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110th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     110-39

======================================================================



 
     SOWING THE SEEDS THROUGH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH ACT

                                _______
                                

 March 8, 2007.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Gordon of Tennessee, from the Committee on Science and Technology, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 363]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science and Technology, to whom was 
referred the bill (H.R. 363) to authorize appropriations for 
basic research and research infrastructure in science and 
engineering, and for support of graduate fellowships, and for 
other purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably 
thereon with amendments and recommends that the bill as amended 
do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................5
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................5
  IV. Hearing Summary.................................................6
   V. Committee Actions...............................................7
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill.........................7
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section)..............8
VIII. Committee Views................................................10
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................12
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................12
  XI. Compliance with Public Law 104-4...............................14
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............14
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........15
 XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................15
  XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................15
 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act...............................15
XVII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........15
XVIII.Earmark Identification.........................................15

 XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........15
  XX. Committee Recommendations......................................15
 XXI. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................16

                              I. AMENDMENT

  The amendments are as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Sowing the Seeds Through Science and 
Engineering Research Act''.

SEC. 2. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION EARLY CAREER AWARDS FOR SCIENCE AND 
                    ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall carry out a program to award grants to scientists and engineers 
at the early stage of their careers at institutions of higher education 
and organizations described in subsection (c)(2) to conduct research in 
fields relevant to the mission of the Foundation. The existing Faculty 
Early Career Development (CAREER) Program may be designated as the 
mechanism for awarding such grants.
  (b) Size and Duration of Award.--The duration of awards under this 
section shall be 5 years, and the amount per year shall be at least 
$80,000.
  (c) Eligibility.--Award recipients shall be individuals who are 
employed in a tenure-track position as an assistant professor or 
equivalent title, or who hold an equivalent position, at--
          (1) an institution of higher education in the United States; 
        or
          (2) an organization in the United States that is a nonprofit, 
        nondegree-granting research organization such as a museum, 
        observatory, or research laboratory.
  (d) Selection.--Award recipients shall be selected on a competitive, 
merit-reviewed basis.
  (e) Selection Process and Criteria for Awards.--An applicant seeking 
funding under this section shall submit a proposal to the Director at 
such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the 
Director may require. In evaluating the proposals submitted under this 
section, the Director shall consider, at a minimum--
          (1) the intellectual merit of the proposed work;
          (2) the innovative or transformative nature of the proposed 
        research;
          (3) the extent to which the proposal integrates research and 
        education, including undergraduate education in science and 
        engineering disciplines; and
          (4) the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
        frontiers of knowledge.
  (f) Awards.--In awarding grants under this section, the Director 
shall endeavor to ensure that the recipients are from a variety of 
types of institutions of higher education and nonprofit, nondegree-
granting research organizations. In support of this goal, the Director 
shall broadly disseminate information about when and how to apply for 
grants under this section, including by conducting outreach to 
Historically Black Colleges and Universities that are part B 
institutions as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher Education Act 
of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2)) and minority institutions (as defined in 
section 365(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1067k(3))).
  (g) Authorization of Appropriation.--For each of the fiscal years 
2008 through 2012, the Director shall allocate at least 3.5 percent of 
funds appropriated to the National Science Foundation for Research and 
Related Activities to the grants program under this section.
  (h) Report.--Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director shall transmit to the Committee on Science and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report describing 
the distribution of the institutions from which individuals have 
participated in the Faculty Early Career Development Program since 
fiscal year 2001 among each of the categories of institutions of higher 
education defined by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching and the organizations in subsection (c)(2).
  (i) Evaluation.--Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Director shall transmit to the Committee on Science 
and Technology of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report evaluating 
the impact of the program carried out under this section on the ability 
of young faculty to compete for National Science Foundation research 
grants.

SEC. 3. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EARLY CAREER AWARDS FOR SCIENCE AND 
                    ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the Office of Science of the 
Department of Energy shall carry out a program to award grants to 
scientists and engineers at the early stage of their careers at 
institutions of higher education and organizations described in 
subsection (c)(2) to conduct research in fields relevant to the mission 
of the Department.
  (b) Size and Duration of Award.--The duration of awards under this 
section shall be up to 5 years, and the amount per year shall be at 
least $80,000.
  (c) Eligibility.--Award recipients shall be individuals who are 
employed in a tenure-track position as an assistant professor or 
equivalent title, or who hold an equivalent position, at--
          (1) an institution of higher education in the United States; 
        or
          (2) an organization in the United States that is a nonprofit, 
        nondegree-granting research organization such as a museum, 
        observatory, or research laboratory.
  (d) Selection.--Award recipients shall be selected on a competitive, 
merit-reviewed basis.
  (e) Selection Process and Criteria for Awards.--An applicant seeking 
funding under this section shall submit a proposal to the Director of 
the Office of Science at such time, in such manner, and containing such 
information as the Director may require. In evaluating the proposals 
submitted under this section, the Director shall consider, at a 
minimum--
          (1) the intellectual merit of the proposed work;
          (2) the innovative or transformative nature of the proposed 
        research;
          (3) the extent to which the proposal integrates research and 
        education, including undergraduate education in science and 
        engineering disciplines; and
          (4) the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
        frontiers of knowledge.
  (f) Collaboration With National Laboratories.--In awarding grants 
under this section, the Director shall give priority to proposals in 
which the proposed work includes collaboration with the Department of 
Energy National Laboratories.
  (g) Awards.--In awarding grants under this section, the Director 
shall endeavor to ensure that the recipients are from a variety of 
types of institutions of higher education and nonprofit, nondegree-
granting research organizations. In support of this goal, the Director 
shall broadly disseminate information about when and how to apply for 
grants under this section, including by conducting outreach to 
Historically Black Colleges and Universities that are part B 
institutions as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher Education Act 
of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2)) and minority institutions (as defined in 
section 365(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1067k(3))).
  (h) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary of Energy to carry out the Director's 
responsibilities under this section $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal 
years 2008 through 2012.
  (i) Report on Recruiting and Retaining Early Career Science and 
Engineering Researchers at the National Laboratories.--Not later than 3 
months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the 
Office of Science shall transmit to the Committee on Science and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on 
Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report on efforts to 
recruit and retain young scientists and engineers at the early stages 
of their careers at the Department of Energy National Laboratories. The 
report shall include--
          (1) a description of Department of Energy and National 
        Laboratory policies and procedures, including financial 
        incentives, awards, promotions, time set aside for independent 
        research, access to equipment or facilities, and other forms of 
        recognition, designed to attract and retain young scientists 
        and engineers;
          (2) an evaluation of the impact of these incentives on the 
        careers of young scientists and engineers at Department of 
        Energy National Laboratories, and also on the quality of the 
        research at the National Laboratories and in Department of 
        Energy programs;
          (3) a description of what barriers, if any, exist to efforts 
        to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers, including 
        limited availability of full time equivalent positions, legal 
        and procedural requirements, and pay grading systems; and
          (4) the amount of funding devoted to efforts to recruit and 
        retain young researchers and the source of such funds.

SEC. 4. INTEGRATIVE GRADUATE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH TRAINEESHIP 
                    PROGRAM.

  (a) Funding.--For each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012, the 
Director of the National Science Foundation shall allocate at least 1.5 
percent of funds appropriated for Research and Related Activities to 
the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship program.
  (b) Coordination.--The Director shall coordinate with Federal 
departments and agencies, as appropriate, to expand the 
interdisciplinary nature of the Integrative Graduate Education and 
Research Traineeship program.
  (c) Authority To Accept Funds From Other Agencies.--The Director is 
authorized to accept funds from other Federal departments and agencies 
to carry out the Integrative Graduate Education and Research 
Traineeship program.

SEC. 5. PRESIDENTIAL INNOVATION AWARD.

  (a) Establishment.--The President shall periodically present the 
Presidential Innovation Award, on the basis of recommendations received 
from the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy or on 
the basis of such other information as the President considers 
appropriate, to individuals who develop one or more unique scientific 
or engineering ideas in the national interest at the time the 
innovation occurs.
  (b) Purpose.--The awards under this section shall be made to--
          (1) stimulate scientific and engineering advances in the 
        national interest;
          (2) illustrate the linkage between science and engineering 
        and national needs; and
          (3) provide an example to students of the contribution they 
        could make to society by entering the science and engineering 
        profession.
  (c) Citizenship.--An individual is not eligible to receive the award 
under this section unless at the time such award is made the 
individual--
          (1) is a citizen or other national of the United States; or
          (2) is an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for 
        permanent residence who--
                  (A) has filed an application for naturalization in 
                the manner prescribed by section 334 of the Immigration 
                and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1445); and
                  (B) is not permanently ineligible to become a citizen 
                of the United States.
  (d) Presentation.--The presentation of the award shall be made by the 
President with such ceremonies as he may deem proper, including 
attendance by appropriate Members of Congress.

SEC. 6. NATIONAL COORDINATION OFFICE FOR RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE.

  (a) In General.--The Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
establish a National Coordination Office for Research Infrastructure. 
Such Office shall--
          (1) identify and prioritize the deficiencies in research 
        facilities and major instrumentation located at academic 
        institutions and at national laboratories that are available 
        for use by academic researchers; and
          (2) institute and coordinate the planning by Federal agencies 
        for the acquisition, refurbishment, and maintenance of research 
        facilities and major instrumentation required to address the 
        deficiencies identified under paragraph (1).

In prioritizing the deficiencies identified under paragraph (1), the 
Office shall consider research needs in areas relevant to the Nation's 
economic competitiveness.
  (b) Staffing.--The Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy shall appoint individuals to serve in the Office established 
under subsection (a) from among the principal Federal agencies that 
support research in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering, and 
shall at a minimum include individuals from the National Science 
Foundation and the Department of Energy.
  (c) Report.--The Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy shall provide annually a report to Congress at the time of the 
President's budget proposal--
          (1) describing the research infrastructure needs identified 
        in accordance with subsection (a);
          (2) listing research facilities projects and budget 
        proposals, by agency, for major instrumentation acquisitions 
        that are included in the President's budget proposal; and
          (3) explaining how these facilities projects and 
        instrumentation acquisitions relate to the deficiencies and 
        priorities arrived at in accordance with subsection (a).

SEC. 7. RESEARCH ON INNOVATION AND INVENTIVENESS.

  In carrying out its research programs on science policy and on the 
science of learning, the National Science Foundation may support 
research on the process of innovation and the teaching of 
inventiveness.

SEC. 8. REPORT ON NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY 
                    EFFORTS TO RECRUIT AND RETAIN EARLY CAREER SCIENCE 
                    AND ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS.

  Not later than 3 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall 
transmit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report on efforts to recruit and retain 
young scientists and engineers at the early stages of their careers at 
the National Institute of Standards and Technology laboratories and 
joint institutes. The report shall include--
          (1) a description of National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology policies and procedures, including financial 
        incentives, awards, promotions, time set aside for independent 
        research, access to equipment or facilities, and other forms of 
        recognition, designed to attract and retain young scientists 
        and engineers;
          (2) an evaluation of the impact of these incentives on the 
        careers of young scientists and engineers at the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology, and also on the quality 
        of the research at the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology's laboratories and in the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology's programs;
          (3) a description of what barriers, if any, exist to efforts 
        to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers, including 
        limited availability of full time equivalent positions, legal 
        and procedural requirements, and pay grading systems; and
          (4) the amount of funding devoted to efforts to recruit and 
        retain young researchers and the source of such funds.

SEC. 9. NASA'S CONTRIBUTION TO INNOVATION.

  (a) Sense of the Congress.--It is the sense of the Congress that--
          (1) a balanced science program as authorized by section 
        101(d) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155) contributes 
        significantly to innovation in and the economic competitiveness 
        of the United States; and
          (2) a robust National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
        funded at the levels authorized under sections 202 and 203 of 
        that Act, would offer a balance among science, aeronautics, 
        exploration, and human space flight programs, all of which can 
        attract and employ scientists, engineers, and technicians 
        across a broad range of fields in science, technology, 
        mathematics, and engineering.
  (b) Participation in Innovation and Competitiveness Programs.--The 
Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
shall fully participate in any interagency efforts to promote 
innovation and economic competitiveness through scientific research and 
development within the spending levels cited in subsection (a).

  Amend the title so as to read:

    A bill to authorize programs for support of the early 
career development of science and engineering researchers, and 
for support of graduate fellowships, and for other purposes.

                        II. PURPOSE OF THE BILL

    The purpose of the bill is to bolster the research base in 
the United States by strengthening federal investment in the 
basic research that provides the background knowledge necessary 
for future technology developments.

              III. BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR THE LEGISLATION

Science, technology, and global competitiveness

    While the U.S. continues to lead the world in measures of 
innovation capacity--research and development (R&D;) spending, 
number of scientists and engineers, scientific output, etc.--
recent statistics on the level of U.S. support for research 
relative to other countries indicate that this lead may be 
slipping. At the same time, other nations--particularly 
emergent nations such as China and India--have recognized the 
importance of innovation to economic growth, and are pouring 
resources into their scientific and technological 
infrastructure, rapidly building their innovation capacity and 
increasing their ability to compete with the United States in 
the global economy.

Federal role in innovation

    A number of recent reports have outlined the issues that 
the United States faces as it tries to maintain a position of 
leadership in science and technology and have offered 
recommendations for what the nation should do to ensure its 
economic and national security. The National Academy of 
Sciences (NAS) report, Rising Above the Gathering Storm, 
describes how science and engineering are critical to American 
prosperity, examines how the United States is doing relative to 
other countries in science and technology today and makes 
recommendations on how federal programs in support of research 
and education could be improved to position the nation to make 
the next generation of innovations needed to maintain U.S. 
competitiveness and security going forward. Other reports on 
this topic include the National Innovation Initiative, from the 
Council on Competitiveness, which emphasizes the need to 
strengthen the innovation infrastructure in the United States 
to ensure future prosperity, and the National Defense Education 
and Innovation Initiative, from the Association of American 
Universities, which focuses on actions universities and the 
federal government can take to meet oncoming economic and 
security challenges.
    This Act focuses on some of the recommendations made in 
these reports that relate to science and technology research 
funding. It strengthens federal support for science and 
engineering researchers at the early stages of their careers, 
expands the Integrative Graduate Education and Research 
Traineeship program at NSF, establishes a Presidential 
Innovation Award, establishes a coordination office for 
research infrastructure, and authorizes NSF to support research 
on innovation.
    Support for young researchers is essential because they 
face the greatest hurdles in setting up laboratories and 
obtaining research grants, yet they are the ones who are most 
likely to cross traditional disciplinary boundaries and do 
innovative or transformative work.

                          IV. HEARING SUMMARY

    During the 109th Congress, the House Committee on Science 
held two hearings relevant to H.R. 363. On Thursday, July 21, 
2005, the Committee on Science held a hearing to examine the 
relationship between federal science and engineering research 
and education investments and U.S. economic competitiveness. 
The witnesses were Mr. Nicholas Donofrio, Executive Vice 
President for Innovation and Technology at IBM Corporation; Mr. 
John Morgridge, Chairman of Cisco Systems, Incorporated, and 
part-time professor at Stanford University's Graduate School of 
Business; and Dr. William Brody, President of The Johns Hopkins 
University and co-chair of the Council on Competitiveness 
working group that authored the National Innovation Initiative.
    The witnesses emphasized that the educational system needs 
to provide students with a solid background in science and 
engineering fields so that the United States has access to a 
technologically-literate workforce. The witnesses also stressed 
that investments in basic university research provide the 
background knowledge necessary for future technology 
developments.
    On Thursday, October 20, 2005, the Committee on Science 
held a hearing to receive testimony on the report released by 
NAS on October 12 entitled Rising Above the Gathering Storm: 
Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic 
Future. The report, which was requested by Congress, recommends 
ways to strengthen research and education in science and 
technology. The witnesses were Mr. Norman R. Augustine, retired 
Chairman and CEO of the Lockheed Martin Corporation (Mr. 
Augustine chaired the committee that wrote the report); Dr. P. 
Roy Vagelos, retired Chairman and CEO of Merck & Co. (Dr. 
Vagelos served on the committee that wrote the report), and Dr. 
William A. Wulf, President of the National Academy of 
Engineering.
    The witnesses emphasized that solving the problems of 
global economic competition requires significant improvements 
to America's K-12 and higher education systems and greater 
support for basic research, including innovative research in 
cutting-edge fields. The witnesses also stressed that the U.S. 
ability to innovate has been the source of U.S. prosperity and 
security, so future policy decisions should be aimed at 
generating an environment that supports innovation by creating 
a vibrant research base, educated workforce, and social climate 
that encourages students to pursue science and technology 
degrees.

                          V. COMMITTEE ACTIONS

    On January 10, 2007, Rep. Bart Gordon, Chairman of the 
Committee on Science and Technology, introduced H.R. 363, the 
Sowing the Seeds Through Science and Engineering Research Act, 
a bill to authorize appropriations for basic research and 
research infrastructure in science and engineering, and for 
support of graduate fellowships, and for other purposes.
    The Full Committee on Science and Technology met on 
Wednesday, February 28, 2007, to consider the bill. Mr. Gordon 
and Mr. Hall offered a manager's amendment in the nature of a 
substitute that
           removed Section 2, which spelled out 
        authorizations of specific appropriations at the 
        various federal agencies;
           recast Section 7 as a coordination activity 
        at OSTP;
           added a section directing NIST to transmit a 
        report to Congress on their efforts to recruit and 
        retain young scientists and engineers; and
           added a section expressing the sense of 
        Congress that a balanced and robust research program at 
        NASA is a critical component of the national innovation 
        agenda.
    The amendment was adopted by a voice vote. The bill was 
then approved by a voice vote.
    Rep. Ralph Hall, ranking minority member of the Committee, 
moved that the Committee favorably report the bill, H.R. 363, 
to the House with the recommendation that the bill do pass, and 
that the staff be instructed to make technical and conforming 
changes to the bill and prepare the legislative report and that 
the Chairman take all necessary steps to bring the bill before 
the House for consideration. With a quorum present, the motion 
was agreed to by a voice vote.

              VI. SUMMARY OF MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE BILL

    This bill
           authorizes a program at NSF to fund young 
        faculty via grants of at least $80,000 per year over 
        five years to help researchers pursue innovative or 
        transformative research and requires that NSF allocate 
        at least 3.5 percent of funds appropriated to Research 
        and Related Activities (R&RA;) for these grants;
           establishes a similar program at the 
        Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science with 
        authorized appropriations of $25,000,000 for each of 
        fiscal years 2008 through 2012;
           directs NSF to spend at least 1.5 percent of 
        R&RA; funds on the Integrative Graduate Education and 
        Research Traineeship program;
           establishes a Presidential Innovation Award 
        for individuals who develop unique scientific or 
        engineering breakthroughs in the national interest;
           establishes at the Office of Science and 
        Technology Policy (OSTP) a National Coordination Office 
        for Research Infrastructure, charged with identifying 
        and prioritizing deficiencies in research facilities 
        and instrumentation in academic institutions and in 
        national laboratories;
           allows NSF to support research on the 
        process of innovation and the teaching of 
        inventiveness;
           directs NIST and DOE to report to Congress 
        on their efforts to recruit and retain young scientists 
        and engineers; and
           expresses the sense of Congress that a 
        balanced and robust science program at NASA contributes 
        significantly to innovation and economic 
        competitiveness.

                    VII. SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS

Section 1. Short title

    Sowing the Seeds Through Science and Engineering Research 
Act

Section 2. National Science Foundation early career awards for science 
        and engineering researchers

    Establishes a program at NSF to award grants to scientists 
and engineers at the early stage of their careers at 
institutions of higher education and research institutions. 
Allows the existing Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) 
Program to be designated as the mechanism for awarding such 
grants. Sets the duration of the awards to be five years and 
the amount per year to be at least $80,000. Eligible applicants 
are tenure-track faculty at institutions of higher education or 
the equivalent at research organizations, such as 
observatories. Requires the award recipients to be selected on 
a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, based on the intellectual 
merit of the proposed work; the innovative or transformative 
nature of the proposed research; the extent to which the 
proposal integrates research and education, including 
undergraduate education in science and engineering disciplines; 
and the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
frontiers of knowledge. Requires the Director of NSF to 
allocate at least 3.5 percent of funds appropriated for R&RA; 
each year to the grants program under this section.
    Requires the Director of NSF to provide to Congress within 
six months a report describing the distribution of the CAREER 
Program awardees since fiscal year 2001 among different types 
of institutions. Requires the Director to provide to Congress 
within two years a report evaluating the impact of the CAREER 
Program on the ability of young faculty to compete for NSF 
research grants.

Section 3. Department of Energy early career awards for science and 
        engineering researchers

    Establishes at the DOE Office of Science a program to award 
grants to scientists and engineers at the early stage of their 
careers at institutions of higher education and research 
institutions. Allows the awards to be for up to five years and 
the amount per year to be at least $80,000. Eligible applicants 
are tenure-track faculty at institutions of higher education or 
the equivalent at research organizations, such as 
observatories. Requires the award recipients to be selected via 
a merit-reviewed competition, based on the intellectual merit 
of the proposed work; the innovative or transformative nature 
of the proposed research; the extent to which the proposal 
integrates research and education, including undergraduate 
education in science and engineering disciplines; and the 
potential of the applicant for leadership at the frontiers of 
knowledge. Requires the Director of the Office of Science to 
give priority to proposals in which the proposed work includes 
collaboration with a National Laboratory. Authorizes 
appropriations for the program of $25,000,000 for each of the 
fiscal years 2008 through 2012.
    Requires the Director of the Office of Science to provide 
to Congress within three months of enactment a report on 
efforts to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers at 
the early stages of their careers at the civilian National 
Laboratories. The report shall include a description of 
incentives for recruitment and retention, an evaluation of the 
effectiveness of the incentives, a description of barriers to 
recruitment and retention, and the amount and source of funding 
devoted to recruitment and retention efforts.

Section 4. Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship 
        Program

    Directs NSF to allocate at least 1.5 percent of the amounts 
appropriated for R&RA; to the Integrative Graduate Education and 
Research Traineeship (IGERT) program, which provides support 
for graduate students in fields relevant to national needs. It 
requires NSF to coordinate with other agencies to expand the 
interdisciplinary nature of the IGERT program and authorizes 
NSF to accept funds from other agencies to carry out the 
program.

Section 5. Presidential Innovation Award

    Establishes the Presidential Innovation Award, presented 
periodically, on the basis of recommendations from the Director 
of the OSTP, to citizens or permanent residents of the U.S. who 
develop unique scientific or engineering ideas judged to 
stimulate scientific and engineering advances in the national 
interest.

Section 6. National Coordination Office for Research Infrastructure

    Establishes a National Coordination Office for Research 
Infrastructure under OSTP to identify and prioritize 
deficiencies in research facilities and instrumentation in 
academic institutions and national laboratories. Requires the 
Director of OSTP to provide an annual report to Congress 
describing a list of infrastructure projects proposed for 
funding.

Section 7. Research on innovation and inventiveness

    Authorizes NSF, in carrying out its research programs on 
science policy and the science of learning, to support research 
on the process of innovation and the teaching of inventiveness.

Section 8. Report on National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        efforts to recruit and retain early career science and 
        engineering researchers

    Requires the Director of NIST to provide to Congress within 
three months of enactment a report on efforts to recruit and 
retain young scientists and engineers at the early stages of 
their careers at NIST and joint institutes.

Section 9. NASA's contribution to innovation

    Expresses the sense of Congress that a balanced science 
program at NASA contributes significantly to innovation and 
economic competitiveness. Directs the Administrator of NASA to 
fully participate in interagency efforts to promote innovation.

                         VIII. COMMITTEE VIEWS

Funding for early career researchers

    A number of reports, including Rising Above the Gathering 
Storm from the NAS, emphasize the importance of funding 
researchers at the early stages of their careers in science and 
engineering. The Committee agrees that it is vital to provide 
support that allows young researchers to establish their 
laboratories and begin research projects that test accepted 
notions about existing fields and that launch new fields. The 
Committee expects that NSF will continue its successful CAREER 
program, and the Act requires that, as overall funding for 
research expands at NSF, funding for CAREER grants expand 
proportionately to ensure that the pipeline of researchers 
remains strong. The Committee expects that DOE will build on 
its existing programs for young investigators to carry out the 
early career program authorized in this Act. The Committee 
authorizes DOE, in awarding the grants, to favor proposals that 
include collaboration with the DOE National Laboratories. The 
Committee intends that use of DOE facilities, such as light 
sources, particle accelerators, nanoscale science research 
centers, and supercomputers, be considered as collaboration 
with the laboratories, provided that there is substantial time 
spent at the facility or considerable interactions with DOE 
staff associated with their use.

Integrative graduate education and research traineeships

    The Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship 
(IGERT) program has been developed to meet the challenges of 
educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists and engineers who will pursue 
careers in research and education, with interdisciplinary 
backgrounds, deep knowledge in chosen disciplines, and 
technical, professional, and personal skills to become leaders 
and creative agents for change. The program is intended to 
catalyze a cultural change in graduate education, for students, 
faculty, and institutions, by establishing innovative new 
models for graduate education and training in a fertile 
environment for collaborative research that transcends 
traditional disciplinary boundaries. It is also intended to 
facilitate diversity in student participation and preparation, 
and to contribute to a world-class, broadly inclusive, and 
globally engaged science and engineering workforce. The 
Committee directs that this program be sustained and grow along 
with overall NSF research budgets.

Innovation awards

    The Committee finds that a Presidential Innovation Award 
can stimulate and focus research in selected areas of critical 
national need. An example might be an award given for a 
specific breakthrough in clean energy technology. The publicity 
associated with this award can help entice and motivate 
children to study subjects that lead to these innovations, can 
help direct young researchers towards solving these pressing 
national problems, and can help sustain the work of the 
awardees, who are recognized as the most successful innovators.

National coordination office

    Often cutting-edge research requires the development and 
use of complex new instruments or systems of instruments. 
Because the purchase of major facilities and instrumentation 
cannot be distributed widely and evenly, difficult choices must 
be made. Such choices require careful evaluation, 
prioritization, oversight, and coordination across federal 
agencies. The Committee directs that OSTP establish an office 
to set the federal agenda in this area, so that federal funding 
agencies can work together to tackle the highest priority 
projects.

Research on innovation and inventiveness

    The Committee expects NSF, in supporting research on the 
process of invention and the teaching of inventiveness, to 
involve the Directorate for Engineering, the Directorate for 
Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, and the Directorate 
for Education and Human Resources. In addition, the Committee 
expects that such activities might include research aimed at 
increasing understanding of the creative mind and creative 
environment, including studying the neural, cognitive, and 
social factors that facilitate or inhibit moments of innovation 
and discovery and the social and cognitive processes underlying 
the development of curiosity and problem solving skills; 
developing measures of inventiveness; studying the cultural, 
social, and geographic contexts of innovation, including 
examining the influence on inventiveness of flexible learning 
environments and the role of parents, teachers, and mentors; 
and examining what organizational forms and practices, 
including patents and other governmental policies, facilitate 
innovation, its transformation into products, and the movement 
of products to markets.

NIST report on efforts to recruit and retain early career science and 
        engineering researchers

    The report required in Section 8 is designed to provide the 
Committee with information on how the NIST laboratories are 
using their existing authorities to attract and retain early 
career researchers with training in fields of national 
importance. The Committee believes that it is necessary to 
ensure that NIST is able to hire and retain young researchers 
to help replace the growing number of NIST laboratory 
scientists who are approaching retirement eligibility.

NASA's contribution to innovation

    The Committee stresses that NASA contributes significantly 
to innovation in and the economic competitiveness of the United 
States. As such, it is imperative that the NASA Administrator 
be a full participant in any interagency activity or discussion 
related to efforts to promote innovation and economic 
competitiveness.

                           IX. COST ESTIMATE

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science and Technology prior to the filing of 
this report and is included in Section X of this report 
pursuant to House Rule XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 363 does not contain new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
363 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section X of this report.

              X. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE COST ESTIMATE

                                                     March 8, 2007.
Hon. Bart Gordon,
Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 363, the Sowing 
the Seeds Through Science and Engineering Research Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Daniel 
Hoople.
            Sincerely,
                                                   Peter R. Orszag.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 363--Sowing the Seeds Through Science and Engineering Research Act

    Summary: H.R. 363 would authorize funding for programs 
within the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department 
of Energy (DOE) that provide research grants to scientists and 
engineers in the early phases of their careers. The bill also 
would establish the National Coordination Office for Research 
Infrastructure within the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy (OSTP). The new office would be responsible for 
reviewing and reporting on research infrastructure across the 
federal government. CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 363 
would cost $921 million over the 2008-2012 period, assuming 
appropriation of the necessary funds. Enacting H.R. 363 would 
have no effect on direct spending or revenues.
    H.R. 363 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA); 
the bill would benefit public institutions of higher education.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 363 is shown in the following table. 
The cost of this legislation falls within budget functions 250 
(general science, space, and technology) and 800 (general 
government).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                                                                   2007    2008    2009    2010    2011    2012
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Spending Under Current Law:
    NSF's Graduate Education and Early Career Programs:
        Estimated Budget Authority a............................     217       0       0       0       0       0
        Estimated Outlays.......................................     228     174      76      27       9       0
Proposed Changes:
    NSF's Early Career Awards for Science and Engineering
     Researchers:
        Estimated Authorization Level...........................       0     152     155     158     161     164
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0      33      99     135     150     159
    DOE's Early Career Awards for Science and Engineering
     Researchers:
        Authorization Level.....................................       0      25      25      25      25      25
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       6      16      22      24      25
    NSF's Integrative Graduate Education and Research
     Traineeship Program:
        Estimated Authorization Level...........................       0      65      66      68      69      70
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0      14      42      58      64      68
    National Coordination Office for Research Infrastructure:
        Estimated Authorization Level...........................       0       2       2       2       2       2
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       2       2       2       2       2
    Other Reporting Requirements:
        Estimated Authorization Level...........................       0       1       0       0       0       0
        Estimated Outlays.......................................       0       1       0       0       0       0
        Total Changes:
            Estimated Authorization Level.......................       0     244     247     252     256     260
            Estimated Outlays...................................       0      55     158     216     239     253
Spending Under H.R. 363:
    Estimated Authorization Level a.............................     217     244     247     252     256     260
    Estimated Outlays...........................................     228     229     234     243     248    253
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
a The 2007 level is the amount appropriated for that year for NSF's graduate education and early center
  programs.

    Basis of estimate: H.R. 363 would authorize funding for 
programs that provide support for students and researchers in 
the fields of science and engineering. For those provisions, 
CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 363 would cost $921 
million over the 2008-2012 period, assuming appropriation of 
the necessary funds. For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
bill will be enacted in fiscal year 2007 and that spending will 
follow historical patterns.

Early career awards for science and engineering researchers

    Section 2 would direct NSF to allocate no less than 3.5 
percent of amounts appropriated for scientific research 
(approximately $4.2 billion in 2007) to award competitive 
grants to researchers in tenure-track or equivalent positions 
at institutions of higher education or nonprofit research 
organizations. According to NSF, such a program would be 
similar to the Faculty Early Career Development Program 
currently in operation. CBO estimates that implementing this 
provision would cost $33 million in 2008 and $576 million over 
the 2008-2012 period to fund this program at the percentage 
specified in the bill, and assuming that future NSF 
appropriations for scientific research are adjusted for 
anticipated inflation.
    Section 3 would authorize the appropriation of $25 million 
a year over the 2008-2012 period to the DOE Office of Science 
for the operation of a similar early career grant program. CBO 
estimates that implementing this program would cost $6 million 
in 2008 and $93 million over the 2008-2012 period. DOE has 
allocated about $1 million for a similar program in 2007.

Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program

    Section 4 would direct NSF to allocate no less than 1.5 
percent of amounts appropriated for scientific research to the 
Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) 
Program. IGERT is an NSF-wide effort to provide funding to 
universities that offer stipend support and tuition allowances 
to undergraduate and graduate students in science and 
engineering. Currently, NSF plans to use about $67 million of 
science-related funding for this activity in 2007. (This is 
approximately 1.5 percent of NSF's scientific research budget.) 
CBO estimates that continuing that level of effort for this 
program over the 2008-2012 period would cost $246 million, 
assuming adjustments for anticipated inflation.

National Coordination Office for Research Infrastructure

    Section 6 would establish a National Coordination Office 
for Research Infrastructure within the OSTP to review and 
report on research facilities infrastructure throughout the 
United States. Using information from OSTP and based on similar 
programs, CBO estimates that the office would require an 
increase in staff and overall administrative expenses of about 
$2 million annually to coordinate and report to the Congress on 
research infrastructure.

Other reporting requirements

    H.R. 363 would increase the reporting requirements of the 
NSF, DOE, and the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology. The majority of the reports specified in the bill 
would be prepared within three to six months following 
enactment of the bill and would be nonrecurring. CBO estimates 
this provision would cost about $1 million in 2008.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 363 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA. Public institutions of higher education would 
benefit from research funds and activities authorized in the 
bill.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Daniel Hoople and 
Matthew Pickford. Impact on State, Local, and Tribal 
Governments: Lisa Ramirez-Branum. Impact on the Private Sector: 
Craig Cammarata.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                  XI. COMPLIANCE WITH PUBLIC LAW 104-4

    H.R. 363 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. COMMITTEE OVERSIGHT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    The oversight findings and recommendations of the Committee 
on Science and Technology are reflected in the body of this 
report.

      XIII. STATEMENT ON GENERAL PERFORMANCE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

    Pursuant to clause (3)(c) of House rule XIII, the goals of 
H.R. 363 are to establish programs to provide grants to 
researchers just starting their careers to conduct innovative 
or transformative research; to authorize the acquisition of 
shared scientific equipment by institutions of higher 
education; to authorize a program at NSF to fund Integrative 
Graduate Education and Research Traineeships; to establish a 
Presidential Innovation Award; to create an office at OSTP for 
coordinating federal funding of research facilities and 
instrumentation; and to authorize research at NSF on 
innovation.

                XIV. CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY STATEMENT

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 363.

                XV. FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE STATEMENT

    H.R. 363 does not establish nor authorize the establishment 
of any advisory committee.

                 XVI. CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY ACT

    The Committee finds that H.R. 363 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

                      XVII. EARMARK IDENTIFICATION

    H.R. 363 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9(d), 9(e), or 9(f) of rule XXI.

     XVIII. STATEMENT ON PREEMPTION OF STATE, LOCAL, OR TRIBAL LAW

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

       XIX. CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW MADE BY THE BILL, AS REPORTED

    None.

                     XX. COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    On February 28, 2007, the Committee on Science and 
Technology favorably reported the Sowing the Seeds Through 
Science and Engineering Research Act by a voice vote, and 
recommended its enactment.



 XXI. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 363, SOWING THE 
           SEEDS THROUGH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH ACT

                              ----------                              


                      WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 2007

                  House of Representatives,
                       Committee on Science and Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:05 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Bart Gordon 
[Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Gordon. Good morning. The Committee on Science and 
Technology will come to order. Pursuant to notice, the 
Committee on Science and Technology meets to consider the 
following measures: H.R. 363, Sowing the Seeds Through Science 
and Engineering Research Act; H.R. 1068, To amend the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991; H.R. 1126, To reauthorize 
the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology 
Competitiveness Act of 1988; and H.R. 85, the Energy Technology 
Transfer.
    Today, we are here to markup these four bipartisan bills. 
They are all good bills and I am happy to support them all. I 
want to note that all of these bills have extensive legislative 
histories in prior Congress. It is not my intention for this 
committee to regularly markup legislation that has not gone 
through the Subcommittee hearing process; however, as I noted 
before, these bills were fully vetted in the last Congress and 
they are ready to go.
    I have said it before and I will say it again. I want this 
committee to be a Committee of good ideas. Here, we have four 
good ideas and I hope four bills everybody on this committee 
can get behind and support.
    Now I recognize Mr. Hall to present his opening remarks.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I thank you for calling the markup 
today. We have before us today, as you say, four bills that 
were passed by this Committee in the 109th Congress, and I look 
forward to their easy passage again today. The continued 
bipartisan support for these bills reflects their broad appeal 
and the fact that they are good bills and they are good for 
this country.
    The National Academy of Science's Rising Above the 
Gathering Storm and the President's American Competitiveness 
Initiative have emphasized the importance of supporting high-
risk research, young researchers, and research infrastructure 
in the U.S. to ensure that the next generation of high tech 
industries and products are developed in the United States.
    H.R. 363 is a step in the right direction. I thank the 
Chairman for his willingness to work with us on improving this 
legislation, and recommend a yes vote for the manager's 
amendment and for the underlying measure.
    As the Chairman has already mentioned, Mrs. Biggert has 
been instrumental in getting a high-performance computing bill 
through the Committee and the full House, for that matter, in 
two previous Congresses, and I certainly applaud her and Mr. 
Baird for their persistence. I recommend a yes vote on H.R. 
1068 and trust the Senate will follow suit when it is sent to 
them once again.
    I am happy to see Mr. Lipinski and Mr. Ehlers continuing 
former Representative Hart's lead in their continuing effort to 
reauthorize the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and 
Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. This is another bill 
that has been passed twice by our committee in the full House, 
and I also recommend a yes vote for H.R. 1126.
    I would also recommend a yes vote for Representative 
Biggert and Representative Miller's bill, H.R. 85, that will 
provide for the establishment of centers to encourage 
demonstration and commercial applications of advanced energy 
methods and technology. As I understand, they will be offering 
an amendment in the nature of a substitute that makes technical 
corrections, which I support as well.
    Mr. Chairman, I look forward to these bills moving to the 
Floor. With that, I yield back the balance of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Hall follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Ralph M. Hall
    Mr. Chairman, thank you for calling this markup today. We have 
before us today four bills that were passed by this committee in the 
109th Congress, and I look forward to their easy passage again today. 
The continued bipartisan support for these bills reflects their broad 
appeal and the fact that they are good bills that are good for the 
country.
    The National Academy of Science's Rising above the Gathering Storm 
and the President's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) have 
emphasized the importance of supporting high-risk research, young 
researchers, and research infrastructure in the United States to ensure 
that the next generation of high-tech industries and products are 
developed in the United States. H.R. 363 is a step in the right 
direction. This bill authorizes programs at the National Science 
Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science 
to provide grants to researchers just starting their careers to conduct 
high-risk, high-return research at the cutting edge of new scientific 
fields. In addition, it requires NIST to report to us on their efforts 
to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers, and it includes 
our recognition that NASA should be at the table for any interagency 
efforts to promote innovation and economic competitiveness. I thank the 
Chairman for his willingness to work with us on improving this 
legislation and recommend a ``yes'' vote for the managers' amendment 
and for the underlying measure.
    As the Chairman has already mentioned, Mrs. Biggert has been 
instrumental in getting this bill through the Committee, and the full 
House for that matter, in two previous Congresses, and I applaud her 
and Mr. Baird for their persistence. I recommend a ``yes'' vote on H.R. 
1068 and trust the Senate will follow suit when it is sent to them once 
again.
    I am happy to see Mr. Lipinski and Mr. Ehlers continuing former 
Representative Hart's lead in their continuing effort to reauthorize 
the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology 
Competitiveness Act of 1988. This is another bill that has been passed 
twice by our committee, and the full House and I also recommend a 
``yes'' vote for H.R. 1126.
    I would also recommend a ``yes'' vote for Rep. Biggert and Rep. 
Miller's bill, H.R. 85 that will provide for the establishment of 
centers to encourage demonstration and commercial application of 
advanced energy methods and technologies. I understand they will be 
offering an amendment in the nature of a substitute that makes 
technical corrections which I will support as well.
    Mr. Chairman, I look forward to these bills moving to the floor and 
being passed. With that I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Hall.
    Without objection, Members may place statements in the 
record.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Mitchell follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Representative Harry Mitchell
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    America needs innovators and leaders if it wants to remain 
competitive in the global economy. This is especially true when it 
comes to science and engineering.
    Retaining scientists and engineers, however, is often difficult, 
because they receive such low pay early-on in their careers.
    If we don't invest early in our future innovators, we will fall 
behind.
    Spreading technological innovation across existing industry is 
another indispensable part of maintaining our competitiveness.
    In my view, we should help businesses access both the technology 
and the research they need to modernize and improve their efficiency.
    Industry standards can also play a role.
    Today, we are considering four bills to address these issues and I 
look forward to working on them.
    I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. At this point, we will now consider H.R. 
363, Sowing the Seeds Through Science and Engineering Research 
Act. I yield myself five minutes to describe the bill.
    H.R. 363 will implement several important provisions for 
the National Academy of Science's report, ``Rising Above the 
Gathering Storm.'' Let me take just a moment for the new 
Members on the Committee. The Rising Above the Gathering Storm 
came about when Sherry Boehlert, our former Chairman, Lamar 
Alexander, and Jeff Bingaman, made a recommendation to the 
National Academies that they give us a report on 
competitiveness in the 21st century. It is my blueprint for 
this committee. It is an exceptional piece of work. Norm 
Augustine, who was the former Chairman of the Lockheed Martin 
Marietta headed this committee. He will be before us in about 
two weeks to go over it again. I hope that if you have not seen 
it, there is an executive summary. I hope that your staffs will 
make you aware of it. It is something I talk about at home all 
the time. It is something that is really important for the 
country, and very succinct. So you will see a lot of what we 
are doing now is pulling out pieces of that, and if you haven't 
had a chance, I would hope that you would get a chance to 
review it. It would be good for everybody.
    That report recommends that we, and I am quoting, ``sustain 
and strengthen the Nation's traditional commitment to long-term 
basic research that has the potential to be transformational, 
to maintain the flow of new ideas that fuel the economy, 
provide security, and enhance the quality of life.'' The 
Gathering Storm doesn't merely offer this abstract 
recommendation, it proposes six specific high-priority action 
items to realize it. I hope in time we will be able to 
implement all six of those items.
    But H.R. 363 isn't trying to do all that at once. Here, we 
have identified several action items that address research that 
fall clearly within the jurisdiction of the Committee that have 
broad bipartisan support, and that have, for the most part, 
already passed through the Committee in a bill reported during 
the 109th Congress. In my vision, when this committee notes 
good ideas with broad bipartisan support, we are going to move 
those ideas forward. We have been strategizing with the Members 
on both sides of the aisle to determine exactly how to 
structure this bill. In a few moments, Mr. Hall and I will 
present the result of those negotiations as a manager's 
amendment to the nature of a substitute. I will speak about the 
details of that amendment when it is offered.
    I urge my opponent--rather, colleagues, to support this 
bill--I hope there are no opponents here--which invest in our 
nation's capacity to innovate. It is through such measures that 
we are guaranteed a scientific infrastructure to support a 
continued high standard of living in our Nation in the decades 
ahead.
    I recognize Mr. Hall to present any remarks on the bill.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I will speak a little bit later 
when this lady to my right punches me and says it is time to 
go.
    But in the meantime, I just want to say when we have Norm 
Augustine here, I hope all of us really listen to him. I don't 
know if he is a Democrat or Republican, but I wonder sometimes 
why we can't have a guy, clean guy, successful guy like him 
running for President on one of the tickets. He really is a 
great man. He is a giver and he has been before these 
committees. A lot of times, he leads almost every effort 
worthwhile in this country. Norm Augustine is really a great 
American.
    That is all I have to say. I yield back my time.
    Chairman Gordon. You know, I concur and I really do 
encourage you and the staff members that are here of Members 
that aren't here yet, to get your Member here today--for this 
particular meeting with Norm Augustine. You really will be 
impressed. It is something we can do for our country and it is 
something you can take home, also.
    Does anyone else wish to be recognized?
    Then I ask unanimous consent that the bill is considered as 
read, and open to amendments at any point, and that the Members 
proceed with the amendments in the order of the roster.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is a Chairman's amendment 
offered in the nature of a substitute. I ask unanimous consent 
that the amendment in the nature of a substitute be treated as 
original text for the purposes of amendment under the five-
minute rule. Without objection, so ordered.
    The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment in the nature of a substitute to H.R. 
363, offered by Mr. Gordon of Tennessee and Mr. Hall of Texas.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize myself for five minutes to explain the 
substitute amendment.
    This amendment in the nature of a substitute which I 
offered with Ranking Member Hall represents the result of a 
bipartisan agreement, and I think agreement sounds better than 
negotiation, because it wasn't a negotiation, it was an 
agreement. It incorporates several changes from the original 
bill as introduced.
    We have eliminated the original Section 2 that spelled out 
specific authorizations of appropriations for research at 
various agencies. The Committee will address these matters 
separately as part of reauthorization bills of NIST and the 
National Science Foundation, and in the future, DOE 
authorization. The increases for the Office of Science at the 
Department of Energy proposed under the American 
Competitiveness Initiative are covered by the DOE authorization 
statute that runs through fiscal year 2009. Section 7 has been 
recast as a coordinated activity under the auspices of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy. This section creates a 
mechanism for assessing, prioritizing, maintaining the Nation's 
research facilities and major instrumentation.
    Finally, the amendment adds two additional sections from 
H.R. 5356 as reported by the Committee last year. The first 
directs the National Institute of Standards and Technology to 
report on their efforts to recruit new scientists and 
engineers. The second expresses the sense of Congress that a 
balanced and robust research program at NASA is critical to 
national competitiveness. The amendment retains the programs 
contained in H.R. 363 as introduced that focus on early career 
awards to young researchers through grant programs at the 
National Science Foundation and DOE. These provisions, as well 
as provisions expanding the National Science Foundation's 
graduate traineeship program are identical to the language in 
H.R. 5356 approved by the Committee last year. This is a 
bipartisan amendment that authorizes several valuable programs 
to strengthen basic research in the fields that would advance 
innovation and contribute to the National Competitiveness.
    I urge the approval of this committee, and now, let me tell 
you in English what I was just mentioning there.
    All these bills today by and large either passed this 
committee or passed this committee and the House last time, but 
because of either jurisdictional problems, petty 
jurisdictional--well, I guess I shouldn't say that--
jurisdictional problems either here or in the Senate, because 
there were parts of bigger bills that did not get enacted in 
law.
    So what we tried to do was slim the bills down so that they 
are basically our jurisdiction. We tried to accommodate the 
Senate on some of their quirks over there, and this again is an 
effort to try to not just talk about things, but really try to 
get some real competitiveness advantages for the United States. 
These are small bills, but bills we can get passed, and those 
really--that was the function of the various changes that we 
made.
    The other--since Mr. Hall didn't discuss it earlier, I 
think now is the time for Mr. Hall, if he had any--if he would 
like to------
    Mr. Hall. Yeah. We might agree on what petty differences 
mean. That is what the other side brings up.
    We have not had any petty differences up to this time, so--
H.R. 363, as the Chairman has said, authorizes programs at the 
National Science Foundation and at the Department of Energy, 
Office of Science, to provide grants to researchers that are 
just starting their careers to conduct high-risk, high return 
research at the cutting edge of new scientific fields. In 
addition, it requires NIST to report to us on their efforts to 
recruit and retain young scientists and engineers. It includes 
our recognition that NASA should be at the table for any 
interagency efforts to promote innovation and economic 
competitiveness.
    I want to thank the Chairman and his staff. They have 
worked well with our staff. They have had some agreements and 
disagreements, but they worked all of them out. They have taken 
some of the recommendations we made. We appreciate that, and we 
look forward to passing these bills today and working now and 
in the future as this Chairman gives us leadership.
    Re-yield back to you, sir.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you.
    Are there any amendments to the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute?
    If not, the vote occurs on the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute. All in favor, say aye. Opposed, nay. The ayes have 
it.
    The vote is on the bill, H.R. 363 as amended. All those in 
favor, say aye. All those opposed will say no. In the opinion 
of the Chair, the ayes have it.
    I recognize Mr. Hall to offer a motion.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Committee favorably 
report H.R. 363 as amended to the House with a recommendation 
that the bill do pass. Furthermore, I move that the staff be 
instructed to prepare the legislative report and make necessary 
technical and conforming changes, and that the Chairman take 
all necessary steps to bring the bill before the House for 
consideration.
    Chairman Gordon. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The bill is 
favorably reported. Without objection, the motion to reconsider 
is laid upon the table.
    I move that Members have two subsequent calendar days in 
which to submit supplemental, minority, or additional views on 
the measure.
    I move pursuant to Clause I of Rule 22 of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives that the Committee authorizes the 
Chairman to offer such motions as may be necessary in the House 
to adopt and pass H.R. 363, Sowing Seeds Through the Science 
and Engineering Research Act, as amended. Without objection, so 
ordered.
    Let me finally say that these amendments--and I thank all 
of you for a smooth hearing, smooth markup. We went fairly 
quick today, but the reason is there was a lot of staff work 
put in before this, and I thank the staff for that. I thank the 
Members for their patience, and this is the conclusion of our 
Committee markup.
    Now let me--Ranking Member Hall has brought to my attention 
that my gavel was a little fast earlier, and so for that 
reason, I would like to ask unanimous consent that Mr. McCaul 
have an opportunity to both place in the record any statement, 
as well as make an oral statement at this time.
    Mr. McCaul. I thank the Chairman for that opportunity, and 
I want to commend the Chairman and Ranking Member for 
introducing H.R. 363. It is an important bill. As we read the 
National Academy of Science's report on the Rising Above the 
Gathering Storm, clearly illustrates why we need this 
legislation.
    I was proud last Congress to have introduced the Research 
for Competitiveness Act, which your bill incorporates many of 
those provisions, so I want to thank you for the opportunity to 
put this before the Committee again, and now that it passed 
before the House Floor, hopefully it will get success this time 
in this Congress on that bill.
    It is a very important bill for teaching young scientists 
and engineers at our universities, such as the one in my 
hometown of Austin, University of Texas. So again, I want to 
commend you for your efforts on this important legislation.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. McCaul.
    Yeah, it is fun being able to do something productive, and 
I hope we are going to be able to do that.
    You know, we are taking, to some extent, the low-hanging 
fruit right now, but to continue this, the Subcommittees have 
got to get to work and get out more good product. I think that 
after we pass these four bills today, that we will probably 
have passed more legislation into the Congress than any one 
committee, even the Post Office Committee, which is--I am 
pleased to announce.
    Now let me, if I could, take a brief interlude from the 
bills, because I would like to announce the appointment of our 
new Vice Chairmen. The Vice Chairman of the Energy and 
Environment Committee will be Ms. Gabrielle Giffords from 
Arizona; Space and Aeronautics, Mr. Charlie Melancon. I guess I 
just screwed that name up about as well as anybody, haven't I? 
Okay. Research and Science Education will be Mr. Jerry 
McNerney; Technology and Innovation, Mr. Harry Hall, 
Investigations and Oversight, Ms. Darlene Hooley.
    And let me also take this opportunity, Mr. Bonner is not 
here right now, but he had asked me the other day about a 
particular Codel, and let me just tell you--I see I got Mr. 
Ross's attention--I am one that thinks congressional travel is 
a part of the job. I think that you can learn more on site than 
you can by hearing witnesses here, and so we are--we want to 
try to make that opportunity available to folks.
    Let me--and I welcome anybody's suggestions or criticism if 
you don't think this is the way to go, but my thought is this. 
Just like we are trying to take good ideas, sort of narrow them 
and get them through, I think that probably our best Codel 
travel really will be on shorter hops, and the reason for this 
is, as a practical matter, we have less open breaks this time. 
The--I won't say more significant, but the bigger committees 
are going to have access to the big planes and so what could 
very well happen, we could spend a lot of staff time planning 
something and get bumped by Armed Services or somebody else.
    So what I see us trying to do is look for those breaks 
where we are not going to have a Monday--or rather a Friday or 
a Monday vote, leaving on a Thursday night, coming back on 
Monday or Tuesday morning, one-shot sorts of things. I am sure 
that Dana would like to go to Greenland and see those glaciers 
and hear about that. Guyana is not far away, we can go and see 
what Arian is doing there. We are trying to compile a list of 
sort of one-shot places, sort of one tank of gas efforts, and 
so we welcome any of your thoughts.
    I know Joe had asked me about the Paris Air Show. I do not 
expect that we will be taking that trip for a variety of 
reasons, partly we don't have time during that, but it is April 
16 to 28. Joe has an emerging aviation industry developing in 
his district and I think it is very legitimate that he might 
want to go, and so let me also make available to you that if 
there is something around the country or around the world that 
you think is important to your district and to this committee, 
then we have the ability to be able to make a request through 
the State Department, and I think you can go on your own. So we 
will be happy to work with you on those things.
    Again, I think that travel is good for the Committee. I 
also find that it is--and Gabrielle was just telling me, she 
just got back from Iraq and had a unique opportunity to talk to 
my new Senator, Bob Corker, and her--one of her Senators that 
she didn't really know as well, and feels a new and better 
relationship.
    Once you travel with Members under these circumstances, 
particularly with their spouses, it is really sort of hard to 
be ugly to them, you know, later. And I think we want to 
encourage more of that.
    I had the opportunity--and I will call it an opportunity, 
to go to the Antarctic with Jim Sensenbrenner for two weeks. I 
am a better human being for that.
    Mr. Hall. Maybe Jim is, too.
    Chairman Gordon. So I do--I think the trip to the Antarctic 
is the most interesting trip that I have taken since being a 
Member of the Science Committee. It is a long trip in contrast 
to what we were talking, so it is going to take more planning, 
but we are going to put that together during one of the longer 
breaks and we will let you know more about that.
    Yes, sir? The gentleman from Missouri.
    Mr. Akin. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    First of all, on that subject, I had a chance to do the 
Antarctic trip as well. It is bar none the best Codel I ever 
took, most informative, most interesting, and this committee 
is, as far as I am concerned, the number one in terms of the 
most fascinating. It was very well-run. I agree with you on 
that.
    If it is okay, I just wanted to also compliment Congressmen 
Lipinski and Ehlers for the bill that is on the aluminum and 
steel. I think it is one of these win/win, as you are talking 
about, Mr. Chairman, when you have a chance to fund something, 
but if it works, we are going to pay back the government for 
the funding. I mean, it is energy related and it is so 
important.
    My family was in the steel industry, and it is an 
absolutely critical piece of legislation. I appreciate your 
good work.
    [Whereupon, at 11:08 a.m., the Committee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


 H.R. 363, Amendment Roster, Section-by-Section Summary of Substitute 
                         Amendment for H.R. 363






    Section-by-Section Summary of Substitute Amendment for H.R. 363
Section 1 is the short title of the bill, ``Sowing the Seeds Through 
Science and Engineering Research Act''.

Section 2 authorizes NSF to carry out a grant program for awards to 
scientists and engineers at the early stage of their careers in 
academia or in nonprofit research organizations. The NSF's existing 
Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) program may be designated as 
the mechanism for awarding these grants. The awards will go to 
outstanding researchers at the beginning of their careers and are 
intended for individuals from a variety of types of institutions, 
including minority serving institutions. The grants provide five years 
of research funding support at a minimum of $80,000 per year per award.
    NSF is required to designate at least 3.5 percent of funds 
appropriated for Research and Related Activities to the grant program 
for each of FY 2008 through FY 2012.

Section 3 authorizes DOE to carry out a grant program for awards to 
scientists and engineers at the early stage of their careers in 
academia or in nonprofit research organizations to conduct research in 
fields relevant to the mission of DOE. The awards will go to 
outstanding researchers at the beginning of their careers and are 
intended for individuals from a variety of types of institutions, 
including minority serving institutions. The grants provide five years 
of research funding support at a minimum of $80,000 per year per award, 
and priority shall go to proposals involving collaborations with 
researchers at DOE national laboratories.
    Authorizes to DOE $25 million for each year for FY 2008 through FY 
2012.

Section 4 directs NSF to allocate at least 1.5 percent of the amounts 
appropriated for Research and Related Activities to the Integrative 
Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) program, which 
provides support for graduate students in fields relevant to national 
needs. It requires NSF to coordinate with other agencies to expand the 
interdisciplinary nature of the IGERT program and authorizes NSF to 
accept funds from other agencies to carry out the program.

Section 5 establishes the Presidential Innovation Award presented 
periodically, on the basis of recommendations from the Director of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy, to citizens or permanent 
residents of the U.S. who develop unique scientific or engineering 
ideas judged to stimulate scientific and engineering advances in the 
national interest, to illustrate the linkage between science and 
engineering and national needs, and to provide an example to excite the 
interest of students in science or engineering professions.

Section 6 establishes a National Coordination Office for Research 
Infrastructure under the Office of Science and Technology Policy to 
identify and prioritize deficiencies in research facilities and 
instrumentation in academic institutions and national laboratories and 
to make recommendations for use of funding authorized. The Office is 
directed to report to Congress annually at the time of the 
administration's budget proposal.

Section 7 authorizes NSF, in carrying out its research programs on 
science policy and the science of learning, to support research on the 
process of innovation and the teaching of inventiveness.

Section 8 directs NIST to transmit to the House Committee on Science 
and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, not later than three months following enactment of the 
bill, a report on efforts to recruit and retain early-career scientists 
and engineers at NIST.

Section 9 expresses the sense of Congress that a balanced and robust 
program in science, aeronautics, exploration, and human space flight at 
NASA contributes significantly to national innovation and 
competitiveness. It also directs the NASA administrator to participate 
fully in interagency efforts to promote innovation and economic 
competitiveness through scientific research and development.

 Amendment in