and Environment met to consider 
H.R. 2774 on June 21, 2007 and consider the following amendment 
to the bill:
    1. An amendment offered by Ms. Giffords, to direct the 
Secretary of Energy to establish a grant program to support the 
creation and strengthening of solar industry workforce training 
and internship programs across the Nation in installation, 
operation, and maintenance of solar energy products. The goal 
of this program is to ensure a supply of well-trained 
individuals to support the expansion of the solar energy 
industry. The amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Ms. Woolsey moved that the Subcommittee favorably report 
the bill, H.R. 2774, to the Full Committee on Science and 
Technology. The motion was agreed to by a voice vote.
    On Wednesday, June 27, 2007 the full Committee on Science 
and Technology met to consider H.R. 2774. The following 
amendments were offered to the bill:
    1. An amendment offered by Mr. Bartlett that adds a new 
section creating a program which supports the commercial 
application of direct solar lighting technology during the day 
to light buildings, skipping any conversion to electricity and 
back to light. Adopted by voice vote.
    2. An amendment offered by Mr. Bartlett that adds a new 
section creating a research and development program in solar 
air conditioning. Adopted by voice vote.
    3. An amendment offered by Mr. Inglis which strikes the 
section of the bill that establishes a solar workforce training 
program. Defeated by recorded vote of 7-17.
    4. An amendment offered by Ms. Johnson which amends the 
workforce training program section to require that information 
about grants awarded under the program be made publicly 
available. Adopted by voice vote.
    5. An amendment offered by Ms. Johnson which adds the words 
``cost-effective'' and ``large-scale'' to the section 
requesting a concentrating solar power integration study. 
Adopted by voice vote.
    6. An amendment offered by Ms. Johnson which ensures that 
the workforce development programs give due consideration to 
women, underrepresented minorities and persons with 
disabilities. Adopted by voice vote.
    7. An amendment offered by Mr. Hall which changes the 
thermal energy storage program into a general renewable energy 
storage research and development program, with the same 
authorization levels. Offered and withdrawn.
    8. An amendment offered by Mr. Hall for Mr. Smith of Texas 
which adds a new section creating a nationwide photovoltaics 
demonstration program, with money divided among all States that 
submit qualified proposals to the Department of Energy. Adopted 
by voice vote.
    9. An amendment offered by Mr. Wu which clarifies that 
community colleges are eligible for solar workforce training 
grants. Adopted by voice vote.
    The bill was approved for final passage by voice vote. Ms. 
Giffords moved that the Committee favorably report the bill 
H.R. 2774, as amended, to the House for consideration. The 
motion was agreed to by voice vote.

        VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, As Reported

    H.R. 2774 directs the Secretary to establish a research and 
development program on thermal energy storage technologies for 
concentrating solar power (CSP), authorizing $5 million for 
this program in FY 2008, increasing each year and reaching an 
authorization level of $12 million in FY 2012. The Secretary is 
also tasked with conducting two CSP studies. One study will 
determine the necessary steps to integrate CSP plants with the 
regional and national electric grid, and the other will examine 
ways to reduce water usage in CSP plants. The third component 
of the bill establishes a program to create and strengthen 
solar industry workforce training and internship programs in 
installation, operation, and maintenance of solar energy 
products. The program is authorized for $10 million in each 
year from FY 2008 through FY 2012. In addition, the bill 
creates a research and development program in solar air 
conditioning, authorizing $2.5 million in each year from FY 
2008 through FY 2012; a program to support the commercial 
application of direct solar lighting technology, authorizing 
$3.5 million in each year from FY 2008 through FY 2012; and a 
nationwide solar demonstration program, authorizing $15 million 
in FY 2008, increasing each year and reaching an authorization 
level of $70 million in FY 2012.

                    VII. Section-by-Section Analysis


                         SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE

    Act may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research and 
Advancement Act of 2007''.

                         SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS

    Provides definitions for the following terms used in the 
Act: `Department' and `Secretary'.

   SECTION 3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Section 3(a) instructs the Secretary to establish a 
research and development program on thermal energy storage 
technologies for concentrating solar power. Section 3(b) 
authorizes appropriations of $5,000,000 in FY 2008, $7,000,000 
in FY 2009, $9,000,000 in FY 2010, $10,000,000 in FY 2011, and 
$12,000,000 in FY 2012.

  SECTION 4. CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER COMMERCIAL APPLICATION STUDIES

    Section 4(a) instructs the Secretary to conduct a study 
that will determine the necessary steps to integrate 
concentrating solar power plants with the regional and national 
electric grid. Results of shall be submitted to Congress no 
later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act. 
Section 4(b) instructs the Secretary to conduct a study on 
methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating 
solar power plants. Results of shall be submitted to Congress 
no later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act.

SECTION 5. SOLAR ENERGY CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND CERTIFICATION GRANTS

    Section 5(a) instructs the Secretary to establish a 
competitive grant program to support the creation and 
strengthening of solar industry workforce training and 
internship programs in installation, operation, and maintenance 
of solar energy products. Section 5(b) describes authorized 
activities for these grant funds, including support of 
curriculum development, certification programs, and internship 
programs. Section 5(c) describes the administration of grants, 
instructing the Secretary to ensure sufficient geographic 
distribution of training programs nationally, and to only award 
grants to certified training programs or new and growing 
programs with a credible path to certification. Section 5(d) 
instructs the Secretary to make information on grants awarded 
under this program publicly available. Section 5(e) authorizes 
$10 million for this program in each fiscal year from FY 2008 
through FY 2012.

 SECTION 6. DAYLIGHTING SYSTEMS AND DIRECT SOLAR LIGHT PIPE TECHNOLOGY

    Section 6(a) establishes a research and development program 
to assist the demonstration and commercial application of 
direct solar lighting technology. Section 6(b) instructs the 
Secretary to transmit an annual report on the energy savings of 
each project funded by this program. Section 6(c) provides 
definitions for ``direct solar renewable energy'' and ``light 
pipe''. Section 6(d) authorizes $3.5 million for this program 
in each fiscal year from FY 2008 through FY 2012.

   SECTION 7. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Section 7(a) establishes a research, development, and 
demonstration program in solar-powered air conditioning. 
Section 7(b) describes authorized activities for these grant 
funds, including advancing solar thermal collectors, 
integrating with other electric and thermal systems, enabling 
mass manufacturing capability, and improving energy efficiency. 
Section 7(c) states that the non-Federal share of funding to 
support research and development projects under this program 
shall not be less than 20 percent, and for demonstration 
projects shall be not less than 50 percent. Section 7(d) 
authorizes $2.5 million for this program in each fiscal year 
from FY 2008 through FY 2012.

             SECTION 8. PHOTOVOLTAIC DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    Section 8(a) establishes a program of grants to States to 
demonstrate advanced photovoltaic technology. Section 8(b) 
states that each State submitting qualifying proposals shall 
receive funding under this program based on the proportion of 
the U.S. population in the State according to the 2000 census. 
Section 8(c) instructs the Secretary to allocate 25 percent of 
program funds to be awarded on a competitive basis if more the 
$25 million is available for this program in any fiscal year. 
Section 8(d) instructs the Secretary to solicit initial 
proposals within 6 months after the enactment of this Act. 
Section 8(e) describes criteria that the Secretary shall use in 
competitively awarding funds, including the likelihood a 
proposal will encourage demonstration of advanced solar 
technologies, the proportion of the non-Federal cost share, and 
the State's administrative costs. Section 8(f) describes 
criteria that States with funding under this section will use 
in awarding competitive grants, including a required 60 percent 
minimum non-Federal cost share, a maximum of 10 percent in 
State administrative costs, and a requirement that applicant 
buildings must have received an independent energy efficiency 
audit during the 6-month period preceding the filing of the 
application. Section 8(g) returns any funds that a State fails 
to expend under this program within 3 years of receipt to the 
Treasury. Section 8(h) instructs the Secretary to report the 
results of this program to Congress 5 years after funds are 
first distributed to the States. Section 8(i) authorizes 
appropriations of $15,000,000 in FY 2008, $30,000,000 in FY 
2009, $45,000,000 in FY 2010, $60,000,000 in FY 2011, and 
$70,000,000 in FY 2012.

                         VIII. Committee Views

    The Committee believes it is essential to diversify the 
sources of energy we use to generate electricity. The growth in 
demand for energy has led to considerable strain on the current 
electrical grid, especially during peak hours of demand. 
Establishing alternative and decentralized sources of electric 
generating power could alleviate problems associated with grid 
reliability, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. With 
these goals in mind, the Committee notes that the U.S. has the 
potential to significantly increase its use of solar energy, 
especially in the southwestern region of the country.
    While the U.S. has supported solar energy research and 
development programs for many years through DOE, the Committee 
identified several key areas that are not receiving sufficient 
support. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorized a research 
and development program in concentrating solar power, which DOE 
has established, but research in storage technology crucial to 
the success of CSP was not authorized, and thus far the 
Department has only allocated a small fraction of the funding 
necessary for such research in thermal storage to have a 
significant impact.
    Given the massive potential for CSP to first reduce strain 
on the electric grid, and to eventually provide significant 
baseload power, the Committee also believes a study on grid 
integration is prudent at this time. In addition, the Committee 
understands that water is a precious resource in the American 
Southwest, and looks forward to the results of a study that 
will describe what, if any, additional steps need to be taken 
by the federal government or private industry to reduce water 
usage in CSP plants.
    On expanding the solar industry in general, the Committee 
notes that there is currently no significant federal program 
dedicated to the establishment of certified solar workforce 
training programs across the country. The Committee believes 
that such programs are essential to ensuring proper 
installation and maintenance of solar energy products, to 
expanding the use of solar energy in residences and by 
businesses, and to increasing public confidence in the 
reliability of solar power. The impending shortage in trained 
solar panel installers is also a serious concern. The Committee 
expects that federal grants for such training programs will 
primarily go to community colleges, which may partner with 
local businesses, universities, and governments to ensure that 
their solar curricula and certification programs are 
appropriate for the local conditions.
    The Committee believes it is also essential to encourage 
the use of technologies that promote increased energy 
efficiency, and therefore supports the demonstration and 
commercial application of direct solar renewable energy devices 
such as solar light pipes. These pipes convert sunlight into 
useable light within buildings, tunnels, and other enclosed 
structures, replacing artificial light generated by a light 
fixture. The pipes make direct use of sunlight, without the 
conversion of the sunlight into another form of energy, which 
is a much more efficient method than indirect use of solar 
energy (or other energy sources) to create electricity. While 
windows are the most obvious ``direct solar lighting'' option 
near the exterior of a building, this technology would allow 
the use of direct solar light throughout its interior. The 
Committee recognizes that DOE has already conducted much of the 
basic research and development necessary for light pipe 
technology to begin to be applied, though this next step has 
not been sufficiently supported yet, and so it encourages any 
funding for a dedicated program on this technology to focus 
more substantially on demonstration and commercial application.
    The Committee notes that the intensity of solar radiation 
and the use of air conditioning usually peak at the same time. 
The use of solar energy to drive air conditioning systems has 
significant potential to reduce peak load electricity demands 
and contribute to greater resiliency of the grid. DOE currently 
has no significant research, development, and/or demonstration 
program to promote this technology, and so the Committee 
believes that the creation of such a program is essential to 
provide less costly and more reliable solar driven air 
conditioning systems for individuals and businesses. The 
Committee also notes that the establishment of this program has 
the support of the Western Renewables Group, the States' Energy 
Council, and several other industry groups.
    The Committee also encourages the broader demonstration of 
solar energy technologies across the country to increase the 
public and private sector's confidence in their reliability, 
and to reduce costs. Therefore, it supports the establishment 
of a competitive grant program to encourage state governments 
and private industry to team up to demonstrate advanced 
photovoltaic technologies. While the DOE currently does have 
several targeted photovoltaic demonstration programs, including 
its Solar America Cities initiative, this new program would go 
a step further by encouraging every state in the nation to be 
involved in such demonstration projects through significant 
financial incentives. Because the grants are competitive, there 
is further incentive for states and utilities to pledge more 
than the minimum amount required in this program.
    Lastly, the Committee continues to express support for 
research and development to improve cost-performance of solar 
technology, including lower cost solar module nano-
manufacturing technologies. The Committee further finds that 
improving cost-performance for solar modules will support the 
development of grid parity solar systems.

                           IX. Cost Estimate

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science and Technology prior to the filing of 
this report and is included in section X of this report 
pursuant to House Rule XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 2774 does not contain new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
2774 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in section X of this report.

              X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate


H.R. 2774--Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act of 2007

    Summary: H.R. 2774 would authorize the appropriation of 
$347 million over the 2008-2012 period for the Department of 
Energy (DOE) to support the research, development, and 
utilization of solar energy technology. Of that amount, the 
majority of funds would be awarded to states to distribute 
grants for the purchase of photovoltaic technologies (solar 
cells that convert light energy into electricity).
    Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing H.R. 2774 would cost $17 million in 
2008 and $276 million over the 2008-2012 period. Enacting H.R. 
2774 would not affect direct spending or revenues.
    H.R. 2774 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would benefit state and local governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 2774 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 270 
(energy).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      By fiscal year, in millions of
                                                 dollars--
                                 ---------------------------------------
                                   2008    2009    2010    2011    2012
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Grant and Demonstration
 Programs:
    Authorization Level.........      28      43      58      73      83
    Estimated Outlays...........      12      30      46      61      74
Thermal Energy Storage and Solar
 Energy Research and
 Development:
    Authorization Level.........       9      11      13      14      16
    Estimated Outlays...........       4       9      11      13      15
Reporting Requirements:
    Estimated Authorization            1       0       0       0       0
     Level......................
    Estimated Outlays...........       1       0       0       0       0
Total Changes:
    Estimated Authorization           38      54      71      86      99
     Level......................
    Estimated Outlays...........      17      39      57      74      89
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
2774 will be enacted near the end of fiscal year 2007 and that 
the entire amounts authorized and estimated to be necessary 
will be appropriated for each fiscal year. Estimated outlays 
are based on historical spending patterns for DOE energy supply 
and conservation programs.
    H.R. 2774 would authorize the appropriation of $37 million 
in 2008 and $347 million over the 2008-2012 period for DOE 
solar energy programs. CBO estimates that appropriation of 
those amounts, plus an additional $1 million for new reporting 
requirements, would result in discretionary outlays of $17 
million in fiscal year 2008 and $276 million over the 2008-2012 
period.

Grant and demonstration programs

    H.R. 2774 would create three DOE grant and demonstration 
programs. The bill would specifically authorize the following 
appropriations:
      Between $17 million and $70 million a year to 
states to distribute grants to commercial, governmental, and 
residential users of electricity to purchase photovoltaic 
technology;
      $10 million annually for grants to develop and 
strengthen a school curriculum and workforce training programs 
concerning the use of solar energy products; and
      $3 million annually for a demonstration program 
of solar-powered air-conditioning technology.
    CBO estimates that appropriation of the authorized amounts 
would cost $12 million in 2008 and $223 million over the 2008-
2012 period.

Thermal energy storage and solar energy research and development

    H.R. 2774 would authorize the appropriation of $63 million 
over the 2008-2012 period for research grants to study thermal 
energy and solar power. Specifically, the bill would authorize 
the appropriation of between $5 million and $12 million 
annually for the development of lower-cost thermal energy 
storage technologies. Under the bill, another $4 million a year 
would be authorized to be appropriated to promote the 
commercial application of solar energy, with a portion of those 
funds allocated for an annual report assessing the energy 
savings resulting from solar energy use. Assuming appropriation 
of the authorized amounts, CBS estimates that implementing 
those provisions would cost $4 million in 2008 and $52 million 
over the 2008-2012 period.

Reporting requirements

    CBO estimates that about $1 million would be necessary in 
2008 to prepare two studies required by the bill. The first 
study would analyze methods to transmit concentrated solar 
power to regional electricity transmission systems. The second 
study would address how to reduce the amount of water consumed 
by solar power systems.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 2774 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would create several research and grant 
programs benefiting state and local governments. Any costs 
those governments might incur, including matching funds, would 
be incurred voluntarily.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Leigh Angers; Impact 
on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Neil Hood; Impact on 
the Private Sector: Craig Cammarata.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                  XI. Compliance With Public Law 104-4

    H.R. 2774 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The oversight findings and recommendations of the Committee 
on Science and Technology are reflected in the body of this 
report.

      XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of House Rule XIII, the goal of 
H.R. 2774 is to advance solar energy technologies by 
establishing research and development programs in thermal 
energy storage and solar air conditioning, a program to support 
the commercial application of direct solar lighting technology, 
a nationwide solar demonstration program, a solar energy 
curriculum development and certification program, and by 
conducting two concentrating solar power commercial application 
studies.

                XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 2774.

                XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    H.R. 2774 does not establish nor authorize the 
establishment of any advisory committee.

                 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 2774 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

                      XVII. Earmark Identification

    H.R. 2774 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9(d), 9(e), or 9(t) of rule XXI.

     XVIII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

       XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, As Reported

    The bill does not change existing law.

                     XX. Committee Recommendations

    On June 27, 2007, the Committee on Science and Technology 
favorably reported H.R. 2774, as amended, by a voice vote and 
recommended its enactment.

              XXI. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup



   XXI: PROCEEDINGS OF THE MARKUP BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND 
ENVIRONMENT ON H.R. 2774, THE SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH AND ADVANCEMENT ACT 
                                OF 2007

                              ----------                              


                        THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 2007

                  House of Representatives,
            Subcommittee on Energy and Environment,
                       Committee on Science and Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2:10 p.m., in 
Room 2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Nick 
Lampson [Chairman of the Subcommittee] presiding.
    Chairman Lampson. The Subcommittee on Energy and 
Environment will come to order. Pursuant to notice, the 
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment meets to consider the 
following measures: H.R. 1933, the Department of Energy Carbon 
Capture and Storage Research, Development and Demonstration Act 
of 2007; H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and Advancement 
Act of 2007; and H.R. 2773, the Biofuels Research and 
Development Enhancement Act.
    We will now proceed with the markup beginning with opening 
statements, and I will begin.
    Energy is not something most Americans have thought about 
since the oil embargo of the 1970s. Gas and electricity were 
cheap, environmental issues were not a concern and we did not 
appreciate our increased vulnerability to unstable foreign 
energy supplies. Consequently, energy stayed out of the 
legislative spotlight for many years.
    The Congress passed significant energy legislation in 2005 
in response to rising fuel prices and increased concerns about 
energy security. Since then the growing public awareness and 
acceptance of climate change compels us to take further actions 
on energy. Today this committee is taking yet another step to 
increase federal investment in energy technologies that we know 
will lessen the environmental impact of our energy use, 
decrease our reliance on foreign fuels and still maintain the 
quality of life we enjoy today.
    First on the agenda is H.R. 1933 by Representative Udall 
which sets out the next steps in DOE's carbon mitigation 
strategies. In addition to continuing the Department's research 
on carbon dioxide management, the bill authorizes large-scale 
demonstrations of carbon sequestration technologies through 
partnerships with industrial, academic and government entities. 
An amendment by Mr. Udall will add demonstrations of carbon 
capture technology as well. Because we will continue to use our 
abundant resources of coal to meet our energy needs for the 
foreseeable future, it is critical that we demonstrate an 
integrated system of capture, transportation and storage of 
carbon dioxide at a large scale.
    Next we will take H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy and 
Advancement Act of 2007, introduced by Congresswoman Giffords. 
This bill creates a research and development program on energy 
storage technology for concentrating solar power plants which 
allows for the use of solar energy even when the sun isn't 
shining. It also asks the DOE to conduct studies on how best to 
integrate concentrating solar plants with the grid and ways to 
reduce water usage in these plants. I know the Congresswoman 
also plans to introduce an amendment today that creates a solar 
workforce program, and this will further improve the bill and I 
look forward to hearing what my distinguished colleague has to 
say about it soon.
    And finally, the Subcommittee will consider my bill, H.R. 
2773, the Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act. 
This bill attempts to better coordinate and compile information 
from federal biofuels research programs, focus some of the 
biofuels research on infrastructure needs and efficiency of 
biorefinery technologies, study some of the continuing 
challenges facing broader use of biofuels, and increase the 
funding levels for biofuels research.
    For each of these bills, the Subcommittee has held hearings 
examining the various technical barriers and possible pathways 
for these technologies. Many of the amendments that will be 
offered today result from the advice and input provided by the 
witnesses at these hearings. Today the Subcommittee should 
report meaningful legislation that will bring us one step 
closer to their consideration on the House Floor in July. I 
urge support for all of these bills and I look forward to 
working with all of you as we move these bills forward to Full 
Committee next week.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Lampson follows:]
              Prepared Statement of Chairman Nick Lampson
    Energy is not something most Americans have thought about since the 
oil embargo in the 1970's. Gas and electricity were cheap, 
environmental issues were not a concern, and we did not appreciate our 
increased vulnerability to unstable foreign energy supplies. 
Consequently ``Energy'' stayed out of the legislative spotlight for 
many years.
    The Congress passed significant energy legislation in 2005 in 
response to rising fuel prices and increased concerns about energy 
security. Since then, the growing public awareness and acceptance of 
climate change compels us to take further actions on energy. Today this 
committee is taking yet another step to increase federal investment in 
energy technologies that we know will lessen the environmental impact 
of our energy use, decrease our reliance on foreign fuels, and still 
maintain the quality of life we enjoy today.
    First on the agenda is H.R. 1933 by Rep. Udall, which sets out the 
next steps in DOE's carbon mitigation strategies. In addition to 
continuing the Department's research on carbon dioxide management, the 
bill authorizes large-scale demonstrations of carbon sequestration 
technologies through partnerships with industrial, academic and 
government entities.
    An amendment by Mr. Udall will add demonstrations of carbon capture 
technology as well. Because we will continue to use our abundant 
resources of coal to meet our energy needs for the foreseeable future, 
it is critical that we demonstrate an INTEGRATED system of capture, 
transportation, and storage of carbon dioxide at a large scale.
    Next we will take up H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and 
Advancement Act of 2007, introduced by Congresswoman Giffords. This 
bill creates an R&D; program on energy storage technology for 
concentrating solar power plants, which allows for the use of solar 
energy even when the sun isn't shining.
    It also asks the DOE to conduct studies on how to best integrate 
concentrating solar plants with the grid, and ways to reduce water 
usage in these plants. I know the Congresswoman also plans to introduce 
an amendment today that creates a solar workforce program. This will 
further improve the bill, and I look forward to hearing what my 
distinguished colleague has to say about it soon.
    And finally the Subcommittee will consider my bill, H.R. 2773, the 
Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act. This bill attempts 
to better coordinate and compile information from federal biofuels 
research programs, focus some of the biofuels research on 
infrastructure needs and efficiency of biorefinery technologies, study 
some of the continuing challenges facing broader use of biofuels, and 
increase the funding levels for biofuels research.
    For each of these bills the Subcommittee has held hearings 
examining the various technical barriers and possible pathways for 
these technologies. Many of the amendments that will be offered today 
result from the advice and input provided by the witnesses at these 
hearings. Today the Subcommittee should report meaningful legislation 
that will bring us one step closer to their consideration on the House 
Floor in July. I urge support for all of these bills and I look forward 
to working with all of you as we move these bills forward to the Full 
Committee next week.

    Chairman Lampson. I now recognize Mr. Inglis, the Ranking 
Member, to present his opening remarks.
    Mr. Inglis. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I look forward to 
this markup.
    The bills we mark up today are reflections of the 
commitment we have made to move away from our dependence on 
foreign oil and toward solutions that make both economic and 
environmental sense.
    Renewable energy sources give us the opportunity to end our 
dependence on fossil fuels like oil and coal. In the meantime 
though, we will use a lot of oil and a lot of coal. That is why 
we must work to make sure especially that our coal consumption 
is as emission-free and energy efficient as possible, bringing 
benefits to both industry and to the environment.
    Carbon capture and storage technologies hold significant 
promise for reducing carbon emissions. H.R. 1933, the 
Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Research, 
Development and Demonstration Act, will fund demonstration 
projects that integrate these technologies. The aim is that the 
research and experience gained from these projects will help 
bring down the cost of implementing carbon-reducing 
technologies in the private sector.
    As I mentioned earlier, the ultimate goal is energy sources 
that are renewable and emission-free. H.R. 2774, the Solar 
Research and Advancement Act, and H.R. 2773, the Biofuels 
Research and Development Act, are two steps in that direction. 
Biofuels and solar energy should be sources of energy for us, 
and I am looking forward to promoting research programs that 
will make these alternatives commercially viable.
    Thank you again, Mr. Chairman, and I look forward to 
working with you to advance these pieces of legislation.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Inglis follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Bob Inglis
    Thank you for holding this markup, Mr. Chairman.
    The bills we're marking up today are reflections of the commitment 
we have made to move away from our dependence on foreign oil, and 
toward solutions that make both economic and environmental sense.
    Renewable energy sources give us the opportunity to end our 
dependence on fossil fuels like oil and coal. In the meantime we'll use 
lots of coal. That's why we must work to make sure that our coal 
consumption is as emission-free and energy efficient as possible, 
bringing benefits to both industry and the environment.
    Carbon capture and storage technologies hold significant promise 
for reducing carbon emissions. H.R. 1933, the Department of Energy 
Carbon Capture and Storage Research, Development, and Demonstration 
Act, will fund demonstration projects that integrate these 
technologies. The aim is that the research and experience gained from 
these projects will help bring down the cost of implementing carbon-
reducing technologies in the private sector.
    As I mentioned earlier, the ultimate goal is energy sources that 
are renewable and emission-free. H.R. 2774, the Solar Research and 
Advancement Act, and H.R. 2773, the Biofuels Research and Development 
Act, are two steps in that direction. Biofuels and solar energy should 
be sources of energy for us, and I'm looking forward to promoting 
research programs that will make these alternatives commercially 
viable.
    Thank you again, Mr. Chairman, and I look forward to working with 
you to advance this legislation.

    Chairman Lampson. Thank you, Mr. Inglis.
    Without objection, Members may place statements in the 
record at this point.
    We will now consider H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research 
and Advancement Act of 2007, and I yield Ms. Giffords five 
minutes to describe this bill.
    Ms. Giffords. I want to thank Chairman Lampson and Ranking 
Member Inglis for considering H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy 
Research and Advancement Act, in Subcommittee this afternoon.
    On Tuesday, we had an opportunity to hear from a very 
distinguished group of witnesses including the Director of the 
National Renewable Energy Lab, NREL, the President of the Solar 
Energy Industries Association, SEIA, and the solar technology 
coordinator for Arizona Public Service, APS, which is now the 
fastest or the second fasting growing electric utility in the 
United States over the last five years. Many Members of the 
Subcommittee attended the hearing and I believe that we had a 
very informative and engaging dialogue on the discussion draft 
of this legislation.
    The bill before us today contains two main components that 
will move research and development forward on concentrating 
solar power. The first would establish a Thermal Energy Storage 
Research and Development Program within the Department of 
Energy. This will help us solve perhaps the most significant 
problem with concentrating solar power technology: energy 
storage. We need more advanced technologies so that we can 
store solar energy when the sun shines and use it at night or 
on cloudy days. This is critical for energy reliability and 
viability. In giving strong support for this research at the 
hearing, Dr. Dan Arvizu from NREL said that the ability for 
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies to store energy 
presents an opportunity to produce baseload power at about five 
cents per kilowatt-hour. Such systems would include 13 to 17 
hours of thermal storage and would compete with the cost of 
power from coal plants using carbon sequestration technology. 
It is expected that an aggressive R&D; program could achieve 
this cost goal by 2020.
    The second component would require the Department of Energy 
to conduct two concentrating solar power commercial application 
studies. One study would look at methods to integrate 
concentrating solar power energy into regional electricity 
transmission systems. The best time of the day to produce and 
use solar energy is from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. We need to research 
how to connect major solar power plants to the electric grid, 
relieve expensive demand on electric utilities and use solar 
energy during these peak hours, but we also need to figure how 
to bring this abundant resource from the Southwest and sunny 
areas to the entire country.
    The other part would require DOE to examine methods to 
reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating solar 
power systems. Given the strains of water resources in the 
Southwest, we must study the subject so that we can realize the 
full benefits of this technology.
    In addition to the initiatives I have just laid out, I will 
also offer an amendment today, and as I said on Tuesday, solar 
power is not a partisan issue. The sun beats down on Democrats 
on Republicans and Independents alike with equal intensity, and 
I know that this bill is going to help us really harness the 
power of the sun. So I look forward to the Members' support of 
this legislation and I will continue to work with all of you as 
we move forward in this committee.
    Chairman Lampson. Thank you very much. I recognize Mr. 
Inglis for any remarks.
    Mr. Inglis. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have no questions 
and hope that we can move rapidly.
    Chairman Lampson. Does anyone else wish to be recognized?
    I ask unanimous consent that the bill is considered as read 
and open to amendment at any point and that Members proceed 
with the amendments in the order of the roster. Without 
objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentlelady from Arizona. Ms. Giffords, are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairman Lampson. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 2774 offered by Ms. Giffords 
of Arizona.
    Chairman Lampson. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize Ms. Giffords for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. My amendment will 
establish a competitive grant program to create and strengthen 
solar industry training and internship programs across the 
country. This will ensure that workers obtain the necessary 
skills to install, operate and maintain solar energy products. 
The need for this program is clear. The solar energy industry 
is growing at a very fast pace and we need to ensure that we 
have a skilled workforce to sustain this growth. A strong solar 
industry will stimulate business development, create new jobs, 
help protect our environment and promote energy independence. 
This amendment requires DOE to ensure sufficient geographic 
distribution of training programs nationally and to ensure 
quality control, grants will only be awarded for certified 
training programs or new and growing programs with a credible 
path toward certification.
    At Tuesday's hearing, we heard testimony supporting this 
legislation from Ms. Jane Weissman, Executive Director of the 
Interstate Renewable Energy Council and Vice Chair of the North 
American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners as well as 
from Joseph Sarubbi, Professor and Chair of the Building 
Systems Technology Department at Hudson Valley Community 
College. Ms. Weissman expressed support for this workforce 
development training by stating that current training 
opportunities fall far short of the demand expected for 
qualified workers. We need more classroom and hands-on training 
tailored to meet local labor needs. She also noted that 
training needs need to be based on industry standards so that 
students are taught the right skills with the right equipment.
    This amendment will help us achieve two important goals: 
one, expanding the market for solar energy products by creating 
a trained, reliable workforce that can install and maintain 
solar equipment for wider use in commercial and residential 
settings; and number two, train people for good-paying jobs 
right here at home.
    I look forward to Member support for this important 
addition to the Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act.
    Chairman Lampson. Thank you, Ms. Giffords.
    Is there further discussion on the amendment? If no, the 
vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor say aye. Those 
opposed, say no. The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed 
to.
    Are there any amendments? Hearing none, and pursuant to 
Rule 2T, further proceedings on this matter are postponed until 
further notice from the Chair.
    There is unfinished business on H.R. 2774. Are there other 
amendments to H.R. 2774? Other amendments? Hearing none, the 
vote is on the bill, H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and 
Advancement Act of 2007, as amended. All those in favor will 
say aye. Those opposed will say no. In the opinion of the 
Chair, the ayes have it.
    I recognize Ms. Woolsey for a motion.
    Ms. Woolsey. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Subcommittee 
favorably report H.R. 2774 as amended to the Full Committee. 
Furthermore, I move that the staff be instructed to prepare the 
Subcommittee legislative report and make necessary technical 
and conforming changes to the bill as amended in accordance 
with the recommendations of the Subcommittee.
    Chairman Lampson. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Those opposed, no. The ayes have it and the bill 
is favorably reported.
    Without objection the motion to reconsider is laid upon the 
table. Subcommittee Members may submit additional and Minority 
views on the measure.
    I want to thank the Members for their attendance, and this 
concludes our Subcommittee markup. We stand adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 4:10 p.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


        H.R. 2774, Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendment Roster






               Section-by-Section Analysis of H.R. 2774,
         the Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act of 2007

Bill Summary

    The bill directs the Secretary to establish a research and 
development program on thermal energy storage technologies for 
concentrating solar power (CSP), and conduct two CSP studies. One study 
will determine the necessary steps to integrate CSP plants with the 
regional and national electric grid, and the other will examine ways to 
reduce water usage in CSP plants.

Section 1. Short Title

    Act may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act 
of 2007''.

Section 2. Definitions

    Provides definitions for the following terms used in the Act: 
`Department' and `Secretary'.

Section 3.  Thermal Energy Storage Research and Development Program

    Section 3(a) instructs the Secretary to establish a research and 
development program on thermal energy storage technologies for 
concentrating solar power. Section 3(b) authorizes appropriations of 
$5,000,0000 in fiscal year 2008, $7,000,0000 in fiscal year 2009, 
$9,000,0000 in fiscal year 2010, $10,500,0000 in fiscal year 2011, and 
$12,000,0000 in fiscal year 2012.

Section 4.  Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Studies

    Section 4(a) instructs the Secretary to conduct a study that will 
determine the necessary steps to integrate concentrating solar power 
plants with the regional and national electric grid. Results of shall 
be submitted to Congress no later than 12 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act. Section 4(b) instructs the Secretary to conduct 
a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by 
concentrating solar power plants. Results of shall be submitted to 
Congress no later than six months after the date of enactment of this 
Act.





XXII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 2774, THE SOLAR 
              ENERGY RESEARCH AND ADVANCEMENT ACT OF 2007

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27, 2007

                  House of Representatives,
                       Committee on Science and Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:08 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Bart Gordon 
[Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Gordon. The Committee will come to order.
    Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science and Technology 
meets to consider the following measures: H.R. 906, the Global 
Change Research and Data Management Act of 2007; H.R. 1933, the 
Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Research, 
Development, and Demonstration Act of 2007; H.R. 2773, the 
Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act; and H.R. 
2774, the Solar Energy Research and Investment Act of 2007.
    I know that we have a lot of other markups going on today, 
so we are going to try to proceed, but I would like to make a 
couple of announcements at first. Now, some of the Members have 
been interested in the trip we are going to be taking, the 
fact-finding trip we are taking to Greenland the weekend of 
July the 19th. We should know today about--we have a plane, but 
we still have concern about in-country travel, because we can't 
use our plane there, because of the lengths of the runway. We 
should know more about that today, so we will know the size and 
the number of folks that we can take.
    Also, you have received a letter through your office, but I 
will remind you, in case you didn't know, that there is going 
to be a climate change meeting of the UN Framework Convention 
on Climate Change, the parent body that oversees the Kyoto 
Protocol. It will be held in Bali from December the 3rd to the 
14th. There will be important areas of discussion. It will 
include carbon sequestration, reforestation, avoiding 
deforestation, and carbon trading. There will be about 10,000 
international delegates there. We will not, or as Members, we 
will not be a credentialed participant, but we will be able to 
interact with those folks that are there. We will not be taking 
a Science Committee group as a whole, but we do have some 
slots, I think, that will be made available to us, for 
individuals that would like to go. But again, when you put 
10,000 people there, it is going to be crowded, and so, you 
need to let us know soon.
    And finally, I think that we should all say happy birthday 
to Margaret today. We congratulate her on surviving one more, 
and hope there will be more to come.
    Mr. Lampson. And happy anniversary to you and your wife, 
Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you for reminding me. By the way, 
from 7:00 to 9:00 will be a good time to call votes, because I 
am not going to be here tonight.
    With concern about global climate change, the high gas and 
electricity prices, and our growing reliance on unstable energy 
supplying nations, energy has come to the forefront of our 
constituents' awareness, and has been placed at the top of the 
Congressional to-do list. Here, on the Science and Technology 
Committee, we have responded with an aggressive energy agenda. 
With the addition of four bills, that we are going to mark up 
today, this committee will contribute an even dozen pieces of 
bipartisan legislation that made a vital contribution to the 
national strategy to put U.S. and the world on track to a more 
sustainable future.
    First, we will consider H.R. 906. Mr. Udall and Mr. Inglis, 
the Ranking Member of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee 
and co-sponsor of the bill, have worked together to produce 
this legislation. H.R. 906 re-orients the U.S. Global Change 
Research Program to produce more policy relevant climate 
information for regional, State, and local governments, and 
other groups.
    We will then take up H.R. 1933, by Representative Udall, 
which sets out the next steps in DOE's carbon mitigation 
strategies. In addition to ongoing research in carbon 
management, the bill authorizes DOE to conduct demonstrations 
on large scale Carbon Capture and Storage technologies, through 
partnerships with industrial, academic, and government 
entities. Because we will continue to use our abundant 
resources of coal to meet our energy needs for the foreseeable 
future, it is critical that we demonstrate an integrated system 
of capture, transportation, and storage of carbon dioxide, at a 
scale that encourages industry to start making technological 
choices.
    Next, the Committee will take up a bill by the Chairman of 
the Energy and Environment Subcommittee, Representative Nick 
Lampson. H.R. 2773, the Biofuels Research and Development 
Enhancement Act, will better coordinate and compile information 
from federal biofuels research programs, and focus biofuels 
research on infrastructure needs and efficiency of biorefinery 
technologies. H.R. 2773 also provides for the in depth study of 
several challenges facing broader of biofuels, and increases 
the funding levels of biofuels research.
    Finally, we will consider H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy 
Research and Advancement Act of 2007, introduced by 
Congresswoman Giffords. This bill creates an R&D; program on 
energy storage technology for concentrating solar plants, which 
allows for the use of solar energy, even when the sun isn't 
shining. It also asks DOE to conduct studies on how to best 
integrate concentrating solar plants within the grid, and ways 
to reduce water uses in these plants. In addition, it creates a 
workforce training program for solar installation and 
maintenance, which is critical to making solar power a real 
energy option across the Nation.
    For each of these bills, the Energy and Environment 
Subcommittee held legislative hearings, had markups, where we 
heard valuable witness testimony, and facilitated good Member 
discussions on the barriers and possible pathways to these 
programs. And as you know, we are not alone in this effort. The 
Energy and Commerce Committee is marking up a series of bills 
today, at this very moment, and my friend, Congressman Hall, as 
well as a few of the folks in the Majority, are on both 
committees, so we are monitoring that, and if you see a dust 
cloud here at some point, we will be moving to the other 
committee to make those votes, but I am sure we will be left in 
good hands here, and we will continue with this markup.
    In conclusion, I want to urge my colleagues to support 
these bills. I know that the Committee's pace has been very 
aggressive, and it has been difficult at times for all of us. 
However, I believe the products that have resulted from this 
process demonstrate the value of this committee, and its 
bipartisan work reflects the entire membership.
    The bottom line is that we are going to have an energy bill 
in July. The Science Committee is going to, in a bipartisan 
way, make a major, major contribution with that. There are 
going to be several other committees that will have bills. We 
are going to get a reference from most of those, sequential, 
which we will also put our mark on. Every bill that has come 
out of this committee has been bipartisan, all but one. We will 
see what happens today, but so far, all but one has been 
unanimous, and so, I think everyone on this committee can go 
home, and claim a great deal of credit for what I think will be 
not an enormously comprehensive, but a good bill, a step 
forward, that will pass by a large margin on the House Floor in 
July.
    So now, I recognize Mr. Hall to present his opening 
remarks.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Gordon follows:]
               Prepared Statement of Chairman Bart Gordon
    With concerns about global climate change, high gas and electricity 
prices, and our growing reliance on unstable energy-supplying nations, 
energy has come to the forefront of our constituents' awareness and has 
been placed at the top of the Congressional ``To-Do'' list.
    Here on the Science and Technology Committee we have responded with 
an aggressive energy agenda.
    With the addition of the four bills we are marking up today, this 
committee will contribute an even dozen pieces of legislation that make 
a vital contribution to the national strategy to put the U.S., and the 
world, on track to a more sustainable future.
    First we will consider H.R. 906. Mr. Udall and Mr. Inglis, the 
Ranking Member of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee and co-
sponsor of the bill, have worked together to produce this legislation.
    H.R. 906 re-orients the U.S. Global Change Research Program to 
produce more policy-relevant climate information for regional, State, 
and local governments and other user groups.
    We will then take up H.R. 1933 by Rep. Udall, which sets out the 
next steps in DOE's carbon mitigation strategies. In addition to 
ongoing research in carbon management, the bill authorizes DOE to 
conduct demonstrations of large-scale carbon capture and storage 
technologies through partnerships with industrial, academic and 
government entities.
    Because we will continue to use our abundant resources of coal to 
meet our energy needs for the foreseeable future, it is critical that 
we demonstrate an integrated system of capture, transportation, and 
storage of carbon dioxide at a scale that encourages industry to start 
making technology choices.
    Next, the Committee will take up a bill by the Chairman of the 
Energy & Environment Subcommittee, Rep. Nick Lampson. H.R. 2773, the 
Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act, will better 
coordinate and compile information from federal biofuels research 
programs and focus biofuels research on infrastructure needs and 
efficiency of biorefinery technologies.
    H.R. 2773 also provides for the in-depth study of several 
challenges facing broader use of biofuels and increases the funding 
levels for biofuels research.
    Finally, we will consider H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and 
Advancement Act of 2007, introduced by Congresswoman Giffords. This 
bill creates an R&D; program on energy storage technology for 
concentrating solar power plants, which allows for the use of solar 
energy even when the sun isn't shining.
    It also asks DOE to conduct studies on how to best integrate 
concentrating solar plants with the grid, and ways to reduce water 
usage in these plants. In addition, it creates a workforce training 
program for solar installation and maintenance, which is critical to 
making solar power a real energy option across the country.
    For each of these bills the Energy and Environment Subcommittee 
held legislative hearings and markups where we heard valuable witness 
testimony and facilitated good Member discussions on the barriers and 
possible pathways for these programs.
    And, as you all may know, we are not alone in this effort today. 
The Energy and Commerce Committee is also marking up a series of energy 
bills and I, along with Ranking Member Hall and a few others, may have 
to excuse myself for votes in that committee.
    In conclusion, I urge my colleagues to support these four bills. I 
know the Committee's pace has been very aggressive and that has been 
difficult at times for all of us. However, I believe the products that 
have resulted from this process demonstrate the value of this committee 
and its work and it reflects well on the entire membership.
    I want to thank all the Members for their cooperation and 
participation.

    Mr. Hall. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I will try not to 
take the full length of time, and make one statement. I will be 
glad, as I am sure you will and others, when this month passes.
    I understand that you and your fellow Chairman and other 
Members have been working, I guess, under the usual pressure of 
this first year, to get and report bills out of the Committee, 
and sometimes, I fear that when we rush things through, we 
don't get the best end product we could have, if we had more 
time to fully vet the language, but I guess we will be working 
that as we go.
    You have done a good job of working with us, and I thank 
you for that. While I think improvements in the bill before us 
today are going to occur through amendments to be offered, I 
think they could be improved further, and I hope we will have 
other opportunities to do this, as the bill moves to the Floor. 
It is also my hope and understanding that, going forward, there 
will be more of an effort to have both sides working together, 
as we craft legislation to come before this committee. We will 
have more time. I think this would improve not only the quality 
of work we produce, but also, the bipartisan way in which they 
are handled.
    With that said, I support and believe it is important to 
our country's energy future to keep all options on the table, 
and we strive to do that with the three energy bills before us. 
One of our greatest challenges as a Nation is energy self-
sufficiency. We need to break our dependence on foreign sources 
of energy from countries we don't trust and who don't trust us. 
To do that, we need to be honest and practical about what needs 
to be done to get to that point.
    Solar and biofuels are an important source of domestic 
energy, but they are also limited in their scope. It is 
important that we continue to research and develop the 
resources we know exist domestically, and currently provide 
reliable, affordable, and clean sources of energy. I look 
forward to working with the Committee and working with you, Mr. 
Chairman, in the months ahead, to address this reality, so that 
Americans can enjoy more energy choices at a lower cost.
    I yield back.
    [The statement of Mr. Hall follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Ralph M. Hall
    Thank you Mr. Chairman. In the interest of time, I will keep my 
statement brief and say that I will be glad when this month is over. I 
understand that you and your fellow Chairmen have been working under 
pressure from the Speaker to report bills out of committee, but I fear 
that sometimes when things are rushed through, we don't get the best 
end-products we could have if we had more time to fully vet the 
language. While I think there are improvements in the bills before us 
today with the Subcommittee markup last week and the amendments to be 
offered today, I think that they could still be improved upon, and I 
hope that we'll have other opportunities to do so. It is also my hope 
and understanding that going forward, there will be more of an effort 
to have both sides working together as we craft legislation to come 
before the Committee. I think this would improve not only the quality 
of work we produce, but also the bipartisan way in which they are 
handled.
    With that said, I support what we're doing here today. It's 
important to our country's energy future to keep all options on table, 
and we continue to do that with the three energy bills before us.
    With that I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, or rather, thank 
you, Mr. Hall.
    Let me also say that you may not know, but I met privately 
and personally with the Republican, both the staff from the 
Members, as well as the Committee staff the other day, to talk 
about how we can, you know, do what I think is a good job even 
better. There were compliments in some areas of the 
consultation. There were suggestions for improvement in the 
others. I have asked for them to put together models of how 
they see things done, and good ways that we have done it, and 
if we haven't done it as well as we would like, so those kind 
of models, we are going to continue to work together.
    I am a new Chairman, there is a lot of new staff, and we 
are going to get this thing better and better, as we go along, 
because I truly believe that more consultation gets us a 
bipartisan bill, a consensus bill, and we are all going to be 
better off.
    So, does anyone else wish to be recognized?
    We now consider H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and 
Advancement Act of 2007. I yield to the gentlelady from Arizona 
five minutes to describe the bill.
    Ms. Giffords. Well, first of all, I want to thank Chairman 
Gordon and Ranking Member Hall for considering H.R. 2774, the 
Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act, in the Full 
Committee this morning. I also want to thank my fantastic 
staff, the staff of the Science Committee, for all of your help 
in making this possible.
    Mr. Chairman, today is a bright day indeed, no pun 
intended. Last week, we had the opportunity to hear from a very 
distinguished panel of witnesses, including the Director of the 
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL, the President of 
the Solar Energy Industries Association, SEIA, and the Solar 
Technology Coordinator for Arizona Public Service, which is the 
second fastest growing electric utility in the United States 
over the last five years. Many Members of the Energy and 
Environment Subcommittee attended the hearing, and I think we 
had an incredibly interesting and informing dialogue on the 
discussion draft for this legislation.
    The bill before us today contains three major components, 
two of which will move research and development forward on 
Concentrating Solar Power, CSP. The first would establish a 
Thermal Energy Storage Research and Development Program within 
the Department of Energy. This will help us, Mr. Chairman, 
solve perhaps the most significant problem with Concentrating 
Solar Power, which is the energy storage issue. We need more 
advanced technology, so that we can store solar energy when the 
sun rises, and use it at night, or on cloudy days. This is 
critical for energy reliability and viability.
    The second component, Mr. Chairman, would require the 
Department of Energy to conduct two Concentrating Solar Power 
Commercial Application Studies, the first of which would study 
methods to integrate concentrating solar power energy into 
regional electricity transmission systems. We need to research 
how to connect major solar power plants to the electric grid, 
relieve expensive demand on electric utilities, and use solar 
energy during these peak hours. We also need to figure out how 
to bring this abundant resource from the Southwest and other 
very warm, sunny areas, to the entire country.
    The second report would require the Department of Energy to 
examine methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by 
concentrating solar power systems. Given the strain on water 
resources, the drought, for example, in the Southwest, we must 
study this subject, so that we can fully realize the benefits 
and the possibilities of CSP technology.
    The bill's third component establishes a competitive grant 
program to create and to strengthen solar industry training and 
internship programs across the country. This will ensure that 
workers obtain the necessary skills to install, operate, and 
maintain solar energy products.
    The need for this program is clear.
    The solar industry is growing at a very fast clip, and we 
need to make sure that we have the skilled workforce in order 
to sustain this growth.
    A strong solar industry will stimulate business 
development, create new jobs, help protect the environment, and 
promote the energy independence which we all understand to be 
so important.
    In addition to what I have introduced here, Mr. Chairman, I 
look forward to supporting several very good bipartisan 
amendments that will make this bill a much better bill.
    As I said last week, solar energy is a nonpartisan issue, 
and I know that we can all benefit from harnessing the power 
from the sun.
    I look forward to the Members' support for H.R. 2774, and I 
will continue to work with all of you as we move to the Floor, 
hopefully next week.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Giffords follows:]
        Prepared Statement of Representative Gabrielle Giffords
    I want to thank Chairman Gordon and Ranking Member Hall for 
considering H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act, 
in the Full Committee this morning.
    Last week, we had the opportunity to hear from a very distinguished 
panel of witnesses, including the Director of the National Renewable 
Energy Laboratory (NREL), the President of the Solar Energy Industries 
Association (SEIA), and the Solar Technology Coordinator for Arizona 
Public Service (APS), which is the second fastest growing electric 
utility in the U.S. over the last five years.
    Many Members of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee attended 
the hearing, and we had a very informative and engaging dialogue on the 
discussion draft for this legislation.
    The bill before us today contains three main components, two of 
which will move research and development forward on concentrating solar 
power (CSP).
    The first would establish a ``Thermal Energy Storage Research and 
Development Program'' within the Department of Energy. This will help 
us solve perhaps the most significant problem with concentrating solar 
power technology: energy storage. We need more advanced technology so 
that we can store solar energy when the sun shines and use it at night 
or on a cloudy day. This is all critical for energy reliability and 
viability.
    The second component would require DOE to conduct two 
``Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Studies.'' One would 
study methods to integrate concentrating solar power energy into 
regional electricity transmission systems. We need to research how to 
connect major solar power plants to the electric grid, relieve 
expensive demand on electric utilities, and use solar energy during 
these peak hours. We also need to figure out how to bring this abundant 
resource from the Southwest to the entire country.
    The other report would require DOE to examine methods to reduce the 
amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems. Given 
the strain on water resources in the Southwest, we must study this 
subject so we can realize the full benefits of CSP technology.
    The bill's third component establishes a competitive grant program 
to create and strengthen solar industry training and internship 
programs across the country. This will ensure that workers obtain the 
necessary skills to install, operate, and maintain solar energy 
products.
    The need for this program is clear.
    The solar energy industry is growing at a very fast pace, and we 
need to ensure that we have a skilled workforce to sustain this growth.
    A strong solar industry will stimulate business development, create 
new jobs, help protect our environment, and promote energy 
independence.
    In addition to what I've introduced here, I also look forward to 
supporting several amendments from both sides of the aisle that make a 
good bill better.
    As I said last week, solar energy is a non-partisan issue, and I 
know that we can all benefit from harnessing the power of the sun.
    I look forward to Members' support for H.R. 2774, and I will 
continue to work with you as we move to the House Floor next month.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Ms. Giffords, for this really 
very good bill.
    Mr. Hall is recognized.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, H.R. 2774 will provide research and 
development on yet another important renewable energy source, 
solar energy.
    I fully support research and development on solar power, 
considering that less than two percent of our energy 
consumption comes from this renewable source, and it is a 
reliable source for most Americans. I am happy to hear that the 
Majority plans to accept a number of amendments that are going 
to be offered by my Minority colleagues here today.
    I think these amendments are going to serve to make your 
bill a better bill, and I hope it does. I believe the 
amendments offered by Representative Bartlett, promoting 
commercial application of solar lighting technology and solar 
air conditioning technology, is going to do a lot to advance 
the use of solar power for everyday use. And Mr. Smith's 
amendment, to establish a competitive grant program, will 
encourage state governments and private industry to team up to 
demonstrate advanced technology, and I fully support these 
amendments.
    I support the amendment which will be offered by 
Representative Inglis also, which would strike Section 5 of the 
bill. I am concerned that that section of the bill, because I 
don't think it makes sense for the Department of Energy to 
provide grants to buy equipment or pay private companies to 
train workers. I understand the need for training, but I don't 
think that is the best way to achieve that goal.
    And I thank the Chairman for bringing up this legislation 
today, and I yield back the balance of my time. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Does anyone else wish to be recognized? 
Mr. Ehlers is recognized.
    Mr. Ehlers. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Again, I think--first of all, I would like to point out, 
the greatest opportunity is in solar energy. There is no more 
stable overall source than solar energy. It doesn't vary much 
from day to day or year to year, disregarding the cloud effect.
    The supply is ample. And there is an incredible amount of 
solar energy landing on the Earth every day. It is just almost 
incomprehensible. It is so much larger than our energy use, it 
is hard to believe. The difficulty, of course, is that in 
scientific or engineering terms, solar energy is low quality 
energy. That means, first of all, that it is very diffuse. It 
is spread over the entire Earth. It is not concentrated. And 
secondly, the thermodynamic efficiency of using it is very low, 
because the temperature of solar energy, as it hits the Earth, 
is low, compared to, for example, burning fossil fuels.
    So, there are lots and lots of opportunities, but a great 
deal of research to be done yet, and I commend this bill, 
because it deals with one aspect of the research. But frankly, 
I don't think that centralized collection facilities are likely 
to be the answer to the future.
    I think, for example, I am hoping that within ten years, 
solar shingles will be in the same price range as the current 
asphalt shingles. So, then, we can begin putting solar shingles 
on houses. That is an ideal use, because that is a diffuse use, 
it is widespread, and the energy is right, it will be received 
right at the source where you need it. Again, it is not going 
to be high quality, but it may well supplant existing methods 
of heating hot water. It may supplant heating and cooling in 
the house. Perhaps even electric stoves could be run off the 
system.
    Again, the problem is going to be storage of energy, just 
as this bill tries to address, but with the improved efficiency 
of batteries that are being developed for hybrid automobiles, 
considerably better than we have had before, the storage may 
become less of a problem. So, I am not saying this to in any 
way negate the bill before us, but I just want to point out 
this bill covers just one aspect of the issues that we face.
    One other comment, in connection with Mr. Inglis' 
amendment, to do away with the education. Today, precisely at 
this time, the Energy and Workforce Committee, I am sorry, it 
is Education and Labor now, the Education and Labor Committee 
is considering a bill to provide training for what are called 
green jobs in the bill. It is going to be comprehensive. It 
could easily include this, and it is a well structured bill.
    It is sponsored by the Minority, but we are working on it 
together, and it may well be that the training program in this 
bill, that Mr. Inglis seeks to strike, could more appropriately 
be put in that bill. It looks at training for green jobs in 
every area of life, and every area of operation, including 
energy. So, I commend the Committee too, and request that they 
look at that bill, as perhaps a good place to put the training 
program that is in this bill, because it will be incorporated 
into all the job training programs that are already under the 
jurisdiction of the Education and Labor Committee, and operated 
out of the Labor Department. That is just a suggestion, but I 
am sure that the Education and Labor Committee would be pleased 
to incorporate that.
    But my main point is solar is the energy of the future. It 
is an inexhaustible supply. So far as we know, the sun is not 
likely to go out for roughly a billion years, and by then, I 
don't think we will be worrying about energy supply problems. I 
think we will have other things to worry about.
    So, I just wanted to add those comments to the record, and 
I yield back.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Ehlers. Wouldn't it be 
great if we also had the equivalent of shingles that could go 
on automobiles, on the surface of automobiles, for that type 
of, also, energy use?
    Mr. Ehlers. If I may respond, the difficulty with 
transportation, that needs high amounts of energy for brief 
periods of time, and solar is low amounts of energy over long 
periods of time.
    Chairman Gordon. With storage also.
    Mr. Ehlers. Pardon?
    Chairman Gordon. But if you can deal with the storage 
problem.
    Mr. Ehlers. That is the issue.
    Chairman Gordon. Yeah. With the lithium batteries.
    Mr. Ehlers. Exactly. Yeah. It is a good idea, but it needs 
work. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Does anyone else wish to make a comment? 
Mr. Rohrabacher.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Let me just note that we, I think we have 
reached a turning point, where solar energy now does have an 
enormous potential, not just in the future, but for tomorrow, 
if we do what is right. Over the years, I have heard a lot of 
claims from people. In fact, I remember even back in college, 
hearing claims, when I was a young reporter, 30 years ago, 
claims that were just not substantiated about what solar energy 
was potentially then.
    However, my reading of it, and studying of the energy 
issues is that solar energy does offer us, right now, because 
of the progress we have made, a tremendous asset, if we just 
invest in it. So, I am very happy to support this legislation.
    Chairman Gordon. I agree, and Ms. Giffords is getting us on 
that road.
    Does anyone else wish to make a comment? If not, I ask 
unanimous consent the bill is considered as read, and open to 
amendment at any point, and that the Members proceed with 
amendments in the order of the roster. Without objection, so 
ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is offered by the 
gentleman from Maryland, Mr. Bartlett. Are you ready to proceed 
with your amendment?
    Mr. Bartlett. I am, Mr. Chairman. I have two amendments at 
the desk, that are related in that they both use sunlight 
directly, real time. I ask unanimous consent to consider them 
en masse.
    Chairman Gordon. Without objection, so ordered.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you very much.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendments.
    The Clerk. Amendments to H.R. 2774, offered by Mr. Bartlett 
of Maryland, amendment #006 and #047.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain his 
amendments.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you. I started studying energy 40 years 
ago. I have built approximately 50 passive solar powered homes, 
and designed and built my own solar powered home, that is 
totally off the grid.
    We have been working at a furious pace in this committee to 
advance a series of bipartisan energy bills. I greatly 
appreciate the cooperation and collaboration of the gentlewoman 
from Arizona, Ms. Giffords, and Chairman Lampson, and Chairman 
Gordon, and their staff. I want to especially thank Adam 
Rosenberg. They have all worked very hard, and could not have 
been more receptive to my suggestions to make sure that this 
very good solar research bill became a better and more 
comprehensive bill.
    Mr. Chairman, I have prepared remarks on these two 
amendments. I would like unanimous consent to submit them for 
the record.
    Chairman Gordon. Without objection.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you, sir.
    In the interest of time, I think that the little 
description in the amendment roster describes what they do. We, 
with bright sunshine outside, we now have lights turned on this 
room. There are technologies which could have directed sunlight 
here, and my first amendment directs a research program in this 
vein, so that we can light as much of our buildings as possible 
with direct sunlight.
    The second one is a very interesting one. It uses solar 
energy for air conditioning. Most of the time you need air 
conditioning, is when the sun is shining. There are some very 
interesting technologies out there, the ammonia cycle 
refrigeration is one of them, where we can actually cool with 
the sun, and my second amendment does that, and I thank you 
very much for the opportunity of working with you in submitting 
these amendments.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Bartlett follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Representative Roscoe Bartlett
    I started studying energy 40 years ago, built around 50 passive 
solar-powered homes and designed and built my own solar-powered home 
that is off the grid. We have been working at a furious pace in this 
committee to advance a series of bipartisan energy bills. I greatly 
appreciate the cooperation and collaboration from the gentlewoman from 
Arizona Ms. Giffords, and Chairman Lampson and Chairman Gordon and 
their staffs. I want to especially thank Adam Rosenberg. They all 
worked very hard and could not have been more receptive to my 
suggestions to make sure that this very good solar research bill became 
a better and more comprehensive bill. In consideration of time, I 
request that the balance of my statement be entered into the record. I 
also request that these two amendments be considered en bloc.

Daylighting Systems and Direct Solar Pipe Technology

    I appreciate Chairman Gordon's leadership and his strong commitment 
and encouragement to our colleagues who serve on other committees to 
bring good ideas to our attention. We have all had many recent 
experiences of long term loss of electric power due to intense weather 
patterns, mechanical or human error causing grid failure, and 
terrorism. Greater utilization of a wider array of distributed 
generation and lighting technologies will make our homes and businesses 
and communities more self-sufficient.
    I am grateful to my colleague, Tom Petri, for alerting me to the 
opportunity to advance this goal by advancing research on daylighting 
systems and direct solar pipe technology. One of my favorite sayings 
often invoked by President Ronald Reagan is that there's no limit to 
how much good that you can accomplish if you don't care who gets the 
credit.
    This amendment would create a program to promote the demonstration 
and commercial application of direct solar renewable energy devices 
such as solar light pipes to help develop a diverse array of 
distributed generation and lighting technologies needed to maintain the 
reliability of the Nation's power infrastructure. In order to assess 
the energy savings realized by the use of these direct solar renewable 
energy devices, the amendment also directs the Secretary of Energy to 
submit an annual report to Congress of the energy savings data derived 
from projects covered in this program.
    The amendment is designed to support the immediate demonstration 
and commercial application of proven solar light pipe technology in 
public and private sector buildings, tunnels and other enclosures. It 
is aimed to support efforts beyond the current research and development 
efforts in solar energy technologies being done at research facilities 
under the auspices of the Federal Government and/or the same which is 
funded by the Federal Government at private or educational research 
facilities.
    U.S. industry has just begun to commercialize a number of devices 
such as solar light tubes using solar concentrators, reflectors and 
lenses, light fibers, and other technologies to direct natural light 
into buildings, tunnels and other enclosures to augment or replace 
light from traditional fixtures. For instance, solar light pipes make 
direct use of sunlight, without the conversion of the sunlight into 
another form of energy, which is a much more efficient method than 
indirect use to create electricity. Integrated lighting systems such as 
solar light pipes provide optimum light levels while reducing or 
eliminating electricity consumption during daylight hours. 
Additionally, solar light pipes in these integrated light systems have 
the capability to measure the resulting savings in kilowatt-hours over 
traditional sources.
    There is authorized to be appropriated $3.5 million for each of 
Fiscal Years 2008 through 2012 to carry out the activities of this 
section.
    I urge the adoption of this amendment. Thank you.

Solar Powered AC

    This amendment adds a section to establish a research, development 
and demonstration program to promote less costly and more reliable 
decentralized and distributed solar-powered air conditioning for 
individuals and businesses. This amendment is designed to produce 
renewable energy powered decentralized and distributed electricity, 
reduce peak load electricity demands and contribute to greater 
resilience of the grid.
    This amendment is supported by the:

         Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and 
        Renewable Energy, because it will enhance the ongoing Building 
        America Program

         National Renewable Energy Laboratory

         Solar Energy Industry Association, SEIA

         Western Renewables Group

         Austin Energy

         Sacramento Municipal Utility District

         San Diego Gas & Electric

    Peak electricity demand across the U.S.--most glaringly in the 
Western U.S.--is driven by the spread of central air conditioners 
powered from the grid. Clipping this fast-rising peak by taking air 
conditioners OFF the grid, and powering them via solar thermal 
collectors, will contribute far more to grid stability during times of 
excess demand (typically hot summer days), reduce wholesale electricity 
prices and ease tensions being created across the country to build ever 
more transmission and distribution capacity. Combining solar thermal 
collectors with solar powered absorption chillers and thermal storage 
hold great promise. Improving dessicant dehumidification and developing 
cost-effective pre-cooling approaches is particularly important across 
the Southeastern U.S.
    Solar-powered decentralized distributed air conditioning instead of 
the conventional centralized air conditioning would benefit every 
consumer class: individuals and businesses and industry (large and 
small customers) with less costly and more reliable peak air 
conditioning increasing regional grid security and reliability.
    Grants made available under this amendment may be used to support 
the following activities:

        (1)  to advance solar thermal collectors, including but not 
        limited to, concentrating solar thermal and electric systems, 
        flat plate and evacuated tube collector performance;

        (2)  to achieve technical and economic integration of solar-
        powered distributed air-conditioning systems with existing hot 
        water and storage systems for residential applications;

        (3)  to design and demonstrate mass manufacturing capability to 
        reduce costs of modular standardized solar-powered distributed 
        air conditioning systems and components;

        (4)  to improve the efficiency of solar-powered distributed 
        air-conditioning to increase the effectiveness of solar-powered 
        absorption chillers, solar-driven compressors and condensors, 
        and cost-effective pre-cooling approaches

        (5)  to research and compare performance of solar-powered 
        distributed air conditioning systems in different regions of 
        the country including potential integration with other on-site 
        systems, such as solar, biogas, geothermal heat pumps, and 
        propane assist or combined propane fuel cells, with a goal to 
        develop site-specific energy production/management systems that 
        ease fuel and peak utility loading.

    There is authorized to be appropriated $2.5 million for each of 
Fiscal Years 2008 through 2012 to carry out the activities of this 
section. Industry will provide a cost-shared contribution of 20 percent 
for research and development and 50 percent for demonstration and 
deployment projects.
    I urge my colleagues to approve this amendment.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Bartlett. I know this may 
sound weird to you, but I think this is fun, to bring these new 
ideas, and I mean, I am really enjoying making these bills 
better, and again, I thank everyone for bringing their unique 
thoughts to this, and you know, their past experiences.
    Does anyone else wish to discuss this amendment? If not, 
then the vote occurs on the amendment, or the amendments. All 
in favor, say aye. Aye. Opposed, no. The amendments are agreed 
to.
    And now, let me see, we turn to Mr. Inglis. The third 
amendment on the roster is offered by the gentleman from South 
Carolina.
    Mr. Inglis. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 2774, offered by Mr. Inglis of 
South Carolina.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain his 
amendment.
    Mr. Inglis. And I thank the Chairman.
    You know, sometimes, you move to amend a bill, and you 
really don't feel too bad about it, because the author is 
somebody that you wouldn't mind correcting. That is not the 
case here. The author here is so pleasant to deal with, it is 
very hard to offer an amendment that takes one of the pieces 
out of the bill. But here goes. I will do it nicely, Gabrielle.
    Anyhow, my concern generally about grants is that what we 
do is we collect up tax money in the states, we bring it here 
to Washington, we set up grant readers and grant writers and 
regulations and regulators, and then, we take the money back to 
the districts, and what started out as a bucketful of water 
ends up being a thimbleful when it gets back, because the 
people got to eat, if they are grant writers and readers and 
regulators, and so, I am generally disinclined toward grant 
programs that do that. I am very disinclined if they are small, 
because then what you end up with is eating a lot of the money 
in administration.
    And as has already been said, this concept is being 
considered in Education and Labor, so my concern here is we are 
not doing rocket science. We really are doing very applied work 
here, which is good, it is very important to do applied work. 
But the question is should we use the scarce science dollars 
available to us to help community colleges figure out how to 
install solar systems, or to set up curricula to help people to 
install solar systems.
    And that, I doubt, is the role of the Federal Government, 
and I doubt it going to be very effective, because, you know, 
if you are in a sunny state, you are happy to take advantage of 
this program. If you are in Washington State, let us say, your 
community college isn't going to get any of this money. And so, 
it sets up an equity question as well.
    So, my suggestion is that we take this part of the bill 
out, and stick with the things like Dr. Bartlett was just 
mentioning, that are so exciting, where you really are doing 
rocket science, well, maybe not exactly rocket science, but you 
are doing some science that is more basic research, that the 
Federal Government has a clear role in, whereas this, my 
community colleges would love to have this grant, but the 
question is whether that is the role of the Federal Government 
to set that up, or whether it is the role of an enterprising 
community college in an area that has a felt need for this, and 
perhaps, industries that will immediately latch onto and take 
it and run with it.
    I think that probably in sunny states, that is the case. 
There will be industries there that get with their community 
colleges, and say come on, we can do it. Set up a curriculum to 
teach these people how to do it. We are going to go out and put 
up these solar systems, and in those cases, it will work, 
without the thimbleful of money being brought, or thimbleful of 
water being brought from Washington and dropped on the scene. 
They will have a bucketful of money in the local community, and 
they will get it done. And then, the rest of us will learn from 
it, and some people will make some money out of it, and I like 
that. Profit is a very good thing, and the market will drive 
this, and it is a very applied kind of thing that we are 
talking about here.
    So, my amendment simply strikes out that very applied kind 
of work, but I congratulate the author of the bill on coming up 
with something that will do some other things that are aimed at 
the basic science, which is more the role of the Federal 
Government.
    I yield back, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. The amender is also a nice person, and 
presented his amendment in a very courteous way. I think Ms. 
Woolsey wanted to be recognized.
    Ms. Woolsey. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am so disappointed. 
I thought the gentleman from South Carolina was going to raise 
the amount of money in the legislation, because he didn't think 
it was enough.
    But one of our goals, as a nation, when we talk about 
energy, and energy conservation, and green technologies, is to 
know that that is the industry of the future, whatever 
direction we go in. That means jobs. That means we have to have 
the training for those jobs. We need training for installing. 
We need to learn how to work safely with these products. We 
know that we wouldn't ever take our car to a mechanic that we 
didn't think was trained and ready to take care of our 
automobile.
    So, I just think that your idea that there is not enough 
money in there, Mr. Inglis, is absolutely right. But we need to 
start somewhere, and it will prove itself out. I mean, the 
gentlelady's legislation is going to prove over time that we do 
need more money in there, for just the purposes that she is 
trying to advance, and to actually come up with the right kind 
of training for these folks.
    So, there we are, that is where I am. Thank you, Mr. 
Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you. Is there further discussion on 
the amendment? The author of the bill, Ms. Giffords, is 
recognized.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I want to thank 
the gentleman from South Carolina as well, because I know we 
had a discussion, I think last week, about your concerns.
    What I heard from our hearing last week was that installing 
and maintaining solar equipment requires really specific, 
unique training, that is not typically included in community 
college courses. I also saw a map that compares the United 
States to Germany, and whether South Carolina or even, for 
example, in the Hudson Valley, where Mr. Sarubbi, Professor 
Sarubbi came from. There is abundant sun across the entire 
United States, so I understand your concern, but I don't 
necessarily think that it is applicable.
    We know that the installers must learn how to work safely 
with these photovoltaic systems, to conduct site assessments, 
work with high voltage wiring, and perform these complicated 
installations on residential and commercial rooftops. The 
design of solar systems on either new homes or existing homes--
Mr. Udall, as he talked about having to cut down the tree in 
order to put in his solar system--is pretty complicated.
    Large scale commercial solar systems require a high level 
of expertise at the design side of the business prior to 
installation, and the solar industry currently does not have 
the educational infrastructure to develop these skills. As the 
number of installations grow exponentially, not just in 
Arizona, but across the country, the need for a ready qualified 
workforce is paramount to the success of the solar industry.
    Mr. Chairman, I used to run my family's tire and automotive 
business, and I would never believe that my mechanics could go 
work on an airplane, just as I don't believe that a general 
electrician can go and install a solar system. The Department 
of Energy estimates that around 5,000 trained installers may be 
needed by 2015, and currently, to date, we have just 365 
certified solar electric installers, and 40 certified solar 
thermal installers, so we have a long ways to go, in terms of 
the numbers that we need to meet.
    The solar industry is made up of many small and mid-sized 
companies, which cannot afford to start these training programs 
from scratch, or entirely on their own. They simply don't have 
the budgets to provide the necessary technical training.
    The workforce development section in my bill is pro-small 
business and also pro-innovation. It is going to help these 
small businesses with the workforce that they need to remain 
competitive in a tough business environment that is in a 
rapidly growing industry. But in addition, Mr. Inglis, I want 
to make sure that you understand that there is ample precedent 
for this kind of program. In Title XI of the 2005 Energy Policy 
Act, and I have a copy here if you would like to see it, it 
includes several energy-related workforce training programs 
that have had wide bipartisan support.
    The Administration's successful High Growth Job Training 
Initiative, launched by President Bush in 2001, provided 38 
partnerships nationwide between community colleges and 
workforce agencies and employers. Also, the President's Jobs 
for the 21st Century Initiative, announced at the 2004 State of 
the Union Address, included a $250 million proposal to help 
America's community colleges train 100,000 additional workers 
for the industries that are creating most of the new jobs.
    These initiatives help community colleges produce graduates 
with the skills most in demand by local employers. If we want 
to expand the use of solar technologies, we need to have these 
trained workers in solar installation, that can help install 
and maintain the equipment.
    So, I understand what you are saying, Mr. Inglis, but I 
respectfully disagree with you, and hope that Members will 
oppose the amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Inglis, did you change your mind?
    Mr. Inglis. No. But she is very persuasive. No. It sounds 
like a great business opportunity for somebody to make a lot of 
money installing these things. I am all for them.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion? If not, the 
motion is on the amendment. All in favor, say aye. Well, I 
will--my hearing was a little off there, so I am going to try 
that again.
    Is there further discussion on the amendment? I don't see 
any, so then, all in favor of the amendment, say aye. Opposed, 
no. No. It appears that the nays have it. The amendment is not 
agreed to.
    Mr. Inglis. Mr. Chairman, could we have a roll call on 
that?
    Chairman Gordon. Certainly. The Clerk will call the roll.
    The Clerk. Chairman Gordon.
    Chairman Gordon. No.
    The Clerk. Chairman Gordon votes no. Mr. Costello.
    Mr. Costello. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Costello votes no. Ms. Johnson.
    Ms. Johnson. no.
    The Clerk. Ms. Johnson votes no. Ms. Woolsey.
    Ms. Woolsey. No.
    The Clerk. Ms. Woolsey votes no. Mr. Udall.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Wu.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Baird.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Miller.
    Mr. Miller. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Miller votes no. Mr. Lipinski.
    Mr. Lipinski. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Lipinski votes no. Mr. Lampson.
    Mr. Lampson. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Lampson votes no. Ms. Giffords.
    Ms. Giffords. No.
    The Clerk. Ms. Giffords votes no. Mr. McNerney.
    Mr. McNerney. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. McNerney votes no. Mr. Kanjorski.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Ms. Hooley.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Rothman.
    Mr. Rothman. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Rothman votes no. Mr. Honda.
    Mr. Honda. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Honda votes no. Mr. Matheson.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Ross.
    Mr. Ross. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Ross votes no. Mr. Chandler.
    Mr. Chandler. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Chandler votes no. Mr. Carnahan.
    Mr. Carnahan. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Carnahan votes no. Mr. Melancon.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Hill.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Mitchell.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Wilson.
    Mr. Wilson. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Wilson votes no. Mr. Hall.
    Mr. Hall. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Hall votes aye. Mr. Sensenbrenner.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Lamar Smith.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Rohrabacher.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Rohrabacher votes aye. Mr. Bartlett.
    Mr. Bartlett. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Bartlett votes aye. Mr. Ehlers.
    Mr. Ehlers. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Ehlers votes aye. Mr. Lucas.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mrs. Biggert.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Akin.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Bonner.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Feeney.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Neugebauer.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Inglis.
    Mr. Inglis. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Inglis votes aye. Mr. Reichert.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. McCaul.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Diaz-Balart.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Gingrey.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Bilbray.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Adrian Smith.
    Mr. Smith of Nebraska. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Adrian Smith votes aye.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Wu has joined us.
    The Clerk. Mr. Wu is not recorded.
    Chairman Gordon. Ms. Hooley has joined us.
    Ms. Hooley. No.
    The Clerk. Ms. Hooley votes no.
    Chairman Gordon. Ms. Biggert.
    The Clerk. Mrs. Biggert is not recorded.
    Ms. Biggert. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mrs. Biggert votes aye.
    Chairman Gordon. Are there other Members who have not been 
recorded? If not, the Clerk will report.
    The Clerk. Mr. Chairman, 7 Members vote aye, 17 Members 
vote no.
    Chairman Gordon. The courteous amendment is not agreed to.
    
    
    Chairman Gordon. The fourth, fifth, and sixth amendments on 
the roster are offered by the gentlelady from Texas, and we 
appreciate her combining these, in the interests of time, and I 
ask unanimous consent that these amendments be considered en 
bloc. Without objection, so ordered.
    Are you ready to proceed with your amendment, Ms. Johnson?
    Ms. Johnson. Yes. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. And I believe there is an amendment at the 
desk, and the Clerk will report those amendments.
    The Clerk. Amendments to H.R. 2774, offered by Ms. Eddie 
Bernice Johnson of Texas, amendment #068, #071, and #069.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentlelady is recognized for five minutes to explain 
her amendments.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for considering these 
three amendments. And they can be considered together.
    One amendment focuses on Section 5(C) of the Solar Research 
and Advancement Act. Texas is such a prime location for 
renewable energies, such as solar and wind, and our citizens 
could benefit greatly from use of these alternative energy 
sources, if companies could develop and deploy the technology 
to harness the energy. In order to be able to utilize solar 
energy on a large scale, companies must be able to capture and 
store it, so that reliable power can be delivered, even on a 
cloudy day.
    One small amendment adds two words to Section 4(A), 
pertaining to a study on the method to integrate concentrating 
solar power and regional electricity transmission systems. This 
amendment clarifies the study. It should analyze cost-effective 
approaches for management and large scale integration of 
concentrating solar power. In devising this amendment, I wanted 
to make certain that the Secretary report on methods for large 
scale deployment that are cost-effective, so that companies can 
actually use them. In addition, such methods must be suitable 
for broad use in the electric energy system. This small change 
simply clarifies the aim of the study, and I hope the Chairman 
will find it acceptable.
    The next amendment focuses on Section 5(C) of the Solar 
Research and Advancement Act. This section pertains to the 
newly established Solar Energy Curriculum Development and 
Certification Grants Program. The purpose of this comparative 
grant program is to ensure a supply of well trained individuals 
to support the expansion of solar energy industry, and my 
amendment adds a sentence to the end of Section C, Subsection 
C, that simply says: ``Due consideration shall be given to 
women, under-represented minorities, and persons with 
disabilities.'' It has been a primary goal of mine to be sure 
that these groups are considered fairly for grant programs 
developed in this committee, and this change is consistent with 
that goal.
    The third amendment also amends Section 5 at the end. It 
directs the Secretary to make public information, grantee 
names, institutions, and a brief description of the project. 
The public pays for this research, Mr. Chairman, so I feel that 
transparency is in the public's best interest.
    And again, I thank the Chairman, Mr. Udall, and Mr. Gordon, 
the Chairman, for their receptiveness to these changes, and I 
also thank Ms. Giffords for putting forth this bill.
    I urge my colleagues to support these three little 
amendments, and I thank the Chair, and yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]
       Prepared Statement of Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for considering my amendments all 
together, and for the opportunity to present them to the Committee.
    H.R. 2774 contains important policies to encourage research and 
development pertaining to solar energy.
    Texas is a prime location for renewable energies such as solar and 
wind.
    Our citizens could benefit greatly from use of these alternative 
energy sources, if companies could develop and deploy the technology to 
harness the energy.
    In order to be able to utilize solar energy on a large scale, 
companies must be able to capture and store it so that reliable power 
can be delivered, even on a cloudy day.
    One small amendment adds two words to Section 4(a), pertaining to a 
study on methods to integrate concentrating solar power into regional 
electricity transmission systems.
    My amendment clarifies that the study shall analyze cost-effective 
approaches for management and large-scale integration of concentrating 
solar power.
    In devising this amendment, I wanted to make certain that the 
Secretary report on methods for large-scale deployment that are cost-
effective, so that companies can actually use them.
    In addition, such methods must be suitable to broad use in the 
electric energy system.
    This small change simply clarifies the aim of this study, and I 
hope the Chairman will find it acceptable.
    The next amendment focuses on Section 5(c) of the Solar Research 
and Advancement Act.
    This section pertains to the newly-established ``Solar Energy 
Curriculum Development and Certification Grants'' program. The purpose 
of this competitive grant program is to ensure a supply of well-trained 
individuals to support the expansion of the solar energy industry.
    My amendment adds a sentence to the end of Subsection C that simply 
says, ``Due consideration shall be given to women, under-represented 
minorities and persons with disabilities.''
    It has been a primary goal of mine to be sure these groups are 
considered fairly for grant programs developed in this committee, and 
this change is consistent with that goal.
    The third amendment also amends Section 5, at the end. It directs 
the Secretary to make public information grantee names, institutions, 
and a brief description of the project.
    The public pays for this research, Mr. Chairman, so I feel that 
transparency is in the public's best interest.
    Again, I thank Chairmen Lampson and Gordon for their receptiveness 
to these changes to H.R. 2774, as well as Ms. Giffords for offering the 
bill, and I urge my colleagues to support the amendments.
    Thank you. I yield back.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Ms. Johnson. As usual, you make 
another constructive improvement to this bill. You do this time 
and time again. Thank you for that.
    Is there anyone else that would like to discuss the 
amendments? If no, the vote occurs on the amendments. All in 
favor, say aye. Aye. Those opposed, no. The ayes have it. The 
amendments are agreed to.
    The seventh amendment on the roster is offered by the 
gentleman from Texas, Mr. Hall. Are you ready to proceed with 
your amendment?
    Mr. Hall. I am, Mr. Chairman. I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 2774, offered by Mr. Hall.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain his 
amendment.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I thank you, and my amendment would 
strike the section of the bill relating to research and 
development of thermal energy storage technologies, and replace 
it with a more comprehensive approach to research and 
development on energy storage systems that would benefit all 
the renewables.
    As several of the witnesses expressed at the hearing on 
this bill, energy storage systems for intermittent sources, 
such as wind and solar, are very similar, and this would 
include thermal storage systems, but would not limit research 
and development on energy storage to this one area. This 
language is included in a larger energy bill that was 
introduced, that I introduced, and several Minority Members of 
this committee joined.
    It is my understanding, Mr. Chairman, that your staff is 
currently working on an all-inclusive renewable energy storage 
bill, and I am of the hopes, and I believe this language would 
probably fit well with those efforts of yours. If I could have 
your assurance that every effort would be made to address a 
more comprehensive approach to energy storage systems, and 
include the Minority in the drafting, which I believe you will 
do, you have always been kind enough to do that, that 
legislation, then I would withdraw my amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Hall. I look very forward 
to working with you on this joint bill.
    Mr. Hall. This one, I am going to win. I withdraw my 
amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. We will give you another----
    Mr. Hall. I yield back my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you. We will give you a chance to 
win another one here. The eighth amendment on the roster is 
offered also by the gentleman from Texas, Mr. Hall. Are you 
ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 2774, offered by Mr. Smith of 
Texas.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes, and I 
understand that he is standing in for Mr. Smith's good bill.
    Mr. Hall. Yes. This was Lamar Smith's amendment, and this 
amendment establishes a competitive grant program to encourage 
state governments and private industry to team up to 
demonstrate advanced technology.
    All states are eligible to participate in and are required 
to contribute at least 10 percent of the funding. The Federal 
Government matches the grant, at a maximum of 40 percent. The 
rest of the money comes from utilities or private industry. 
Since the grants are competitive, there is an incentive for 
states and utilities to pledge more than the minimum amount.
    And Mr. Chairman, I just ask unanimous consent Mr. Lamar 
Smith's amendment summary into the record, and with that, why 
this language was included in H.R. 5655 in the last Congress. 
It has broad bipartisan and industry support. I would ask 
unanimous consent to put that in the record.
    Chairman Gordon. Without objection, yes.
    Mr. Hall. The full statement of Mr. Smith in the record.
    Chairman Gordon. The full statement of Mr. Smith will be 
introduced in the record. I will say that we have worked with 
him extensively on this, and I think it is a very good 
amendment.
    Mr. Hall. With this, I yield back my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Smith follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Lamar Smith
    Solar power is clean, efficient and plentiful. It has zero 
emissions and zero waste.
    Despite the clear benefits of solar energy, it represents less than 
one percent of America's current energy output--a number we need to 
increase.
    My amendment establishes a competitive grant program to encourage 
state governments and private industry to team up to demonstrate 
advanced photovoltaic technology.
    This amendment takes an efficient, cost-effective approach. Under 
this amendment, states are required to contribute AT LEAST 10 percent 
of the grant funding.
    The Federal Government matches the grant at a MAXIMUM of 40 
percent. The rest of the funds would come from utilities or private 
industry.
    Since the grants are competitive, there is an incentive for states 
and utilities to pledge much more than the minimum amounts.
    Furthermore, every state would be eligible to participate in the 
program. The program's funding starts with $15 million the first year 
and ramps up to $70 million in 2013.
    While this funding will be the start of many solar projects across 
the Nation, I am pleased to know that many local communities have 
already begun to embrace solar technology and realize its benefits, 
including several cities within my district.
    As many of you probably heard, Austin, Texas, was recently named 
the 2007 Solar America City. This designation demonstrates the value 
that the City of Austin and its leadership have placed in implementing 
and researching solar technologies.
    And in my hometown of San Antonio, CPS Energy recently announced a 
solar energy joint project to install an array of 200-kilowatt solar 
panels at the top of a 67,000-square-foot former warehouse facility.
    I am hopeful that this amendment will encourage further solar 
technology utilization. By encouraging communities to embrace solar 
energy we can increase demand for solar power, broaden our knowledge of 
the technology and eventually lower its costs.
    This amendment is about energy security, national security, and 
environmental security, and I look forward to its passing.
    I thank Chairman Gordon for agreeing to accept my amendment. And I 
also thank my Texas colleague, Ralph Hall, for his work on this issue.

    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion on the 
amendment? If no, the vote occurs on the amendment. All in 
favor, say aye. Aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The 
amendment is agreed to.
    Now, the ninth and seemingly last amendment on the roster 
is offered by the gentleman from Oregon, Mr. Wu. Are you ready 
to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Wu. Yes, I am, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 2774, offered by Mr. Wu of 
Oregon.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. And without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Wu. Mr. Chairman, because I am having a vote at this 
moment, in another committee in which I am serving, I would ask 
unanimous consent that my remarks be inserted in the record.
    Chairman Gordon. Without objection.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Wu follows:]
             Prepared Statement of Representative David Wu
    Thank you Mr. Chairman. My amendment is simple; it clarifies that 
community colleges are explicitly eligible to compete for grants under 
section five of H.R. 2774.
    As the Committee report states: a certified well trained workforce 
is critical to the success of the solar power industry. Currently there 
are only 365 certified solar electric installers and 40 certified solar 
thermal installers in the United States.
    With an estimated 5,000 certified workers needed by 2015, the 
United States currently lacks the necessary workforce to meet the 
growing demand for solar energy. The Curriculum Development and 
Certification Grants program is necessary to properly train a 
sufficient number of solar energy workers.
    The report states that programs in New York and Florida have 
successfully partnered with community colleges to train a workforce to 
meet local demand.
    As drafted, H.R. 2774 does not mention community colleges as 
explicitly eligible to compete for the federal funding. Given the 
success in New York and Florida, H.R. 2774 should be amended to clarify 
that community colleges are eligible.
    Community colleges are essential institutions in the United States. 
More than 11 million students attend a community college. Community 
colleges have unique, responsive relationships with area businesses. 
These partnerships help keep local economies strong, and contribute to 
our nation's success in competing in an evolving global economy.
    As alternative energies such as solar power become critical 
components of the U.S. energy demand, it is important for local 
community colleges to be included in the training of certified solar 
energy workers.
    My amendment will ensure community colleges are eligible to compete 
for the grants within the bill, to train the workers who will implement 
the new way forward toward increased energy security.
    Thank you Mr. Chairman, I yield back.

    Mr. Wu. And I would just recommend this as a very good 
amendment, and ask for everyone's support. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. That is the best description I have heard 
today.
    Mr. Wu. I yield back the balance of my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Does anyone else wish to make comments on 
this amendment?
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Hall.
    Mr. Hall. Inasmuch as Mr. Wu has helped me on my voice 
voting several times, I want to urge you to pass his amendment. 
We agree to the amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Hall.
    All in favor, say aye. Aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. 
The amendment is agreed to.
    Are there other amendments? If no, the vote is on the bill, 
H.R. 2774, as amended. All those in favor will say aye. Aye. 
All those opposed will say no. In the opinion of the Chair, the 
ayes have it.
    I recognize Mr. Hall to offer a motion. Oh, excuse me. I 
recognize Ms. Giffords, then, to offer a motion.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and also, Ranking 
Member Hall, and again, I just want to thank, one more time, 
Chris Garza of my staff, and the Science Committee staff, for 
all of your help on this bill.
    Mr. Chairman, I move the Committee favorably report H.R. 
2774, as amended, to the House, with the recommendation that 
the bill do pass. Furthermore, I move that the staff be 
instructed to prepare the legislative report and make necessary 
technical and conforming changes, and that the Chairman take 
all necessary steps to bring the bill before the House for 
consideration.
    Chairman Gordon. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Aye. Opposed, no. I notice that are no nos, so 
apparently, we once again have a unanimous bill. The ayes have 
it, and the bill is favorably reported.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon 
the table. The Members will have two subsequent calendar days 
in which to submit supplemental, Minority, or additional views 
on the measures, ending Monday, July the 2nd, at 9:00 a.m. I 
move, pursuant to Clause 1 or Rule 2 of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives, that the Committee authorize the Chairman 
to offer such motions as may be necessary in the House to adopt 
and pass H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and Advancement 
Act of 2007, as amended. Without objection, so ordered.
    Congratulations, Ms. Giffords, on a very good bill. I thank 
all of you, the hard core that are still here. We had a good 
day. Four more bills of a dozen that will go into a good Energy 
Bill next month, and again, a bipartisan, everybody go home and 
take credit. Thank you.
    [Whereupon, at 1:10 p.m., the Committee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


  Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Markup Report, H.R. 2774 as 
                       reported, Amendment Roster




                  COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

                 SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

                    REPORT FROM SUBCOMMITTEE MARKUP

                             JUNE 21, 2007

                H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and
                        Advancement Act of 2007

I. Purpose

    The purpose of H.R. 2774 is to direct the Secretary of Energy to 
establish important research and education programs to facilitate the 
adoption of solar energy technologies.

II. Background and Need for Legislation

    H.R. 2774 contains three basic components. The first two are 
specifically related to concentrating solar power (CSP). A 2006 report 
by the Western Governors' Association assessed the overall near-term 
potential for CSP capacity in the American Southwest, taking into 
account areas of high solar ray intensity, near-level land, non-
sensitivity to CSP use, and proximity to transmission. The resulting 
set of potential plant sites totaled 200 GW of potential power 
production. To put this in perspective, the electric generating 
capacity of the entire United States is currently about 1,000 GW. Some 
significant challenges remain to widespread implementation of CSP, 
however.
    CSP plants produce electric power by converting the sun's energy 
into high-temperature heat using various mirror configurations. The 
heat is then channeled through a conventional generator. These plants 
consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to 
heat, and another that converts heat energy to electricity. Thermal 
energy storage technology allows this heat to be retained for later use 
in generating electricity, such as during periods of passing clouds or 
into the evening.
    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 establishes a CSP research and 
development program, but storage is not included in the language. 
Witnesses at the June 19 hearing agreed that this technology is 
critical to the viability of CSP as a significant energy option. Dr. 
Dan Arvizu, the Director of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 
noted that ``the ability of CSP technologies to store energy presents 
an opportunity. . .[to] produce baseload power at about five cents per 
kilowatt-hour. Such systems would include 13-17 hours of thermal 
storage and would compete with the cost of power from coal plants using 
carbon sequestration technology. It is expected that an aggressive R&D; 
program could achieve the cost goal by 2020.'' H.R. 2774 establishes a 
program dedicated to advancing research and development in thermal 
energy storage for CSP, authorizing $5 million for this program in FY 
2008, and steadily increasing to $12 million in FY 2012.
    The bill also tasks the Department of Energy (DOE) with conducting 
two studies. The first would examine methods to integrate concentrating 
solar power with regional electricity transmission systems, and to 
identify new transmission or transmission upgrades needed to bring 
electricity from high concentrating solar power resource areas to 
growing electric power load centers throughout the United States. Along 
with Dr. Arvizu, Mr. Herbert Hayden, Solar Technology Coordinator for 
the Arizona Public Service (APS), lent his support to this study, 
explaining that: ``Intermittent renewable resources such as wind and 
solar present special economic challenges for transmission investment 
because they do not efficiently utilize the transmission investment at 
all times. . . We believe CSP has a significant potential to provide 
large amounts of renewable energy to the U.S. and that a federal study 
on transmission for large scale CSP would be beneficial and 
appropriate.''
    The second study would report on methods to reduce the amount of 
water consumed by concentrating solar power systems, given the strain 
on water resources in the Southwest. Mr. Hayden and Dr. Arvizu both 
agreed that minimizing water usage is an important factor in reducing 
cost. The results of both of these studies will help define a roadmap 
for large-scale implementation of CSP to meet the Nation's growing 
energy needs.
    The last component of H.R. 2774 addresses the solar industry in 
general. Having a certified, well-trained workforce to install and 
maintain solar energy products is critical to the success of the 
industry. DOE estimates that approximately 5,000 trained installers may 
be needed by 2015 to accomplish its new Solar America Initiative, and 
to date, there are just 365 certified solar electric installers and 40 
certified solar thermal installers in the U.S. Some states, such as New 
York and Florida, working with local community colleges, businesses, 
the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), and the North American 
Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) have recently 
established successful programs to create a workforce to meet local 
demand, however there is currently no federal program dedicated to 
helping establish or improve these training programs across the Nation. 
H.R. 2774 creates such a program, authorizing $10 million in each year 
from FY 2008 through FY 2012. The bill instructs DOE to ensure 
sufficient geographic distribution of training programs nationally, and 
to only award grants for programs certified by the Institute of 
Sustainable Power or equivalent industry-accepted quality-control 
certification institution, or for new and growing programs with a 
credible path to certification.
    At the hearing, testimony supporting this legislation was given by 
Ms. Jane Weissman, Executive Director of the Interstate Renewable 
Energy Council and Vice-Chair of the North American Board of Certified 
Energy Practitioners, as well as from Professor Joseph Sarubbi, Chair 
of the Building Systems Technology Department at Hudson Valley 
Community College. Ms. Weissman said that ``if market past performance 
continues and current projections are realized, [current] training 
opportunities fall far short of expected demand for qualified workers. 
. . We need more classroom and hands-on training tailored to meet local 
labor needs. . .'' She also noted that ``training needs to be based on 
industry standards so that students are taught the right skills with 
the right equipment.''
    In summary, the research and education provisions in H.R. 2774 take 
several steps beyond what was included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 
to make solar power a more viable option in the Nation's energy 
portfolio.

III. Subcommittee Actions

    On June 19, 2007, Rep. Gabrielle Giffords introduced H.R. 2774, the 
Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act of 2007.
    The Energy and Environment Subcommittee held a hearing on Tuesday, 
June 19, 2007 to hear testimony on H.R. 2774 from the following 
witnesses:

          Mr. Herbert Hayden, the Arizona Public Service (APS) 
        Solar Technology Coordinator. Mr. Hayden testified on how 
        thermal storage research and development and the bill's 
        proposed studies on grid integration and water usage will help 
        advance the implementation of concentrating solar power.

          Mr. Rhone Resch, the President of the Solar Energy 
        Industries Association (SEIA). Mr. Resch testified on the 
        status of the solar industry in general, and on how a proposed 
        research and information program for the industry would help to 
        support research and promote the adoption of solar power across 
        the Nation.

          Ms. Jane Weissman, the Executive Director of the 
        Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), and the Vice-Chair 
        of the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners 
        (NABCEP). Ms. Weissman testified on the current status of 
        workforce training in solar installation and maintenance across 
        the country, and the need for a national solar workforce 
        training program.

          Prof. Joseph Sarubbi, the Chair of the Building 
        Systems Technology Department at Hudson Valley Community 
        College. Prof. Sarubbi will testified on his ground-level 
        experience in creating a solar workforce training program, 
        including his partnership with local businesses and the State 
        of New York in developing a successful curriculum.

          Dr. David Arvizu is the Director of the Department of 
        Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Dr. Arvizu will 
        testified on the DOE's current solar research and development 
        activities, and on his views regarding the proposed 
        legislation.

    The Subcommittee on Energy and Environment met to consider H.R. 
2774 on June 21, 2007 and consider the following amendment to the bill:

        1.  An amendment offered by Ms. Giffords, which instructs the 
        Secretary of Energy to establish a program to create and 
        strengthen solar industry workforce training and internship 
        programs across the Nation in installation, operation, and 
        maintenance of solar energy products. The goal of this program 
        is to ensure a supply of well-trained individuals to support 
        the expansion of the solar energy industry. The amendment was 
        agreed to by voice vote.

    Ms. Woolsey moved that the Subcommittee favorably report the bill, 
H.R. 2774, to the Full Committee on Science and Technology. The motion 
was agreed to by a voice vote.

IV. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    H.R. 2774 directs the Secretary to establish a research and 
development program on thermal energy storage technologies for 
concentrating solar power (CSP), authorizing $5 million for this 
program in FY08, increasing to $12 million in FY12 ($43.5 million 
total). The Secretary is also tasked with conducting two CSP studies. 
One study will determine the necessary steps to integrate CSP plants 
with the regional and national electric grid, and the other will 
examine ways to reduce water usage in CSP plants. The last section of 
the bill establishes a program to create and strengthen solar industry 
workforce training and internship programs in installation, operation, 
and maintenance of solar energy products. $10 million is authorized for 
this program in each year from FY 2008 through FY 2012.

V.  Section-by-Section Analysis of the Bill, as reported by the 
                    Subcommittee

Section 1. Short Title

    Act may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research and Advancement Act 
of 2007''.

Section 2. Definitions

    Provides definitions for the following terms used in the Act: 
`Department' and `Secretary'.

Section 3. Thermal Energy Storage Research and Development Program

    Section 3(a) instructs the Secretary to establish a research and 
development program on thermal energy storage technologies for 
concentrating solar power. Section 3(b) authorizes appropriations of 
$5,000,0000 in fiscal year 2008, $7,000,0000 in fiscal year 2009, 
$9,000,0000 in fiscal year 2010, $10,500,0000 in fiscal year 2011, and 
$12,000,0000 in fiscal year 2012.

Section 4.  Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Studies

    Section 4(a) instructs the Secretary to conduct a study that will 
determine the necessary steps to integrate concentrating solar power 
plants with the regional and national electric grid. Results of shall 
be submitted to Congress no later than 12 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act. Section 4(b) instructs the Secretary to conduct 
a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by 
concentrating solar power plants. Results of shall be submitted to 
Congress no later than six months after the date of enactment of this 
Act.

Section 5.  Solar Energy Curriculum Development and Certification 
                    Grants

    Section 5(a) instructs the Secretary to establish a competitive 
grant program to create and strengthen solar industry workforce 
training and internship programs in installation, operation, and 
maintenance of solar energy products. Section 5(b) describes authorized 
activities for these grant funds, including support of curriculum 
development, certification programs, and internship programs. Section 
5(c) describes the administration of grants, instructing the Secretary 
to ensure sufficient geographic distribution of training programs 
nationally, and to only award grants to certified training programs or 
new and growing programs with a credible path to certification. Section 
5(d) authorizes $10 million for this grant program in each fiscal year 
from FY 2008 through FY 2012.