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110th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     110-67

======================================================================
 
                    IMPROVING HEAD START ACT OF 2007

                                _______
                                

 March 23, 2007.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. George Miller of California, from the Committee on Education and 
                     Labor, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                             MINORITY VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 1429]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Education and Labor, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 1429) to reauthorize the Head Start Act, to 
improve program quality, to expand access, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do 
pass.
  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Improving Head Start Act of 2007''.

SEC. 2. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

  Section 636 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831) is amended to read 
as follows:

``SEC. 636. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

  ``It is the purpose of this subchapter to promote the school 
readiness of low-income children--
          ``(1) by enhancing their cognitive, social, and emotional 
        development in a learning environment that supports children's 
        growth in language, literacy, mathematics, science, social and 
        emotional functioning, physical skills, and approaches to 
        learning; and
          ``(2) through the provision to low-income children and their 
        families of health, educational, nutritional, social, and other 
        services that are determined, based on family needs 
        assessments, to be necessary.''.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

  Section 637 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9832) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating paragraphs (16) and (17) as paragraphs 
        (22) and (23), respectively,
          (2) by redesignating paragraph (15) as paragraph (20), 
        respectively,
          (3) by redesignating paragraphs (11) through (14) as 
        paragraphs (15) through (18), respectively,
          (4) by redesignating paragraph (10) as paragraph (13),
          (5) by redesignating paragraphs (2) through (9) as paragraphs 
        (3) through (10), respectively,
          (6) by inserting after paragraph (1) the following:
          ``(2) The term `deficiency' means--
                  ``(A) systemic or significant material failure of a 
                Head Start agency in an area of performance that the 
                Secretary determines involves--
                          ``(i) a threat to the health, safety, or 
                        civil rights of children or staff;
                          ``(ii) a denial to parents of the exercise of 
                        their full roles and responsibilities related 
                        to program governance;
                          ``(iii) a failure to perform the requirements 
                        of section 641A(a), as determined by the 
                        Secretary;
                          ``(iv) the misuse of funds received under 
                        this subchapter;
                          ``(v) loss of legal status (as determined by 
                        the Secretary) or financial viability, loss of 
                        permits, debarment from receiving Federal 
                        grants or contracts, or the improper use of 
                        Federal funds; or
                          ``(vi) failure to meet any other of Federal 
                        or State requirement; or
                  ``(B) material failure of the board of directors of a 
                Head Start agency to meet its legal and fiduciary 
                responsibilities.'',
          (7) by inserting after paragraph (10), as so redesignated the 
        following:
          ``(11) The term `homeless children' has the meaning given 
        such term in section 725(2) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless 
        Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11434a(2)).
          ``(12) The term `homeless family' means the family of a 
        homeless child.'',
          (8) by inserting after paragraph (13), as so redesignated the 
        following:
          ``(14) The terms `limited English proficient' and `limited 
        English proficiency' mean with respect to an individual, that 
        such individual--
                  ``(A)(i) was not born in the United States or has a 
                native language that is not English;
                  ``(ii)(I) is a Native American, an Alaska Native, or 
                a native resident of a territory or possession of the 
                United States; and
                  ``(II) comes from an environment in which a language 
                that is not English has had a significant impact on 
                such individual's level of English language 
                proficiency; or
                  ``(iii) is migratory, has a native language that is 
                not English, and comes from an environment in which a 
                language that is not English is dominant; and
                  ``(B) has difficulty in speaking or understanding the 
                English language to an extent that may be sufficient to 
                prevent such individual from--
                          ``(i) successful achievement in classrooms in 
                        which the language of instruction is English; 
                        or
                          ``(ii) fully participating in society.'',
          (9) by inserting after paragraph (18), as so redesignated the 
        following:
          ``(19) The term `professional development' means high quality 
        activities that will improve the knowledge and skills of Head 
        Start teachers and staff, as relevant to their roles and 
        functions, in program administration and the provision of 
        services and instruction, as appropriate, in a manner that 
        improves service delivery to eligible children and families, 
        including activities that--
                  ``(A) are part of a sustained effort to improve 
                overall program quality and outcomes for eligible 
                children and families;
                  ``(B) are developed or selected with extensive 
                participation of administrators and teachers from Head 
                Start programs;
                  ``(C) are developmentally appropriate for the 
                children being served;
                  ``(D) include instruction in ways that Head Start 
                personnel may work more effectively with parents, as 
                appropriate;
                  ``(E) are designed to give teachers and staff the 
                knowledge and skills to provide instruction and 
                appropriate support services to children of diverse 
                backgrounds, as appropriate;
                  ``(F) if a 1-day or short-term workshop or 
                conference, must be as part of the professional 
                development plan defined in section 648A(f) and be 
                delivered by an institution of higher education or 
                other entity with expertise in delivering training in 
                early childhood development, family support, and other 
                assistance designed to improve the delivery of Head 
                Start services;
                  ``(G) assist teachers with--
                          ``(i) the acquisition of the content 
                        knowledge and teaching strategies needed to 
                        provide effective instruction and other school 
                        readiness services in early language and 
                        literacy, early mathematics, early science, 
                        cognitive skills, approaches to learning, 
                        creative arts, science, physical health and 
                        development, and social and emotional 
                        development linked to school readiness;
                          ``(ii) meeting the requirements in paragraphs 
                        (1) and (2) of section 648A(a), as appropriate;
                          ``(iii) improving classroom management 
                        skills, as appropriate;
                          ``(iv) advancing understanding of effective 
                        instructional strategies that are--
                                  ``(I) based on scientifically based 
                                research; and
                                  ``(II) aligned with--
                                          ``(aa) the Head Start Child 
                                        Outcomes Framework developed by 
                                        the Secretary and State early 
                                        learning standards, as 
                                        appropriate; and
                                          ``(bb) the curricula, ongoing 
                                        assessments, and other 
                                        instruction and services 
                                        designed to help meet the 
                                        standards described in section 
                                        641A(a)(1);
                          ``(v) acquiring the knowledge and skills to 
                        provide instruction and appropriate language 
                        and support services to increase the English 
                        language skills of limited English proficient 
                        children, as appropriate; or
                          ``(vi) methods of teaching children with 
                        disabilities, as appropriate.'',
          (10) by inserting after paragraph (20), as so redesignated, 
        the following:
          ``(21) The term `scientifically based research'--
                  ``(A) means research that involves the application of 
                rigorous, systematic and objective procedures to obtain 
                reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education 
                activities and programs; and
                  ``(B) includes research that--
                          ``(i) employs systematic, empirical methods 
                        that draw on observation or experiment;
                          ``(ii) involves rigorous data analyses that 
                        are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and 
                        justify the general conclusions drawn;
                          ``(iii) relies on measurements or 
                        observational methods that provide reliable and 
                        valid data across evaluators and observers, 
                        across multiple measurements and observations, 
                        and across studies by the same or different 
                        investigators;
                          ``(iv) is evaluated using experimental or 
                        quasi-experimental designs in which 
                        individuals, entities, programs or activities 
                        are assigned to different conditions and with 
                        appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of 
                        the condition of interest, with a preference 
                        for random assignment experiments, or other 
                        designs to the extent that those designs 
                        contain within-condition or across-condition 
                        controls;
                          ``(v) ensures that experimental studies are 
                        presented in sufficient detail and clarity to 
                        allow for replication or, at a minimum, offer 
                        the opportunity to build systematically on 
                        their findings; and
                          ``(vi) has been accepted by a peer-reviewed 
                        journal or approved by a panel of independent 
                        experts through a comparably rigorous, 
                        objective, and scientific review.'', and
          (11) by amending paragraph (23), as so redesignated, to read 
        as follows:
          ``(23) The term `State' means a State, the Commonwealth of 
        Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, 
        the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of 
        the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Republic of Palau.''.

SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  Section 639 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9834) is amended to read 
as follows:

``SEC. 639. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  ``(a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated to carry 
out this subchapter $7,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2008 and such sums 
as may be necessary for fiscal years 2009 through 2012.
  ``(b) Specific Programs.--From the amount appropriated under 
subsection (a), the Secretary shall make available to carry out 
research, demonstration, and evaluation activities (including 
longitudinal studies under section 649) not more than $20,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2008 and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal 
the years 2009 through 2012, of which not more than $7,000,000 for each 
of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012 shall be available to carry out 
impact studies under section 649(g).''.

SEC. 5. ALLOTMENT OF FUNDS; LIMITATION ON ASSISTANCE.

  (a) Allotment of Funds.--Section 640(a) of the Head Start Act (42 
U.S.C. 9835(a)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(a) Allotment of Funds.--
          ``(1) In general.--Of the funds appropriated under section 
        639, the Secretary shall allot such amounts in accordance with 
        paragraphs (2) through (4), and subject to paragraphs (5) and 
        (6).
          ``(2) Thirteen percent set-aside.--The Secretary shall 
        reserve 13 percent of the amount appropriated for each fiscal 
        year for use in accordance with the following order of 
        priorities:
                  ``(A) Special populations.--For Indian Head Start 
                programs, services for children with disabilities, and 
                migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, except that--
                          ``(i) there shall be made available for each 
                        fiscal year for use by Indian Head Start 
                        programs and by migrant and seasonal Head Start 
                        programs, on a nationwide basis, not less than 
                        the amount that was obligated for use by Indian 
                        Head Start programs and by migrant and seasonal 
                        Head Start programs for fiscal year 2007;
                          ``(ii) migrant and seasonal Head Start 
                        programs shall receive not less than 5 percent 
                        of the amount appropriated for each fiscal year 
                        until such time as the Secretary can make 
                        funding decisions to ensure access to funding 
                        for eligible children of migrant and seasonal 
                        farmworkers is comparable to access to funding 
                        for other eligible children based on the data 
                        collected and reported pursuant to section 
                        648(l), except that no future reduction in 
                        funding shall result in the termination of Head 
                        Start services provided to any eligible child 3 
                        years of age or older who is participating in 
                        any such program on the date a reduction in 
                        funding occurs, and shall, to the extent 
                        possible, continue participation for children 
                        less than 3 years of age receiving services 
                        before such reduction in funding; and
                          ``(iii) Indian Head Start programs shall 
                        receive not less than 3.5 percent of the amount 
                        appropriated for each fiscal year until such 
                        time as the Secretary can make funding 
                        decisions to ensure access to funding for 
                        eligible Indian children is comparable to 
                        access to funding for other eligible children 
                        based on the data collected in accordance with 
                        the requirements of section 648(k), except that 
                        no future reduction in funding shall result in 
                        the termination of Head Start services provided 
                        to any eligible child 3 years of age or older 
                        who is participating in any such program on the 
                        date a reduction in funding occurs, and shall, 
                        to the extent possible, continue participation 
                        for children less than 3 years of age receiving 
                        services before such reduction in funding.
                  ``(B) Payments to territories and freely associated 
                states.--Subject to paragraph (7), for payments to 
                Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern 
                Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands of the United 
                States, and the Republic of Palau, except that payments 
                to the Republic of Palau shall not be made after fiscal 
                year 2009.
                  ``(C) Training and technical assistance.--Not less 
                than 2 percent of the amount appropriated for such 
                fiscal year for training and technical assistance 
                activities to foster program quality and management 
                improvement as described in section 648, of which--
                          ``(i) not less than 50 percent shall be 
                        available to local Head Start agencies to make 
                        program improvements identified by such 
                        agencies to use for the training and technical 
                        assistance activities described in section 
                        648(j);
                          ``(ii) not less than 30 percent shall be 
                        available to the Secretary to support a State-
                        based system or a national system, in the case 
                        of migrant and seasonal Head Start and Indian 
                        Head Start programs, of early childhood 
                        education training and technical assistance to 
                        local Head Start agencies as described in 
                        section 648(n); and
                          ``(iii) the remainder of such amount shall be 
                        available to the Secretary to assist local Head 
                        Start agencies in meeting and exceeding the 
                        standards described in section 641A(a)(1), 
                        including financial assistance to help Head 
                        Start programs address weaknesses identified by 
                        monitoring activities conducted by the 
                        Secretary under section 641A(c), except that--
                                  ``(I) not less than $3,000,000 shall 
                                be available to carry out the 
                                activities described in section 
                                648(c)(4); and
                                  ``(II) no more than $5,000,000 shall 
                                be reserved to carry out the activities 
                                described in section 642B(b).
                  ``(D) Monitoring and terminations.--For discretionary 
                payments made by the Secretary, including payments for 
                all costs (other than compensation of Federal 
                employees) of reviews of Head Start agencies, programs 
                under section 641A(c), and of activities carried out 
                under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 641A(d) 
                related to correcting deficiencies and conducting 
                proceedings to terminate the designation of Head Start 
                agencies.
                  ``(E) Research.--For payments for research, 
                demonstration, and evaluation activities under section 
                649.
        No funds reserved under this paragraph or paragraph (3) may be 
        combined with funds appropriated under any other Act if the 
        purpose of combining funds is to make a single discretionary 
        grant or a single discretionary payment, unless such funds 
        appropriated under this subchapter are separately identified in 
        such grant or payment and are used for the purposes of this 
        subchapter.
          ``(3) Quality improvement funds.--
                  ``(A) Determination of funds.--
                          ``(i) For each of the fiscal years 2008 
                        through 2012, to provide assistance for 
                        activities specified in subparagraph (B), the 
                        Secretary shall reserve, from the amount (if 
                        any) by which the funds appropriated under 
                        section 639(a) for a fiscal year exceed the 
                        adjusted prior year appropriation, a share 
                        equal to the sum of--
                                  ``(I) 60 percent of such excess 
                                amount; and
                                  ``(II) any additional part of such 
                                excess amount the Secretary may find 
                                necessary to address a demonstrated 
                                need for such activities.
                          ``(ii) As used in clause (i), the term 
                        `adjusted prior year appropriation' means, with 
                        respect to a fiscal year, the amount 
                        appropriated under section 639(a) for the 
                        preceding fiscal year, adjusted to reflect the 
                        percentage change in the Consumer Price Index 
                        for All Urban Consumers (issued by the Bureau 
                        of Labor Statistics) during such preceding 
                        fiscal year.
                  ``(B) Quality improvement activities.--Funds reserved 
                under this paragraph shall be used to carry out the 
                following activities:
                          ``(i) Not less than one-fourth of the amount 
                        reserved under this paragraph, to improve the 
                        compensation, salary scales, and benefit 
                        standards of educational staff, family service 
                        workers, and child counselors, as described in 
                        sections 644(a) and 653, to ensure that salary 
                        levels and benefits are adequate to attract and 
                        retain qualified staff for such programs.
                          ``(ii) Providing on-going professional 
                        development to teachers that improves their 
                        understanding of child development, content 
                        knowledge, and appropriate teaching strategies 
                        needed to provide effective instruction and 
                        other school readiness services in the areas of 
                        early language and literacy, early mathematics, 
                        cognitive skills, approaches to learning, 
                        creative arts, science, physical health and 
                        development, and social and emotional 
                        development.
                          ``(iii) Improving the qualifications and 
                        skills of educational personnel to meet the 
                        professional standards established under 
                        section 648A(a)(1), including providing 
                        assistance to complete postsecondary course 
                        work, subject to section 648A(a)(2)(D).
                          ``(iv) Ensuring that the physical 
                        environments of Head Start programs are 
                        conducive to providing effective program 
                        services to children and families, and are 
                        accessible to children with disabilities and 
                        other individuals with disabilities.
                          ``(v) Employing additional qualified 
                        classroom staff necessary to reduce the child 
                        to teacher ratio in the classroom and family to 
                        staff ratio for family services workers.
                          ``(vi) Ensuring that such programs have 
                        qualified staff that can promote language 
                        skills and literacy growth of children and that 
                        can provide children with a variety of skills 
                        that have been identified, through 
                        scientifically based reading research, as 
                        predictive of later reading achievement.
                          ``(vii) Increasing hours of program 
                        operation, including--
                                  ``(I) conversion of part-day to full-
                                day; and
                                  ``(II) number of weeks operated in a 
                                calendar year.
                          ``(viii) Improving the compensation and 
                        benefits of staff of Head Start agencies in 
                        order to improve the quality of Head Start 
                        programs.
                          ``(ix) Transportation costs associated with 
                        transporting Head Start children safely, except 
                        that--
                                  ``(I) no more than ten percent of 
                                funds under this paragraph may be used 
                                for such purposes;
                                  ``(II) a Head Start agency shall 
                                demonstrate efforts to leverage the 
                                costs of transportation through 
                                collaboration with other entities; and
                                  ``(III) a Head Start agency shall 
                                submit information to the Secretary 
                                describing how such use of funds is 
                                necessary to prevent reduction or 
                                termination of transportation services 
                                or, in the case of a Head Start agency 
                                serving a rural community, how such use 
                                of funds is necessary to improve 
                                services to such community.
                  ``(C) Allocation.--
                          ``(i) Funds reserved under subparagraph (A) 
                        shall be allotted by the Secretary as follows:
                                  ``(I) 80 percent of such funds shall 
                                be allotted among the States in the 
                                same proportion as the Secretary allots 
                                funds among the States under paragraph 
                                (4) for the respective fiscal year.
                                  ``(II) 20 percent of such funds shall 
                                be allotted among the States, 
                                geographical areas specified in 
                                subsection (a)(2)(B) and Indian Head 
                                Start programs and migrant and seasonal 
                                Head Start programs, and used to make 
                                grants to Head Start agencies, at the 
                                discretion of the Secretary.
                          ``(ii) Funds allotted under clause (i) shall 
                        be used by the Secretary to make grants to Head 
                        Start agencies that receive grants from funds 
                        allotted under paragraph (4) for such fiscal 
                        year, in such amounts as the Secretary 
                        considers to be appropriate, for expenditure 
                        for activities specified in subparagraph (B).
                          ``(iii) Funds received under this 
                        subparagraph shall be used to supplement, not 
                        to supplant, funds received under paragraph (2) 
                        or (4).
          ``(4) Grant distribution.--Subject to section 639(b), the 
        Secretary shall allot the remaining amounts appropriated in 
        each fiscal year among the States, in accordance with latest 
        satisfactory data so that--
                  ``(A) each State receives an amount which is equal to 
                the amount the State received for fiscal year 2007; and
                  ``(B) any amount available after all allotments are 
                made under subparagraph (A) for such fiscal year shall 
                be distributed proportionately on the basis of the 
                number of children less than 5 years of age from 
                families whose income is below the poverty line.
        For purposes of this paragraph, for each fiscal year the 
        Secretary shall use the most recent data available on the 
        number of children less than 5 years of age from families whose 
        income is below the poverty line, as published by the 
        Department of Commerce, unless the Secretary and the Secretary 
        of Commerce determine that use of the most recent data 
        available would be inappropriate or unreliable. If the 
        Secretary and the Secretary of Commerce determine that some or 
        all of the data referred to in this paragraph are inappropriate 
        or unreliable, the Secretaries shall issue a report setting 
        forth their reasons in detail.
          ``(5) Collaboration grants.--
                  ``(A) From amounts reserved and allotted under 
                paragraph (4), the Secretary shall award the 
                collaboration grants described in subparagraphs (B), 
                (C), and (D).
                  ``(B)(i) From the reserved sums, the Secretary shall 
                award upon submission of a written request, a 
                collaboration grant to each State and to each national 
                administrative office serving Indian Head Start 
                programs and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs 
                to facilitate collaboration between Head Start agencies 
                and entities (including the State or national 
                administrative office) that carry out other activities 
                designed to benefit low-income families and children 
                from birth to school entry. The national administrative 
                offices shall use the funds made available through the 
                grants to carry out the authorities and 
                responsibilities described in subparagraphs (B) and 
                (C).
                  ``(ii) Grants described in clause (i) shall be used 
                to--
                          ``(I) assist Head Start agencies to 
                        collaborate with entities involved in State and 
                        local planning processes to better meet the 
                        needs of low-income families and children from 
                        birth to school entry;
                          ``(II) assist Head Start agencies to 
                        coordinate activities with the State agency 
                        responsible for administering the State program 
                        carried out under the Child Care and 
                        Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 
                        9858 et seq.) and entities providing resource 
                        and referral services in the State, to make 
                        full-working-day and full calendar year 
                        services available to children;
                          ``(III) promote alignment of Head Start 
                        curricula and continuity of services with the 
                        Head Start Child Outcomes Framework and State 
                        early learning standards, as appropriate;
                          ``(IV) promote better linkages between Head 
                        Start agencies and other child and family 
                        agencies, including agencies that provide 
                        health, mental health, or family services, or 
                        other child or family supportive services, such 
                        as services provided under section 619 or part 
                        C of the Individuals with Disabilities 
                        Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.); 
                        and
                          ``(V) carry out the activities of the State 
                        Director of Head Start Collaboration authorized 
                        in subparagraph (D).
                  ``(C) In order to improve coordination and delivery 
                of early education services to children in the State, a 
                State that receives a collaboration grant under 
                subparagraph (B) shall--
                          ``(i) appoint or designate an individual to 
                        serve as, or carry out the responsibilities of, 
                        the State Director of Head Start Collaboration;
                          ``(ii) ensure that the State Director of Head 
                        Start Collaboration holds a position with 
                        sufficient authority and access to ensure that 
                        the collaboration described in subparagraph (B) 
                        is effective and involves a range of State 
                        agencies; and
                          ``(iii) involve the State Head Start 
                        Association in the selection of the Director 
                        and involve the Association in determinations 
                        relating to the ongoing direction of the 
                        collaboration office.
                  ``(D) The State Director of Head Start Collaboration 
                shall--
                          ``(i) not later than 1 year after the State 
                        receives a collaboration grant under 
                        subparagraph (B), conduct an assessment that--
                                  ``(I) addresses the needs of Head 
                                Start agencies in the State with 
                                respect to collaboration, coordination, 
                                and alignment of services, and 
                                alignment of curricula and assessments 
                                with the Head Start Child Outcomes 
                                Framework, and with State early 
                                learning standards, as appropriate;
                                  ``(II) shall be updated on an annual 
                                basis; and
                                  ``(III) shall be made available to 
                                the general public within the State;
                          ``(ii) develop a strategic plan that is based 
                        on the assessment described in clause (i) that 
                        will--
                                  ``(I) enhance collaboration and 
                                coordination of Head Start services 
                                with other entities providing early 
                                childhood programs and services (such 
                                as child care or services offered by 
                                museums), health care, mental health 
                                care, welfare, child protective 
                                services, education and community 
                                service activities, family literacy 
                                services, reading readiness programs 
                                (including such programs offered by 
                                public and school libraries), services 
                                relating to children with disabilities, 
                                other early childhood programs and 
                                services for limited English proficient 
                                children and homeless children, and 
                                services provided for children in 
                                foster care and children referred to 
                                Head Start programs by child welfare 
                                agencies, including agencies and State 
                                officials responsible for such 
                                services;
                                  ``(II) assist Head Start agencies to 
                                develop a plan for the provision of 
                                full-working-day, full calendar year 
                                services for children enrolled in Head 
                                Start programs who need such care;
                                  ``(III) assist Head Start agencies to 
                                align curricula and assessments with 
                                the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework 
                                and to the State early learning 
                                standards, as appropriate; and
                                  ``(IV) enable Head Start agencies in 
                                the State to better access professional 
                                development opportunities for Head 
                                Start staff, such as by--
                                          ``(aa) working with local 
                                        Head Start agencies to meet the 
                                        degree requirements described 
                                        in section 648A(a)(2)(A), 
                                        including providing distance 
                                        learning opportunities for Head 
                                        Start staff, where needed to 
                                        make higher education more 
                                        accessible to Head Start staff; 
                                        and
                                          ``(bb) enabling the State 
                                        Head Start agencies to better 
                                        conduct outreach to eligible 
                                        families;
                          ``(iii) promote partnerships between Head 
                        Start agencies, State and local governments, 
                        and the private sector to help ensure that 
                        children, who are in Head Start programs, are 
                        receiving comprehensive services to prepare the 
                        children to enter school ready to succeed;
                          ``(iv) consult with the chief State school 
                        officer, local educational agencies, and 
                        providers of early childhood education and 
                        care, regarding early care and education 
                        services at both the State and local levels;
                          ``(v) promote partnerships between Head Start 
                        agencies, schools, law enforcement, relevant 
                        community-based organizations, and substance 
                        abuse and mental health treatment agencies to 
                        strengthen family and community environments 
                        and to reduce the impact on child development 
                        of substance abuse, child abuse, domestic 
                        violence, and other high risk behaviors that 
                        compromise healthy development;
                          ``(vi) promote partnerships between Head 
                        Start agencies and other organizations in order 
                        to enhance Head Start program quality, 
                        including partnerships to promote inclusion of 
                        more books in Head Start classrooms;
                          ``(vii) identify other resources and 
                        organizations (both public and private) for the 
                        provision of in-kind services to Head Start 
                        agencies in the State; and
                          ``(viii) work with the State Early Learning 
                        Council in order to assist the efforts of Head 
                        Start agencies to engage in effective 
                        coordination and collaboration.
          ``(6) Early head start.--
                  ``(A) Amounts reserved.--From amounts reserved and 
                allotted pursuant to paragraphs (2) and (4), the 
                Secretary shall use, for grants for programs described 
                in section 645A(a), a portion of the combined total of 
                such amounts that is not less than 12 percent for 
                fiscal year 2008, not less than 14 percent for fiscal 
                year 2009, not less than 16 percent for fiscal year 
                2010, not less than 18 percent for fiscal year 2011, 
                and not less than 20 percent for fiscal year 2012 of 
                the amount appropriated pursuant to section 639(a).
                  ``(B) Limitations.--
                                  ``(i) For any fiscal year for which 
                                the Secretary determines that the 
                                amount appropriated under section 
                                639(a) is not sufficient to permit the 
                                Secretary to reserve the portion 
                                described in subparagraph (A) without 
                                reducing the number of children served 
                                by Head Start programs or adversely 
                                affecting the quality of Head Start 
                                services, relative to the number of 
                                children served and the quality of the 
                                services during the preceding fiscal 
                                year, the Secretary may reduce the 
                                percentage of funds required to be 
                                reserved for the portion described in 
                                subparagraph (A) for the fiscal year 
                                for which the determination is made, 
                                but not below the percentage required 
                                to be so reserved for the preceding 
                                fiscal year.
                                  ``(ii) For any fiscal year for which 
                                the amount appropriated under section 
                                639(a) is reduced to a level that 
                                requires a lower amount to be made 
                                available under this subchapter to Head 
                                Start agencies and entities described 
                                in section 645A, relative to the amount 
                                made available to such agencies and 
                                entities for the preceding fiscal year, 
                                adjusted as described in paragraph 
                                (3)(A)(ii), the Secretary shall 
                                proportionately reduce--
                                          ``(I) the amounts made 
                                        available to such entities for 
                                        programs carried out under 
                                        section 645A; and
                                          ``(II) the amounts made 
                                        available to such Head Start 
                                        agencies for Head Start 
                                        programs.
          ``(7) For purposes of this subsection, the term `State' does 
        not include Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the 
        Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated 
        States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and 
        the Republic of Palau.''.
  (b) Service Delivery Models.--Section 640(f) of the Head Start Act 
(42 U.S.C. 9835(f)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(f) Service Delivery Models.--
          ``(1) Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment 
        of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the Secretary shall 
        establish procedures to enable Head Start agencies to develop 
        locally designed or specialized service delivery models to 
        address local community needs, including models that leverage 
        the existing capacity and capabilities of the delivery system 
        of early childhood education and child care.
          ``(2) In establishing the procedures, the Secretary shall 
        establish procedures to provide for--
                  ``(A) the conversion of part-day programs to full-day 
                programs or part-day slots to full-day slots; and
                  ``(B) serving additional infants and toddlers 
                pursuant to section 645(a)(4).''.
  (c) Expansion of Head Start Programs.--Section 640(g) of the Head 
Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9835(g)) is amended in paragraph (2)--
          (1) by striking ``For the purpose of expanding Head Start 
        programs, in'' and inserting ``In'', and
          (2) by amending subparagraphs (C) through (H) to read as 
        follows:
          ``(C) the extent to which the applicant has undertaken 
        community-wide strategic planning and needs assessments 
        involving other community organizations and local public 
        agencies serving children and families with Federal, State, or 
        local funds (including organizations and agencies providing 
        family support services, child abuse prevention services, 
        protective services, and foster care, and organizations serving 
        families in whose homes English is not the language customarily 
        spoken), and individuals, organizations, and public entities 
        serving children with disabilities or homeless children, 
        including the local educational agency liaison designated under 
        section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless 
        Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii));
          ``(D) the extent to which the family and community needs 
        assessment of the applicant reflects a need to provide full 
        working-day or full calendar year services and the extent to 
        which, and manner in which, the applicant demonstrates the 
        ability to collaborate and participate with the State and local 
        community providers of child care or preschool services to 
        provide full working-day full calendar year services;
          ``(E) the number of eligible children in each community who 
        are not participating in a Head Start program or any other 
        early childhood program;
          ``(F) the concentration of low-income families in each 
        community;
          ``(G) the extent to which the applicant proposes to foster 
        partnerships with other service providers in a manner that will 
        leverage the existing delivery systems of such services and 
        enhance the resource capacity of the applicant;
          ``(H) the extent to which the applicant, in providing 
        services, successfully coordinated its activities with the 
        local educational agency serving the community involved, 
        (including the local educational agency liaison designated 
        under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless 
        Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)) and with schools 
        in which children participating in a Head Start program 
        operated by such agency will enroll following such program, 
        regarding such services and the education services provided by 
        such local educational agency; and
          ``(I) the amount of funds used by such agency to pay 
        administrative expenses and the amount of available funds 
        received by such agency under this section to service each 
        enrolled child.''.
  (d) Transportation Safety.--
          (1) Regulations.--The Secretary shall issue regulations 
        establishing requirements for the safety features, and the safe 
        operation, of vehicles used by Head Start agencies to transport 
        children participating in Head Start programs.
          (2) Good cause waiver authority.--The Secretary shall allow 
        Head Start agencies to annually request a good cause exception 
        to the requirements of regulations promulgated under paragraph 
        (1) for one or more vehicles used by the agency or its designee 
        in transporting children enrolled in a Head Start program or an 
        Early Head Start program if--
                  (A) such requirements would create a safety hazard in 
                the circumstances faced by such agency; or
                  (B) such requirements pertain to child restraint 
                systems (45 C.F.R. 1310.11, 1310.15(a)) or bus monitors 
                (45 C.F.R. 1310.15(c));
                  (C) the agency demonstrates that compliance with such 
                requirements will result in a significant disruption to 
                the Head Start program or the Early Head Start program; 
                and
                  (D) the waiver is in the best interest of the 
                children involved.
  (e) Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Programs.--Section 640(l) of the 
Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9835(l)) is amended--
          (1) by amending paragraph (3) to read as follows:
  ``(3) In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall continue 
the administrative arrangement at the national level for meeting the 
needs of Indian children and children of migrant and seasonal 
farmworkers and shall ensure that appropriate funding is provided to 
meet such needs, including training and technical assistance and the 
appointment of a national migrant and seasonal Head Start collaboration 
director and a national Indian Head Start collaboration director.'', 
and
          (2) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(4)(A) For the purposes of paragraph (3), the Secretary shall 
conduct an annual consultation in each affected Head Start region, with 
tribal governments operating Head Start programs and Early Head Start 
programs.
  ``(B) The consultations shall be for the purpose of better meeting 
the needs of Indian children and children of Alaskan Natives, and their 
families, in accordance with subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 
641, taking into consideration funding allocations, distribution 
formulas, and other issues affecting the delivery of Head Start 
services in their geographic locations.
  ``(C) The Secretary shall publish a notification of the consultations 
in the Federal Register before conducting the consultations.
  ``(D) A detailed report of each consultation shall be prepared and 
made available within 90 days of the annual consultation to all Indian 
tribes that receive assistance under this subchapter.''.
  (f) Enrollment of Homeless Children; Rule of Construction; 
Materials.--Section 640 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9835) is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
  ``(m) Enrollment of Homeless Children.--The Secretary shall issue 
rules to establish policies and procedures to remove barriers to the 
enrollment and participation of homeless children in Head Start 
programs. Such rules shall require Head Start agencies--
          ``(1) to implement policies and procedures to ensure that 
        homeless children are identified and prioritized for 
        enrollment;
          ``(2) to allow homeless families to apply to, enroll in and 
        attend Head Start programs while required documents, such as 
        proof of residency, immunization and other medical records, 
        birth certificates and other documents, are obtained within a 
        reasonable time frame; and
          ``(3) coordinate individual Head Start programs with efforts 
        to implement subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento 
        Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431-11435).
  ``(n) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this subchapter shall be 
construed to require a State to establish a program of early education 
for children in the State, to require any child to participate in a 
program of early education, to attend school, or to participate in any 
initial screening before participating in such program, except as 
provided under sections 612(a)(3) and 635(a)(5) of the Individuals with 
Disabilities Education Act.
  ``(o) Materials.--All curricula and instructional materials funded 
under this subchapter shall be based on scientifically based research, 
age and developmentally appropriate, and focused on all areas of 
development (cognitive, social, emotional, and physical), learning 
(language and literacy, mathematics, science, and creative arts) and 
approaches to learning. Parents shall be permitted to inspect, upon 
request, any curricula or instructional materials used to carry out 
this subchapter.''.

SEC. 6. DESIGNATION OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

  Section 641 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9836) is amended to read 
as follows:

``SEC. 641. DESIGNATION OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

  ``(a) Authority To Designate.--The Secretary is authorized to 
designate as a Head Start agency any local public or private nonprofit 
agency, including community-based and faith-based organizations, or 
for-profit agency, within a community, pursuant to the requirements of 
this section, except that until such time that the Secretary develops 
and implements the system of application review under this section, the 
Secretary is authorized to designate as a Head Start agency, any local 
public or private nonprofit agency, including community-based and 
faith-based organizations, or for-profit agency, within a community, in 
the manner and process utilized by the Secretary prior to the enactment 
of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007.
  ``(b) Application for Grants.--Each entity shall submit a plan to the 
Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may 
require.
  ``(c) Development of Application Review System.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall develop a system that 
        integrates the recommendations of the expert panel convened 
        under paragraph (3) to determine if a Head Start agency is 
        providing a quality comprehensive early learning program that 
        meets the educational, health, and nutritional needs of the 
        children and families it serves, and meets program and 
        financial management requirements and performance standards 
        described in section 641A(a)(1), based on--
                  ``(A) annual budget data;
                  ``(B) program reviews conducted under section 
                641A(c);
                  ``(C) annual audits required under section 647;
                  ``(D) classroom quality as measured under section 
                641A(c)(2)(H); and
                  ``(E) Program Information Report.
          ``(2) Expert panel.--No later than six months after the 
        enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the 
        Secretary shall convene an expert panel of 7 members to make 
        recommendations to the Secretary on the development of a 
        transparent, reliable, and valid system for evaluating grant 
        renewal applications.
          ``(3) Composition of expert panel.--The Secretary, in 
        convening such panel, shall appoint the following:
                  ``(A) 5 members, who are competent, by virtue of 
                their training, expertise, and experience, in each of 
                at least one of the following areas:
                          ``(i) Early childhood program accreditation 
                        or quality assessment.
                          ``(ii) Research on early childhood 
                        development.
                          ``(iii) Governance and finance of non-profit 
                        organizations.
                          ``(iv) Delivery of services to children and 
                        families with limited English proficiency.
                          ``(v) Delivery of services to children with 
                        disabilities.
                  ``(B) An employee from the Office of Head Start.
                  ``(C) An executive director of a Head Start agency.
          ``(4) Expert panel report.--Within 12 months of being 
        convened by the Secretary, the expert panel shall issue a 
        report to the Secretary that provides recommendations on a 
        proposed system of application review that takes into account 
        the criteria in paragraph (1) to evaluate whether a Head Start 
        grantee is meeting mission to provide a high quality 
        comprehensive early education program, including adequately 
        meeting its governance and financial management requirements.
          ``(5) Public comment; report to congress.--No later than 6 
        months after receiving the report described in paragraph (4), 
        the Secretary shall publish a proposed system of application 
        review in the Federal Register, providing at least 90 days for 
        public comment and shall provide a report to the Education and 
        Labor Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives and the 
        Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee of the U.S. 
        Senate that provides a detailed description of such proposed 
        system, including clear rationale for any differences between 
        the proposed system and the recommendations of the expert 
        panel, if any such differences exist.
          ``(6) Implementation of application review system.--After the 
        Secretary has reviewed all public comments and finalized the 
        system of application review, the Secretary will use this 
        system to determine which grantees are successfully delivering 
        a high quality comprehensive early education program. Grantees 
        who are determined under such system to be--
                  ``(A) successfully delivering a high quality 
                comprehensive early education program shall be 
                designated a Head Start agency for a period of 5 years;
                  ``(B) under-performing and may enter into an open 
                competition as described in subsection (e); and
                  ``(C) notwithstanding paragraph (B), if an Indian 
                Head Start agency is determined to be underperforming, 
                the Secretary shall engage in government-to-government 
                consultation with the appropriate tribal government or 
                governments for the purpose of establishing a 
                performance enhancement plan for that agency. Such plan 
                is to be developed and implemented within 6 months of 
                the Secretary's determination. Not more than 6 months 
                after implementation of that plan, the Secretary shall 
                re-evaluate the performance of the Indian Head Start 
                agency. If the Indian Head Start agency remains 
                underperforming, the Secretary shall conduct an open 
                competition as described in subsection (e), subject to 
                the following limitations:
                          ``(i) Except as provided in paragraph (ii), a 
                        non-Indian Head Start agency may not receive a 
                        grant to carry out an Indian Head Start 
                        program.
                          ``(ii) In a community in which there is no 
                        Indian Head Start agency available for 
                        designation to carry out an Indian Head Start 
                        program, a non-Indian Head Start agency, on an 
                        interim basis, may receive a grant to carry out 
                        an Indian Head Start program, but only until 
                        such time as an Indian Head Start agency in 
                        such community becomes available.
  ``(d) Transparency, Reliability, and Validity.--The Secretary shall 
ensure the system of application evaluation is fair, consistent, and 
transparent and applied in a manner that designates, in a timely manner 
grantees as Head Start agencies for a period of 5 years if such 
grantees are providing a high quality comprehensive early education 
program. The Secretary shall periodically evaluate whether the criteria 
are being applied in a manner that is transparent, reliable, and valid.
  ``(e) Designation When No Entity Has Priority.--
          ``(1) In general.--If no entity in a community is determined 
        to be successfully delivering a high quality comprehensive 
        early education program, as specified in subsection (c), the 
        Secretary shall, after conducting an open competition, 
        designate for a 5-year period a Head Start agency from among 
        qualified applicants in such community.
          ``(2) Considerations in designation.--In selecting from among 
        qualified applicants for designation as a Head Start agency, 
        the Secretary shall consider the effectiveness of each such 
        applicant to provide Head Start services, based on--
                  ``(A) any past performance of such applicant in 
                providing services comparable to Head Start services, 
                including how effectively such applicant provided such 
                comparable services;
                  ``(B) the plan of such applicant to provide 
                comprehensive health (including mental and behavioral 
                health), educational, nutritional, social, and other 
                services needed to prepare children to succeed in 
                school and in life;
                  ``(C) the plan of such applicant to attract and 
                retain qualified staff capable of delivering a high 
                quality comprehensive early education program, 
                including demonstrating the ability to provide adequate 
                salary and benefits to maintain a high quality staff;
                  ``(D) the ability of such applicant to maintain 
                child-teacher ratios and family service worker 
                caseloads that reflect best practices and are tied to 
                high quality service delivery;
                  ``(E) the capacity of such applicant to serve 
                eligible children with curriculum and teaching 
                practices that are based on scientifically based 
                research, are developmentally appropriate, and that 
                promote the school readiness of children participating 
                in the program;
                  ``(F) the plan of such applicant to meet standards 
                set forth in section 641A(a)(1), with particular 
                attention to the standards set forth in subparagraphs 
                (A) and (B) of such section;
                  ``(G) the proposed budget and plan of such applicant 
                to maintain strong fiscal controls and cost effective 
                fiscal management;
                  ``(H) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the 
                Head Start program the applicant proposes to carry out, 
                with other local early learning programs for young 
                children, including--
                          ``(i) programs implementing grants under the 
                        Early Reading First and Even Start programs 
                        under subparts 2 and 3 of part B of title I of 
                        the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
                        1965 (20 U.S.C. 6371 et seq., 6381 et seq.);
                          ``(ii) and programs under section 619 and 
                        part C of the Individuals with Disabilities 
                        Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.);
                          ``(iii) State prekindergarten programs;
                          ``(iv) child care programs; and
                          ``(v) the educational programs that the 
                        children participating in the Head Start 
                        program will enter at the age of compulsory 
                        school attendance;
                  ``(I) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the 
                Head Start program that the applicant proposes to carry 
                out, with public and private entities that are willing 
                to commit resources to assist the Head Start program in 
                meeting its program needs;
                  ``(J) the plan of such applicant--
                          ``(i) to seek the involvement of parents 
                        (including grandparents and kinship caregivers, 
                        as appropriate) of children participating in 
                        the proposed Head Start program, in activities 
                        (at home and, if practicable, at the location 
                        of the Head Start program) designed to help 
                        such parents become full partners in the 
                        education of their children;
                          ``(ii) to afford such parents the opportunity 
                        to participate in the development and overall 
                        conduct of the program at the local level;
                          ``(iii) to offer (directly or through 
                        referral to local entities, such as entities 
                        carrying out Even Start programs under 
                        subchapter 3 of part B of title I of the 
                        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 
                        (20 U.S.C. 6381 et seq.), public and school 
                        libraries, and entities carrying out family 
                        support programs) to such parents--
                                  ``(I) family literacy services; and
                                  ``(II) parenting skills training;
                          ``(iv) to offer to parents of participating 
                        children, mental health services (either 
                        directly or through referral to local 
                        entities), including substance abuse counseling 
                        and information on maternal depression and on 
                        the effect of drug-exposure on infants and 
                        fetal alcohol syndrome;
                          ``(v) at the option of such applicant, to 
                        offer (directly or through referral to local 
                        entities) to such parents--
                                  ``(I) training in basic child 
                                development (including cognitive, 
                                social, and emotional development);
                                  ``(II) assistance in developing 
                                literacy and communication skills;
                                  ``(III) opportunities to share 
                                experiences with other parents 
                                (including parent mentor 
                                relationships);
                                  ``(IV) regular in-home visitation;
                                  ``(V) mental and behavioral health 
                                services; or
                                  ``(VI) any other activity designed to 
                                help such parents become full partners 
                                in the education of their children;
                          ``(vi) to provide, with respect to each 
                        participating family, a family needs assessment 
                        that includes consultation with such parents, 
                        in a manner and language that such parents can 
                        understand, about the benefits of parent 
                        involvement and about the activities described 
                        in subparagraph (H) in which such parents may 
                        choose to become involved (taking into 
                        consideration their specific family needs, work 
                        schedules, and other responsibilities); and
                          ``(vii) to extend outreach to fathers, in 
                        appropriate cases, in order to strengthen the 
                        role of fathers in families, in the education 
                        of their young children, and in the Head Start 
                        program, by working directly with fathers and 
                        father figures through activities such as--
                                  ``(I) in appropriate cases, including 
                                fathers in home visits and providing 
                                culturally appropriate opportunities 
                                for direct father-child interactions; 
                                and
                                  ``(II) targeting increased male 
                                participation in the conduct of the 
                                program;
                  ``(K) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
                limited English proficient children and their families, 
                including procedures to identify such children, plans 
                to provide trained personnel, and plans to provide 
                services to assist the children in making progress 
                toward the acquisition of the English language, while 
                making meaningful progress in attaining the knowledge, 
                skills, abilities, and development described in section 
                641A(a)(1)(B);
                  ``(L) the plan of such applicant to meet the diverse 
                cultural needs of the population served;
                  ``(M) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
                children with disabilities;
                  ``(N) the plan of such applicant who chooses to 
                assist younger siblings of children who will 
                participate in the Head Start program to obtain health, 
                including mental health, services from other sources;
                  ``(O) the plan of such applicant to collaborate with 
                other entities carrying out public or private early 
                childhood education and child care programs in the 
                community;
                  ``(P) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
                homeless children, including transportation needs, and 
                children in foster care and children and families 
                experiencing toxic stress;
                  ``(Q) the plan of such applicant to maintain a 
                qualified staff, including a teaching staff qualified 
                to implement research-based curricula aligned with the 
                Head Start Child Outcomes Framework developed by the 
                Secretary and to the early learning standards in State 
                in which such program would operate;
                  ``(R) the plan of such applicant to enter into 
                memoranda of understanding with local educational 
                agencies within the service area, as described in 
                section 642B(a); and
                  ``(S) other factors related to the requirements of 
                this subchapter.
  ``(f) Interim Provider.--If no agency in the community receives 
priority designation under subsection (c), and there is no qualified 
applicant in the community, the Secretary shall designate a qualified 
agency to carry out the Head Start program in the community on an 
interim basis until a qualified applicant from the community is so 
designated.
  ``(g) Parent and Community Participation.--The Secretary shall 
require that the practice of significantly involving parents and area 
residents affected by the program in the selection of Head Start 
agencies be continued.
  ``(h) Community.--For purposes of this subchapter, a community may be 
a city, county, or multicity or multicounty unit within a State, an 
Indian reservation (including Indians in any off-reservation area 
designated by an appropriate tribal government in consultation with the 
Secretary) or a neighborhood or other area (irrespective of boundaries 
or political subdivisions) which provides a suitable organizational 
base and possesses the commonality of interest needed to operate a Head 
Start program.''.

SEC. 7. QUALITY STANDARDS; MONITORING OF HEAD START AGENCIES AND 
                    PROGRAMS.

  Section 641A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9836a) is amended to 
read as follows:

``SEC. 641A. QUALITY STANDARDS; MONITORING OF HEAD START AGENCIES AND 
                    PROGRAMS.

  ``(a) Quality Standards.--
          ``(1) Establishment of standards.--The Secretary shall 
        modify, as necessary, program performance standards by 
        regulation applicable to Head Start agencies, programs, and 
        projects under this subchapter, including--
                  ``(A) performance standards with respect to services 
                required to be provided, including health, parental 
                involvement, nutritional, social, transition activities 
                described in section 642(d), and other services;
                  ``(B) scientifically based and developmentally 
                appropriate early learning standards related to school 
                readiness that are based on the Head Start Child 
                Outcomes Framework to ensure that the children 
                participating in the program, at a minimum develop and 
                demonstrate--
                          ``(i) language knowledge and skills, 
                        including oral language and listening 
                        comprehension;
                          ``(ii) prereading knowledge and skills that 
                        prepare children for early literacy in schools 
                        including phonological awareness, print 
                        awareness and print skills, and alphabetic 
                        knowledge;
                          ``(iii) mathematics knowledge and skills, 
                        including aspects of classification, seriation, 
                        number, spatial relations, and time;
                          ``(iv) science knowledge and skills, 
                        including measurement;
                          ``(v) cognitive abilities related to academic 
                        achievement and general knowledge;
                          ``(vi) social and emotional development 
                        related to early learning, school success, 
                        social problem-solving, and overall well-being;
                          ``(vii) approaches to learning related to 
                        child development and early learning;
                          ``(viii) creative arts; and
                          ``(ix) in the case of limited-English 
                        proficient children, progress toward 
                        acquisition of the English language while 
                        making meaningful progress in attaining the 
                        knowledge, skills, abilities, and development 
                        described in clauses (i) through (viii), 
                        including progress made through the use of 
                        culturally and linguistically appropriate 
                        instructional services;
                  ``(C) administrative and financial management 
                standards;
                  ``(D) standards relating to the condition and 
                location of facilities for such agencies, programs, and 
                projects; and
                  ``(E) such other standards as the Secretary finds to 
                be appropriate.
          ``(2) Considerations in developing standards.--In developing 
        the standards required under paragraph (1), the Secretary 
        shall--
                  ``(A) consult with experts in the fields of child 
                development, early childhood education, child health 
                care, family services (including linguistically and 
                culturally appropriate services to limited English 
                proficient children and their families), 
                administration, and financial management, and with 
                persons with experience in the operation of Head Start 
                programs;
                  ``(B) take into consideration--
                          ``(i) past experience with use of the 
                        standards in effect under this subchapter on 
                        October 27, 1998;
                          ``(ii) changes over the period since October 
                        27, 1998, in the circumstances and problems 
                        typically facing children and families served 
                        by Head Start agencies;
                          ``(iii) recommendations from the report on 
                        Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for 
                        Young Children by the National Academy of 
                        Sciences, when it becomes available;
                          ``(iv) developments concerning research-based 
                        practices with respect to early childhood 
                        education and development, children with 
                        disabilities, family services, program 
                        administration, and financial management;
                          ``(v) projected needs of an expanding Head 
                        Start program;
                          ``(vi) guidelines and standards currently in 
                        effect or under consideration that promote 
                        child health services and physical development, 
                        including outdoor activity that supports 
                        children's motor development and overall health 
                        and nutrition;
                          ``(vii) changes in the population of children 
                        who are eligible to participate in Head Start 
                        programs, including the language and cultural 
                        background and family structure of such 
                        children;
                          ``(viii) mechanisms to ensure that children 
                        participating in Head Start programs make a 
                        successful transition to the schools that the 
                        children will be attending; and
                          ``(ix) the unique challenges faced by 
                        individual programs, including those that are 
                        seasonal or short term, and those that serve 
                        rural populations; and
                  ``(C)(i) review and revise as necessary the 
                performance standards in effect under this subsection; 
                and
                  ``(ii) ensure that any such revisions in the 
                performance standards will not result in the 
                elimination of or any reduction in quality, scope or 
                types of health, education, parental involvement, 
                nutritional, social, or other services required to be 
                provided under such standards as in effect on October 
                27, 1998.
          ``(3) Standards relating to obligations to delegate 
        agencies.--In developing standards under this subsection, the 
        Secretary shall describe the obligations of a Head Start agency 
        to a delegate agency to which the Head Start agency has 
        delegated responsibility for providing services under this 
        subchapter and determine whether the Head Start agency complies 
        with the standards. The Secretary shall consider such 
        compliance during the review described in subsection (c)(1)(A) 
        and in determining whether to renew financial assistance to the 
        Head Start agency under this subchapter.
  ``(b) Measures.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary, in consultation with 
        representatives of Head Start agencies and with experts in the 
        fields of early childhood education and development, shall use 
        the study on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young 
        Children by the National Academy of Sciences to provide 
        guidance to Head Start agencies for utilizing scientifically-
        based measures that support, as appropriate--
                  ``(A) classroom instructional practices;
                  ``(B) identification of special needs; and
                  ``(C) program evaluation.
          ``(2) Characteristics of measures.--The measures under this 
        subsection shall
                  ``(A) be developmentally, linguistically, and 
                culturally appropriate for the population served;
                  ``(B) be reviewed not less than every 4 years, based 
                on advances in the science of early childhood 
                development;
                  ``(C) be consistent with relevant, nationally 
                recognized professional and technical standards related 
                to the assessment of young children;
                  ``(D) be valid and reliable (in English, Spanish, and 
                any other language, as appropriate);
                  ``(E) be administered by staff with appropriate 
                training for such administration;
                  ``(F) provide appropriate accommodations for children 
                with disabilities and children who are limited English 
                proficient; and
                  ``(G) be high-quality research-based measures that 
                have been demonstrated to assist with the purposes for 
                which they were devised.
          ``(3) Use of measures; limitations on use.--
                  ``(A) Measures shall be designed for the purpose of--
                          ``(i) promoting the skills, knowledge, and 
                        competencies of children participating in Head 
                        Start programs specified in subsection 
                        (a)(1)(B)(ii), with an emphasis on measuring 
                        skills that scientifically-based research has 
                        demonstrated are related to children's school 
                        readiness and later success in school;
                          ``(ii) improving classroom practices, 
                        including reviewing children's strengths and 
                        weaknesses;
                          ``(iii) identifying special needs; and
                          ``(iv) improving overall program performance 
                        in order to help programs identify problem 
                        areas that may require additional training and 
                        technical assistance resources.
                  ``(B) Such measures shall not be used to exclude 
                children from Head Start programs.
          ``(4) Suspended implementation of national reporting 
        system.--The Secretary shall--
                  ``(A) suspend implementation and terminate further 
                development and use of the National Reporting System; 
                and
                  ``(B) incorporate, as appropriate, recommendations 
                from the study on Developmental Outcomes and 
                Assessments for Young Children by the National Academy 
                of Sciences into any assessment used in the Head Start 
                programs, in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3).
          ``(5) Special rule.--The use of assessment items and data on 
        any assessment authorized under this subchapter by an agent or 
        agents of the Federal Government to provide rewards or 
        sanctions for individual children or teachers is prohibited. 
        The Secretary shall not use the results of a single assessment 
        as the sole or primary method for assessing program 
        effectiveness or making grantee funding determinations at the 
        national, regional, or local level.
          ``(6) Confidentiality.--
                  ``(A) The Secretary, through regulation, shall ensure 
                the confidentiality of any personally identifiable 
                data, information and records collected or maintained 
                by the Secretary and any Head Start agency. Such 
                regulations shall provide the policies, protections, 
                and rights equivalent to those provided a parent, 
                student, or educational agency or institution under 
                section 444 of the General Education Provisions Act.
                  ``(B) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed 
                to authorize the development of a nationwide database 
                of personally identifiable information on children 
                participating in measures under this subsection.
  ``(c) Monitoring of Local Agencies and Programs.--
          ``(1) In general.--To determine whether Head Start agencies 
        meet standards established under this subchapter with respect 
        to program, administrative, financial management, and other 
        requirements and in order to help programs identify areas for 
        improvement and areas of strengths as part of an on-going self-
        assessment process, the Secretary shall develop and use a risk-
        based assessment system to conduct the following reviews of 
        Head Start agencies, and of the Head Start programs operated by 
        such agencies:
                  ``(A) A full review of each such agency at least once 
                during each 3-year period.
                  ``(B) A review of each newly designated Head Start 
                agency immediately after the completion of the first 
                year such agency carries out a Head Start program.
                  ``(C) Followup reviews, including unannounced reviews 
                as appropriate, of programs with 1 or more findings of 
                deficiencies not later than 12 months after the date of 
                such finding.
                  ``(D) other reviews, including unannounced site 
                inspections of Head Start centers, as appropriate.
          ``(2) Conduct of reviews.--The Secretary shall ensure that 
        reviews described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph 
        (1)--
                  ``(A) are conducted by review teams that--
                          ``(i) include individuals who are 
                        knowledgeable about Head Start programs and, to 
                        the maximum extent practicable, the diverse 
                        (including linguistic and cultural) needs of 
                        eligible children (including children with 
                        disabilities) and limited-English proficient 
                        children and their families; and
                          ``(ii) include, to the maximum extent 
                        practicable, current or former employees of the 
                        Department of Health and Human Services who are 
                        knowledgeable about Head Start programs;
                  ``(B) include as part of the reviews of the programs, 
                a review and assessment of program strengths and areas 
                in need of improvement;
                  ``(C) include as part of the reviews of the programs, 
                a review and assessment of whether programs have 
                adequately addressed the population and community needs 
                (including populations of children with limited English 
                proficiency and children of migrant and seasonal farm-
                working families);
                  ``(D) include as part of the review the extent to 
                which the program addresses the community needs and 
                strategic plan identified in section 640(g)(2)(C);
                  ``(E) include as part of the review the 
                implementation by qualified individuals with 
                demonstrated reliability, of a valid and reliable 
                research-based observational instrument that assesses 
                classroom quality, including multiple dimensions of 
                teacher-child interactions that are linked to positive 
                child development and later achievement;
                  ``(F) are conducted in a manner that evaluates 
                program performance, quality, and overall operations 
                with consistency and objectivity, and based on a 
                transparent and reliable system of review;
                  ``(G) in the case of Early Head Start programs, are 
                conducted by a review team that includes individuals 
                who are knowledgeable about the development of infants 
                and toddlers; and
                  ``(H) include as part of the review a protocol for 
                fiscal management that shall be used to assess the 
                compliance with program requirements for--
                          ``(i) using federal funds appropriately;
                          ``(ii) using federal funds specifically to 
                        purchase property and to compensate personnel;
                          ``(iii) securing and using qualified fiscal 
                        officer support; and
                          ``(iv) reporting financial information and 
                        implementing appropriate internal controls to 
                        safeguard federal funds.
          ``(3) Use of review findings.--The findings of the review 
        shall, at a minimum--
                  ``(A) be presented to an agency in a timely, 
                transparent, and uniform manner that conveys 
                information of program strengths and weaknesses and 
                assists with program improvement; and
                  ``(B) be used by the Head Start agencies to inform 
                the development and implementation of their plan for 
                training and technical assistance.
  ``(d) Evaluations and Corrective Actions for Delegate Agencies.--
          ``(1) Procedures.--The Head Start agency shall establish 
        procedures relating to its delegate agencies, including--
                  ``(A) procedures for evaluating delegate agencies;
                  ``(B) procedures for defunding delegate agencies; and
                  ``(C) procedures for appealing a defunding decision 
                relating to a delegate agency.
          ``(2) Evaluations.--Each Head Start agency--
                  ``(A) shall evaluate its delegate agencies using the 
                procedures established under this section; and
                  ``(B) shall inform the delegate agencies of the 
                deficiencies identified through the evaluation that are 
                required to be corrected.
          ``(3) Remedies to ensure corrective actions.--If the Head 
        Start agency identifies a deficiency of a delegate agency 
        through the evaluation, the Head Start agency may--
                  ``(A) initiate procedures to terminate the 
                designation of the delegate agency unless such agency 
                corrects the deficiency; and
                  ``(B) conduct monthly monitoring visits to such 
                delegate agency until all deficiencies are corrected or 
                the Head Start agency decides to defund such delegate 
                agency.
          ``(4) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection shall 
        be construed to modify, supersede, or affect the powers, 
        duties, or functions of the Secretary with respect to Head 
        Start agencies or delegate agencies that receive financial 
        assistance under this subchapter.
  ``(e) Corrective Action; Termination.--
          ``(1) Determination.--If the Secretary determines, on the 
        basis of a review pursuant to subsection (c), that a Head Start 
        agency designated pursuant to section 641 fails to meet the 
        standards described in subsection (a) or fails to adequately 
        address the community needs and strategic plan identified in 
        section 640(g)(2)(C), the Secretary shall--
                  ``(A) inform the agency of the deficiencies that 
                shall be corrected;
                  ``(B) with respect to each identified deficiency, 
                require the agency--
                          ``(i) to correct the deficiency immediately, 
                        if the Secretary finds that the deficiency 
                        threatens the health or safety of staff or 
                        program participants or poses a threat to the 
                        integrity of Federal funds;
                          ``(ii) to correct the deficiency not later 
                        than 90 days after the identification of the 
                        deficiency if the Secretary finds, in the 
                        discretion of the Secretary, that such a 90-day 
                        period is reasonable, in light of the nature 
                        and magnitude of the deficiency; or
                          ``(iii) in the discretion of the Secretary 
                        (taking into consideration the seriousness of 
                        the deficiency and the time reasonably required 
                        to correct the deficiency), to comply with the 
                        requirements of paragraph (2) concerning a 
                        quality improvement plan; and
                  ``(C) initiate proceedings to terminate the 
                designation of the agency unless the agency corrects 
                the deficiency.
          ``(2) Quality improvement plan.--
                  ``(A) Agency and program responsibilities.--To retain 
                a designation as a Head Start agency under this 
                subchapter, or in the case of a Head Start program to 
                continue to receive funds from such agency, a Head 
                Start agency, or Head Start program that is the subject 
                of a determination described in paragraph (1) 
                (excluding an agency or program required to correct a 
                deficiency immediately or during a 90-day period under 
                clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(B)) shall--
                          ``(i) develop in a timely manner, a quality 
                        improvement plan that shall be subject to the 
                        approval of the secretary, or in the case of a 
                        program, the sponsoring agency, and which shall 
                        specify--
                                  ``(I) the deficiencies to be 
                                corrected;
                                  ``(II) the actions to be taken to 
                                correct such deficiencies; and
                                  ``(III) the timetable for 
                                accomplishment of the corrective 
                                actions specified; and
                          ``(ii) eliminate each deficiency identified, 
                        not later than the date for elimination of such 
                        deficiency specified in such plan (which shall 
                        not be later than 10 months after the date the 
                        agency or program obtains approval of its 
                        quality improvement plan).
                  ``(B) Secretarial responsibility.--Not later than 30 
                days after receiving from a Head Start agency a 
                proposed quality improvement plan pursuant to 
                subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall either approve 
                such proposed plan or specify the reasons why the 
                proposed plan cannot be approved.
                  ``(C) Agency responsibility for program 
                improvement.--Not later than 30 days after receiving 
                from a Head Start program, a proposed quality 
                improvement plan pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Head 
                Start agency shall either approve such proposed plan or 
                specify the reasons why the proposed plan cannot be 
                approved.
          ``(3) Training and technical assistance.--The Secretary shall 
        provide training and technical assistance to Head Start 
        agencies and programs with respect to the development or 
        implementation of such quality improvement plans to the extent 
        the Secretary finds such provision to be feasible and 
        appropriate given available funding and other statutory 
        responsibilities.
  ``(f) Summaries of Monitoring Outcomes.--Not later than 120 days 
after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall publish a 
summary report on the findings of reviews conducted under subsection 
(c) and on the outcomes of quality improvement plans implemented under 
subsection (e), during such fiscal year. Such report shall be made 
available to all parents with children receiving assistance under this 
subchapter in an understandable and uniform format, and to the extent 
practicable, provided in a language that the parents can understand, 
and in addition, make the information widely available through public 
means such as distribution through public agencies, and at a minimum 
posting such information on the Internet immediately upon publication. 
Such reports shall contain detailed data on compliance with specific 
performance standards and measures sufficient to allow individual Head 
Start agencies to use such data to improve the quality of their 
program.
  ``(g) Self-Assessments.--
          ``(1) In general.--Not less frequently than once each program 
        year, with the consultation and participation of policy 
        councils, and as applicable, policy committees, and as 
        appropriate, other community members, each Head Start agency 
        and each delegate agency that receives financial assistance 
        under this subchapter shall conduct a comprehensive self-
        assessment of its effectiveness and progress in meeting program 
        goals and objectives (including professional development plans) 
        and in implementing and complying with Head Start program 
        performance standards.
          ``(2) Report and improvement plans.--
                  ``(A) Report.--An agency conducting a self-assessment 
                shall report the findings of the self-assessment to the 
                relevant policy council, policy committee, governing 
                body, and Secretary. Each self-assessment shall 
                identify areas of strength and weakness.
                  ``(B) Improvement plan.--The agency shall develop and 
                report to the Secretary an improvement plan approved by 
                the governing body of the agency to strengthen any 
                areas identified in the self-assessment as weaknesses 
                or in need of improvement.
          ``(3) Ongoing monitoring.--Each Head Start agency, delegate 
        Head Start agency, and entity that carries out an Early Head 
        Start program a shall establish and implement procedures for 
        the ongoing monitoring of their respective programs, to ensure 
        that the operations of the programs work toward meeting program 
        goals and objectives and Head Start performance standards.
  ``(h) Enrollment Reporting Requirement.--
          ``(1) Head Start agencies shall report on a regular basis to 
        the Secretary--
                  ``(A) the actual enrollment in such program; and
                  ``(B) if such actual enrollment is less than the 
                funded enrollment, any apparent reason for such 
                enrollment shortfall.
          ``(2) The Secretary shall determine on a regular basis which 
        Head Start agencies are operating with an actual enrollment 
        that is less than the funded enrollment and shall provide 
        appropriate and timely training and technical assistance to 
        increase actual enrollment, as appropriate.
          ``(3) In this subsection:
                  ``(A) The term `actual enrollment' means, with 
                respect to a Head Start program, the actual number of 
                children enrolled in such program in a given month.
                  ``(B) The term `base grant' means, with respect to 
                Head Start agency for a fiscal year, that portion of 
                the grant derived from--
                          ``(i) amounts reserved for use in accordance 
                        with section 640(a)(2)(A), for a Head Start 
                        agency administering an Indian Head Start 
                        program or migrant and seasonal Head Start 
                        program;
                          ``(ii) amounts reserved for payments under 
                        section 640(a)(2)(B); or
                          ``(iii) amounts available under section 
                        640(a)(2)(D) or allotted among States under 
                        section 640(a)(4).
                  ``(C) The term `funded enrollment' means, with 
                respect to the program of a Head Start agency in a 
                fiscal year, the number of children that the agency is 
                funded to serve through a grant for the program during 
                such fiscal year, as indicated in the grant award.
  ``(i) Redistribution of Funds.--Funds held by the Secretary as a 
result of recapturing, withholding, or reducing a base grant, except 
when such action is the result of an open competition 641(d)) or 
termination 646(d) shall be redistributed in such fiscal year as 
follows:
          ``(1) If such funds are derived from an Indian Head Start 
        program, then such funds shall be redistributed to increase 
        enrollment in such fiscal year in 1 or more Indian Head Start 
        programs.
          ``(2) If such funds are derived from the operation of a 
        migrant and seasonal Head Start program, then such funds shall 
        be redistributed to increase enrollment in such fiscal year in 
        1 or more migrant and seasonal Head Start programs.
          ``(3) If such funds are derived from the operation of a Head 
        Start program in a State (excluding Indian Head Start program 
        and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs), then such funds 
        shall be redistributed to increase enrollment in such fiscal 
        year in 1 or more Head Start programs (excluding Indian Head 
        Start programs and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs) 
        that are carried out in such State, except that--
                  ``(A) not less than 50 percent of the funds shall be 
                prioritized to increase the program participation of 
                children and families served under Early Head Start; 
                and
                  ``(B) not less than 25 percent of the funds shall be 
                prioritized to increase program participation of 
                underserved populations of eligible children.''.

SEC. 8. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

  Section 642 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9837) is amended to read 
as follows:

``SEC. 642. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

  ``(a) Legal Authority.--To be designated as a Head Start agency under 
this subchapter, an agency must have authority under its charter or 
applicable law to receive and administer funds under this subchapter, 
funds and contributions from private or local public sources which may 
be used in support of a Head Start program, and funds under any Federal 
or State assistance program pursuant to which a public or private 
nonprofit or for-profit agency (as the case may be) organized in 
accordance with this subchapter, could act as grantee, contractor, or 
sponsor of projects appropriate for inclusion in a Head Start program. 
Such an agency must also be empowered to transfer funds so received, 
and to delegate powers to other agencies, subject to the powers of its 
governing board and its overall program responsibilities. The power to 
transfer funds and delegate powers must include the power to make 
transfers and delegations covering component projects in all cases 
where this will contribute to efficiency and effectiveness or otherwise 
further program objectives.
  ``(b) Family and Community Involvement; Family Services.--To be so 
designated, a Head Start agency shall, at a minimum, do all the 
following to involve and serve families and communities:
          ``(1) Establish effective procedures by which parents and 
        area residents concerned will be enabled to directly 
        participate in decisions that influence the character of 
        programs affecting their interests.
          ``(2) Seek the involvement of parents, area residents, and 
        local business in the design and implementation of the program.
          ``(3) Establish effective procedures to facilitate and seek 
        the involvement of parents of participating children in 
        activities designed to help such parents become full partners 
        in the education of their children, and to afford such parents 
        the opportunity to participate in the development and overall 
        conduct of the program at the local level, including a process 
        through which parents of children currently participating in a 
        Head Start program or an Early Head Start program select the 
        parent representatives to serve on the council under section 
        642(b)(4)(B)(ii).
          ``(4) Offer (directly or through referral to local entities, 
        such as entities carrying out Even Start programs under subpart 
        3 of part B of title I of the Elementary and Secondary 
        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)), to parents of 
        participating children, family literacy services and parenting 
        skills training.
          ``(5) Offer to parents of participating children mental 
        health services (either directly or through referral to local 
        entities), including substance abuse counseling, and including 
        information on maternal depression and on drug-exposed infants 
        and fetal alcohol syndrome.
          ``(6) At the option of such agency, offer (directly or 
        through referral to local entities) to such parents--
                  ``(A) training in basic child development (including 
                cognitive, social, and emotional development);
                  ``(B) assistance in developing literacy and 
                communication skills;
                  ``(C) opportunities to share experiences with other 
                parents (including parent-mentor relationships);
                  ``(D) mental and behavioral health services;
                  ``(E) regular in-home visitation; or
                  ``(F) any other activity designed to help such 
                parents become full partners in the education of their 
                children.
          ``(7) Provide, with respect to each participating family, a 
        family needs assessment that includes consultation with such 
        parents, in a manner and language that such parents can 
        understand, about the benefits of parent involvement and about 
        the activities described in paragraphs (5) through (8) in which 
        such parents may choose to be involved (taking into 
        consideration their specific family needs, work schedules, and 
        other responsibilities).
          ``(8) Consider providing services to assist younger siblings 
        of children participating in its Head Start program to obtain 
        health, including mental health, services from other sources.
          ``(9) Perform community outreach to encourage individuals 
        previously unaffiliated with Head Start programs to participate 
        in its Head Start program as volunteers.
          ``(10)(A) Inform custodial parents in single-parent families 
        that participate in programs, activities, or services carried 
        out or provided under this subchapter about the availability of 
        child support services for purposes of establishing paternity 
        and acquiring child support; and
          ``(B) Refer eligible parents to the child support offices of 
        State and local governments.
          ``(11) Provide parents of limited English proficient children 
        outreach and services under this subchapter, in an 
        understandable and uniform format and, to the extent 
        practicable, in a language that such parents can understand.
          ``(12) Provide technical and other support needed to enable 
        parents and area residents to secure on their own behalf 
        available assistance from public and private sources.
          ``(13) Promote the continued involvement of the parents 
        (including grandparents and kinship caregivers, as appropriate) 
        of children that participate in Head Start programs in the 
        education of their children upon transition to school, the Head 
        Start agency shall work with the local educational agency--
                  ``(A) to provide training to the parents;
                          ``(i) to inform the parents about their 
                        rights and responsibilities concerning the 
                        education of their children; and
                          ``(ii) to enable the parents--
                                  ``(I) to understand and work with 
                                schools in order to communicate with 
                                teachers and other school personnel;
                                  ``(II) to support the schoolwork of 
                                their children; and
                                  ``(III) to participate as appropriate 
                                in decisions relating to the education 
                                of their children; and
                  ``(B) to take other actions, as appropriate and 
                feasible, to support the active involvement of the 
                parents with schools, school personnel, and school-
                related organizations.
          ``(14) Provide parents of a child suspected of having a 
        disability information about services available under section 
        619 or part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education 
        Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.) and refer such child to the 
        appropriate agency for an evaluation of eligibility under such 
        Act.
  ``(c) Program Governance.--Head Start agencies must establish and 
maintain a formal structure of shared governance through which an 
independent governing body with legal and fiscal responsibility for 
administering and overseeing programs under this subchapter and a 
parent policy council and parent policy committee, as appropriate, 
shall ensure that such agency operates a high quality Head Start 
program in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local 
laws.
          ``(1) Governing body.--
                  ``(A) Composition.--The governing body shall be 
                composed as follows:
                          ``(i) Not less than 1 member with significant 
                        financial management or accounting experience.
                          ``(ii) Not less than 1 member shall have a 
                        background and expertise in early childhood 
                        development.
                          ``(iii) Not less than 1 member shall be a 
                        licensed attorney familiar with issues that 
                        come before the governing body.
                          ``(iv) Additional members shall be selected 
                        for their expertise in education, business 
                        administration, and community affairs and shall 
                        reflect the community served.
                          ``(v) Exceptions shall be made when members 
                        of the governing body oversee a public entity 
                        and are selected by public election or are 
                        political appointments.
                  ``(B) Conflict of interest.--Members of the governing 
                body shall--
                          ``(i) not have a conflict of interest with 
                        the Head Start agency or delegate agencies, 
                        exceptions shall be made when a board member of 
                        a public entity is selected by election or 
                        politically appointed;
                          ``(ii) not receive compensation for the 
                        purposes of serving on the governing body or 
                        for providing services to the Head Start 
                        agency, exceptions shall be made when a board 
                        member of a public entity is selected by 
                        election or politically appointed;
                          ``(iii) not be employed nor shall members of 
                        their immediate family be employed by the Head 
                        Start agency or one of its delegate agencies, 
                        exceptions shall be made when a board member of 
                        a public entity is selected by election or 
                        politically appointed; and
                          ``(iv) operate as an entity independent of 
                        staff employed by the Head Start agency entity 
                        or applicant, exceptions shall be made when a 
                        board member of a public entity is selected by 
                        election or politically appointed.
                  ``(C) Consultants.--In the case that persons 
                described in subparagraph (A) are not available to 
                serve as members, the governing body shall make use of 
                consultants in the areas described in subparagraph (A) 
                to work directly with the governing body.
                  ``(D) Training.--All members of the governing body 
                shall receive training in management responsibilities 
                and obligations, ethics, and financial literacy 
                management.
                  ``(E) Responsibilities of governing body.--The 
                governing body shall be responsible for--
                          ``(i) adoption of practices that assure 
                        active, independent and informed governance of 
                        the Head Start agency;
                          ``(ii) oversight to ensure that the Head 
                        Start agency under the direction of the 
                        executive director is delivering high quality 
                        services to children and families in compliance 
                        with all applicable standards in effect under 
                        this subchapter and with the applicable 
                        performance measures established by the 
                        Secretary under section 644;
                          ``(iii) establish an audit and finance 
                        committee whose primary responsibility shall 
                        be--
                                  ``(I) to approve annually the 
                                operating budget of the Head Start 
                                agency;
                                  ``(II) to review and recommend to the 
                                governing body the selection of 
                                independent auditors who shall report 
                                all critical accounting policies and 
                                practices to the finance and audit 
                                committee, except when the auditor is 
                                assigned by the State under State law;
                                  ``(III) to review and recommend to 
                                the governing body the termination or 
                                extension of the existing audit firm at 
                                least once every 5 years;
                                  ``(IV) to review and advise the 
                                governing body of the audit management 
                                letter provided pursuant to the chapter 
                                75 of title 31, United States Code, and 
                                of any audit findings; and
                                  ``(V) to monitor agency actions to 
                                correct any such audit findings or 
                                other actions necessary to comply with 
                                applicable laws (including regulations) 
                                governing financial statements and 
                                accounting practices;
                          ``(iv) approve all major policies of the 
                        agency, including the mission of the agency and 
                        policies addressing accounting, financial 
                        management, procurement, record 
                        confidentiality, and personnel (including 
                        specific standards governing salaries, salary 
                        adjustments, travel and per diem allowances, 
                        and other employee benefits);
                          ``(v) approve all major financial 
                        expenditures of the agency;
                          ``(vi) approve the selection or dismissal of 
                        the Head Start Director or the equivalent 
                        position within the Head Start agency;
                          ``(vii) approve or disapprove all policies, 
                        applications, and decisions of the Policy 
                        Council made under the authority of paragraph 
                        (2);
                          ``(viii) to oversee the program planning of 
                        the Head Start agency, including adoption of 
                        policies for setting long- and short-range 
                        goals and objectives;
                          ``(ix) oversee and approve the agency's 
                        applications to receive funds made available 
                        under this subchapter; and
                          ``(x) to establish, adopt and periodically 
                        update written standards of conduct that 
                        establish standards and formal procedures for 
                        disclosing, addressing, and resolving--
                                  ``(I) any conflict of interest, and 
                                any appearance of a conflict of 
                                interest, by members of the governing 
                                body, officers, employees, consultants 
                                and agents who provide services or 
                                furnish goods to the Head Start agency; 
                                and
                                  ``(II) complaints, including 
                                investigations, when appropriate.
          ``(2) Policy council.--
                  ``(A) Composition.--The Policy Council or Policy 
                Committee, as appropriate, shall be composed as 
                follows:
                          ``(i) Members of the Policy Council shall be 
                        either parents of children currently enrolled 
                        in the Head Start agency's (or delegate's) Head 
                        Start or Early Head Start program or that are 
                        parents of children who were enrolled in the 
                        program in the previous year (Parent Members) 
                        or shall be members of the community served by 
                        the Head Start agency or delegate (Community 
                        Members).
                          ``(ii) Parent members of the Policy Council 
                        shall constitute a majority of the members of 
                        the Policy Council and shall be elected by 
                        parents of currently enrolled children.
                          ``(iii) Parent members shall represent, 
                        proportionately, all program options and 
                        settings operated by the Head Start agency or 
                        delegate.
                          ``(iv) The term of a Policy Council member 
                        shall be no more than 2 years and no Policy 
                        Council member shall serve longer than 6 years.
                  ``(B) Responsibilities of policy council.--In order 
                to be designated as a Head Start agency, an entity or 
                delegate of such an entity shall have a Policy Council 
                which shall approve and submit to the governing body 
                decisions about the following activities:
                          ``(i) The strategic direction of the program, 
                        including long and short-term planning goals 
                        and objectives (such planning and goals shall 
                        take into account the annual community 
                        assessment and self-assessment).
                          ``(ii) Selection of delegate agencies and 
                        their service areas.
                          ``(iii) Recruitment, selection and enrollment 
                        priorities.
                          ``(iv) Funding applications and amendments to 
                        funding applications for Head Start or Early 
                        Head Start prior to submission of such 
                        applications.
                          ``(v) Budget planning for program 
                        expenditures.
                          ``(vi) Bylaws for the operation of the Policy 
                        Council including procedures by which Policy 
                        Council members are chosen.
                          ``(vii) Program personnel policies, including 
                        standards of conduct for program staff, 
                        contractors and volunteers.
                          ``(viii) Decisions regarding employment of 
                        Head Start staff other than the director and 
                        executive director.
                          ``(ix) Activities to support the active 
                        involvement of parents in supporting program 
                        operations.
                          ``(x) Program responsiveness to community and 
                        parent needs.
                  ``(C) Training.--Appropriate training and technical 
                assistance shall be provided to the members of the 
                Policy Council to ensure that the members understand 
                the information the members receive and effectively 
                oversee and participate in the programs of the Head 
                Start agency or delegate.
          ``(3) Impasse policy.--The Secretary shall develop policies 
        and procedures describing how Head Start agencies will 
        implement shared decision-making, including a process for 
        resolving any impasse between the Governing Body and the Policy 
        Council.
  ``(d) Collaboration and Coordination.--To be so designated, a Head 
Start agency must collaborate and coordinate with public and private 
entities to improve the available services to Head Start children and 
families, including the following activities:
          ``(1) Conduct outreach to schools in which children 
        participating in Head Start programs enroll, local educational 
        agencies, the local business community, community-based 
        organizations, faith-based organizations, museums, and 
        libraries to generate support and leverage the resources of the 
        entire local community in order to improve school readiness.
          ``(2) In communities where both public prekindergarten 
        programs and Head Start programs operate, a Head Start agency 
        shall collaborate and coordinate activities with the local 
        educational agency or other public agency responsible for the 
        operation of the prekindergarten program and providers of 
        prekindergarten, including outreach activities to identify 
        eligible children, as possible.
          ``(3) Head Start agency staff shall, with the permission of 
        the parents of children enrolled in Head Start programs, 
        regularly communicate with the elementary schools such children 
        will be attending--
                  ``(A) to share information about such children; and
                  ``(B) to ensure a smooth transition to elementary 
                school for such children.
          ``(4) Each Head Start agency shall collaborate, as 
        appropriate, with providers of social and community services 
        available to children and families participating in Head Start 
        programs, and may support such partnerships with financial 
        agreements, when applicable, for the provision of such 
        services.
          ``(5) A Head Start agency shall take steps to coordinate 
        activities with the local educational agency serving the 
        community involved and with schools in which children 
        participating in a Head Start program operated by such agency 
        will enroll following such program, including--
                  ``(A) collaborating on the shared use of 
                transportation and facilities;
                  ``(B) collaborating to enhance the efficiency of 
                services while increasing the program participation of 
                underserved populations of eligible children; and
                  ``(C) exchanging information on the provision of 
                noneducational services to such children.
          ``(6) The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of 
        Education, shall--
                  ``(A) evaluate the effectiveness of the projects and 
                activities funded under section 642A;
                  ``(B) disseminate to Head Start agencies information 
                (including information from the evaluation required by 
                subparagraph (A)) on effective policies and activities 
                relating to the transition of children from Head Start 
                programs to public schools; and
                  ``(C) provide technical assistance to such agencies 
                to promote and assist such agencies to adopt and 
                implement such effective policies and activities.
  ``(e) Quality Standards, Curricula and Assessment.--To be so 
designated, each Head Start agency shall--
          ``(1) take steps to ensure, to the maximum extent possible, 
        that children maintain the developmental and educational gains 
        achieved in Head Start programs and build upon such gains in 
        further schooling;
          ``(2) establish a program with standards set forth in section 
        641A(a)(1), with particular attention to the standards set 
        forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such section;
          ``(3) implement a research-based early childhood curriculum 
        that promotes young children's school readiness in the areas of 
        language and cognitive development, early reading and 
        premathematics skills, socio-emotional development, physical 
        development, and approaches to learning. Such curricula shall 
        be--
                  ``(A) based on scientifically based research and have 
                standardized training procedures and curriculum 
                materials to support implementation;
                  ``(B) comprehensive, linked to ongoing assessment, 
                with developmental and learning goals and measurable 
                objectives; and focused on improving the learning 
                environment, teaching practices, family involvement, 
                and child outcomes across all areas of development; and
                  ``(C) aligned to the Head Start Child Outcomes 
                Framework developed by the Secretary and to State early 
                learning standards, as appropriate;
          ``(4) use ongoing, research-based assessment methods that are 
        developmentally appropriate, culturally and linguistically 
        responsive, and tied to children's daily activities in order to 
        support the educational instruction of children in the program, 
        including language skills, prereading knowledge and 
        premathematics knowledge. Assessment instruments shall be those 
        designed and validated for making decisions about teaching and 
        learning and aligned with the programs curricula and section 
        641A(a)(1);
          ``(5) use high-quality research-based developmental screening 
        tools that have been demonstrated to be standardized, reliable, 
        valid, and accurate for children from a range of racial, 
        ethnic, linguistic, and cultural backgrounds, for the purpose 
        of meeting the relevant performance standards;
          ``(6) adopt, in consultation with experts in child 
        development and with classroom teachers, an assessment to be 
        used when hiring or evaluating any classroom teacher in a 
        center-based Head Start program. Such assessment shall measure 
        whether such teacher has mastered the functions described in 
        section 648A(a)(1) and attained a level of literacy appropriate 
        to implement Head Start curricula;
          ``(7) use the information provided from the assessment 
        conducted under section 640A(C)(2)(H) to adopt a professional 
        development plan that leads to improved teacher effectiveness;
          ``(8) establish measurable objectives for the provision of 
        health, educational, nutritional, and social services related 
        to the program mission and to school readiness and provided 
        under this subchapter; and
          ``(9) develop procedures for identifying children as limited 
        English proficient, and inform the parents of such children as 
        to the instructional services used to help children make 
        progress towards acquiring the knowledge and skills described 
        in section 641A(a)(1)(B) and acquisition of the English 
        language.
  ``(f) Funded Enrollment; Waiting List.--Each Head Start agency shall 
enroll 100 percent of its funded enrollment and maintain an active 
waiting list at all times with ongoing outreach to the community and 
activities to identify underserved populations.
  ``(g) Technical Assistance and Training Plan.--In order to receive 
funds under this subchapter, a Head Start agency shall develop an 
annual technical assistance and training plan. Such plan shall be based 
on the agency's self-assessment, the community-wide needs assessment, 
the needs of parents and children to be serviced by such agency, and 
the results of the reviews conducted under section 641A(c).
  ``(h) Financial Management.--In order to receive funds under this 
subchapter, a Head Start agency shall document strong fiscal controls, 
including the employment of well-qualified fiscal staff with a history 
of successful management of a public or private organization.''.

SEC. 9. HEAD START TRANSITION AND ALIGNMENT WITH K-12 EDUCATION.

  Section 642A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9837a) is amended to 
read as follows:

``SEC. 642A. HEAD START TRANSITION AND ALIGNMENT WITH K-12 EDUCATION.

  ``Each Head Start agency shall take steps to coordinate with the 
local educational agency serving the community involved and with 
schools in which children participating in a Head Start program 
operated by such agency will enroll following such program to promote 
continuity of services and effective transitions, including--
          ``(1) developing and implementing a systematic procedure for 
        transferring, with parental consent, Head Start program records 
        for each participating child to the school in which such child 
        will enroll;
          ``(2) establishing ongoing channels of communication between 
        Head Start staff and their counterparts in the schools 
        (including teachers, social workers, McKinney-Vento liaisons as 
        established under section 722 (g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-
        Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)), 
        and health staff) to facilitate coordination of programs;
          ``(3) establish on-going communication for developing 
        continuity of developmentally appropriate curricula between 
        Head Start and local educational agencies to ensure an 
        effective transition and appropriate shared expectations for 
        children's learning and development as they make such 
        transition to school;
          ``(4) organizing and participating in joint training, 
        including transition-related training for school staff and Head 
        Start staff;
          ``(5) conducting meetings involving parents, kindergarten or 
        elementary school teachers, and Head Start program teachers to 
        discuss the educational, developmental, and other needs of 
        individual children;
          ``(6) helping parents of limited English Proficient children 
        understand the method of instruction and other services 
        provided by the school in which such child will enroll after 
        participation in Head Start and as appropriate, information 
        provided to parents of limited English proficient children 
        under section 3302 of title III of the Elementary and Secondary 
        Education Act of 1965 (20U.S.C. 7012);
          ``(7) developing and implementing a family outreach and 
        support program in cooperation with entities carrying out 
        parental involvement efforts under title I of the Elementary 
        and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.) 
        and family outreach and support efforts under subtitle B of 
        title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 
        U.S.C. 11431-11435);
          ``(8) assisting families, administrators, and teachers in 
        enhancing educational and developmental continuity and 
        continuity in parental involvement activities between Head 
        Start services and elementary school classes;
          ``(9) linking the services provided in such Head Start 
        program with the education services, including services 
        relating to language, literacy, and numeracy, provided by such 
        local educational agency;
          ``(10) helping parents (including grandparents and kinship 
        caregivers, as appropriate) to understand the importance of 
        parental involvement in a child's academic success while 
        teaching them strategies for maintaining parental involvement 
        as their child moves from Head Start to elementary school;
          ``(11) developing and implementing a system to increase 
        program participation of underserved populations of eligible 
        children; and
          ``(12) coordinating activities and collaborating to ensure 
        that curricula used in the Head Start program are aligned 
        with--
                  ``(A) the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework as 
                developed by the Secretary; and
                  ``(B) State early learning standards, as appropriate, 
                with regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and 
                physical competencies that children entering 
                kindergarten are expected to demonstrate.''.

SEC. 10. LOCAL AND STATE INTEGRATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.

  The Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831) is amended by inserting after 
section 642A the following:

``SEC. 642B. LOCAL AND STATE INTEGRATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.

  ``(a) Local Integration.--In general, Head Start agencies shall enter 
into ongoing partnerships with local educational agencies and with 
State-funded preschool and other early childhood programs.
          ``(1) Memoranda of understanding.--Each Head Start agency 
        shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with any local 
        educational agencies or local councils, responsible for 
        managing publicly funded prekindergarten programs in the 
        service area of the Head Start agency (or if such agencies and 
        such councils are not applicable in the service area, with the 
        largest provider of publicly funded prekindergarten in the 
        service area), that shall include plans to coordinate the 
        following activities:
                  ``(A) Educational activities, curricula, and 
                instruction.
                  ``(B) Public information dissemination and access to 
                programs for families contacting any of the early 
                childhood programs.
                  ``(C) Selection priorities for eligible children to 
                be served by programs.
                  ``(D) Service delivery areas.
                  ``(E) Staff training, including opportunities for 
                joint staff training on topics such as academic content 
                standards, instructional methods, and social and 
                emotional development.
                  ``(F) Program technical assistance.
                  ``(G) Provision of additional services to meet the 
                needs of working parents.
                  ``(H) Planning and parent education for smooth 
                transitions to kindergarten as required in section 
                642A(3) and 642A(6).
                  ``(I) Provision and use of facilities, 
                transportation, and other program elements.
                  ``(J) Other elements mutually agreed to by the 
                parties to such memorandum.
          ``(2) Timing of memoranda.--Each Head Start agency shall 
        enter into a memorandum of understanding under paragraph (1) 
        not later than 1 year after the effective date of this section.
          ``(3) Secretarial review.--Each memorandum of understanding 
        entered into under paragraph (1) shall be submitted to the 
        Secretary not later than 30 days after entering into such 
        memorandum.
                  ``(A) If a Head Start agency is unable to comply with 
                the requirement in paragraph (1) the Head Start agency 
                shall notify the Secretary and the chief executive 
                officer of the State not later than 30 days after 
                determining that they are unable to enter into such 
                memorandum. The Secretary, in cooperation with the 
                State Early Learning Council and the State Director of 
                Head Start Collaboration, shall evaluate the causes of 
                failure to enter into a memorandum of understanding 
                under paragraph (1). With the assistance of the State 
                Early Learning Council and the State Director of Head 
                Start Collaboration, all parties shall again attempt to 
                enter into a memorandum of understanding under 
                paragraph (1). Then if no such memorandum of 
                understanding is entered into, the Secretary shall make 
                1 of the following determinations:
                          ``(i) The local educational agency, local 
                        council, or other appropriate entity is unable 
                        or unwilling to enter into such a memorandum 
                        despite reasonable efforts on the part of the 
                        Head Start agency.
                          ``(ii) The Head Start agency has not engaged 
                        in reasonable efforts to successfully negotiate 
                        and enter into a memorandum of understanding 
                        pursuant to paragraph (1).
                          ``(iii) There is an absence of publicly 
                        funded prekindergarten in the service area of 
                        the Head Start agency.
                  ``(B) If the Secretary determines the Head Start 
                agency is not making reasonable efforts to enter into a 
                memorandum of understanding pursuant to paragraph (1), 
                the Head Start agency shall be found to be noncompliant 
                with program performance standards.
                  ``(C) If the Secretary concludes that the local 
                educational agency, local council, or other appropriate 
                entity is not making reasonable efforts to reach such a 
                memorandum of understanding, the Head Start agency 
                shall not be found out of compliance with paragraph 
                (1).
          ``(4) Revision of memoranda.--Each memorandum of 
        understanding shall be revised and renewed annually by the 
        parties to such memorandum, in alignment with the beginning of 
        the school year.
          ``(5) Absence of prekindergarten.--In the absence of publicly 
        funded prekindergarten in the service area of a Head Start 
        agency, the Head Start agency shall submit notice to the 
        Secretary and the chief executive officer of the State and 
        shall work with the State Early Learning Council and the State 
        Director of Head Start Collaboration to improve coordination in 
        their service area.
  ``(b) State Early Learning Councils.--From the amounts reserved under 
section 640(a)(2)(C)(iii), the Secretary shall award, upon submission 
of a written request and pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (2), 
an early learning collaboration grant to each State for the purposes of 
supporting a State Early Learning Council responsible for advancing the 
development of a coordinated early childhood services delivery system 
in the State. A State that receives a grant under this subparagraph 
shall--
          ``(1) establish a State Early Learning Council, which shall 
        include--
                  ``(A) the State Director of Head Start Collaboration;
                  ``(B) representatives from the State preschool 
                programs;
                  ``(C) representatives of local educational agencies;
                  ``(D) the State official who oversees child care 
                programs;
                  ``(E) the State official who oversees section 619 and 
                part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education 
                Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.);
                  ``(F) the State official who oversees the State 
                educational agency;
                  ``(G) representatives from Head Start agencies 
                located in the State, including migrant and seasonal 
                Head Start programs and Indian Head Start programs;
                  ``(H) representatives of local child care programs or 
                organizations; and
                  ``(I) a representative of the State agency 
                responsible for health and mental health care;
        except that the chief executive officer of the State may 
        designate an existing entity to serve as the Early Learning 
        Council if such entity includes representatives described in 
        this paragraph;
          ``(2) ensure that allotted funds distributed to a State for a 
        fiscal year to carry out this subsection may be used by the 
        State to pay not more than 50 percent of the cost of carrying 
        out this subsection;
          ``(3) direct the early learning council to improve the 
        coordination and quality of early childhood services within the 
        State, including--
                  ``(A) to increase coordination and collaboration 
                among State preschool, Head Start programs, child care 
                programs, early childhood special education, and other 
                early childhood programs, including in the areas of 
                outcomes and standards, technical assistance, 
                coordination of services, cross-sector professional 
                development and training, community outreach, 
                communication, and better serving the needs of working 
                families through provision of full-day and full-year 
                early education services;
                  ``(B) to work with State agencies responsible for 
                education, child care, and early intervention to 
                provide leadership and assistance to local Head Start 
                programs, local education agencies, and State and 
                locally funded preschool and child care programs to 
                increase integration among early childhood programs 
                through adoption of local memoranda of understanding 
                described in subparagraph (A) and other means;
                  ``(C) to work with State agencies responsible for 
                education, child care, and early intervention to 
                provide leadership and assistance to develop 
                developmentally appropriate standards for children 
                birth through the early elementary grades to effect a 
                smooth transition to and success in the early 
                elementary grades;
                  ``(D) to develop or conduct periodic Statewide needs 
                assessments concerning early care and education 
                programs for children from birth to school entry;
                  ``(E) to work to identify and address barriers to and 
                opportunities for integration between entities carrying 
                out Federal and State child development, child care, 
                and early childhood education programs;
                  ``(F) to develop recommendations regarding means of 
                establishing a unified data collection system for early 
                care and education programs operating throughout the 
                State;
                  ``(G) to address coordination of early learning 
                programs with health care (including mental and 
                behavioral health care), welfare, family literacy and 
                services for homeless children;
                  ``(H) to support a State system of early childhood 
                education, and training and technical assistance that 
                improves the quality of early learning programs and the 
                capacity of such programs to deliver services pursuant 
                to section 648(b);
                  ``(I) to develop a plan for increasing the 
                participation of children underrepresented in State 
                early childhood education and child care programs, 
                including Head Start, State preschool programs, and 
                programs carried out under the Child Care and 
                Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et 
                seq.);
                  ``(J) developing a Statewide professional development 
                and career ladder plan for early care and education in 
                the State; and
                  ``(K) assisting 2- and 4-year public and private 
                institutions of higher education to develop 
                articulation agreements concerning degrees in early 
                childhood and related fields.
          ``(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to 
        provide the Early Learning Council with authority to modify, 
        supersede, or affect the operation of this subchapter.
          ``(5) Funds made available under this section shall be used 
        to supplement, and not supplant, other Federal, State, and 
        local funds that would otherwise be expended to carry out the 
        purposes of this section.''.

SEC. 11. ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS.

  Section 644 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9839) is amended--
          (1) by amending subsection (a) to read as follows:
  ``(a) In General.--
          ``(1) Standards.--Each Head Start agency shall observe 
        standards of organization, management, and administration which 
        will ensure, so far as reasonably possible, that all program 
        activities are conducted in a manner consistent with the 
        purposes of this subchapter and the objective of providing 
        assistance effectively, efficiently, and free of any taint of 
        partisan political bias or personal or family favoritism. Each 
        such agency shall establish or adopt rules to carry out this 
        section, which shall include rules to assure full staff 
        accountability in matters governed by law, regulations, or 
        agency policy. Each agency shall also provide for reasonable 
        public access to information, including public hearings at the 
        request of appropriate community groups and reasonable public 
        access to books and records of the agency or other agencies 
        engaged in program activities or operations involving the use 
        of authority or funds for which it is responsible.
          ``(2) Annual report.--Each Head Start agency shall make 
        available to the public a report published at least once in 
        each fiscal year that discloses the following information from 
        the then most recently concluded fiscal year, except that 
        reporting such information shall not reveal personally 
        identifiable information about an individual child or parent:
                  ``(A) The total amount of public and private funds 
                received and the amount from each source.
                  ``(B) An explanation of budgetary expenditures and 
                proposed budget for the following fiscal year.
                  ``(C) The total number of children and families 
                served and percent of average monthly enrollment, 
                including the percent of eligible children served.
                  ``(D) The results of the most recent review by the 
                Secretary and the financial audit.
                  ``(E) The percentage of enrolled children that 
                received medical and dental exams.
                  ``(F) Information about parent involvement 
                activities.
                  ``(G) The agency's efforts to prepare children for 
                kindergarten.
                  ``(H) Any other information required by the 
                Secretary.
          ``(3) Procedural conduct.--Each such agency shall adopt for 
        itself and other agencies using funds or exercising authority 
        for which it is responsible, rules designed to--
                  ``(A) establish specific standards governing 
                salaries, salary increases, travel and per diem 
                allowances, and other employee benefits;
                  ``(B) assure that only persons capable of discharging 
                their duties with competence and integrity are employed 
                and that employees are promoted or advanced under 
                impartial procedures calculated to improve agency 
                performance and effectiveness;
                  ``(C) guard against personal or financial conflicts 
                of interest; and
                  ``(D) define employee duties in an appropriate manner 
                which will in any case preclude employees from 
                participating, in connection with the performance of 
                their duties, in any form of picketing, protest, or 
                other direct action which is in violation of law.'', 
                and
          (2) by amending subsection (f) to read as follows:
  ``(f) Facilities.--
          ``(1) The Secretary shall establish uniform procedures for 
        Head Start agencies to request approval to purchase facilities, 
        or to request approval of the purchase (after December 31, 
        1986) of facilities, to be used to carry out Head Start 
        programs. The Secretary shall suspend any proceedings pending 
        against any Head Start agency to claim costs incurred in 
        purchasing such facilities until the agency has been afforded 
        an opportunity to apply for approval of the purchase and the 
        Secretary has determined whether the purchase will be approved. 
        The Secretary shall not be required to repay claims previously 
        satisfied by Head Start agencies for costs incurred in the 
        purchase of such facilities.
          ``(2) Financial assistance provided under this subchapter may 
        not be used by a Head Start agency to purchase a facility 
        (including paying the cost of amortizing the principal and 
        paying interest on loans) to be used to carry out a Head Start 
        program unless the Secretary approves a request that is 
        submitted by such agency and contains--
                  ``(A) a description of the consultation conducted by 
                the Head Start agency with the providers in the 
                community demonstrating capacity and capability to 
                provide services under this subchapter, and of the 
                potential for collaboration with such providers and the 
                cost effectiveness of such collaboration as opposed to 
                the cost effectiveness of the purchase of a facility;
                  ``(B) a description of the site of the facility 
                proposed to be purchased or that was previously 
                purchased;
                  ``(C) the plans and specifications of such facility;
                  ``(D) information demonstrating that--
                          ``(i) the proposed purchase will result, or 
                        the previous purchase has resulted, in savings 
                        when compared to the costs that would be 
                        incurred to acquire the use of an alternative 
                        facility to carry out such program; or
                          ``(ii) the lack of alternative facilities 
                        will prevent, or would have prevented, the 
                        operation of such program;
                  ``(E) in the case of a request regarding a previously 
                purchased facility, information demonstrating that the 
                facility will be used principally as a Head Start 
                center, or a direct support facility for a Head Start 
                program; and
                  ``(F) such other information and assurances as the 
                Secretary may require.
          ``(3) Upon a determination by the Secretary that suitable 
        facilities are not otherwise available to Indian tribes to 
        carry out Head Start programs, and that the lack of suitable 
        facilities will inhibit the operation of such programs, the 
        Secretary may authorize the use of financial assistance, from 
        the amount reserved under section 640(a)(2)(A), to make 
        payments for the purchase of facilities owned by such tribes. 
        The amount of such a payment for such a facility shall not 
        exceed the fair market value of the facility.''.

SEC. 12. PARTICIPATION IN HEAD START PROGRAMS.

  Section 645 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) by amending paragraph (1)(B)(i) to read as 
                follows:
                          ``(i) programs assisted under this subchapter 
                        may include, to a reasonable extent, 
                        participation of children in the area served 
                        who would benefit from such programs, including 
                        children referred by child welfare services, 
                        but whose families do not meet the low-income 
                        criteria prescribed pursuant to subparagraph 
                        (A) (A homeless child shall be deemed to meet 
                        the low-income criteria.); and'', and
                  (B) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(3) The amount of a basic allowance provided under section 403 of 
title 37, United States Code, on behalf of an individual who is a 
member of the uniformed services for housing that is acquired or 
constructed under the authority of subchapter IV of chapter 169 of 
title 10, United States Code, or any other related provision of law, 
shall not be considered to be income for purposes of determining the 
eligibility of a child of the individual for programs assisted under 
this subchapter.
  ``(4)(A) Upon written request and pursuant to the requirements of 
this paragraph, a Head Start agency may use funds under section 640(a) 
to serve infants and toddlers if the agency submits an application to 
the Secretary containing the following information, as specified in 
rules issued by the Secretary--
          ``(i) the amount of funds under section 640(a) that are 
        proposed to be used in accordance with section 645A(b);
          ``(ii) a community-wide needs assessment demonstrating how 
        the use of such funds would best meet the needs of the 
        community;
          ``(iii) a description of how the needs of pregnant women, and 
        of infants and toddlers, will be addressed in accordance with 
        section 645A(b), and with regulations prescribed by the 
        Secretary pursuant to section 641A in areas including the 
        agency's approach to child development and provision of health 
        services, approach to family and community partnerships, and 
        approach to program design and management;
          ``(iv) a description of how the needs of eligible Head Start 
        children will be met in the community;
          ``(v) assurances that the agency will participate in 
        technical assistance activities (including a planning period, 
        start-up site visits, and national training activities) in the 
        same manner as recipients of grants under section 645A; and
          ``(vi) evidence that the agency meets the same eligibility 
        criteria as recipients of grants under section 645A.
  ``(B) An application that satisfies the requirements specified in 
subparagraph (A) shall be approved by the Secretary unless the 
Secretary finds that--
  ``(i) the agency lacks adequate capacity and capability to carry out 
an effective Early Head Start program; or
  ``(ii) the information provided under subparagraph (A) is inadequate.
  ``(C) Any Head Start agency approved under subparagraph (B) shall be 
considered to be an entity that receives assistance under section 645A, 
and such funds under (i) shall be subject to the same rules, 
regulations, and conditions as apply to recipients of grants under 
section 645A.
  ``(5)(A) Upon written request and pursuant to the requirements of 
this paragraph, a Head Start agency may consider children from low-
income families to be eligible for participation in programs assisted 
under this subchapter if their family income is at or above the poverty 
line but below 130 percent of the poverty line, if the agency submits 
an application to the Secretary containing the following information, 
as specified in rules issued by the Secretary--
          ``(i) a description of how the needs of eligible Head Start 
        children, as described in paragraph (1)(A) are being adequately 
        met in the agency's service area;
          ``(ii) a description of outreach efforts to the community to 
        reach full enrollment under the eligibility guidelines under 
        paragraph (1), including using outreach efforts that are 
        linguistically and culturally appropriate;
          ``(iii) assurance that the agency will prioritize serving 
        children currently eligible under the guidelines under 
        paragraph (1); and
          ``(iv) a description of why increasing the number of infants 
        and toddlers being served, as described in paragraph (4), is 
        not appropriate based upon the communitywide needs assessment 
        or the agency's capability.
  ``(B) In approving such applications, the Secretary shall take into 
account the--
  ``(i) cost of living for families living the area served by the Head 
Start agency;
  ``(ii) the efforts the Head Start agency has undertaken to be fully 
enrolled under the eligibility criteria in paragraph (1); and
  ``(iii) the policies and procedures the Head Start agency will 
implement to ensure that children currently eligible under the criteria 
described under paragraph (1) will be prioritized.
  ``(C) No more than 20 percent of children served by such Head Start 
agency may be from families above the poverty line.'',
          (2) in subsection (c) by striking ``(age 3 to compulsory 
        school attendance)'', and
          (3) in subsection (d) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, an Indian 
tribe that operates both a Head Start program and an Early Head Start 
program under section 645A may, at its discretion, at any time during 
the grant period involved, reallocate funds between the Head Start 
program and the Early Head Start program in order to address 
fluctuations in client population, including pregnant women and 
children birth to compulsory school age. The reallocation of such funds 
between programs by an Indian tribe shall not serve as the basis for 
the Secretary to reduce a base grant (as defined in section 641A(g)(1)) 
for either program in succeeding years.''.

SEC. 13. EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS.

  Section 645A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840a) is amended to 
read as follows:

``SEC. 645A. EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS FOR FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN UNDER 
                    3 YEARS OF AGE.

  ``(a) In General.--The Secretary shall make grants, in accordance 
with this section for programs (to be known as `Early Head Start 
programs') that provide family-centered services for low-income 
families with very young children designed to promote the development 
of the children, and to enable their parents to fulfill their roles as 
parents and to move toward self-sufficiency.
  ``(b) Scope and Design of Programs.--In carrying out a program 
described in subsection (a), an entity receiving assistance under this 
section shall--
          ``(1) provide, either directly or through referral, early, 
        continuous, intensive, and comprehensive child development and 
        family support services that will enhance the physical, social, 
        emotional, and intellectual development of participating 
        children;
          ``(2) ensure that the level of services provided to families 
        responds to their needs and circumstances;
          ``(3) promote positive parent-child interactions;
          ``(4) provide services to parents to support their role as 
        parents (including parenting skills training and training in 
        basic child development) and to help the families move toward 
        self-sufficiency (including educational and employment services 
        as appropriate);
          ``(5) coordinate services with services provided by programs 
        in the State (including home-based services) and programs in 
        the community (including programs for infants and toddlers with 
        disabilities and programs for homeless infants and toddlers) to 
        ensure a comprehensive array of services (such as health and 
        mental health services and family support services);
          ``(6) ensure formal linkages with local Head Start programs 
        in order to provide for continuity of services for children and 
        families;
          ``(7) in the case of a Head Start agency that operates a 
        program and that also provides Head Start services through the 
        age of mandatory school attendance, ensure that children and 
        families participating in the program receive such services 
        through such age;
          ``(8) ensure formal linkages with the agencies and entities 
        described in section 644(b) of the Individuals with 
        Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1444(b)) and providers of 
        early intervention services for infants and toddlers with 
        disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education 
        Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.) and the agency responsible for 
        administering section 106 of the Child Abuse Prevention and 
        Treatment Act (42 U.S.C. 5106a);
          ``(9) develop and implement a systematic procedure for 
        transitioning children and parents from an Early Head Start 
        program under this section into a Head Start program or other 
        local early childhood education program;
          ``(10) establish channels of communication between staff of 
        Early Head Start programs under this section and staff of Head 
        Start programs or other local early childhood education 
        programs, to facilitate the coordination of programs; and
          ``(11) meet such other requirements concerning design and 
        operation of the program described in subsection (a) as the 
        Secretary may establish.
  ``(c) Persons Eligible To Participate.--Persons who may participate 
in programs described in subsection (a) include--
          ``(1) pregnant women; and
          ``(2) families with children under age 3;
who meet the income criteria specified for families in section 
645(a)(1).
  ``(d) Eligible Service Providers.--To be eligible to receive 
assistance under this section, an entity shall submit an application to 
the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such 
information as the Secretary may require. Entities that may apply to 
carry out activities under this section include--
          ``(1) entities operating Head Start programs under this 
        subpart;
          ``(2) Indian Head Start programs; and
          ``(3) other public entities, and nonprofit or for-profit 
        private entities, including community-based and faith-based 
        organizations, capable of providing child and family services 
        that meet the standards for participation in programs under 
        this subchapter and meet such other appropriate requirements 
        relating to the activities under this section as the Secretary 
        may establish.
  ``(e) Selection of Grant Recipients.--From the portion specified in 
section 640(a)(6), the Secretary shall award grants under this 
subsection on a competitive basis to applicants meeting the criteria 
specified in subsection (d) (giving priority to entities with a record 
of providing early, continuous, and comprehensive childhood development 
and family services).
  ``(f) Distribution.--In awarding grants to eligible applicants under 
this section, the Secretary shall--
          ``(1) ensure an equitable national geographic distribution of 
        the grants; and
          ``(2) award grants to applicants proposing to serve 
        communities in rural areas and to applicants proposing to serve 
        communities in urban areas.
  ``(g) Monitoring, Training, Technical Assistance, and Evaluation.--
          ``(1) Requirement.--To ensure the successful operation of 
        programs assisted under this section, the Secretary shall use 
        funds from the portion specified in section 640(a)(6) to 
        monitor the operation of such programs, evaluate their 
        effectiveness, and provide training and technical assistance 
        tailored to the particular needs of such programs.
          ``(2) Training and technical assistance account.--
                  ``(A) In general.--Of the amount made available to 
                carry out this section for any fiscal year, not less 
                than 5 percent and not more than 10 percent shall be 
                reserved to fund a training and technical assistance 
                account.
                  ``(B) Activities.--Funds in the account may be used 
                by the Secretary for purposes including--
                          ``(i) making grants to, and entering into 
                        contracts with, organizations with specialized 
                        expertise relating to infants, toddlers, and 
                        families and the capacity needed to provide 
                        direction and support to a national training 
                        and technical assistance system, in order to 
                        provide such direction and support;
                          ``(ii) providing ongoing training and 
                        technical assistance for regional and program 
                        staff charged with monitoring and overseeing 
                        the administration of the program carried out 
                        under this section;
                          ``(iii) providing ongoing training and 
                        technical assistance for existing recipients 
                        (as of the date of such training or assistance) 
                        of grants under subsection (a) and support and 
                        program planning and implementation assistance 
                        for new recipients of such grants;
                          ``(iv) providing professional development and 
                        personnel enhancement activities, including the 
                        provision of funds to recipients of grants 
                        under subsection (a) for the recruitment and 
                        retention of qualified staff with an 
                        appropriate level of education and experience; 
                        and
                          ``(v) providing professional development 
                        designed to increase program participation for 
                        underserved populations of eligible children.
  ``(h) Center-Based Staff.--The Secretary shall ensure that, not later 
than September 30, 2009, all teachers providing direct services to 
children and families participating in early Head Start programs 
located in early Head Start centers have a minimum of a child 
development associate credential, and have been trained (or have 
equivalent course work) in early childhood development.
  ``(i) Staff Qualifications and Development.--
          ``(1) Home visitor staff standards.--In order to further 
        enhance the quality of home visiting services provided to 
        families of children participating in home-based, center-based, 
        or combination program options under this subchapter, the 
        Secretary shall establish standards for training, 
        qualifications, and the conduct of home visits for home visitor 
        staff in Early Head Start programs.
          ``(2) Contents of standards.--The standards for training, 
        qualifications, and the conduct of home visits shall include 
        content related to--
                  ``(A) structured child-focused home visiting that 
                promotes parents' ability to support the child's 
                cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development;
                  ``(B) effective strengths-based parent education, 
                including methods to encourage parents as their child's 
                first teachers;
                  ``(C) early childhood development with respect to 
                children from birth through age 3;
                  ``(D) methods to help parents promote emergent 
                literacy in their children from birth through age 3;
                  ``(E) ascertaining what health and developmental 
                services the family receives and working with these 
                providers to eliminate gaps in service by offering 
                annual health, vision, hearing, and developmental 
                screening for children from birth to entry into 
                kindergarten, when needed;
                  ``(F) strategies for helping families coping with 
                crisis; and
                  ``(G) the relationship of health and well-being of 
                pregnant women to prenatal and early child 
                development.''.

SEC. 14. PARENTAL CONSENT REQUIREMENT FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES.

  The Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831) is amended by inserting after 
section 645A the following:

``SEC. 645B. PARENTAL CONSENT REQUIREMENT FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES.

  ``(a) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:
          ``(1) The term `health care service' includes--
                  ``(A) any nonemergency intrusive physical 
                examination; and
                  ``(B) any screening, including but not limited to, a 
                medical, dental, developmental, mental health, social, 
                or behavioral screening.
          ``(2) The term `nonemergency intrusive physical examination' 
        means, with respect to a child, a physical examination that--
                  ``(A) is not immediately necessary to protect the 
                health or safety of such child, or the health or safety 
                of another individual; and
                  ``(B) includes incision or is otherwise invasive, or 
                includes exposure of private body parts.
  ``(b) Requirement.--Before administering any health care service to a 
child (or referring a child to obtain such service) in connection with 
participation in a program under this subchapter, a Head Start agency 
and an entity that receives assistance under section 645A shall obtain 
the written consent of a parent of such child indicating consent for 
each specific health care service to be performed.
  ``(c) Rule of Construction.--
          ``(1) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit 
        a Head Start agency or an entity that receives assistance under 
        section 645A from using established methods for handling cases 
        of suspected or known child abuse and neglect, that are in 
        compliance with applicable Federal, State, or tribal law.
          ``(2) Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to permit 
        a Head Start agency, an entity that receives assistance under 
        section 645A, or the personnel of such agency or entity to 
        administer any health care service to a child (or to refer a 
        child to obtain such service) without the informed written 
        consent of a parent of such child indicating consent for each 
        specific health care service to be performed.
          ``(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a 
        Head Start agency or an entity that receives assistance under 
        section 645A to provide separate consent forms for each 
        specific health care service.''.

SEC. 15. APPEALS, NOTICE, AND HEARING.

  Section 646(a)(3) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9841(a)(3)) is 
amended to read as follows:
          ``(3) if financial assistance under this subchapter is 
        terminated or reduced, an application for a noncompeting 
        continuation award is denied based on a previous failure to 
        comply with terms applicable to financial assistance previously 
        provided under this subchapter, or suspension of financial 
        assistance is continued for more than 30 days, the recipient 
        with respect to whom such action is taken shall have the 
        opportunity to appeal such action in accordance with such 
        procedures, except that no funds made available under this 
        subchapter may be used to reimburse any such recipient for 
        legal fees and other costs incurred in pursuing such an appeal; 
        and''.

SEC. 16. RECORDS AND AUDITS.

  Section 647 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9842) is amended by 
adding at the end the following:
  ``(c) Each recipient of financial assistance under this subchapter 
shall--
          ``(1) maintain, and annually submit to the Secretary, a 
        complete accounting of its administrative expenses (including a 
        detailed statement identifying the amount of financial 
        assistance provided under this subchapter used to pay expenses 
        for salaries and compensation and the amount (if any) of other 
        funds used to pay such expenses);
          ``(2) within 30 days after the completion of an audit 
        conducted in the manner and to the extent provided in chapter 
        75 of title 31, United States Code (commonly known as the 
        `Single Audit Act Amendments of 1996'), submit to the Secretary 
        a copy of the audit management letter and of any audit findings 
        as it relates to the Head Start program; and
          ``(3) provide such additional documentation as the Secretary 
        may require.''.

SEC. 17. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING.

  Section 648 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9843) is amended to read 
as follows:

``SEC. 648. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING.

  ``(a) The Secretary shall provide, directly or through grants or 
other arrangements--
          ``(1) technical assistance to communities in developing, 
        conducting, and administering programs under this subchapter; 
        and
          ``(2) training for specialized or other personnel needed in 
        connection with Head Start programs, in accordance with the 
        process, and the provisions for allocating resources, set forth 
        in subsections (b) and (c).
  ``(b) The process for determining the technical assistance and 
training activities to be carried out under this section shall--
          ``(1) ensure that the needs of local Head Start agencies and 
        programs relating to improving program quality and to program 
        expansion are addressed to the maximum extent feasible;
          ``(2) incorporate mechanisms to ensure responsiveness to 
        local needs, including an ongoing procedure for obtaining input 
        from the individuals and agencies carrying out Head Start 
        programs; and
          ``(3) ensure the provision of technical assistance to assist 
        Head Start agencies, entities carrying out other child care and 
        early childhood programs, communities, and States in 
        collaborative efforts to provide quality full-working-day, full 
        calendar year services, including technical assistance related 
        to identifying and assisting in resolving barriers to 
        collaboration.
  ``(c) In allocating resources for technical assistance and training 
under this section, the Secretary shall--
          ``(1) give priority consideration to--
                  ``(A) activities to correct program and management 
                deficiencies identified through reviews carried out 
                pursuant to section 641A(c) (including the provision of 
                assistance to local programs in the development of 
                quality improvement plans under section 641A(d)(2)); 
                and
                  ``(B) assisting Head Start agencies in--
                          ``(i) ensuring the school readiness of 
                        children; and
                          ``(ii) meeting the educational performance 
                        measures described in section 641A(b)(4);
          ``(2) supplement amounts provided under section 
        640(a)(3)(C)(ii) in order to address the training and career 
        development needs of classroom staff (including instruction for 
        providing services to children with disabilities), and 
        nonclassroom staff, including home visitors and other staff 
        working directly with families, including training relating to 
        increasing parent involvement and services designed to increase 
        family literacy and improve parenting skills;
          ``(3) assist Head Start agencies in the development of 
        collaborative initiatives with States and other entities within 
        the States, to foster effective early childhood professional 
        development systems;
          ``(4) provide technical assistance and training, either 
        directly or through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement 
        with an entity that has experience in the development and 
        operation of successful family literacy services programs, for 
        the purpose of--
                  ``(A) assisting Head Start agencies providing family 
                literacy services, in order to improve the quality of 
                such family literacy services; and
                  ``(B) enabling those Head Start agencies that 
                demonstrate effective provision of family literacy 
                services, based on improved outcomes for children and 
                their parents, to provide technical assistance and 
                training to other Head Start agencies and to service 
                providers that work in collaboration with such agencies 
                to provide family literacy services;
          ``(5) assist Head Start agencies and programs in conducting 
        and participating in community-wide strategic planning and 
        needs assessment, including the needs of homeless children and 
        their families;
          ``(6) assist Head Start agencies and programs in developing 
        and implementing full-working-day and full-calendar-year 
        programs where community need is clearly identified and making 
        the transition to such programs, with particular attention to 
        involving parents and programming for children throughout the 
        day, and assist the agencies and programs in expediting the 
        sharing of information about innovative models for providing 
        full-working-day, full calendar year services for children;
          ``(7) assist Head Start agencies in better serving the needs 
        of families with very young children;
          ``(8) assist Head Start agencies and programs in the 
        development of sound management practices, including financial 
        management procedures;
          ``(9) assist in efforts to secure and maintain adequate 
        facilities for Head Start programs;
          ``(10) assist Head Start agencies in developing innovative 
        program models, including mobile and home-based programs;
          ``(11) provide support for Head Start agencies (including 
        policy councils and policy committees) that meet the standards 
        described in section 641A(a) but that have, as documented by 
        the Secretary through reviews conducted pursuant to section 
        641A(c), significant programmatic, quality, and fiscal issues 
        to address;
          ``(12) assist Head Start agencies and programs in increasing 
        program participation of homeless children;
          ``(13) assist Head Start agencies and Head Start programs in 
        improving outreach to, and the quality of services available 
        to, limited English proficient children and their families, 
        particularly in communities that have experienced a large 
        percentage increase in the population of limited English 
        proficient individuals, as measured by the Bureau of the 
        Census;
          ``(14) assist Head Start agencies in developing appropriate 
        methods and approaches for identifying and working with 
        children and families experiencing toxic stress;
          ``(15) assist programs in improving outreach to serve 
        additional children with disabilities, if such program's 
        enrollment opportunities or funded enrollment for children with 
        disabilities is less than 10 percent; and
          ``(16) provide assistance to address and remove barriers 
        related to recruitment and retention of Head Start teachers for 
        rural communities, and remove barriers related to outreach 
        efforts to eligible families in rural communities.
  ``(d) The Secretary may provide, either directly or through grants to 
public or private nonprofit entities, training for Head Start personnel 
in the use of the performing and visual arts and interactive programs 
using electronic media to enhance the learning experience of Head Start 
children. Special consideration shall be given to entities that have 
demonstrated effectiveness in educational programming for preschool 
children that includes components for parental involvement, care 
provider training, and developmentally appropriate related activities.
  ``(e) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or through grants 
or other arrangements, funds from programs authorized under this 
subchapter to support an organization to administer a centralized child 
development and national assessment program leading to recognized 
credentials for personnel working in early childhood development and 
child care programs, training for personnel providing services to 
limited English proficient children (including services to promote the 
acquisition of the English language), training for personnel providing 
services to children determined to be abused or neglected, training for 
personnel providing services to children referred by or receiving child 
welfare services, training for personnel in helping children cope with 
community violence, resource access projects for personnel working with 
disabled children, and training for appropriate personnel to recognize 
common health, including mental health, problems in children for 
appropriate referral.
  ``(f) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or through grants, 
or other arrangements, funds for training of Head Start personnel in 
addressing the unique needs of migrant and seasonal working families, 
families with 1 or more children with disabilities, families with a 
limited English proficiency, homeless families, and children and 
families experiencing toxic stress.
  ``(g) More than 50 percent of funds expended under this section shall 
be used to provide high quality, sustained, intensive, and classroom-
focused training and technical assistance in order to have a positive 
and lasting impact on classroom instruction. Funds shall be used to 
carry out activities related to any or all of the following:
          ``(1) Education and early childhood development.
          ``(2) Child health, nutrition, and safety.
          ``(3) Family and community partnerships and services.
          ``(4) Other areas that impact the quality or overall 
        effectiveness of Head Start programs.
  ``(h) The Secretary shall develop and implement a program of outreach 
to recruit and train minority men to become Head Start teachers in 
order to reflect the communities in which Head Start children live and 
to increase the provision of quality services and instruction to 
children with diverse backgrounds.
  ``(i) Funds under this subchapter used for training shall be used for 
needs identified annually by a grant applicant or delegate agency in 
their program improvement plan, except that funds shall not be used for 
long-distance travel expenses for training activities available locally 
or regionally or for training activities substantially similar to 
locally or regionally available training activities.
  ``(j) Funds made available under section 640(a)(2)(C)(i) shall be 
used by a Head Start agency for any of the following:
          ``(1) Activities that ensure that Head Start programs meet or 
        exceed the program performance standards described in section 
        641A(a)(1).
          ``(2) Activities that ensure that Head Start programs have 
        adequate numbers of trained, qualified staff who have skills in 
        working with children and families, including children and 
        families who are limited English proficient and children with 
        disabilities.
          ``(3) Activities to pay expenses, including direct training 
        for expert consultants working with any staff, to improve the 
        management and implementation of Head Start services and 
        systems.
          ``(4) Activities that help ensure that Head Start programs 
        have qualified staff who can promote language skills and 
        literacy growth of children and who can provide children with a 
        variety of skills that have been identified as predictive of 
        later reading achievement, school success, and the skills, 
        knowledge, abilities, development, and progress described in 
        section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii).
          ``(5) Activities to improve staff qualifications and to 
        assist with the implementation of career development programs 
        and to encourage the staff to continually improve their skills 
        and expertise, including developing partnerships with programs 
        that recruit, train, place, and support college students in 
        Head Start centers to deliver an innovative early learning 
        program to preschool children.
          ``(6) Activities that help local programs ensure that the 
        arrangement, condition, and implementation of the learning 
        environments in Head Start programs are conducive to providing 
        effective program services to children and families.
          ``(7) Activities to provide training necessary to improve the 
        qualifications of Head Start staff and to support staff 
        training, child counseling, health services, and other services 
        necessary to address the needs of children enrolled in Head 
        Start programs, including children from families in crises, 
        children who experience chronic violence or homelessness, 
        children who experience substance abuse in their families, and 
        children under 3 years of age, where applicable.
          ``(8) Activities to provide classes or in-service-type 
        programs to improve or enhance parenting skills, job skills, 
        adult and family literacy, including financial literacy, or 
        training to become a classroom aide or bus driver in a Head 
        Start program.
          ``(9) Additional activities deemed appropriate to the 
        improvement of Head Start agencies' programs, as determined by 
        the agencies' technical assistance and training plans.
          ``(10) Any other activities regarding the use of funds as 
        determined by the Secretary.
  ``(k) The Secretary shall--
          ``(1) work in collaboration with the Head Start agencies that 
        carry out Indian Head Start programs, the Indian Head Start 
        collaboration director, and other appropriate entities, 
        including tribal governments and the National Indian Head Start 
        Directors Association--
                  ``(A) to undertake a study or set of studies designed 
                to focus on the American Indian and Alaska Native Head 
                Start-eligible population, with a focus on issues such 
                as curriculum development, availability and need for 
                services, appropriate research methodologies and 
                measures for these populations, and best practices for 
                teaching and educating American Indian and Alaska 
                Native Head Start Children;
                  ``(B) to accurately determine the number of children 
                nationwide who are eligible to participate in Indian 
                Head Start programs each year;
                  ``(C) to document how many of these children are 
                receiving Head Start services each year;
                  ``(D) to the extent practicable, to ensure that 
                access to Indian Head Start programs for eligible 
                children is comparable to access to other Head Start 
                programs for other eligible children; and
                  ``(E) to make the funding decisions required in 
                section 640(a)(2)(A)(iii), after completion of the 
                studies required in that section, taking into account:
                          ``(i) the Federal government's unique trust 
                        responsibility to American Indians and Alaska 
                        Natives;
                          ``(ii) limitations faced by tribal 
                        communities in accessing non-Federal sources of 
                        funding to supplement Federal funding for early 
                        childhood programs; and
                          ``(iii) other factors that uniquely and 
                        adversely impact children in American Indian 
                        and Alaska Native communities such as highly 
                        elevated poverty, unemployment and violent 
                        crime rates, as well as depressed levels of 
                        educational achievement and limited access to 
                        non-Federal health, social and educational 
                        resources;
          ``(2) in carrying out paragraph (1), consult with the 
        Secretary of Education about the Department of Education's 
        systems for collecting and reporting data about, and 
        maintaining records on, American Indian and Alaska Native 
        students;
          ``(3) not later than 9 months after the effective date of 
        this subsection, publish in the Federal Register a notice of 
        how the Secretary plans to carry out paragraph (1) and shall 
        provide a period for public comment. To the extent practicable, 
        the Secretary shall consider comments received before 
        submitting a report to the Congress;
          ``(4) not later than 1 year after the effective date of this 
        subsection, submit a report to the Committee on Education and 
        Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
        Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, detailing 
        how the Department of Health and Human Services plans to carry 
        out paragraph (1);
          ``(5) through regulation, ensure the confidentiality of any 
        personally identifiable data, information, and records 
        collected or maintained by the Secretary, by Head Start 
        agencies that carry out Indian Head Start programs, and by 
        State Directors of Head Start Collaboration, by the Indian Head 
        Start Collaboration Project Director and by other appropriate 
        entities pursuant to this subsection (Such regulations shall 
        provide the policies, protections, and rights equivalent to 
        those provided a parent, student, or educational agency or 
        institution under section 444 of the General Education 
        Provisions Act.); and
          ``(6) ensure that nothing in this subsection shall be 
        construed to authorize the development of a nationwide database 
        of personally identifiable information on individuals involved 
        in studies or other collections of data under this subsection.
  ``(l) The Secretary shall--
          ``(1) in order to increase access to Head Start services for 
        eligible migrant and seasonal children, work in collaboration 
        with migrant and seasonal Head Start providers, the Department 
        of Agriculture (land grant universities), the Department of 
        Labor, the Bureau of Migrant Health, and the Department of 
        Education to--
                  ``(A) establish a system for collecting and reporting 
                data on farm workers and their families in order to 
                adequately account for the number of seasonal and 
                migrant children that are eligible for Head Start and 
                determine how many of these eligible children receive 
                services;
                  ``(B) identify barriers that prevent eligible migrant 
                and seasonal children from accessing Head Start 
                services and develop a plan for eliminating barriers 
                and increasing enrollment; and
                  ``(C) develop a system through which migrant and 
                seasonal Head Start programs can effectively track 
                health records and educational documents as a child 
                moves from state to state;
          ``(2) not later than 6 months after the effective date of 
        this subsection, publish in the Federal Register a notice on 
        how the Secretary plans to carry out the activities identified 
        in paragraph (1) and shall provide a period for public comment. 
        To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall consider 
        comments received before implementing any of the activities 
        identified in paragraph (1);
          ``(3) not later than 1 year after the effective date of this 
        subsection, submit a report to the Committee on Education and 
        Labor of the House of Representatives and the Health, 
        Education, Labor and Pensions Committee of the Senate detailing 
        how the Secretary plans to carry out the activities identified 
        in (1);
          ``(4) submit a report to Congress annually on the migrant and 
        seasonal Head Start program including a report on the progress 
        made in carrying out the activities identified in paragraph 
        (1), the progress made in reaching out to and serving eligible 
        migrant and seasonal children, and information on states where 
        migrant and seasonal children are still underserved;
          ``(5) through regulation, ensure the protection of the 
        confidentiality of any personally identifiable data, 
        information, and records collected or maintained by the 
        Secretary, by Head Start agencies that carry out migrant and 
        seasonal Head Start programs, by the State director of Head 
        Start Collaboration, by the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker 
        Collaboration project Director (Such regulations shall provide 
        the policies, protections, and rights equivalent to those 
        provided a parent, student, or educational agency or 
        institution under section 444 of the General Education 
        Provisions Act.); and
          ``(6) ensure that nothing in this subsection shall be 
        construed to authorize the development of a nationwide database 
        of personally identifiable information on individuals involved 
        in studies or other collections of data under this subsection.
  ``(m) For purposes of this section, the term `eligible entities' 
means an institution of higher education or other entity with expertise 
in delivering training in early childhood development, family support, 
and other assistance designed to improve the delivery of Head Start 
services.
  ``(n) For the purposes of delivering a State-based training and 
technical assistance system, as described in section 640(a)(C)(ii), 
that will meet the needs of local grantees and provide high quality, 
sustained, and intensive training and technical assistance to Head 
Start programs in order to help them meet or exceed the program 
performance standards described in section 641A(a)(1), the Secretary 
shall--
          ``(1) enter into contracts in each State with 1 or more 
        entities who have a demonstrated expertise in supporting the 
        delivery of high quality early education programs, except that 
        bi-State contracts may be entered in to if the demographics of 
        proximal States make such a system more appropriate;
          ``(2) ensure that the entities described in subparagraph (1) 
        determine the types of services to be provided through 
        consultation with--
                  ``(A) local Head Start agencies;
                  ``(B) the State Head Start collaboration office; and
                  ``(C) the State Head Start Association;
          ``(3) provide a report, to the Committee on Education and 
        Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
        Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate. no later 
        than 90 days after the end of the fiscal year, summarizing the 
        funding for such contracts and the activities carried out 
        thereunder; and
          ``(4) periodically evaluate the usefulness of the delivery of 
        services in each State and their effectiveness in promoting 
        program quality.
  ``(o) To support enhanced early language and preliteracy development 
of children in Head Start programs, and to provide the children with 
high-quality oral language skills, and environments that are rich in 
literature, in which to acquire language and preliteracy skills, each 
Head Start agency shall ensure that--
          ``(1) all of the agency's Head Start teachers receive ongoing 
        training in language and emergent literacy (referred to in this 
        subsection as `literacy training'), and including appropriate 
        curricula and assessment to improve instruction and learning;
          ``(2) such literacy training shall include training in 
        methods to promote vocabulary development and phonological 
        awareness (including phonemic awareness) in a developmentally, 
        culturally, and linguistically appropriate manner and support 
        children's development in their home language;
          ``(3) the literacy training shall include training in how to 
        work with parents to enhance positive language and early 
        literacy development at home;
          ``(4) the literacy training shall include specific methods to 
        best address the needs of children who are limited English 
        proficient; and
          ``(5) the literacy training shall include training on how to 
        best address the language and literacy needs of children with 
        disabilities, including training on how to work with 
        specialists in language development.
  ``(p) The Secretary is encouraged to contract, on a competitive 
basis, with an institution of higher education (as defined in section 
102 of the Higher Education Act of 1965) to develop an on-line 
graduate-level professional development program with the goal of 
improving the leadership of those working in Head Start programs and 
improving teacher quality and the capacity of effective Head Start 
teachers.
  ``(q) Indoor Air Quality.--The Secretary shall consult with experts 
on issues of air quality related to children's health and inform Head 
Start agencies of existing programs or combination of programs that 
provide methods for improving indoor air quality.
  ``(r) Demonstration for Career Ladder Partnerships With Tribal 
Colleges and Hispanic-Serving Institutions.--
          ``(1) Tribal college career ladder demonstration program.--
        The Secretary is authorized to award demonstration grants, for 
        periods of not less than 5 years, to tribal colleges and 
        universities to--
                  ``(A) implement education programs that include 
                education concerning tribal culture and language and 
                increase the number of associate, baccalaureate, and 
                graduate degrees in early childhood and related fields 
                that are earned by Indian Head Start agency staff 
                members, parents of children served by such an agency, 
                and members of the tribal community involved;
                  ``(B) develop and implement the programs under 
                subparagraph (A) in technology-mediated formats, 
                including providing the programs through such means as 
                distance learning and use of advanced technology, as 
                appropriate; and
                  ``(C) provide technology literacy programs for Indian 
                Head Start agency staff members and children and 
                families of children served by such an agency.
          ``(2) Hispanic-serving institutions career ladder 
        demonstration program.--The Secretary is authorized to award 
        demonstration grants, for periods of not less than 5 years, to 
        Hispanic-serving institutions to--
                  ``(A) provide assistance for stipends and costs 
                related to tuition, fees, and books for enrolling Head 
                Start agency staff members and parents of children 
                served by such an agency in courses required to 
                complete the degree and certification requirements to 
                become bilingual teachers in early childhood education 
                and related fields;
                  ``(B) develop career ladder program curricula to 
                increase the number of associate's, bachelor's, and 
                graduate degrees earned by Head Start agency staff who 
                have the linguistic skills and expertise to teach in 
                programs serving a large number of limited English 
                proficient children and parents of children served by 
                such an agency; and
                  ``(C) other activities to upgrade the skills and 
                qualifications of noncertified educational personnel to 
                meet the professional standards in section 648A(a)(1), 
                including certification and licensure as bilingual 
                education teachers and other educational personnel who 
                serve limited English proficient children.
          ``(3) Requirement.--Individuals who receive assistance under 
        paragraphs (1) and (2) shall subsequently teach in a Head Start 
        center for a period of time equivalent to the period for which 
        they received assistance or repay the amount of funds.''.

SEC. 18. STAFF QUALIFICATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT.

  Section 648A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9843a) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) by striking ``(a)'' and all that follows through 
                paragraph (2), and inserting the following:
  ``(a) Classroom Teachers.--
          ``(1) Professional requirements.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that each Head Start classroom in a center-based program is 
        assigned 1 teacher who has demonstrated competency to perform 
        functions that include--
                  ``(A) planning and implementing learning experiences 
                that advance the intellectual and physical development 
                of children, including improving the readiness of 
                children for school by developing their literacy, 
                phonemic, and print awareness, their understanding and 
                use of language, their understanding and use of 
                increasingly complex and varied vocabulary, their 
                appreciation of books, their understanding of early 
                math and early science, their problem solving 
                abilities, and their approaches to learning;
                  ``(B) establishing and maintaining a safe, healthy 
                learning environment;
                  ``(C) supporting the social and emotional development 
                of children; and
                  ``(D) encouraging the involvement of the families of 
                the children in a Head Start program and supporting the 
                development of relationships between children and their 
                families.
          ``(2) Degree requirements.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure that 
                not later than September 30, 2013, at least 50 percent 
                of all Head Start teachers nationwide in center-based 
                programs have--
                          ``(i) a baccalaureate, or advanced degree in 
                        early childhood education;
                          ``(ii) a baccalaureate or advanced degree in 
                        a field related to early childhood education, 
                        with experience in teaching preschool children; 
                        or
                          ``(iii) except that teachers providing 
                        services in migrant and seasonal Head Start 
                        classrooms that serve children under age 3 
                        shall be required to meet the teacher 
                        requirements described in section 645A(h).
                  ``(B) Progress report.--
                          ``(i) On an annual basis, each Head Start 
                        agency shall provide to the Secretary a report 
                        indicating the number and percentage of 
                        classroom instructors with child development/ 
                        early childhood education associate credentials 
                        and associate, baccalaureate, or advanced 
                        degrees, and number of classroom instructors 
                        who successfully transferred associate credit 
                        and completed a baccalaureate degree 
                        disaggregated by race, ethnicity, and 
                        proficiency in a language other than English, 
                        with a description of those languages.
                          ``(ii) Not later than September 30, 2008 the 
                        Secretary shall compile and transmit reports 
                        received under (i) to the Committee on 
                        Education and Labor of the House of 
                        Representatives and the Committee on Health, 
                        Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate.
                  ``(C) Progress.--Each Head Start agency shall provide 
                to the Secretary a report indicating the number and 
                percentage of teachers and teacher's aides with child 
                development associate credentials and associate, 
                baccalaureate, or advanced degrees. The Secretary shall 
                compile all program reports and make them available to 
                the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of 
                Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, 
                Labor, and Pensions of the Senate.
                  ``(D) Requirement for new head start teachers.--In 
                accordance with rules issued by the Secretary and made 
                effective 2 years after the effective date of this 
                subparagraph, all Head Start agencies shall require 
                that all Head Start teachers hired after such rules 
                take effect to provide Head Start services in center-
                based programs--
                          ``(i) have an associate, baccalaureate, or 
                        advanced degree in early childhood education or 
                        a related field; or
                          ``(ii) be currently enrolled in a program of 
                        study leading to an associate degree in early 
                        childhood education or a related field, and 
                        agree to complete degree requirements not later 
                        than 3 years after the date of hire.
                  ``(E) Service requirements.--The Secretary shall 
                establish requirements to ensure that individuals who 
                receive financial assistance under this subchapter in 
                order to comply with the requirements under section 
                648A(a)(2) shall subsequently teach in a Head Start 
                center for a period of time equivalent to the period 
                for which they received assistance or repay the amount 
                of the funds.
                  ``(F) Limitation.--The Secretary shall require that 
                any Federal funds provided directly or indirectly to 
                comply with subparagraph (A) shall be used toward 
                degrees awarded by an institution of higher education, 
                as defined by sections 101 or 102 of the Higher 
                Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1001, 1002).'', and
                  (B) in paragraph (3)--
                          (i) in subparagraph (B) by striking ``or'' at 
                        the end,
                          (ii) in subparagraph (C) by striking the 
                        period at the end and inserting ``; or'', and
                          (iii) by adding at the end, the following:
                  ``(D) a baccalaureate and has been admitted into the 
                Teach For America program, passed a rigorous early 
                childhood content exam, such as the Praxis II, 
                participated in a Teach For America summer training 
                institute that includes teaching preschool children, 
                and is receiving ongoing professional development and 
                support from Teach For America's professional staff.'', 
                and
          (2) by amending subsection (c) to read as follows:
  ``(c) Family Service Workers.--To improve the quality and 
effectiveness of staff providing in-home and other services (including 
needs assessment, development of service plans, family advocacy, and 
coordination of service delivery) to families of children participating 
in Head Start programs, the Secretary, in coordination with concerned 
public and private agencies and organizations examining the issues of 
standards and training for family service workers, shall--
          ``(1) review and, as necessary, revise or develop new 
        qualification standards for Head Start staff providing such 
        services;
          ``(2) review, and as necessary, revise or develop maximum 
        caseload requirements, as suggested by best practices;
          ``(3) promote the development of model curricula (on subjects 
        including parenting training and family literacy) designed to 
        ensure the attainment of appropriate competencies by 
        individuals working or planning to work in the field of early 
        childhood and family services; and
          ``(4) promote the establishment of a credential that 
        indicates attainment of the competencies and that is accepted 
        nationwide.'', and
          (3) is amended by adding at the end the following:
  ``(f) Professional Development Plans.--Each Head Start agency and 
program shall create, in consultation with an employee, a professional 
development plan for all full-time Head Start employees who provide 
direct services to children and shall ensure that such plans are 
regularly evaluated for their impact on teacher and staff 
effectiveness.''.

SEC. 19. RESEARCH, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND EVALUATION.

  Section 649 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9844) is amended--
          (1) by amending subsection (a)(1)(B) to read as follows:
                  ``(B) use the Head Start programs to develop, test, 
                and disseminate new ideas and based on existing 
                scientifically based research, for addressing the needs 
                of low-income preschool children (including children 
                with disabilities, homeless children, children who have 
                been abused or neglected, and children in foster care) 
                and their families and communities (including 
                demonstrations of innovative non-center-based program 
                models such as home-based and mobile programs), and 
                otherwise to further the purposes of this 
                subchapter.'',
          (2) in subsection (d)--
                  (A) in paragraph (7) by adding ``and'' at the end,
                  (B) in paragraph (8) by striking the semicolon at the 
                end and inserting a period,
                  (C) by striking paragraphs (9) and (10), and
                  (D) by striking the last sentence,
          (3) in subsection (g)--
                  (A) in paragraph(1)(A)--
                          (i) by striking clause (i), and
                          (ii) by redesignating clauses (ii) and (iii) 
                        as clauses (i) and (ii), respectively, and
                  (B) by amending paragraph (7)(C) to read as follows:
                  ``(C) Transmittal of report to congress.--Not later 
                than September 30, 2009, the Secretary shall transmit 
                the final report to the Committee on Education and 
                Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
                on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the 
                Senate.'', and
          (4) by amending subsection (h) to read as follows:
  ``(h) Limited English Proficient Children.--
          ``(1) Study.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the 
        Secretary shall conduct a study on the status of limited 
        English proficient children and their families in participating 
        Head Start programs and Early Head Start programs.
          ``(2) Report.--The Secretary shall prepare and submit to 
        Congress, not later than September 2008, a report containing 
        the results of such study, including information on--
                  ``(A)(i) the demographics of limited English 
                proficient children less than 5 years of age and the 
                geographical distribution of such children; and
                  ``(ii) the number of such children receiving Head 
                Start services and the number of such children 
                receiving Early Head Start services, and the 
                geographical distribution of such children receiving 
                such services;
                  ``(B) the nature of the Head Start services and of 
                the Early Head Start services provided to limited 
                English proficient children and their families, 
                including the types, content, duration, intensity, and 
                costs of family services, language assistance, and 
                educational services;
                  ``(C) procedures in Head Start programs for assessing 
                language needs and for making the transition of limited 
                English proficient children to kindergarten, including 
                the extent to which Head Start programs meet the 
                requirements of section 642A for limited English 
                proficient children;
                  ``(D) the qualifications and training provided to 
                Head Start teachers and Early Head Start teachers who 
                serve limited English proficient children and their 
                families;
                  ``(E) the home languages of Head Start and Early Head 
                Start teachers;
                  ``(F) the rate of progress made by limited English 
                proficient children and their families in Head Start 
                programs and in Early Head Start programs, including--
                          ``(i) the rate of progress made by limited 
                        English proficient children toward meeting the 
                        additional educational standards described in 
                        section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii) while enrolled in 
                        Head Start programs;
                          ``(ii) the correlation between such progress 
                        and the type and quality of instruction and 
                        educational programs provided to limited 
                        English proficient children; and
                          ``(iii) the correlation between such progress 
                        and the health and family services provided by 
                        Head Start programs to limited English 
                        proficient children and their families; and
                  ``(G) the extent to which Head Start programs make 
                use of funds under section 640(a)(3) to improve the 
                quality of Head Start services provided to limited 
                English proficient children and their families.
  ``(i) Children, Families, and Programs Affected by Hurricanes Katrina 
and Rita.--
          ``(1) Purpose.--The purpose of this subsection is to evaluate 
        the status of Head Start and Early Head Start programs affected 
        by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita as well as the challenges those 
        programs have faced in reestablishing themselves and 
        reenrolling eligible children and families, with the ultimate 
        goal of providing all Head Start and Early Head Start programs 
        with recommendations for developing and implementing disaster 
        plans.
          ``(2) Definition.--The term `areas affected by Hurricanes 
        Katrina and Rita' means any parish or county for which it was 
        determined that assistance was warranted from the Federal 
        Government under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and 
        Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) as a result 
        of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
          ``(3) Study.--The Secretary shall conduct a study on the 
        status of children and families participating in Head Start and 
        Early Head Start programs in areas affected by Hurricanes 
        Katrina and Rita.
          ``(4) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of the 
        enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the 
        Secretary shall prepare and submit to Congress a report 
        containing the results of such study, including
                  ``(A) information on the population served, 
                including--
                          ``(i) the number of children and families 
                        participating in Head Start and Early Head 
                        Start programs in areas affected by Hurricanes 
                        Katrina and Rita before and after Hurricanes 
                        Katrina and Rita;
                          ``(ii) the demographics of such children and 
                        families; and
                          ``(iii) the geographical distribution of such 
                        children and families;
                  ``(B) information on staff and programs, including--
                          ``(i) the number and geographic distribution 
                        of staff serving Head Start and Early Head 
                        Start children and families from areas affected 
                        by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita;
                          ``(ii) the current status, including 
                        employment status and geographic location, of 
                        Head Start and Early Head Start staff serving 
                        in areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and 
                        Rita prior to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; and
                          ``(iii) the response and recovery efforts of 
                        Head Start and Early Head Start staff serving 
                        in areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and 
                        Rita
                  ``(C) information on facilities, including--
                          ``(i) the number of Head Start and Early Head 
                        Start facilities operating prior to Hurricanes 
                        Katrina and Rita in areas affected by 
                        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita;
                          ``(ii) the current status of each such 
                        facility; and
                          ``(iii) information on any new Head Start or 
                        Early Head Start facility that has opened in 
                        areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 
                        or that serves children and families who lived 
                        in areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and 
                        Rita at the time of Hurricanes Katrina and 
                        Rita;
                  ``(D) information on coordination with the Federal 
                Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in areas affected by 
                Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, including--
                          ``(i) areas of success that Head Start 
                        agencies and programs had in working with FEMA;
                          ``(ii) challenges that Head Start agencies 
                        and programs had in working with FEMA; and
                          ``(iii) the number of Head Start families 
                        that received individualized assistance (as 
                        defined under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster 
                        Relief and Emergency Act) and the types of 
                        assistance received by such families.
                  ``(E) challenges that were faced by Head Start and 
                Early Head Start programs and families in areas 
                affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita including--
                          ``(i) the availability of Head Start services 
                        for families displaced during the period of 
                        transition;
                          ``(ii) identification of and outreach to 
                        families displaced by the Hurricanes Katrina 
                        and Rita; and
                          ``(iii) the extent to which non-Federal 
                        disaster assistance was available to Head Start 
                        agencies and programs, and coordination of such 
                        services with non-Federal disaster assistance 
                        resources.
          ``(5) Disaster plan preparedness.--Not later than 1 year 
        after the date of the enactment of Improving Head Start Act of 
        2007, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to Congress, Head 
        Start disaster plan recommendations based upon the report 
        initiated in paragraph (4), including recommendations for 
        prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery, that can be 
        used to advise Head Start and Early Head Start programs in the 
        development and implementation of disaster plans.''.

SEC. 20. REPORTS.

  Section 650 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9846) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) by striking ``Committee on Education and the 
                Workforce of the House of Representatives and the 
                Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate'' 
                each place it appears and inserting ``Committee on 
                Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and 
                the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 
                of the Senate'',
                  (B) by striking ``and non-English language background 
                children'' and inserting ``children, homeless children, 
                children in foster care, and limited English proficient 
                children'', and
                  (C) in paragraph (8) by inserting ``homelessness, 
                whether the child is in foster care or was referred by 
                a child welfare agency,'' after `` background,'', and
          (2) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(c) Set-Aside Activities.--Not later than 60 days after the end of 
each fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on 
Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, a report 
detailing the different amounts of expenditures under section 640(a)(2) 
and the activities carried out thereunder.
  ``(d) Fiscal Protocol.--The Secretary shall conduct an annual review 
to assess whether the design and implementation of the triennial 
reviews described in section 641A(c) include compliance procedures that 
provide reasonable assurance that Head Start agencies are complying 
with applicable fiscal laws and regulations. The Secretary shall report 
the findings and conclusions of the annual review to the House 
Committee on Education and Labor, and the Senate Committee on Health, 
Education, Labor and Pensions within 30 days of completing the review.
  ``(e) Use of Individualized Education Plans.--The Secretary shall 
track the use of Head Start Individualized Education Plans by Head 
Start agencies in order to evaluate the reasons why Head Start agencies 
are opting not to use Individualized Education Plans for children with 
disabilities (as specified in the Individuals With Disabilities 
Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1414(d)), whether Head Start Individualized 
Education Plans are used to provide services prior to the development 
of an Individualized Education Plan, as required under the Individuals 
With Disabilities Education Act, and the length of time programs use 
Head Start Individualized Education Plans before an Individualized 
Education Plan as required under Individuals With Disabilities 
Education Act is developed. The Secretary shall provide a report to the 
Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, 
not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Improving 
Head Start Act of 2007.
  ``(f) Evaluation and Recommendations Regarding Obesity Prevention.--
The Secretary shall evaluate and publish regulations on the issue of 
and concerns related to preventing and reducing obesity in children who 
participate in Head Start programs and shall consult, at a minimum, 
with experts in child and maternal health, child development, child and 
family nutrition and physical education, to determine the effective 
methods by which Head Start agencies can help address childhood 
obesity. The regulations should include guidance on how Head Start 
agencies can incorporate, at a minimum, more physical activity and 
nutrition education into such programs related to preventing and 
reducing obesity. Not later than 1 year after the effective date of 
this subsection, the Secretary shall submit to the House Committee on 
Education and Labor and the Senate Committee on Health, Education, 
Labor and Pensions, a report containing such recommendations and the 
results of such evaluation.''.

SEC. 21. WAGES AND COMPENSATION.

  Section 653 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9848) is amended to read 
as follows:

``SEC. 653. WAGES AND COMPENSATION.

  ``(a) Comparability of Wages.--The Secretary shall take such action 
as may be necessary to assure that persons employed in carrying out 
programs financed under this subchapter shall not receive compensation 
at a rate which is (1) in excess of the average rate of compensation 
paid in the area where the program is carried out to a substantial 
number of the persons providing substantially comparable services, or 
in excess of the average rate of compensation paid to a substantial 
number of the persons providing substantially comparable services in 
the area of the person's immediately preceding employment, whichever is 
higher; or (2) less than the minimum wage rate prescribed in section 
6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The Secretary shall 
encourage Head Start agencies to provide compensation according to 
salary scales that are based on training and experience.
  ``(b) Federal Rate Limitation.--Notwithstanding any other provision 
of law, no Federal funds shall be used to pay all or any part of the 
compensation of an individual employed by a Head Start agency in 
carrying out programs under this subchapter, either as direct or 
indirect costs of any proration thereof, at a rate in excess of the 
rate then payable for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 
5313 of title 5, United States Code.''.

SEC. 22. LIMITATION ON CERTAIN USES OF FUNDS.

  The Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) is amended by adding at 
the end the following:

``SEC. 656A. LIMITATION ON CERTAIN USES OF FUNDS.

  ``No funds made available to carry out this subchapter may be used--
          ``(1) for publicity or propaganda purposes not heretofore 
        authorized by the Congress; or
          ``(2) unless authorized by law in effect on the effective 
        date of this section, to produce any pre-packaged news story 
        intended for broadcast or distribution unless such story 
        includes a clear notification contained within the text or 
        audio of such story stating that the prepackaged news story was 
        prepared or funded by the Department of Health and Human 
        Services.''.

                               I. Purpose

    The purpose of H.R. 1429, the Improving Head Start Act of 
2007, is to help low-income children arrive at kindergarten 
ready to succeed.

                          II. Committee Action


                             108TH CONGRESS

    On March 6, 2003, the Subcommittee on Education Reform held 
a hearing on improving results for children in Head Start. The 
School Readiness Act of 2003, H.R. 2210, was introduced by 
Representative Michael Castle on May 22, 2003 and garnered 10 
co-sponsors. On June 3, 2003, the Subcommittee on Education 
Reform held a hearing on H.R. 2210. On June 12, 2003, the 
Subcommittee on Education Reform considered H.R. 2210 and 
reported it favorably, as amended, to the Committee on 
Education and the Workforce by a rollcall vote of 11-9. On June 
18th and 19th of 2003, the Committee on Education and the 
Workforce, considered H.R. 2210 in legislative session. On June 
19, 2003, the Committee reported the bill favorably, as 
amended, by rollcall vote of 27-20. The bill, as amended, was 
reported to the House of Representatives. On July 24th and 25th 
of 2003, the House of Representatives considered the School 
Readiness Act of 2003. On July 25, 2003, the House of 
Representatives passed the bill, as amended, by rollcall vote 
of 217-216.

                             109TH CONGRESS

    The Committee on Education and the Workforce held three 
hearings on the Head Start program. On April 5, 2005, the Full 
Committee held a hearing on financial accountability in Head 
Start. On April 14, 2005, the Subcommittee on Education Reform 
held a hearing on exemplary practices in Head Start programs. 
On April 21, 2005, the Subcommittee on Education Reform held a 
hearing on coordination between Head Start and state-funded 
pre-kindergarten programs.
    The School Readiness Act of 2005, H.R. 2123, was introduced 
by Representative Michael Castle on May 5, 2005, and garnered 
19 co-sponsors. The bill was referred to the Committee on 
Education and the Workforce. On May 11, 2005, the Subcommittee 
on Education Reform considered H.R. 2123 and reported it 
favorably, as amended, to the Committee on Education and the 
Workforce by voice vote. On May 18, 2005, the Committee on 
Education and the Workforce considered H.R. 2123 in legislative 
session and reported the bill favorably, as amended, to the 
House of Representatives. The rollcall vote was 48-0. On 
September 22, 2005, the House of Representatives passed the 
School Readiness Act of 2005 by rollcall vote of 231-184.

                             110TH CONGRESS

Subcommittee hearing

    On February 28, 2007, the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, 
Elementary and Secondary Education held a hearing titled, 
``Improving Head Start for America's Children.'' The hearing 
discussed early childhood brain development in the context of 
Early Head Start, the importance of family support services 
under Head Start, shortcomings of the U.S. Department of Health 
and Human Services' monitoring, technical assistance and 
training system for Head Start grantees, the ongoing impact of 
the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Head Start 
children and families in New Orleans, and coordination between 
Head Start and state-funded pre-kindergarten systems. The 
following witnesses testified before the Subcommittee: Ross A. 
Thompson, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, University of 
California, Davis, California; Mac McKeever, Out-County Head 
Start Director, Genesee County Community Action Resource 
Department, Flint, Michigan; Barbara Haxton, Executive 
Director, The Ohio Head Start Association, Dayton, Ohio; 
Pearlie Elloie, Director, Office for Children, Youth and 
Families, Total Community Action, Incorporated, New Orleans, 
Louisiana; Ellen Frede, Ph.D., Co-Director, National Institute 
for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Introduction of the Improving Head Start Act

    On Friday, March 9, 2007, Representative Dale E. Kildee, 
along with Representatives George Miller (D-CA), Castle (R-DE), 
Scott (D-VA), Ehlers (RMI), Hinojosa (D-TX), McCarthy (D-NY), 
Wu (D-OR), Davis (D-IL), Sanchez (D-CA), Sarbanes (D-MD), 
Sestak (D-PA), Loebsack (D-IA), Hirono (D-HI), Altmire (D-PA), 
Yarmuth (D-KY), Clarke (D-NY), and Shea-Porter (D-NH) 
introduced H.R. 1429, the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, a 
bill to reauthorize the Head Start Act through 2012.

Full Committee markup of H.R. 1429

    On Wednesday, March 14, 2007, the Committee on Education 
and Labor considered H.R. 1429 in legislative session, and 
reported the bill favorably, as amended, to the House of 
Representatives. The rollcall vote was 42-1. Chairman Miller 
offered an amendment in the nature of a substitute.
    The amendment in the nature of a substitute contained minor 
technical changes and the following additions to H.R. 1429:
     Requires that at least 25 percent of the quality 
improvement funds be used to improve the salaries, benefits, 
and pay scales of educational staff, family service workers, 
and child counselors and that other portions of the quality 
improvement funds may be used to improve the salaries, 
benefits, and pay scales of other Head Start staff.
     Allows some programs to increase income 
eligibility to 130 percent of the federal poverty line, with 
some limitations, including a 20 percent cap.
     Improves technical assistance to programs reaching 
too few children with disabilities.
     Requires the Secretary to gather additional 
information on the use of Head Start Individualized Education 
Plans.
     Encourages programs to direct appropriate mental 
health services to siblings of children in Head Start.
     Requires the Secretary to develop a disaster 
preparedness plan, and conduct an evaluation of methods for 
improving coordination with FEMA.
     Allows Teach for America participants to teach in 
Head Start classrooms if they pass a rigorous early childhood 
content exam and participate in Teach for America's 
professional development.
    The Committee adopted following amendments:
    1. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment requires the Secretary to establish 
standards for training, qualifications, and conduct of home 
visits for home visiting staff in Early Head Start programs.
    2. An amendment offered by Mrs. Foxx, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment protects the confidentiality of personally 
identifiable information and clarifies that the bill does not 
authorize a national database of such information.
    3. An amendment offered by Mr. Bishop, Mr. Grijalva, and 
Mr. Hare, adopted by voice vote. This amendment allows Head 
Start programs to use a portion of their quality improvement 
funds to supplement transportation costs.
    4. An amendment offered by Mr. Grijalva, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment requires Head Start programs to provide 
the Secretary with data on the number of teachers who possess a 
child development credential or formal degree, disaggregated by 
race, ethnicity, and proficiency in a language other than 
English.
    5. An amendment offered by Mr. Andrews, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment requires the Secretary to consult with 
experts and advise Head Start programs on programs and methods 
to improve air quality.
    6. An amendment offered by Mr. Yarmuth, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment directs the Secretary to grant annual 
waivers for certain transportation requirements if a waiver is 
in the best interest of the child.
    7. An amendment offered by Mr. Grijalva, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment clarifies that the Head Start education 
performance standards should use linguistically and culturally 
appropriate instructional services, including use of a child's 
home language.
    8. An amendment offered by Mr. Hinojosa, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment encourages the Secretary to establish 
demonstration career ladder programs at Tribally Controlled 
colleges and universities and Hispanic-serving institutions to 
address the shortage of certified teachers in Indian Head Start 
programs and the severe shortage of bilingual (particularly 
Spanish-speaking) teachers who are certified to teach in Head 
Start programs.
    9. A second degree amendment to the amendment offered by 
Mr. Hinojosa offered by Mr. McKeon, adopted by voice vote. This 
amendment adds a service requirement to the amendment offered 
by Mr. Hinojosa.
    10. An amendment offered by Mrs. McCarthy, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment requires the Secretary to issue 
regulations regarding how Head Start programs can implement 
obesity prevention activities, such as exercise and nutrition, 
into their programs.
    11. An amendment, offered by Mr. Hare, adopted by voice 
vote. This amendment requires the Secretary to address 
challenges faced by rural communities by providing technical 
assistance to remove the barriers relating to recruitment and 
retention of instructors and outreach to the rural poor.
    The Committee rejected four amendments by rollcall vote.

                        III. Summary of the Bill


                                PURPOSE

    The purpose of H.R. 1429, the Improving Head Start Act of 
2007, is to help low-income children arrive at kindergarten 
ready to succeed by providing a high quality early education 
program that supports children's cognitive, social, and 
emotional development, and through the provision to low-income 
children and their families of health, educational, 
nutritional, social, and other services that are determined, 
based on family needs assessments, to be necessary.

                                FUNDING

    Authorizes $7.35 billion for fiscal year 2008 and such sums 
as may be necessary for fiscal years 2009 through 2012. Of that 
amount, not more than $20 million may be used in 2008 to carry 
out research, demonstration, and evaluation activities, 
including no more than $7 million each year from 2008 through 
2012 to carry out studies on the impact of Head Start.

                PROGRAM, TEACHER, AND WORKFORCE QUALITY

    Requires 60 percent of any new funds appropriated over the 
level of the preceding year (after a COLA adjustment for local 
programs) to be used for quality improvement purposes, 
including requiring programs use at least one-fourth of those 
funds for increasing the salaries, pay scales, and benefits of 
educational staff, family serviceworkers, and child counselors. 
Programs may also use these funds for key improvements such as 
supporting professional development, increasing program operation 
hours, reducing child:teacher ratios, reducing family service worker 
caseloads, and a limited amount may be used to bolster transportation 
services. H.R. 1429 also requires the Secretary to implement a 
classroom observation assessment tool that can be used for immediate 
feedback to teachers on classroom practices. H.R. 1429 increases 
teacher qualifications, requiring half of teachers nationwide to have a 
baccalaureate degree in early childhood education or a related field by 
2013. Starting in 2009, all new teachers must have at least an 
associate's degree in early childhood education or a related field, or 
be working toward that degree. The bill permits Teach for America (TFA) 
teachers to be eligible to teach in Head Start programs if they pass a 
rigorous early childhood content exam and participate in on-going TFA 
training.

                       FOCUS ON SCHOOL READINESS

    Requires the Secretary to re-evaluate and update the 
current early learning standards and use of assessments, using 
the best available science. The bill ensures that curricula, 
assessments, and professional development use best practices to 
support children's emerging literacy and vocabulary growth. 
H.R. 1429 suspends and terminates further use of the National 
Reporting System (NRS).

                   TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

    Strengthens the training and technical assistance system in 
a number of ways. H.R. 1429 maintains a minimum two percent 
set-aside for training and technical assistance and reserves a 
minimum of 50 percent of these funds directly for local 
programs and defines how programs may use these funds. The bill 
requires at least 30 percent of the training and technical 
assistance set-aside be used by the Secretary to develop a 
state-based system of training and that technical assistance be 
available to support local programs. The remainder of these 
funds may be reserved by the Secretary to fund various 
activities aimed at supporting program quality, including up to 
$5 million annually for supporting State Early Learning 
Councils. H.R. 1429 also requires programs to develop and 
submit annually to the Secretary, training and technical 
assistance plans.

                            EARLY HEAD START

    Increases the Early Head Start set-aside to a minimum of 12 
percent in 2008, 14 percent in 2009, 16 percent in 2010, 18 
percent in 2011, and 20 percent in 2012. H.R. 1429 requires the 
Secretary to allow Head Start agencies to convert portions of 
their base grant into an Early Head Start grant, if programs 
can demonstrate this meets the needs of their community and is 
subject to all the requirements of Early Head Start agencies.

                           INCOME ELIGIBILITY

    Deems homeless children eligible for Head Start and allows 
programs the flexibility of increasing their income eligibility 
to 130 percent of the poverty line, subject 5 to a 20 percent 
cap, if programs demonstrate community need, make efforts to 
prioritize, and continue outreach to serving children and 
families under 100 percent of the federal poverty line, and 
other restrictions.

  SERVICES FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Requires additional focus on meeting the needs of children 
and families with limited English proficiency (LEP) in a number 
of ways including, improving outreach to eligible families, 
setting standards for effectively communicating with and 
engaging parents with LEP, and adding requirements on 
transitions to kindergarten for children and families with LEP. 
H.R. 1429 also targets training assistance resources for 
meeting the needs of communities that have experienced a rapid 
increase in eligible children with LEP, requires programs to 
disaggregate data on teacher qualifications by race, ethnicity, 
and ability to speak languages other than English, and creates 
a career ladder demonstration program for Hispanic-serving 
institutions. The bill requires the Secretary to conduct a 
study that evaluates both the unique needs related to serving 
LEP children and families and Head Start's capacity to meet 
those needs.

                 MIGRANT AND SEASONAL HEAD START (MSHS)

    Reserves 5 percent of the total annual appropriation for 
migrant and seasonal Head Start programs until such time as the 
Secretary can make funding decisions to ensure comparable 
funding to other eligible children. Authorizes the appointment 
of a National Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Collaboration 
Director. Requires a national system of MSHS training and 
technical assistance. H.R. 1429 also requires the Secretary to 
conduct a study to evaluate the existing need for services and 
to improve data tracking systems. The bill clarifies that the 
MSHS classroom serving infants and toddlers must meet the 
teacher qualifications set forth for Early Head Start programs.

                           INDIAN HEAD START

    Reserves 3.5 percent of the total annual appropriation for 
Indian Head Start programs until such time as the Secretary can 
make funding decisions to ensure comparable funding to other 
eligible children. Requires a national system of Indian Head 
Start training and technical assistance. H.R. 1429 also 
requires the Secretary to continue the current administrative 
arrangement at the national level for meeting the needs of 
Indian children and families and to appoint an Indian Head 
Start Collaboration Director. The bill allows Indian tribes 
that operate both a Head Start and Early Head Start program to 
reallocate funds between the two programs to address 
fluctuations in the client populations. H.R. 1429 directs the 
Secretary, in collaboration with Indian Head Start programs, 
the National Indian Head Start Collaboration Director, tribal 
governments, the National Indian Head Start Directors 
Association, and other appropriate entities, to undertake a 
study or studies to focus on curriculum development, 
availability and need for services, appropriate research 
methodologies and measures, and best practices relating to 
American Indian and Alaska native Head Start children. H.R. 
1429 authorizes grants to Tribal Colleges and universities to 
implement education programs that includeeducation about tribal 
culture and language in an effort to increase the number of degrees in 
early childhood and related fields held by Indian Head Start staff.

                             ACCOUNTABILITY

    Creates a new system of application review to identify 
programs providing a high quality comprehensive early childhood 
program. Under H.R. 1429, the Secretary is required to convene 
an expert panel with specific areas of expertise, to devise a 
system of application review based on information from annual 
budget data, annual audits, the triennial review, an 
observational measure of classroom quality, and Program 
Information Report (PIR) data. The Secretary's proposed system 
of application review, based upon the expert panel's 
recommendations, must be made available for public comment 
prior to implementation of the new system of application 
review. The Secretary must have a transparent, valid, and 
reliable system ready for implementation no later than two 
years after the date of enactment of the Improving Head Start 
Act. Until such time that the new system is implemented, the 
Secretary may not devise or implement a separate method for 
recompetition. When a Head Start agency is identified under 
this application review system as not meeting its mission to 
provide a high quality, comprehensive early childhood 
education, the program may enter into an open recompetition for 
continued designation as a Head Start agency. Head Start 
agencies identified under the application review system to be 
meeting their mission to provide a high quality, comprehensive 
early childhood education program shall receive a grant award 
for a period of five years.
    H.R. 1429 makes additional changes to the current 
accountability system. It allows the Secretary to more quickly 
de-fund seriously underperforming programs and improves the 
triennial review process by requiring the evaluation of program 
strengths and weaknesses. It improves the qualifications of the 
review team, requires inclusion of a detailed fiscal management 
protocol, and requires follow-up site visits of deficient 
programs. H.R. 1429 also maintains the existing shared 
governance structure but requires the active participation of 
the governing board, requires the creation of a finance and 
audit committee, prohibits persons with a conflict of interest 
from serving on the board, imposes requirements on the 
expertise board members must possess, defines the board's 
responsibilities, and requires training for board and parent 
policy council members.

                         COMPREHENSIVE SERVICES

    Increases the emphasis Head Start agencies must place on 
early identification of child and family mental health needs 
and improves training for staff for identifying children and 
families experiencing toxic stress. H.R. 1429 also requires 
Head Start agencies to implement research-based best practices 
for family service workers and highlights identification of 
maternal depression. It requires the Secretary to determine 
effective methods by which Head Start agencies can help 
decrease obesity in Head Start students. The Secretary is 
required to consult with experts and provide guidance on how 
Head Start centers can address childhood obesity. H.R. 1429 
also requires assistance to programs to address issues of air 
quality in Head Start centers. Under H.R. 1429, the Secretary 
is required to consult with experts and inform Head Start 
agencies of programs that may improve indoor air quality in 
Head Start centers.

                              COORDINATION

    Requires improved coordination between Head Start and 
state-funded pre-kindergarten programs through the creation of 
local memoranda of understanding. The bill provides a clear 
exemption for Head Start programs if there is no state-funded 
pre-kindergarten program in the service area or if the pre-
kindergarten program is unable or unwilling to work in good 
faith on a memorandum of understanding with the Head Start 
agency. H.R. 1429 clarifies and expands the focus of the State 
Head Start Collaboration Offices to provide assistance to local 
programs to better coordinate with other federal, state and 
local early childhood services. It improves coordination at the 
state level by reserving up to $5 million annually for 
supporting State Early Learning Councils aimed at developing a 
coordinated delivery system of early childhood services and 
improving the overall quality of those services. H.R. 1429 
requires at least a 50 percent state match to receive these 
funds.

                    ENROLLMENT OF HOMELESS CHILDREN

    Requires the Secretary to prescribe policies and procedures 
to remove barriers to the enrollment and participation of 
homeless children in Head Start programs. Such procedures shall 
require Head Start agencies to implement policies and 
procedures to ensure that homeless children are identified and 
prioritized for enrollment; to allow homeless families to apply 
to enroll in and attend Head Start programs while required 
documents, such as proof of residency, immunization and other 
medical records, birth certificates and other documents, are 
obtained within a reasonable time frame. H.R. 1429 also 
requires procedures to coordinate individual Head Start centers 
and programs with efforts to implement the McKinney-Vento 
Homeless Assistance Act.

                         DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

    Requires the Secretary to develop a disaster preparedness 
plan and advise Head Start agencies on such plan. The bill also 
requires the Secretary to evaluate the barriers to serving Head 
Start families after hurricanes Rita and Katrina and to 
evaluate methods for improved coordination with the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

                          IV. Committee Views


                                OVERVIEW

    Head Start is the premiere early education program in this 
country. Started in 1965 under President Johnson, it is a 
highly successful, research-based, comprehensive child 
development and early education program for low-income 
children, birth to five years old, and their families. It has 
played an important role in improving the lives ofmore than 20 
million children and their families in its long history. Its goal is to 
help disadvantaged children be better prepared to succeed in school and 
in life by addressing the needs of the whole child and providing 
comprehensive services such as health and nutrition in addition to 
education--the approach child development experts believe is the most 
effective. Parental involvement has long been a cornerstone of Head 
Start because parents are children's most important and influential 
teachers; and, to have long-term success, the program must consider the 
family as well as the child. These important principles remain central 
to the program today.
    Poverty is one of the strongest predictors of lower school 
success: an ``achievement gap'' between low-income children and 
their more affluent peers begins before kindergarten and 
continues through elementary and secondary education. After 
nearly a decade of decline in national child poverty, the rate 
of child poverty began to rise in 2002. Today, more than 12 
million children in America live in poverty, including 
approximately 20 percent of children under age six. Poverty 
rates are substantially higher for ethnic and racial 
minorities. A large income gap exists between White, African 
American and Hispanic families: in 2005, the median income for 
White families with children under 18 was nearly twice as high 
as that of African American and Hispanic families. In 2005, 
37.4 percent of African American, 31.2 percent of Hispanic, and 
17.3 percent of White children under age six lived in poverty. 
In addition, more than eight million children and teenagers do 
not have health insurance. Research finds that experiencing 
poverty as a child leads to more health and mental problems 
throughout one's life, less academic success, and less stable 
employment as an adult. Head Start continues to be one part of 
a multi-faceted approach to reducing the impact of poverty on 
children and families and eliminating the achievement gap. As 
this Committee examines ways to improve Head Start, it also 
recognizes that it is unrealistic to believe that Head Start 
can be the magic cure that eradicates the achievement gap.
    Head Start is one of the most evaluated federal programs, 
and research concludes that Head Start works. Research confirms 
that children who attend Head Start enter school better 
prepared than low-income children who do not attend the program 
and, further, that children who attend Head Start make 
significant gains relative to national norms in vocabulary, 
early writing, letter recognition and social behavior. Head 
Start students show IQ gains, are less likely to need special 
education services, to repeat a grade, or commit crimes in 
adolescence and are more likely to graduate from high school.
    Research from the well-respected longitudinal study, ``The 
Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey'' (FACES), also 
found that children who attend Head Start make great strides in 
closing the achievement gap. FACES found that children made 
modest but significant gains in areas of cognitive development 
during the Head Start year and made even greater gains over the 
kindergarten year so that by the end of kindergarten Head Start 
graduates were ``essentially at national norms in early reading 
and writing, and about one third of a standard deviation below 
national norms in vocabulary, general knowledge and early 
math.'' These findings suggest that not only do children in 
Head Start learn key skills in the program, but Head Start also 
prepares children to better benefit from teaching when they 
arrive at elementary school.
    Recent research conducted with the highest standards 
confirms that Head Start helps children make gains in cognitive 
development and narrows the achievement gap. In June 2005, the 
Department of Health and Human Services (the Department or HHS) 
released a report on the first year fmdings from the Impact 
Study--a congressionally mandated study requiring the Secretary 
to evaluate the impact of Head Start on the children and 
families it serves. This longitudinal, randomized control group 
design study will follow children through the end of first 
grade and evaluate the effect of Head Start over this period. 
The findings from the first year were very encouraging: Head 
Start improved children's pre-reading skills, pre-writing 
skills, vocabulary and parent-reported literacy skills. The 
study also found that after less than one school year, Head 
Start narrowed the achievement gap by 45 percent in the area of 
pre-reading and by 28 percent in pre-writing.
    Moreover, the Impact Study demonstrates that Head Start 
influenced important parenting practices, including increasing 
the frequency with which parents read to their child. In 
addition, Head Start decreased hyperactivity in three year 
olds. Significant effects were not found in the areas of oral 
comprehension, phonological awareness, early math and many 
areas of social and emotional development--suggesting key areas 
for program improvement.
    There are two ways for Head Start to better narrow the 
achievement gap between low-income children and their more 
affluent peers--one is to increase program effectiveness, the 
second is to increase program enrollment. Both approaches are 
equally necessary and Congress must do more to improve program 
quality and expand services to serve more infants and toddlers 
through Early Head Start and more preschoolers through Head 
Start. The Committee intends to accomplish both these goals 
with the enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007. If 
we truly believe that no child should be left behind, working 
to improve the quality and increase the funding of Head Start 
must be a top domestic priority.

                IMPROVING TEACHER AND CLASSROOM QUALITY

    The Committee believes that teacher quality is essential to 
Head Start quality and to closing the achievement gap between 
poor children and their more affluent peers. There are many 
excellent teachers in Head Start, and the Committee believes 
more can be done to ensure that every single Head Start teacher 
is prepared and able to give their students the best head start 
they can. That is why the Committee has made improving teacher 
quality a central focus of this bill, and H.R. 1429 includes 
many provisions that will increase teacher quality.
    When Congress last reauthorized Head Start in 1998, it 
aimed to improve teacher quality by requiring that 50 percent 
of Head Start teachers nationwide have a minimum of an 
associate degree in early childhood education or a related 
field by 2003. This provision was extremely successful in 
improving the qualifications of Head Start teachers: in 1997, 
only 34 percent of Head Start teachers had an associate or 
baccalaureate degree; by 2003, 58 percent of teachers had 
reached that level of qualification, and by 2006, 72 percent of 
Head Start teachers had an associate degree or higher.
    The Committee believes it is important to build on this 
success by requiring that 50 percent of Head Start teachers 
nationwide have a minimum of a baccalaureate degree in early 
childhood education or a related field by 2013. According to 
the NationalResearch Council report, Eager to Learn, all 
preschool programs should have a teacher with at least a bachelor's 
degree in early childhood education or a related field.
    Well-educated teachers are one of the keys to early 
childhood program quality and outcomes for children. Research 
consistently demonstrates a link between the learning potential 
of children and the level of education and training of 
classroom teachers. Research also shows that teachers with a 
minimum of a bachelor's degree and specialized training in 
early childhood development are significantly more engaged with 
children, less critical, and less detached from students in 
their classrooms--all characteristics related to better child 
outcomes--than teachers with less formal education. Research 
further demonstrates that higher teacher qualifications 
directly translate into better results for children in critical 
areas of development, including the attainment of the 
competencies needed to be successful in school. The three most 
renowned early childhood programs for low-income children--the 
Perry Preschool Project, Chicago Child Parent Centers, and 
Abecedarian Preschool--all were staffed by teachers with a 
minimum of a bachelor's degree and specialized training in 
early childhood education. However, it is important to note 
that the Committee's explicit intent is for a nationwide 
requirement: No individual program or center should be 
penalized or sanctioned for failing to meet this provision.
    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 further seeks to 
improve teacher quality by prioritizing that at least 60 
percent of appropriations above the prior year's level (less a 
cost of living adjustment to programs) be used for quality 
improvement purposes, such as teacher salaries and professional 
development. The bill adds to this requirement by mandating 
that at least one-fourth of such new funding (meaning, at least 
15 percent of new funds annually appropriated) be used to 
increase the salaries, benefits, and pay scales of key staff, 
including teachers. Low salaries make it difficult for Head 
Start agencies to attract and retain qualified teachers and 
this Committee urges local programs to prioritize teacher 
salaries and benefits.
    H.R. 1429 also requires Head Start grantees to create a 
career ladder and professional development plan for all full-
time employees who provide direct educational services to 
children. Combined with the bill's focus on professional 
development activities that are part of a sustained and 
intensive effort to improve key aspects of program quality, the 
Committee believes that the development of such plans will 
result in high quality professional development that directly 
benefits the individual instructor, Head Start students, and 
the overall program.
    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 also requires the 
Secretary to integrate into the triennial review, a valid and 
reliable research-based observational instrument that assesses 
classroom quality, including multiple dimensions of teacher-
child interactions that are linked to positive child 
development and later achievement. The Committee believes that 
it is logistically and fiscally impractical to implement such 
an instrument in every classroom and recommends the Secretary 
develop appropriate sampling techniques in the implementation. 
The Committee also believes it is essential that the Secretary 
ensure only qualified individuals with demonstrated reliability 
implement this instrument. In choosing an appropriate 
instrument that meets the requirements of H.R. 1429, the bill 
directs the Secretary to choose a measure that research has 
demonstrated to be valid and reliable and predictive of program 
quality and child outcomes. The Committee encourages the 
Secretary to consider using the Classroom Assessment Scoring 
System (CLASS) for these purposes. The CLASS ``scores how 
productive the environment appears in use of time and 
activities; how sensitive is the teacher's behavior; the 
quality of instruction and feedback to students; the 
effectiveness of behavior management; and the extent to which 
activities and interactions stimulate conceptual development 
and engagement.'' (Pianta, 2005). A review of the scientific 
literature suggests this instrument has solid support to 
validate its use in evaluating key dimensions of classroom 
quality and that research has demonstrated its use in 
predicting child outcomes. The Committee also thinks the CLASS 
can be a valuable tool to individual Head Start programs 
because it provides feedback on classroom strengths and 
weaknesses and offers professional development tools aimed at 
improving teacher effectiveness. Because one of this 
instrument's strengths is it allows a pathway for programs to 
improve teacher quality, the Committee recommends that when 
including data from this instrument in the grant review 
process, that if a Head Start agency implements the CLASS 
outside of the triennial review, the additional data be 
included in the application review.

              STRENGTHENING THE FOCUS ON SCHOOL READINESS

Early learning standards

    Knowledge about children's learning has expanded greatly 
during the past two decades. Research in the neurobiological 
and behavioral sciences suggests the importance of a child's 
experiences during the first years of life for healthy brain 
development. From birth through age five, children rapidly 
develop the capabilities on which subsequent development 
builds. The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 includes numerous 
provisions to strengthen the focus on school readiness in the 
classroom. Experts in early childhood education believe that 
school readiness encompasses many different dimensions of child 
growth and development. As Dr. Ross Thompson testified before 
the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary 
Education on February 28, 2007, development of non-cognitive 
skills, such as curiosity, self-control, and attention 
capabilities are as important to school readiness as literacy 
and vocabulary development. Therefore, H.R. 1429 aims to 
strengthen all domains of school readiness of Head Start 
children, including cognitive, social, and emotional 
development. In requiring the Secretary to consult with experts 
to re-evaluate and update as necessary, the current early 
learning standards using the best available science, the 
Committee intends for the Secretary to maintain the depth and 
breadth of Head Start's current early learning standards--the 
Head Start Child Outcomes Framework--and ensure that the 
performance standards are updated, as necessary, to reflect the 
best science on early childhood.

Use of measures and assessments

    In addition, the Committee believes assessment can be a 
very important component of delivering a high-quality early 
education program, but assessments must be chosen and used 
wisely and cautiously. The Committee requires the Secretary to 
consult the forthcoming report entitled ``Developmental 
Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children'' from the National 
Academy of Sciences to fully re-evaluate the use of assessments 
in Head Start to ensure that any such assessment be used for 
the purpose of promoting the skills, knowledge and competencies 
of children, improving classroom practices, identifying special 
needs, or improving overall program performance. H.R.1429 
explicitly requires that any assessment used in Head Start be 
developmentally, linguistically, and culturally appropriate, be 
consistent with relevant, nationally recognized professional and 
technical standards related to the assessment of young children, be 
valid and reliable in the appropriate language, only be administered by 
persons with adequate training, and provide appropriate accommodations 
for children with disabilities and children who are LEP. H.R. 1429 also 
specifically prohibits Head Start programs from using such assessments 
to exclude children from Head Start programs and prohibits any high 
stakes testing in Head Start at the national, regional, or local level.
    In addition, the Committee is concerned that some programs 
may be using outdated and inadequate screening instruments even 
though several evidence-based, quick, inexpensive, and accurate 
tools already exist. Given the great importance of identifying 
developmental delays early, it is critical that grantees 
utilize high-quality research-based developmental screening 
tools. The Secretary is encouraged to assist grantees that are 
not already doing so, to incorporate high-quality screening 
tools into their program.

National Reporting System

    Since HHS first announced plans for a National Reporting 
System (NRS), Committee Members have heard from numerous 
experts about on-going concerns regarding the validity, 
appropriateness, and use of the NRS. The Committee is concerned 
that the Secretary did not adequately weigh the concerns 
expressed by its own Technical Working Group and rushed a 
flawed testing system into Head Start programs before the 
system's purpose and plans for use were even clearly defined. 
More than 300 experts in early childhood development and 
education wrote to Congress to express their serious concerns 
about the appropriateness, validity, and use of the NRS. A 2005 
report from the independent Government Accountability Office 
(GAO) confirmed serious flaws in the development and use of the 
NRS. A recent report by the Advisory Committee on Head Start 
Accountability and Educational Performance Measures convened by 
the Secretary only confirms to the Committee that there are 
inherent and serious flaws in the design and use of the NRS. 
Given that the National Research Council concluded in 2001 that 
``[a]ll assessments, and particularly assessments for 
accountability, must be used carefully and appropriately if 
they are to resolve, and not create, educational problems,'' 
the Committee takes the on-going concerns about the NRS very 
seriously and suspends implementation of and terminates further 
development and use of the NRS. H.R. 1429 directs the Secretary 
to use the findings from the forth-coming study on 
Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children by 
the National Academy of Sciences to provide guidance on the 
appropriate use of assessments in early childhood education 
programs like Head Start.

Curricula

    There is a growing body of research and understanding of 
the early foundations of children's positive development and 
learning. Research indicates that the use of comprehensive, 
research-based curricula is critical to preparing children for 
success in school and in life. Children's readiness for school 
and positive overall development will be enhanced by teachers 
using a well-planned, research-based curriculum selected at the 
local level and implemented by teachers with education and 
training in child development and in the chosen curriculum. 
Research further suggests that learning will be most effective 
if it builds on children's existing understanding, so it is 
critical that implementation attends to the individual 
developmental level of the child. Curricula should promote 
learning of concepts as well as information and skills. 
Curricula should increase in complexity and difficulty of 
activities as children develop and should take into account and 
support the different ways children learn. It should be 
challenging, engaging, developmentally appropriate, culturally 
and linguistically responsive, and inclusive of children with 
disabilities. Curricula should be results-based and linked to 
instructional goals and measurable objectives. The Committee 
believes that most Head Start programs are using appropriate 
curricula that meets these qualities. In addition, the 
Committee wants to make clear that H.R. 1429's focus on 
research-based curriculum does not suggest that the majority of 
Head Start programs need to adopt a new curriculum. Still, to 
ensure that all programs are delivering a research-based 
curriculum that adequately supports children's development and 
school readiness, the Improving Head Start Act of 2007 requires 
Head Start programs to use research-based early childhood 
curriculum that promotes school readiness in the areas of 
language and cognitive development, early reading and pre-
mathematics skills, social and emotional development, physical 
development, and approaches to learning in addition to other 
requirements. It is important to note that H.R. 1429 does not 
mandate a federal or specific curriculum.

Comprehensive services

    The health, nutritional, and family services provided by 
Head Start programs are also fundamental to Head Start children 
arriving at kindergarten ready to succeed. Consequently, the 
Improving Head Start Act of 2007 aims to improve the delivery 
of these important services by placing a greater focus on early 
identification of child and family mental health needs. The 
Committee also determined to highlight the importance of 
providing families with information on maternal depression. 
Research indicates that maternal depression has a significant 
impact on child development so it is important that Head Start 
programs are able to help families identify maternal depression 
and help families reach appropriate services. The latest 
neuroscience research on brain development finds that 
experiencing ``toxic stress'' as a child can affect important 
brain structures as they are still developing. Therefore, it is 
critical that Head Start programs are capable of using 
research-based methods of identifying children and families 
experiencing high levels of stress so families can be directed 
to appropriate services.
    H.R. 1429 also encourages programs to prioritize the use of 
best practices for family service workers, including caseload 
size. The Committee believes family service workers are 
essential to meeting the needs of Head Start children and 
families and is concerned about reports that family service 
worker caseloads have increased as a result of inadequate 
appropriations since 2003.
    The Committee was concerned to learn of the high prevalence 
of obesity in Head Start students. For example, research 
suggests that 20 percent of Head Start children in New York 
City can be classified as obese. The Committee understands the 
Office of Head Start has implemented a pilot program to address 
obesity concerns but believes it is important that this health 
problem gets immediate and broad attention, accordingly, 
H.R.1429 requires the Secretary to provide guidance to Head Start 
programs on ways they can address childhood obesity in their students.
    Efforts to improve family literacy also are an important 
component of Head Start. Family literacy activities, when 
appropriate, are critical to enhancing a parent's involvement 
in their child's education, which is significantly challenged 
if parents cannot read. In keeping with the goal of improving 
school readiness and valuing the role of parents in their 
children's education, the Committee bill renews its support for 
training and technical assistance in the area of family 
literacy services.

                            EARLY HEAD START

    Neuroscience suggests that the ages of birth to three 
constitute the most critical period for a child's brain growth. 
It is during this period that children acquire the ability to 
think, speak, learn, and reason. According to many brain 
researchers, the development between the prenatal period and 
the first years of life is more extensive than previously 
thought and susceptible to long-lasting early environmental 
influences. Infants' and toddlers' early experiences are 
extremely important--research indicates that when the social 
and emotional development of very young children is ignored, it 
can have devastating effects on children's overall functioning, 
their ability to form and maintain relationships, their ability 
to learn, and their future success in school and life. 
Disparities in children's cognitive and social abilities become 
evident well before they enter Head Start or pre-kindergarten 
programs at age four. Early Head Start minimizes these 
disparities and helps to establish the foundation needed for 
children to enter school ready to learn by supporting the 
cognitive, social, and emotional development of the infants and 
toddlers it serves.
    Unfortunately, Early Head Start only reaches approximately 
two percent of eligible children because of inadequate funding. 
Dr. Thompson's testimony before this Committee on February 28, 
2007 persuasively made the case for increased resources for 
Early Head Start. Therefore, the Committee seeks to increase 
available Early Head Start services. H.R. 1429 increases the 
current set-aside from a ceiling of 10 percent to floors of 12 
percent in fiscal year 2008, 14 percent in fiscal year 2009, 16 
percent in fiscal year 2010, 18 percent in fiscal year 2010, 
and 20 percent in fiscal year 2012. In addition, H.R. 1429 
allows programs demonstrating the capacity and a community need 
to convert dollars from their Head Start grant into an existing 
Early Head Start grant or a new Early Head Start grant. Because 
of the increased availability of state-funded pre-kindergarten, 
some Head Start programs may be better able to meet the needs 
of their community by converting portions (or all) of their 
grant to serve infants and toddlers. The Committee believes 
this provision will improve local flexibility, allowing 
programs to better meet the needs of the families in their 
community, and it will expand access to Early Head Start.

     SERVING CHILDREN AND FAMILIES WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Limited English Proficiency (LEP) children account for a 
large share of the children in Head Start. In fact, 28 percent 
of all Head Start children are LEP. Moreover, population 
projections estimate that these children will account for a 
greater share of Head Start eligible children in the coming 
years. Therefore, the continued efficacy of Head Start is 
increasingly contingent upon the ability of programs to serve 
language minority children adequately. The Committee recognizes 
that LEP children have unique needs that must be addressed in 
order to prepare these children effectively for the first day 
of school. Specifically, the Committee understands that 
language minority status can hinder access to and quality of 
Head Start services for LEP children and their families.
    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 improves Head Start 
for LEP children and their families in several key areas. H.R. 
1429 requires LEP children to make progress toward English 
language acquisition and other early learning standards, as 
outlined in the education performance standards. The Committee 
intends for LEP children to receive high quality academic 
services aimed at supporting their school readiness, including 
through the use of appropriate instructional and home language 
support for second language learning. H.R. 1429 also provides 
for the use of training and technical assistance funds to 
improve access to and quality of Head Start services for LEP 
populations. The Committee believes that this is particularly 
important in states that have experienced a growth in the LEP 
population of at least 100 percent between the years 1990 and 
2000, as measured by the U.S. census. H.R. 1429 also ensures 
that LEP parents benefit from the broad array of Head Start 
family services and parent involvement opportunities by 
requiring that all information be provided to parents in their 
home language, to the extent practicable.
    In addition, the Committee believes that increasing the 
number of Head Start teachers who can effectively support the 
development of children with LEP is essential. H.R. 1429 allows 
the Secretary to use training and technical assistance funding 
for the development of a career ladder demonstration program at 
Hispanic-serving institutions. Furthermore, in order to 
effectively monitor progress towards the goal of increasing the 
qualifications of Head Start teachers with skills in serving 
LEP children, the Committee requires that as part of the annual 
program information report, Head Start agencies provide 
information on the educational levels of Head Start teachers 
disaggregated by race, ethnicity, and primary language. H.R. 
1429 also requires the Secretary to undertake a study to 
evaluate the specific needs of serving LEP children and 
families in Head Start and to analyze the capacity of current 
Head Start grantees to meet these needs. The Committee intends 
for the Secretary to use the important information gathered in 
this study to improve the service delivery to LEP children and 
families.

                    MIGRANT AND SEASONAL HEAD START

    The Migrant Head Start program was started in 1969 to 
ensure that farmworker families and their children can enjoy 
the same advantages made available to other low income children 
through Head Start. The program was initially established to 
provide for the needs of migrant farmworker children as they 
moved across the country with their families to pursue work. In 
1998, services under Migrant Head Start were expanded to 
include services to the children of seasonal farmworkers, those 
who are engaged in seasonal agricultural labor but have not 
relocated within the last two year period. The current Migrant 
and Seasonal Head Start program (MSHS) serves approximately 
37,000 migrant children and 2,500 seasonal children annually, 
operating in 40 states. Migrant Head Start programs were the 
first Head Start programs to serve infants and toddlers and 
today, two-thirds of the children in the program are infants 
and toddlers.
    The MSHS program model is specifically designed to meet the 
unique challenges faced by migrant and seasonal farmworker 
children. Due to the nature of farm labor, farmworker families 
often need full day services--starting at 6:00 a.m. and running 
through 6:00 p.m., and often six days a week. In many states, 
MSHS programs operate in very rural locations, running from May 
to October, rather than the typical school year schedule. Many 
of the families and children are on the move for much of the 
year and need services at different times, in different states 
and locations. In addition, because most of the farmworker 
families being served are Spanish speaking only or bilingual 
Spanish, MSHS programs must have bilingual teachers and staff.
    MSHS programs face many unique challenges, and the 
Improving Head Start Act of 2007 takes steps to help improve 
the delivery of services in these programs. Unfortunately, 
program funding for MSHS has been inadequate to meet the needs 
of eligible farmworker families and their children. The 
Committee is committed to seeing that additional resources are 
made available to MSHS programs in order to ensure that a 
greater percentage of eligible migrant and seasonal children 
can access Head Start. The Committee is also committed to 
making certain that systems be put in place by the Secretary to 
better evaluate existing demand. Currently, inadequate data 
systems have left the Secretary unable to determine accurately 
the number of eligible families and those who MSHS services are 
reaching. H.R. 1429 addresses these problems in several ways. 
First, the Committee creates a set-aside for MSHS of five 
percent of total appropriations, until such time as the 
Secretary can develop an accurate data system to ensure that 
access to funding eligible children of migrant and seasonal 
farmworkers is comparable to access to funding for other 
eligible children. Furthermore, the Committee requires the 
Secretary to work in consultation with the U.S. Departments of 
Agriculture, Labor, and Education, and the Bureau of Migrant 
Health, to establish a system for collecting and reporting data 
on farmworkers and their families, identifying and eliminating 
barriers to enrollment, and effectively tracking health and 
educational documents as families move from state to state.

                           INDIAN HEAD START

    The Committee recognizes the significant challenges faced 
by many eligible children living on Indian reservations, and 
H.R. 1429 seeks to address the unique educational, cultural, 
and native language-related needs of Native American children. 
The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 requires the maintenance 
of a separate Indian Head Start office and requires the 
inclusion of representatives of Indian Head Start programs on 
the State Early Learning Council. It also requires the 
Secretary to consult annually with tribal governments in each 
affected Head Start region for the purpose of better meeting 
the needs of American Indian and Alaska Native children and 
families. H.R. 1429 also requires training and technical 
assistance funds to support a national system of early 
childhood education training and technical assistance for 
Indian Head Start programs. The Committee encourages the 
Secretary to provide this training and technical assistance 
through national awards to contractors with knowledge of, and 
experience in working with the populations served by these 
programs.
    H.R. 1429 also requires the Secretary to establish a 
National Director of Indian Head Start Collaboration. The 
Committee intends for this position to be assigned the same 
responsibilities assigned to the Directors of State Head Start 
Collaboration. Though it is important that the State Directors 
of Head Start Collaboration engage with the Indian populations 
in their respective states, the National Director will ensure 
that the specific issues faced by children and families served 
by Indian Head Start are appropriately addressed. The National 
Indian Head Start Collaboration Director will also serve as a 
conduit for knowledge and understanding of this population 
served by Head Start and Early Head Start programs.
    The Committee encourages the Secretary to consult with 
American Indian and Alaska Native experts in early childhood 
development, linguists, and representatives from Indian Head 
Start programs on the review and promulgation of any revised 
program standards and measures (including standards and 
measures for language acquisition and school readiness) 
developed by the Secretary. Finally, although the Indian Head 
Start program serves more than 23,000 children each year, there 
still exists a need to expand services to additional eligible 
children. Therefore, H.R. 1429 requires the Secretary establish 
a system by which the need for services for eligible children 
can be determined accurately, and until such system is 
available, requires that not less than 3.5 percent of the 
annual Head Start appropriation be made available for Indian 
Head Start programs.

                        IMPROVED ACCOUNTABILITY

    The Committee believes that most Head Start programs run 
high-quality early education programs with sound fiscal 
management. A study by the General Accountability Office (GAO) 
issued in March 2005 confirms this observation but also makes 
clear that there are some needed improvements to the Head Start 
accountability framework. In addition, Members of the Committee 
have repeatedly heard from local grantees and the Department of 
significant problems with the triennial monitoring system. The 
Committee believes Head Start children and families will 
benefit from a strong but fair accountability system, and 
therefore, H.R. 1429 takes a number of steps to improve Head 
Start accountability.

Recompetition

    One of the recommendations in the GAO report issued in 
February 2005 was to initiate some recompetition into the Head 
Start program. The Committee agrees that limited recompetition 
of low-performing Head Start agencies will improve overall 
program performance. Evidence shows that continuity of program 
services by high-quality grantees best serves children and 
families in Head Start. The most effective way of fighting the 
effects of poverty within a community is to provide a sustained 
and continual effort. Moreover, the existing stability within 
Head Start, in most instances, promotes better quality and more 
efficiency. It helps the organization become trusted within the 
community it is trying to serve, thereby creating better 
community relations and better outreach to eligible children 
and families. Continuity and stability provided by high-quality 
grantees helps programs to recruit and retain better teachers 
and better plan professional development. Continuity and 
stability can also have a significant impact on cost effective 
resource allocation by affecting a program's ability to 
leverage funds in its community and negotiate lower facilities 
costs and business loans. The continuity of high-quality 
grantees better ensures that taxpayer monies spent on 
professional development and facilities are investments that 
continue to benefit children served byHead Start. Thus, 
recompetition of high quality programs could have the unintended effect 
of undermining program quality and decreasing the efficiency of Head 
Start expenditures. Therefore, H.R. 1429 includes a provision to begin 
limited recompetition of only under-performing programs. These 
provisions are not intended to give the Secretary discretion to re-
compete the majority of Head Start programs as the Committee strongly 
believes this would undermine overall program quality.
    The Committee has designed a process wherein the Secretary 
must convene an expert panel to devise a system of application 
review to identify the programs meeting the mission of 
providing high quality comprehensive early childhood programs. 
Those programs would not be required to re-compete for their 
grant and would receive a five year grant award. H.R. 1429 
requires the system to be based on information from annual 
budget data, annual audits, the triennial review, PIR data, and 
the classroom observation instrument. The Committee includes 
the triennial review as part of this system because this 
extensive review generally contains a wealth of information. 
However, the Committee strongly encourages the expert panel and 
the Secretary to use this information more thoughtfully than 
simply tabulating whether a grantee has been deemed deficient 
or not. The Committee believes the process of determining 
whether a grantee is deficient is seriously flawed, and 
Assistant Secretary for Children and Families, Wade Horn, 
informed Committee staff that an internal quality control 
process has found the determination of deficiency to be 
unreliable. Furthermore, the Committee believes that there are 
high quality programs that are deemed deficient and there are 
seriously under-performing programs that are not deemed 
deficient. Therefore, in including the triennial review as data 
for the application review system, the Committee encourages the 
panel to use the data cautiously and wisely. In addition, H.R. 
1429 explicitly requires the Secretary seek public comment 
before implementing an application review system. The Committee 
intends for the Secretary to take this public comment seriously 
and give the expertise available outside the Department due 
consideration.

Triennial reviews

    An effective monitoring system is essential to the 
integrity of the Head Start program. That is why a triennial 
review system of program standards has long been an essential 
component of the Head Start program. In 2000, the PRISM 
(Program Review Instrument for Systems Monitoring) was 
implemented to reflect the new program performance standards 
from the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start, and the PRISM has 
been under constant modification since that time. The original 
purpose was to create ``an integrated, comprehensive and 
outcome-focused approach to ensure compliance with regulations. 
This approach promotes quality and supports programs in 
delivering services for children and families in a more 
holistic manner.'' The Committee has learned through various 
sources, including repeated complaints from local programs, the 
February 28, 2007 testimony before this Committee from Barbara 
Haxton, President of the Ohio Head Start Association, a 
February 2005 GAO report, and the Department, that the current 
PRISM review system is not effective and reliable. Instead of 
providing a balanced review of programs that helps identify 
programs strengths and weaknesses, the PRISM is an overly 
bureaucratic, punitive and hostile review system that has not 
reliably evaluated program compliance.
    H.R. 1429 contains numerous provisions to improve the PRISM 
and re-focus its purpose to yield information that programs and 
the Secretary can use for program improvement. This includes 
requiring the triennial review use a ``risk-based assessment'' 
system that is less focused on a checklist of more than 1,200 
items, and more focused on a broad view of program quality 
service delivery and sound fiscal management. H.R. 1429 also 
includes new requirements regarding the qualifications of the 
review team in order to respond to serious concerns about the 
qualifications of the members of the review teams. H.R. 1429 
also requires triennial reviews address program weaknesses and 
strengths. The current model of focusing solely on program 
deficits runs counter to central principles of typical grant 
review systems and leads to an unnecessarily hostile 
relationship between Head Start agencies and review teams. The 
Committee believes triennial reviews can be invaluable to 
improving program quality, but only if they are conducted in a 
manner in which Head Start programs are collaborators in their 
own improvements. In addition, H.R. 1429 requires the review 
findings be presented to Head Start agencies in a manner that 
allows them to inform the development and implementation of 
their plan for training and technical assistance. The Committee 
believes a strong connection between the review process and the 
training and technical assistance system is vital to program 
quality, and H.R. 1429 requires this connection be established. 
In addition, the Committee believes a strong fiscal management 
protocol is needed in the triennial reviews, requires such a 
protocol be implemented and requires the Secretary to report to 
Congress on the Department's efforts to ensure strong fiscal 
controls at all levels of the Head Start program.

Program governance

    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 aims to improve 
program governance. The Committee believes a shared governance 
structure is an important component to the unique role of 
parent involvement in Head Start; however, the Committee is 
concerned there are occasions where such structure has led to 
insufficient attention from the governing board. H.R. 1429 aims 
to strengthen program quality by improving the operation of the 
governing body while maintaining a shared governance structure 
with parent policy councils. By requiring active participation 
of the governing body, creating a finance and audit committee, 
prohibiting persons with conflicts of interest from serving on 
the boards, clearly defining the body's responsibilities, and 
requiring training for governing body and parent policy council 
members, the Committee intends to ensure that governing bodies 
and parent policy councils work actively and in concert with 
one another to provide strong governance. The Committee 
understands that Head Start grantees who are public entities 
often cannot meet the requirements of the composition of the 
governing body, and therefore includes exceptions where needed. 
Furthermore, the Committee understands that in some rural 
areas, the board composition requirements will pose difficult 
challenges for some Head Start grantees, and therefore allows 
for consultants to be used in such cases.

Termination of programs

    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 strengthens federal 
authority to initiate grantee termination proceedings. The 
Committee encourages the Secretary to use his or her authority 
under current law and new authorities under this legislation to 
terminateexpeditiously any grantee that is found to have 
recurring deficiencies. Furthermore, the Committee recognizes the 
Secretary's existing authority to issue immediate suspensions of 
funding to any agency in emergency situations. In such instances, 
funding to the grantee is suspended and an interim organization 
provides services until a replacement agency can be identified or the 
Secretary determines it is appropriate to resume funding to such 
agency. The Committee recognizes and reaffirms the rights of a grantee 
to appeal a termination decision, but is concerned that some reviews 
have been reported to continue several years. The Committee notes that 
seven months or several years is too long for children to endure 
programs with demonstrated deficiencies and urges the Departmental 
Administrative Boards to move swiftly to render decisions on such 
matters.

                         IMPROVED COORDINATION

    The Committee believes children and families will benefit 
from effective coordination between Head Start and other early 
childhood services. Appropriate coordination can allow more 
effective use of Head Start dollars and improved service 
delivery. There are many examples of innovative and effective 
Head Start collaborations. In some locations, Head Start 
successfully coordinates with local education agencies to 
provide transportation services the Head Start program would be 
otherwise unable to provide. In other areas, Head Start 
collaborates closely with state-funded pre-kindergarten in 
order to improve teacher quality and teacher salaries. Many 
centers coordinate with local child care services in order to 
extend program hours of operation to better meet the needs of 
working families. Because the Committee believes coordination 
can be important to leveraging community dollars and improving 
service delivery, H.R. 1429 asks Head Start programs to 
prioritize coordination further.
    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 improves local 
coordination by requiring each Head Start grantee to enter into 
a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with providers of state 
pre-kindergarten programs in their service area in order to 
better align their activities. The Committee believes that 
state-funded pre-kindergarten will benefit from this 
arrangement as much as Head Start programs. The Committee 
additionally believes that Head Start programs will benefit 
from provisions in H.R. 1429 designed to focus the activities 
of the state Head Start collaboration offices. The work of the 
Collaboration office should help strengthen Head Start's 
linkages with the appropriate IDEA services, as well as state 
health, mental health, and family services. H.R. 1429 also 
reserves up to $5 million each year for state Early Learning 
Councils. The Committee believes that State Early Learning 
Councils have the potential to improve the quality and service 
delivery of early childhood services throughout the state.

                   TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

    H.R. 1429 reserves at least two percent of annual Head 
Start appropriations for the purposes of training and technical 
assistance (T/TA). These funds are intended to help agencies 
make continuous improvements in the quality of their programs 
and services, and the Committee retains the set-aside because 
it believes T/TA is an important component to program quality. 
Regular, ongoing training and professional development for all 
Head Start staff is essential to the program's continued 
success and the T/TA system is integral to this process. In 
addition, the science associated with preparing children for a 
lifetime of learning continues to evolve and inform best 
practices, and must be continually integrated into the Head 
Start program. The Committee encourages the Secretary to work 
with local grantees to ensure that grantees prepare a 
comprehensive annual assessment of their program needs prior to 
the development of their T/TA budget. Grantees' T/TA activities 
should reflect the key areas of improvement identified by such 
assessment and be part of a comprehensive plan to improve 
program quality.
    Under the current system, the Secretary gives approximately 
half of the T/TA funds directly to grantees for the purposes of 
locally-determined T/TA needs and uses the other half for 
meeting T/TA needs prioritized by the Secretary. H.R. 1429 
formalizes the process of sending half of these funds to local 
grantees, and includes a listing of allowable use of funds in 
order to target T/TA to high-quality activities that will have 
an effect on program quality. H.R. 1429 aims to replace the 
current system of regional T/TA which has been ineffective, and 
requires the Secretary to use at least 30 percent of the T/TA 
funds to support a state-based system, through which the 
Secretary will contract with qualified entities within each 
state to provide T/TA to local grantees. The Committee believes 
this structure will improve the quality and appropriateness of 
services for Head Start agencies. H.R. 1429 leaves the 
remainder of the T/TA funding at the Secretary's discretion.
    The Improving Head Start Act of 2007 also restricts the use 
of training and technical assistance funds for travel 
expenditures associated with attending conferences when similar 
training and technical assistance is available locally or 
regionally. It is the Committee's view that occasional travel 
may be necessary, but that excessive travel to conferences or 
events is generally not an appropriate or effective use of 
training and technical assistance funds. Whenever possible, 
Head Start programs should utilize local or regionally based 
training opportunities and should restrict travel to occasions 
when an identified training need cannot be met through local or 
regional resources. All T/TA expenditures should be consistent 
with the training and technical assistance needs identified in 
a grantee's annual plan for training and technical assistance.

                         FACILITIES MANAGEMENT

    The Committee understands that Head Start grantees may be 
experiencing difficulties in meeting the Department's grant 
period for facility-related funding in situations where 
grantees are governed by an alternate fiscal year. In cases 
where a grantee is awarded funds after the start of its fiscal 
year, grantees have been faced with a limited time period in 
which to obligate funds. Such grantees are working under an 
inadequate time period in order to meet all review and approval 
processes required at the local or state level. Under current 
rules, a grantee must submit a formal request to carry over 
funds, which may take several months to approve. The Committee 
recommends the Department consider the needs of some grantees 
to obligate funds over a reasonable period of time that may 
exceed the current rules, and provide additional time to 
grantees in certain situations. In addition, the Committee 
understands that some portable facilities being used by Head 
Start grantees are well over 30 years old, are deteriorating to 
the point of no longer being suitable, and that the costs to 
repair these aging facilities often exceeds the cost of 
replacing them.
    The Committee encourages the Department to work closely 
with grantees to explore innovative solutions to this problem 
recognizing current budgetary constraints. The Committee also 
urges the Department to evaluate the location of Head Start 
facilities to ensure that services are located in the areas of 
most need and are conveniently located to the population served 
by Head Start. The Committee recognizes that over time low-
income communities may shift locations, particularly within 
urban areas, and that in some cases Head Start programs have 
not moved along with the population. In an effort to target 
Head Start resources to serve the country's poorest children 
and families, the Committee encourages the Department to use 
its resources efficiently by re-locating programs to areas with 
the greatest need, and/or reducing funding for programs that 
continue to operate under-capacity, as appropriate.

                                 PALAU

    The Committee is aware that the existing Compact between 
the United States and the Republic of Palau is scheduled to 
expire in 2009. Until that time, the Republic of Palau should 
continue to receive assistance under Head Start. The Committee 
also acknowledges that, in 2009, if negotiations between the 
Republic of Palau and the United States are not complete, or if 
Congress has yet to enact any completed negotiated agreement, 
then the Committee will revisit the Republic of Palau's 
continuing participation in the Head Start program.

                        CIVIL RIGHTS PROTECTIONS

    Faith-based organizations play a vital and critical role in 
serving our nation's most disadvantaged children through the 
Head Start program. In fact, Head Start is the second largest 
source of federal funds for faith-based organizations. The 
Committee appreciates the service of these organizations to 
Head Start children and families and strongly supports their 
continued eligibility as Head Start grantees. H.R. 1429 
contains provisions confirming the standing of faith-based 
organizations as eligible grantees.
    The Committee also re-affirms the civil rights of all Head 
Start staff, parents, and children by keeping intact the long-
standing Head Start requirement that prohibits any form of 
discrimination within Head Start. The Committee strongly 
rejected a misguided amendment offered by Representative 
Fortuno to inject religious discrimination into the Head Start 
program for the first time since its inception and which would 
have represented the first ever repeal of a civil rights 
provision. The Committee strongly rejects unsubstantiated 
claims that the Fortuno amendment is necessary to ensure the 
participation of faith-based organizations in the Head Start 
program. In fact, faith-based organizations that currently run 
Head Start have written to the Committee opposing such an 
amendment in unequivocal terms. Not only have faith-based 
organizations in Head Start not sought the Fortuno amendment; 
they have expressly opposed any attempt to reduce the civil 
rights protections for their staff.
    Since 1972, the Head Start statute has included a civil 
rights provision (Section 654(a) of current law) to protect the 
rights of those who participate in the Head Start program--
children, parents, teachers, employees and volunteers--to be 
free from discrimination in any form. That same year, Congress 
enacted the expanded religious exemption for religious 
organizations under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 
Together these provisions reflect an understanding by Congress 
that the First Amendment allows religious organizations to 
manage themselves according to the dictates of their faith, and 
that it is appropriate to set basic civil rights and anti-
discrimination standards in federally funded social service 
programs that are financed by Americans of all faiths and no 
faith.
    As a critical component of America's civil rights platform, 
Head Start has endeavored to provide all children in need with 
the opportunities of education and an environment to assist in 
their healthy development that would enable them to arrive at 
school ready to succeed. The Committee recognizes that Section 
654(a) of the Head Start Act is central to this effort and H.R. 
1429 preserves this important provision. The Committee is 
troubled by statements made by David Kuo, former Deputy 
Director of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community 
Initiatives under the Bush Administration that the civil rights 
issue is being used as political weapon against Democrats. In 
his recent book, ``Tempting Faith'', and in congressional 
testimony, David Kuo affirmed that the issue of hiring 
discrimination is a false debate employed for political gain. 
In testimony before the House Government Reform Subcommittee on 
Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources on June 21, 
2005, Kuo stated:

        [M]any members of the President's own party expressed 
        equal parts apathy and antipathy towards this agenda. 
        Money for the poor? Why, it will just get wasted, they 
        said. We just need to cut the funds and let the private 
        sector take over. We don't need more funds, all we 
        really need to do is make sure that we have a huge 
        political fight over religious charities' right to hire 
        and fire based on their own faith. That way, as I have 
        heard time and time again, Republicans will be seen as 
        fighting for religions and Democrats will be seen as 
        fighting against it.

    The Committee believes Head Start is too important to be 
held hostage to such blatant partisan jockeying and we are 
joined by numerous religious, civil rights, labor and 
educational organizations that support current law's civil 
rights protections. The Head Start program is a model for 
demonstrating that a prohibition on religious employment 
discrimination with federal funds is fully compatible with 
federal assistance to faith-based charities. The Committee 
believes Head Start employees should be hired solely on the 
basis of their qualifications to provide a high quality early 
childhood program that prepares its students to succeed in 
school and in life. The retention of civil rights protections 
in the Improving Head Start Act of 2007 will help ensure that 
happens.

                               REFERENCES

Abbott-Shim, M., Lambert, R., & McCarty, F. (2003). A 
    Comparison of School Readiness Outcomes for Children 
    Randomly Assigned to a Head Start Program and the Program's 
    Wait List. Journal of Education for Students Placed At 
    Risk, 8(2), 191-214.
Bailey, D. (1999). ``Pre-K at Issue,'' ED, Volume 5, Number 1. 
    Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of 
    North Carolina at Chapel Hill. ChapelHill, N.C.
Broaddus, M. & Sherman, A. (May 2005). Poverty, Income, and 
    Health Insurance Coverage Tables, Center on Budget and 
    Policy Priorities.
Burchinal, M., Howes, C., Pianta, R. C., Bryant, D., Early, D., 
    Clifford, R., & Barbarin, O. (in press). Predicting child 
    outcomes at the end of kindergarten from the quality of 
    pre-kindergarten teaching, instruction, activities, and 
    caregiver sensitivity. Applied Developmental Science.
Center for Law and Social Policy. Analysis of PIR Data of 2006.
Currie, J., & Thomas, D. (1995). Does Head Start Make a 
    Difference? The American Economic Review, Vol. 85(3), 341-
    364.
Duncan, G.J. & Brooks-Gunn, J., Eds. (1997). Consequences of 
    Growing Up Poor. Russell Sage Foundation.
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Further 
    Development Could Allow Results of New Test To Be Used for 
    Decision Making, GAO-05-343 (Washington, D.C.: May 2005).
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Comprehensive 
    Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help 
    Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses, GAO-05-176 
    (Washington, D.C.: February 2005).
Hamm, K. (2006). More Than Meets the Eye: Head Start Programs, 
    Participants, Families, and Staff in 2005. Center for Law 
    and Social Policy, Policy Brief No. 8.
Haxton, B. (2007). Testimony for Improving Head Start for 
    America's Children, Subcommittee on Early Education, 
    Elementary, and Secondary Education, 110th Congress, 1st 
    Session. February 27, 2007.
La Paro, K., Pianta, R. C., & Stuhlman, M. (2004). Classroom 
    Assessment Scoring System (CLASS): Findings From the Pre-K 
    Year. The Elementary School Journal, 10, 409-426.
Mashburn, A., Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B., Downer, J., Barbarin, 
    O., Bryant, D., Burchinal, M., Clifford, R., Early, D., and 
    Howes, C. (in press). Pre-K program standards and 
    children's development of academic, language, and social 
    skills. Child Development.
McLanahan, S., Haskins, R., Paxson, C., Rouse, C., & Sawhill, 
    I. (Eds.), (2005). School Readiness: Closing Racial and 
    Ethnic Gaps. The Future of Children, Volume 15(1). 
    Princeton University and Brookings Institution Press.
Moughty, S. (2003). The Zero-to-Three Debate: A Cautionary Look 
    at Turning Science Into Policy. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/
    pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/science/zero.html.
National Research Council. Eager To Learn. Washington, D.C. 
    2000.
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2007). 
    The Science of Early Childhood Development. http://
    www.developingchild.net.
Pianta, R. C., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Byrant, D., Clifford, 
    R., Early, C., et al. (2005). Features of Pre-Kindergarten 
    Programs, Classrooms, and Teachers: Do They Predict 
    Observed Classroom Quality and Child Teacher Interactions? 
    Applied Developmental Science, 9(3), 144-159.
Thompson, R. (2007). Testimony for Improving Head Start for 
    America's Children, Subcommittee on Early Education, 
    Elementary, and Secondary Education, 110th Congress, 1st 
    Session. February 27, 2007.
U.S. Census Bureau (2005). Current Population Survey, Annual 
    Social and Economic Supplement.
U.S. Census Bureau (2006), DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B.D., & 
    Lee, C.H., Current Population Reports, P60-231, Income, 
    Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United 
    States: 2005, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
    DC, 2006.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education 
    Statistics (2001). National Household Education Surveys, 
    Program, Parent Interviews. Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007). The 
    Secretary's Advisory Committee on Head Start Accountability 
    and Educational Performance Measures. Final Report. 
    January.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Trends in 
    the Well-Being of America's Children & Youth: 2003. 
    Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration 
    for Children and Families (May 2005). Head Start Impact 
    Study: First Year Findings. Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration 
    for Children and Families (2005). Promoting Positive 
    Development in Young Children: Desiring Strategies That 
    Work, Summary of Conference Proceedings. Head Start's 7th 
    National Research Conference, June 28-July 1, 2004. 
    Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for 
    Children & Families (2001). Head Start FACES: Longitudinal 
    Findings on Program Performance, Third Progress Report. 
    Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000). 
    Implementation of PRISM: Program Review Instrument for 
    Systems Monitoring of Head Start and Early Head Start 
    Grantees. ACYF-IM-HS-00-21. DHHS/ACF/ACYF/HSB. 2000.

                     V. Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

    Cites the short title as the ``Improving Head Start Act of 
2007.''

Section 2. Purpose

    Amends Section 636 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831). 
Sets forth the purpose of this bill.

Section 3. Definitions

    Amends Section 637 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9832). 
Modifies and adds to the definitions under this action, 
including definitions of ``deficiency'', ``homeless children'', 
``homeless family'', ``limited English proficient'', 
``professional development'', ``scientifically based 
research'', and ``State.''

Section 4. Authorization of appropriations

    Amends Section 639 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9834). 
Authorizes $735,000,000 to carry out this action for fiscal 
year 2008 and such sums as necessary for fiscal years 2009 
through 2012, including specific programs.

Section 5. Allotment of funds; limitation on assistance

    Amends Section 640 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9835). 
Designates the purposes and percentages for funding. Directs 
five percent of the total annual appropriations as a set-aside 
to migrant and seasonal Head Start programs and 3.5 percent to 
Indian Head Start programs. Provides funding for Republic of 
Palau through fiscal year 2009. Requires at least two percent 
of the annual appropriations be used for training and technical 
assistance, and of that, at least 50 percent is directed to 
local grantees; at least 30 percent to be used to set up a 
state-based training and technical assistance system, and the 
remainder may be used for training and technical assistance 
purposes at the Secretary's discretion. Requires a minimum of 
60 percent of funds in excess of the adjusted prior year 
appropriation to be used for the specified quality improvement 
activities. Requires the Secretary to award collaboration 
grants to states upon written request. Lists purposes for which 
collaboration grants shall be used. Requires appointment of a 
State Director of Head Start Collaboration and lists the 
responsibilities of this position. Requires the Secretary to 
conduct annual consultations with each region, tribal 
government or Early Head Start program operating an Indian or 
Migrant andSeasonal Head Start program. Increases the amounts 
reserved for the Early Head Start program.

Section 6. Designation of Head Start agencies

    Amends Section 641 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9836). 
Maintains the current process of designating a Head Start 
agency until such time that the Secretary develops and 
implements the described system of application review. 
Establishes an expert panel to make recommendations to the 
Secretary on the development of a system for application review 
based upon specified data sources. Requires the opportunity for 
public comment prior to implementation of such system. Directs 
the Secretary to develop such a system that integrates these 
recommendations and will review each grant application every 
five years, with under-performing programs given an opportunity 
to enter into open competition. Requires the Secretary to 
ensure such system is transparent, valid, and reliable.
    Adds further language to criteria for designation under 
open competition, including an applicant's plan to attract and 
retain qualified staff, maintain child-teacher ratios and 
family service caseloads, use scientifically based teaching 
practices, maintain standards, maintain strong fiscal controls, 
coordinate with pre-kindergarten and child care programs, 
coordinate with entities willing to commit resources, offer in-
home visitation, offer mental and behavioral health services, 
extend outreach to fathers, meet needs of limited English 
proficient children and their families, meet diverse cultural 
needs, collaborate with other early childhood programs and 
local educational entities, and meet needs of homeless and 
foster children. Removes priority for non-profit applicants.

Section 7. Quality standards; monitoring of Head Start agencies and 
        programs

    Amends Section 641A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 
9836a). Adds additional language requiring the Secretary to 
modify as necessary, program performance standards to be 
scientifically-based, developmentally appropriate, and based on 
the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework. Requires such 
standards, at a minimum, address language, prereading, 
mathematics, science, cognitive abilities, social and emotional 
development, approaches to learning, creative arts, and 
progress toward acquisition of the English language. Suspends 
the National Reporting System. Adds requirements about the 
characteristics and use of allowable measures and assessments. 
Prohibits the creation of a national database of identifiable 
information. Requires triennial reviews use a risk-based 
assessment system and evaluate strengths and weaknesses. 
Provides for unannounced site visits. Requires that reviews 
include an assessment of whether a program has addressed 
community needs and an observational tool that measures 
classroom quality. Requires that Early Head Start reviews be 
conducted by someone knowledgeable about infant and toddler 
development. Requires that review findings inform training and 
technical assistance plans. Directs Head Start agencies to 
review their delegate agencies. Requires self-assessments by 
each Head Start and delegate agency. Institutes enrollment 
reporting requirements. Establishes rules for redistribution of 
funds received from reduction of a base grant, recaptured or 
withheld.

Section 8. Powers and functions of Head Start agencies

    Amends Section 642 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9837) 
and re-organizes current statute into four new subsections. 
Adds specific language regarding each Head Start agency's 
responsibilities in serving children with limited English 
proficiency and the involvement of grandparents and kinship 
caregivers, as appropriate. Maintains a system of shared 
program governance, with clearly delineated responsibilities 
shared between a governing body and a parent policy council. 
Specifies composition of governing body and parent policy 
council and prohibits conflicts of interest, except in cases 
where a Head Start grantee is a public entity and such 
requirements are not feasible. Directs the Secretary to guide 
Head Start agencies in developing an impasse policy for program 
governance. Establishes curricular requirements that are 
research-based and comprehensive and are aligned with the Head 
Start Child Outcomes Framework and state early learning 
standards, where appropriate. Requires the use of high-quality, 
reliable assessment and developmental screening and tools. 
Directs programs to develop training and technical assistance 
plans and teacher effectiveness-focused professional 
development plans. Requires programs to maintain 100 percent 
enrollment and a waitlist. Requires the use of strong fiscal 
controls.

Section 9. Head Start transition and alignment with K-12 education

    Amends Section 642A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 
9837a). Adds language including homeless families and their 
school-based liaisons in communication and outreach efforts. 
Adds requirements concerning curricular continuity, parental 
involvement, increasing participation of underserved 
populations and alignment with the Head Start Child Outcomes 
Framework and state early learning standards, where 
appropriate. Requires assistance to parents of limited English 
proficient children to improve transition to kindergarten.

Section 10. Local and state integration of early childhood education

    Adds a new section. Requires that all Head Start agencies 
enter into, submit to the Secretary, and review annually, 
memoranda of understanding with the state-funded pre-
kindergarten program in the agency's service area. Makes 
available certain funds to be used to establish and support a 
State Early Learning Council, if a state submits a written 
request and provides matching funds, which shall included 
representatives from Head Start, preschool programs, local and 
state educational agencies, child care, and an IDEA official. 
Directs the council to improve coordination among their 
respective programs (including addressing barriers to and 
opportunities for such coordination), assist in developing 
state early learning standards, make recommendations for 
unified data collection, address coordination with health care 
and other community-based support systems, and develop a plan 
to increase participation of underserved populations.

Section 11. Administrative requirements and standards

    Amends Section 644 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9839). 
Adds language requiring each Head Start agency publish an 
annual report. Requires that a request to purchase a facility 
for a Head Start program using Head Start money includes 
capacity and capability to provide Head Start services, 
potential to collaborate with community providers, and its 
relative cost-effectiveness to the facility purchase.

Section 12. Participation in Head Start programs

    Amends Section 645 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840). 
Includes children referred by child welfare services and 
homeless children as eligible children for Head Start programs. 
Adds language excluding military basic housing allowance from 
income eligibility calculation. Allows programs to convert 
funded Head Start slots to Early Head Start slots upon 
application to and approval by the Secretary. Allows Head Start 
programs to increase income eligibility to 130 percent of the 
federal poverty line with certain restrictions, upon 
application and approval by the Secretary. Allows Indian Head 
Start programs to convert Head Start slots to Early Head Start 
slots at any time.

Section 13. Early Head Start programs

    Amends Section 645A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 
9840a). Adds language including parenting skills and child 
development training to services provided to parents. Adds 
home-based services, programs for homeless infants and 
toddlers, and the agency responsible for the Child Abuse 
Prevention and Treatment Act to entities with which Early Head 
Start programs must coordinate. Requires programs to facilitate 
program coordination with Head Start and other early childhood 
programs. Adds Indian Head Start agencies to list of eligible 
entities. Adds professional development to training and 
technical assistance activities. Requires that all center-based 
staff have a minimum of a child development associate 
credential by September 30, 2009 and adds standards for staff 
qualifications and conduct of home visiting services.

Section 14. Parental consent requirement for health care services

    Adds a new section. Defines ``health care service'' and 
``nonemergency intrusive physical examination'' and requires 
all Head Start agencies to obtain written parental consent 
prior to administering or referring a child to any health care 
service.

Section 15. Appeals, notice, and hearing

    Amends Section 646(a)(3) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 
9841(a)(3)). Clarifies the Secretary's authority to terminate 
or reduce financial assistance before conclusion of an appeals 
process. Prevents federal Head Start funding appropriated under 
the Act from being used to pay legal fees for an appeal.

Section 16. Records and audits

    Amends Section 647 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9842). 
Adds language requiring all Head Start grantees to submit a 
complete accounting of administrative expenses to the Secretary 
on an annual basis. Requires Head Start agencies to submit to 
the Secretary a copy of the audit management letter following 
an audit conducted under the Single Audit Act.

Section 17. Technical assistance and training

    Amends Section 648 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9843). 
Adds language including homeless children and their families in 
community needs assessment, planning, and recruitment efforts. 
Targets limited English proficient children and their families 
for outreach. Requires training in the needs of special 
populations. Requires that more than half of training and 
technical assistance funding be used for classroom-focused 
training. Promotes recruitment of minority men to become Head 
Start teachers. Prohibits use of funds for travel to training 
activities available locally or regionally. Lists activities 
for which funds may be used by Head Start agencies. Directs the 
Secretary to study and report on the American Indian, Alaska 
Native, and Migrant and Seasonal Head Start-eligible 
populations. Directs the Secretary to contract with entities in 
the states to support a state-based system of delivering 
training and technical assistance. Permits the Secretary to 
award demonstration grants for career ladder programs for 
Hispanic-serving institutions and Tribal Colleges. Encourages 
the Secretary to contract with an institution of higher 
education to develop an on-line graduate-level professional 
development program.

Section 18. Staff qualifications and development

    Amends Section 648A of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 
9843a). Requires that by September 30, 2013, 50 percent of Head 
Start teachers nationwide have at least a baccalaureate in 
early childhood education or a related field and that within 
two years of enactment that all newly hired teachers have at 
least an associate's degree in early childhood education or 
related field or be enrolled in such a program to be completed 
within three years of date of hire. Clarifies that teachers of 
infants and toddlers in Migrant and Seasonal Head Start 
programs should meet the teacher requirements for Early Head 
Start. Provides for an alternative certification for Teach for 
America participants meeting specific standards. Requires that 
recipients of financial assistance teach in a Head Start 
program for the same period of time for which the assistance 
was received.

Section 19. Research, demonstrations, and evaluation

    Amends Section 649 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9844). 
Establishes a study on limited English proficient Head Start 
children and families and strikes mention of a study the 
Secretary has deemed impracticable. Requires the Secretary to 
evaluate the status of Head Start programs affected by 
hurricanes Katrina and Rita, establish recommendations on a 
disaster preparedness plan, and information on coordination 
with the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Section 20. Reports

    Amends Section 650 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9846). 
Includes homeless children, children in foster care and limited 
English proficient children in the status report requirements. 
Requires additional reporting on the 13 percent set-aside 
detailed in section 640(a)(2), the use of fiscal protocols as 
required in section 641A(c), and the use of Individualized 
Education Plans in Head Start. Requires the Secretary to advise 
programs on how to address childhood obesity in Head Start 
students and air quality in Head Start centers.

Section 21. Wages and compensation

    Amends Section 653 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9848). 
Prohibits any Head Start employee from being compensated at a 
rate greater than the level II Executive Schedule rate of pay.

Section 22. Limitation on certain uses of funds

    Prohibits Head Start funds from being used for any pre-
packaged news story unless the text or audio states that it is 
DHHS prepared or funded, or for publicity or propaganda.

                     VI. Explanation of Amendments

    The Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute, as amended, is 
explained in the body of this report.

           VII. Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1, the Congressional 
Accountability Act, requires a description of the application 
of this bill to the legislative branch. H.R. 1429 amends and 
improves the Head Start Act to help low-income children arrive 
at kindergarten ready to succeed. The bill does not prevent 
legislative branch employees' coverage under this legislation.

                    VIII. Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandates Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement of 
whether the provisions of the reported bill include unfunded 
mandates. H.R. 1429 contains no intergovernmental or private-
sector mandates as defined by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act 
(UMRA). Any costs to state, local, or tribal governments would 
result from complying with conditions for receiving federal 
assistance.

                         IX. Earmark Statement

    H.R. 1429 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clauses 9(d), 9(e) or 9(f) of rule XXI of the House of 
Representatives. 


    XI. Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
                               Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
the Committee's oversight findings and recommendations are 
reflected in the body of this report.

            XII. New Budget Authority and CBO Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the House of Representatives and section 308(a) of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect to 
requirements of 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the House of 
Representatives and section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act 
of 1974, the Committee has received the following estimate for 
H.R. 1429 from the Director of the Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, March 22, 2007.
Hon. George Miller,
Chairman, Committee on Education and Labor,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1429, the 
Improving Head Start Act of 2007.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Jonathan 
Morancy.
            Sincerely,
                                           Peter R. Orszag,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 1429--Improving Head Start Act of 2007

    Summary: H.R. 1429 would reauthorize the Head Start program 
through 2012. Head Start was authorized through 2003 by the 
Coats Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1998 (Public Law 
105-285) and has since been extended through annual 
appropriation acts.
    CBO estimates that the bill would authorize additional 
appropriations of $6.0 billion in 2008 and $36.8 billion over 
the 2008-2012 period, assuming that annual authorizations are 
adjusted for inflation when specific annual appropriation 
levels are not provided. (Without such inflation adjustments, 
the authorizations would total about $35.4 billion over the 
2008-2012 period.) CBO estimates that appropriation of the 
authorized levels would result in additional outlays of $33.1 
billion over the 2008-2012 period, assuming annual adjustments 
for inflation. (Outlays would total about $31.9 billion without 
adjustments for inflation.) Enacting H.R. 1429 would not affect 
direct spending or receipts.
    H.R. 1429 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). 
Any costs to state, local, or tribal governments would result 
from complying with conditions for receiving federal 
assistance.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 1429 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 500 
(education, training, employment, and social services).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              2007     2008     2009     2010     2011     2012
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Head Start Spending Under Current Law:
    Budget Authority \1\..................................    6,889    1,389        0        0        0        0
    Estimated Outlays.....................................    6,846    3,751      761       97       14        0
Proposed Changes:
    Estimated Authorization Level.........................        0    5,961    7,490    7,629    7,769    7,916
    Estimated Outlays.....................................        0    3,398    6,654    7,464    7,689    7,847
Total Spending Under H.R. 1429:
    Estimated Authorization Level.........................    6,889    7,350    7,490    7,629    7,769    7,916
    Estimated Outlays.....................................    6,846    7,149    7,415    7,560    7,703   7,847
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The 2007 level is the amount appropriated for the Head Start program, including an advance of $1.389
  billion. The 2008 level is the amount provided in an advance appropriation.
Notes.--Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.

    Basis of estimate: H.R. 1429 would reauthorize the Head 
Start program through 2012. The program is currently authorized 
through September 30, 2007, by the Revised Continuing 
Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110-5). For this 
estimate, CBO assumes that the bill will be enacted before the 
start of fiscal year 2008, that the estimated amounts shown in 
the table will be appropriated for each year, and that outlays 
will follow historical spending patterns.
    The Head Start program provides comprehensive child 
development services to low-income children. Services include 
education, health, nutrition, and social services with the goal 
of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-
income families.
    The bill would authorize the appropriation of $7.350 
billion in 2008 (including the $1.389 billion advance already 
appropriated for fiscal year 2008), and such sums as may be 
necessary in 2009 through 2012. CBO estimates that the total 
authorizations of additional appropriations for the 2008-2012 
period would be $36.8 billion, assuming adjustments for 
inflation from 2009 through 2012, with resulting additional 
outlays of $33.1 billion over those five years.
    Funding for this program for a given fiscal year is 
provided by both a regular appropriation for that fiscal year 
and an advance appropriation provided earlier. Although the 
program has been funded by two separate appropriations since 
2001, funding does not need to be authorized separately because 
all of the funds for a fiscal year could be provided in one 
appropriation.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 1429 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA. Grant funds authorized by the bill would 
benefit state, local, and tribal governments that participate 
in the Head Start program. Any costs they incur from complying 
with increased management and oversight responsibilities would 
result from complying with conditions for receiving federal 
assistance.
    Previous CBO estimate: On March 20, 2007, CBO transmitted a 
cost estimate for S. 556 as ordered reported by the Senate 
Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions on February 
14, 2007. That bill would authorize the overall Head Start 
program from 2008 through 2012. S. 556 would authorize slightly 
more funding than H.R. 1429, including two new grant programs 
that are not in the House bill. It also would establish a 
specific authorization level for Head Start for 2009 and 2010, 
whereas H.R. 1429 would authorize such sums as necessary for 
those years.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Jonathan Morancy. 
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Lisa Ramirez-
Branum. Impact on the Private Sector: Paige Shevlin.
    Estimate approved by: Robert A. Sunshine, Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

      XIII. Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c) of rule XIII of the House of 
Representatives, the goal of H.R. 1429 is to help low-income 
children arrive at kindergarten ready to succeed. The Committee 
expects the Department of Health and Human Services to comply 
with H.R. 1429 and implement the changes to the law in 
accordance with the changes.

                XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Under clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee must include a statement citing 
the specific powers granted to Congress in the Constitution to 
enact the law proposed by H.R. 1429. The Committee believes 
that the amendments made by this bill, which authorize 
appropriations for Head Start programs are within Congress' 
authority under Article I, section 8, clause 1 of the U.S. 
Constitution.

                         XV. Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the House of Representatives 
requires an estimate and a comparison of the costs that would 
be incurred in carrying out H.R. 1429. However, clause 
3(d)(3)(B) of that rule provides that this requirement does not 
apply when the Committee has included in its report a timely 
submitted cost estimate of the bill prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act.

       XVI. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the House of 
Representatives, changes in existing law made by the bill, as 
reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be 
omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is printed in 
italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in 
roman):

                             HEAD START ACT


CHAPTER 8--COMMUNITY SERVICES PROGRAMS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SUBCHAPTER B--Head Start Programs

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



[SEC. 636. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

  It is the purpose of this subchapter to promote school 
readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of 
low-income children through the provision, to low-income 
children and their families, of health, educational, 
nutritional, social, and other services that are determined, 
based on family needs assessments, to be necessary.]

SEC. 636. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

  It is the purpose of this subchapter to promote the school 
readiness of low-income children--
          (1) by enhancing their cognitive, social, and 
        emotional development in a learning environment that 
        supports children's growth in language, literacy, 
        mathematics, science, social and emotional functioning, 
        physical skills, and approaches to learning; and
          (2) through the provision to low-income children and 
        their families of health, educational, nutritional, 
        social, and other services that are determined, based 
        on family needs assessments, to be necessary.

                              DEFINITIONS

Sec. 637. For purposes of this subchapter:
          (1) * * *
          (2) The term ``deficiency'' means--
                  (A) systemic or significant material failure 
                of a Head Start agency in an area of 
                performance that the Secretary determines 
                involves--
                          (i) a threat to the health, safety, 
                        or civil rights of children or staff;
                          (ii) a denial to parents of the 
                        exercise of their full roles and 
                        responsibilities related to program 
                        governance;
                          (iii) a failure to perform the 
                        requirements of section 641A(a), as 
                        determined by the Secretary;
                          (iv) the misuse of funds received 
                        under this subchapter;
                          (v) loss of legal status (as 
                        determined by the Secretary) or 
                        financial viability, loss of permits, 
                        debarment from receiving Federal grants 
                        or contracts, or the improper use of 
                        Federal funds; or
                          (vi) failure to meet any other of 
                        Federal or State requirement; or
                  (B) material failure of the board of 
                directors of a Head Start agency to meet its 
                legal and fiduciary responsibilities.
          [(2)] (3) The term ``delegate agency'' means a 
        public, private nonprofit, or for-profit organization 
        or agency to which a grantee has delegated all or part 
        of the responsibility of the grantee for operating a 
        Head Start program.
          [(3)] (4) The term ``family literacy services'' means 
        services that are of sufficient intensity in terms of 
        hours, and of sufficient duration, to make sustainable 
        changes in a family, and that integrate all of the 
        following activities:
                  (A)  * * *
          [(4)] (5) The term ``financial assistance'' includes 
        assistance provided by grant, agreement, or contract, 
        and payments may be made in installments and in advance 
        or by way of reimbursement with necessary adjustments 
        on account of overpayments or underpayments.
          [(5)] (6) The term ``full calendar year'' means all 
        days of the year other than Saturday, Sunday, and a 
        legal public holiday.
          [(6)] (7) The term ``full-working-day'' means not 
        less than 10 hours per day. Nothing in this paragraph 
        shall be construed to require an agency to provide 
        services to a child who has not reached the age of 
        compulsory school attendance for more than the number 
        of hours per day permitted by State law (including 
        regulation) for the provision of services to such a 
        child.
          [(7)] (8) The term ``Head Start classroom'' means a 
        group of children supervised and taught by two paid 
        staff members (a teacher and a teacher's aide or two 
        teachers) and, where possible, a volunteer.
          [(8)] (9) The term ``Head Start family day care'' 
        means Head Start services provided in a private 
        residence other than the residence of the child 
        receiving such services.
          [(9)] (10) The term ``home-based Head Start program'' 
        means a Head Start program that provides Head Start 
        services in the private residence of the child 
        receiving such services.
          (11) The term ``homeless children'' has the meaning 
        given such term in section 725(2) of the McKinney-Vento 
        Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11434a(2)).
          (12) The term ``homeless family'' means the family of 
        a homeless child.
          [(10)] (13) The term ``Indian tribe'' means any 
        tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group 
        or community of Indians, including any Native village 
        described in section 3(c) of the Alaska Native Claims 
        Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1602(c)) or established 
        pursuant to such Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), that is 
        recognized as eligible for the special programs and 
        services provided by the United States to Indians 
        because of their status as Indians.
          (14) The terms ``limited English proficient'' and 
        ``limited English proficiency'' mean with respect to an 
        individual, that such individual--
                  (A)(i) was not born in the United States or 
                has a native language that is not English;
                  (ii)(I) is a Native American, an Alaska 
                Native, or a native resident of a territory or 
                possession of the United States; and
                  (II) comes from an environment in which a 
                language that is not English has had a 
                significant impact on such individual's level 
                of English language proficiency; or
                  (iii) is migratory, has a native language 
                that is not English, and comes from an 
                environment in which a language that is not 
                English is dominant; and
                  (B) has difficulty in speaking or 
                understanding the English language to an extent 
                that may be sufficient to prevent such 
                individual from--
                          (i) successful achievement in 
                        classrooms in which the language of 
                        instruction is English; or
                          (ii) fully participating in society.
          [(11)] (15) The term ``local educational agency'' has 
        the meaning given such term in the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965.
          [(12)] (16) The term ``migrant and seasonal Head 
        Start program'' means--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(13)] (17) The term ``mobile Head Start program'' 
        means the provision of Head Start services utilizing 
        transportable equipment set up in various community-
        based locations on a routine, weekly schedule, 
        operating in conjunction with home-based Head Start 
        programs, or as a Head Start classroom.
          [(14)] (18) The term ``poverty line'' means the 
        official poverty line (as defined by the Office of 
        Management and Budget)--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (19) The term ``professional development'' means high 
        quality activities that will improve the knowledge and 
        skills of Head Start teachers and staff, as relevant to 
        their roles and functions, in program administration 
        and the provision of services and instruction, as 
        appropriate, in a manner that improves service delivery 
        to eligible children and families, including activities 
        that--
                  (A) are part of a sustained effort to improve 
                overall program quality and outcomes for 
                eligible children and families;
                  (B) are developed or selected with extensive 
                participation of administrators and teachers 
                from Head Start programs;
                  (C) are developmentally appropriate for the 
                children being served;
                  (D) include instruction in ways that Head 
                Start personnel may work more effectively with 
                parents, as appropriate;
                  (E) are designed to give teachers and staff 
                the knowledge and skills to provide instruction 
                and appropriate support services to children of 
                diverse backgrounds, as appropriate;
                  (F) if a 1-day or short-term workshop or 
                conference, must be as part of the professional 
                development plan defined in section 648A(f) and 
                be delivered by an institution of higher 
                education or other entity with expertise in 
                delivering training in early childhood 
                development, family support, and other 
                assistance designed to improve the delivery of 
                Head Start services;
                  (G) assist teachers with--
                          (i) the acquisition of the content 
                        knowledge and teaching strategies 
                        needed to provide effective instruction 
                        and other school readiness services in 
                        early language and literacy, early 
                        mathematics, early science, cognitive 
                        skills, approaches to learning, 
                        creative arts, science, physical health 
                        and development, and social and 
                        emotional development linked to school 
                        readiness;
                          (ii) meeting the requirements in 
                        paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 
                        648A(a), as appropriate;
                          (iii) improving classroom management 
                        skills, as appropriate;
                          (iv) advancing understanding of 
                        effective instructional strategies that 
                        are--
                                  (I) based on scientifically 
                                based research; and
                                  (II) aligned with--
                                          (aa) the Head Start 
                                        Child Outcomes 
                                        Framework developed by 
                                        the Secretary and State 
                                        early learning 
                                        standards, as 
                                        appropriate; and
                                          (bb) the curricula, 
                                        ongoing assessments, 
                                        and other instruction 
                                        and services designed 
                                        to help meet the 
                                        standards described in 
                                        section 641A(a)(1);
                          (v) acquiring the knowledge and 
                        skills to provide instruction and 
                        appropriate language and support 
                        services to increase the English 
                        language skills of limited English 
                        proficient children, as appropriate; or
                          (vi) methods of teaching children 
                        with disabilities, as appropriate.
          [(15)] (20) The term ``scientifically based reading 
        research''--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (21) The term ``scientifically based research''--
                  (A) means research that involves the 
                application of rigorous, systematic and 
                objective procedures to obtain reliable and 
                valid knowledge relevant to education 
                activities and programs; and
                  (B) includes research that--
                          (i) employs systematic, empirical 
                        methods that draw on observation or 
                        experiment;
                          (ii) involves rigorous data analyses 
                        that are adequate to test the stated 
                        hypotheses and justify the general 
                        conclusions drawn;
                          (iii) relies on measurements or 
                        observational methods that provide 
                        reliable and valid data across 
                        evaluators and observers, across 
                        multiple measurements and observations, 
                        and across studies by the same or 
                        different investigators;
                          (iv) is evaluated using experimental 
                        or quasi-experimental designs in which 
                        individuals, entities, programs or 
                        activities are assigned to different 
                        conditions and with appropriate 
                        controls to evaluate the effects of the 
                        condition of interest, with a 
                        preference for random assignment 
                        experiments, or other designs to the 
                        extent that those designs contain 
                        within-condition or across-condition 
                        controls;
                          (v) ensures that experimental studies 
                        are presented in sufficient detail and 
                        clarity to allow for replication or, at 
                        a minimum, offer the opportunity to 
                        build systematically on their findings; 
                        and
                          (vi) has been accepted by a peer-
                        reviewed journal or approved by a panel 
                        of independent experts through a 
                        comparably rigorous, objective, and 
                        scientific review.
          [(16)] (22) The term ``Secretary'' means the 
        Secretary of Health and Human Services.
          [(17) The term ``State'' means a State, the 
        Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, 
        Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United 
        States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
        Islands, but for fiscal years ending before October 1, 
        2001 (and fiscal year 2002, if the legislation 
        described in section 640(a)(2)(B)(iii) has not been 
        enacted before September 30, 2001), also means the 
        Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the 
        Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau.]
          (23) The term ``State'' means a State, the 
        Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, 
        Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United 
        States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
        Islands, and the Republic of Palau.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                    [AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

[Sec. 639.
  [(a) There are authorized to be appropriated for carrying out 
the provisions of this subchapter such sums as may be necessary 
for fiscal years 1999 through 2003.
  [(b) From the amount appropriated under subsection (a), the 
Secretary shall make available--
          [(1) for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2003 to 
        carry out activities authorized under section 642A, not 
        more than $35,000,000 but not less than the amount that 
        was made available for such activities for fiscal year 
        1998;
          [(2) not more than $5,000,000 for each of fiscal 
        years 1999 through 2003 to carry out impact studies 
        under section 649(g); and
          [(3) not more than $12,000,000 for fiscal year 1999, 
        and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal 
        years 2000 through 2003, to carry out other research, 
        demonstration, and evaluation activities, including 
        longitudinal studies, under section 649.]

SEC. 639. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated to 
carry out this subchapter $7,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2008 
and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2009 through 
2012.
  (b) Specific Programs.--From the amount appropriated under 
subsection (a), the Secretary shall make available to carry out 
research, demonstration, and evaluation activities (including 
longitudinal studies under section 649) not more than 
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2008 and such sums as may be 
necessary for each of fiscal the years 2009 through 2012, of 
which not more than $7,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 
2008 through 2012 shall be available to carry out impact 
studies under section 649(g).

             ALLOTMENT OF FUNDS; LIMITATIONS ON ASSISTANCE

Sec. 640.
  [(a)(1) Of the sums appropriated pursuant to section 639 for 
any fiscal year beginning after September 30, 1981, the 
Secretary shall allot such sums in accordance with paragraphs 
(2) through (4), and subject to paragraphs (5) and (6).
  [(2) The Secretary shall reserve 13 percent of the amount 
appropriated for each fiscal year for use in accordance with 
the following order of priorities--
  [(A) Indian Head Start programs, services for children with 
disabilities, and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, 
except that there shall be made available for each fiscal year 
for use by Indian Head Start programs and by migrant and 
seasonal Head Start programs, on a nationwide basis, not less 
than the amount that was obligated for use by Indian Head Start 
programs and by migrant and seasonal Head Start programs for 
fiscal year 1998;
  [(B) payments, subject to paragraph (7)--
          [(i) to Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the 
        Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of the 
        United States;
          [(ii) for fiscal years ending before October 1, 2001, 
        to the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of 
        the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau; and
          [(iii) if legislation approving renegotiated Compacts 
        of Free Association for the jurisdictions described in 
        clause (ii) has not been enacted before September 30, 
        2001, for fiscal year 2002 to those jurisdictions;
        according to their respective needs, except that such 
        amount shall not exceed one-half of 1 percent of the 
        sums appropriated for any fiscal year;
  [(C) training and technical assistance activities which are 
sufficient to meet the needs associated with program expansion 
and to foster program and management improvement activities as 
described in section 648 of this subchapter, in an amount for 
each fiscal year which is not less than 2 percent of the amount 
appropriated for such fiscal year, of which not less than 
$3,000,000 of the amount appropriated for such fiscal year 
shall be made available to carry out activities described in 
section 648(c)(4);
  [(D) discretionary payments made by the Secretary (including 
payments for all costs (other than compensation of Federal 
employees) of reviews of Head Start agencies and programs under 
section 641A(c), and of activities carried out under paragraph 
(1), (2), or (3) of section 641A(d) related to correcting 
deficiencies and conducting proceedings to terminate the 
designation of Head Start agencies ; and
  [(E) payments for research, demonstration, and evaluation 
activities under section 649.
No funds reserved under this paragraph or paragraph (3) may be 
combined with funds appropriated under any other Act if the 
purpose of combining funds is to make a single discretionary 
grant or a single discretionary payment, unless such funds 
appropriated under this subchapter are separately identified in 
such grant or payment and are used for the purposes of this 
subchapter. No Freely Associated State may receive financial 
assistance under this subchapter after fiscal year 2002.
  [(3)(A)(i) In order to provide assistance for activities 
specified in subparagraph (C) directed at the goals specified 
in subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall reserve, from the 
amount (if any) by which the funds appropriated under section 
639(a) for a fiscal year exceed the adjusted prior year 
appropriation, a share equal to the sum of--
  [(I) 60 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 1999, 
50 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 2000, 47.5 
percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 2001, 35 percent 
of such excess amount for fiscal year 2002, and 25 percent of 
such excess amount for fiscal year 2003; and
  [(II) any additional amount the Secretary may find necessary 
to address a demonstrated need for such activities.
  [(ii) As used in clause (i), the term ``adjusted prior year 
appropriation'' means, with respect to a fiscal year, the 
amount appropriated pursuant to section 639(a) for the 
preceding fiscal year, adjusted to reflect the percentage 
change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers 
(issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) during such 
preceding fiscal year.
  [(B) Funds reserved under this paragraph (referred to in this 
paragraph as ``quality improvement funds'') shall be used to 
accomplish any or all of the following goals:
  [(i) Ensuring that Head Start programs meet or exceed 
performance standards pursuant to section 641A(a)(1)(A).
  [(ii) Ensuring that such programs have adequate numbers of 
qualified staff, and that such staff are furnished adequate 
training, including developing skills in working with children 
with non-English language background and children with 
disabilities, when appropriate.
  [(iii) Ensuring that salary levels and benefits are adequate 
to attract and retain qualified staff for such programs.
  [(iv) Using salary increases to improve staff qualifications, 
and to assist with the implementation of career development 
programs, for the staff of Head Start programs, and to 
encourage the staff to continually improve their skills and 
expertise by informing the staff of the availability of Federal 
and State incentive and loan forgiveness programs for 
professional development.
  [(v) Improving community-wide strategic planning and needs 
assessments for such programs and collaboration efforts for 
such programs.
  [(vi) Ensuring that the physical environments of Head Start 
programs are conducive to providing effective program services 
to children and families, and are accessible to children with 
disabilities and their parents.
  [(vii) Ensuring that such programs have qualified staff that 
can promote language skills and literacy growth of children and 
that can provide children with a variety of skills that have 
been identified, through scientifically based reading research, 
as predictive of later reading achievement.
  [(viii) Making such other improvements in the quality of such 
programs as the Secretary may designate.
  [(C) Quality improvement funds shall be used to carry out any 
or all of the following activities:
  [(i)(I) Not less than one-half of the amount reserved under 
this paragraph, to improve the compensation (including 
benefits) of classroom teachers and other staff of Head Start 
agencies and thereby enhance recruitment and retention of 
qualified staff, including recruitment and retention pursuant 
to achieving the requirements set forth in section 648A(a). The 
expenditure of funds under this clause shall be subject to 
section 653. Preferences in awarding salary increases, in 
excess of cost-of-living allowances, with such funds shall be 
granted to classroom teachers and staff who obtain additional 
training or education related to their responsibilities as 
employees of a Head Start program.
  [(II) If a Head Start agency certifies to the Secretary for 
such fiscal year that part of the funds set aside under 
subclause (I) to improve wages cannot be expended by such 
agency to improve wages because of the operation of section 
653, then such agency may expend such part for any of the uses 
specified in this subparagraph (other than wages).
  [(III) From the remainder of the amount reserved under this 
paragraph (after the Secretary carries out subclause (I)), the 
Secretary shall carry out any or all of the activities 
described in clauses (ii) through (vii), placing the highest 
priority on the activities described in clause (ii).
  [(ii) To train classroom teachers and other staff to meet the 
education performance standards described in section 
641A(a)(1)(B), through activities--
          [(I) to promote children's language and literacy 
        growth, through techniques identified through 
        scientifically based reading research;
          [(II) to promote the acquisition of the English 
        language for non-English background children and 
        families;
          [(III) to foster children's school readiness skills 
        through activities described in section 648A(a)(1); and
          [(IV) to provide training necessary to improve the 
        qualifications of the staff of the Head Start agencies 
        and to support staff training, child counseling, and 
        other services necessary to address the problems of 
        children participating in Head Start programs, 
        including children from dysfunctional families, 
        children who experience chronic violence in their 
        communities, and children who experience substance 
        abuse in their families.
  [(iii) To employ additional Head Start staff, including staff 
necessary to reduce the child-staff ratio and staff necessary 
to coordinate a Head Start program with other services 
available to children participating in such program and to 
their families.
  [(iv) To pay costs incurred by Head Start agencies to 
purchase insurance (other than employee benefits) and thereby 
maintain or expand Head Start services.
  [(v) To supplement amounts provided under paragraph (2)(C) to 
provide training necessary to improve the qualifications of the 
staff of the Head Start agencies, and to support staff 
training, child counseling, and other services necessary to 
address the problems of children participating in Head Start 
programs, including children from dysfunctional families, 
children who experience chronic violence in their communities, 
and children who experience substance abuse in their families.
  [(vi) Such other activities as the Secretary may designate.
  [(D)(i) Funds reserved under subparagraph (A) shall be 
allotted by the Secretary as follows:
  [(I) 80 percent of such funds shall be allotted among the 
States in the same proportion as the Secretary allots funds 
among the States under paragraph (4) for the respective fiscal 
year.
  [(II) 20 percent of such funds shall be allotted among the 
States, geographical areas specified in subsection (a)(2)(B) 
and Indian Head Start programs and migrant and seasonal Head 
Start programs, and used to make grants to Head Start agencies, 
at the discretion of the Secretary.
  [(ii) Funds allotted under clause (i) shall be used by the 
Secretary to make grants to Head Start agencies that receive 
grants from funds allotted under paragraph (4) for such fiscal 
year, in such amounts as the Secretary considers to be 
appropriate, for expenditure for activities specified in 
subparagraph (C).
  [(iii) Funds received under this subparagraph shall be used 
to supplement, not to supplant, funds received under paragraph 
(2) or (4).
  [(4) Subject to section 639(b), the Secretary shall allot the 
remaining amounts appropriated in each fiscal year among the 
States, in accordance with latest satisfactory data so that--
  [(A) each State receives an amount which is equal to the 
amount the State received for fiscal year 1998; and
  [(B) any amount available after all allotments are made under 
subparagraph (A) for such fiscal year shall be distributed 
proportionately on the basis of the number of children less 
than 5 years of age from families whose income is below the 
poverty line.
For purposes of this paragraph, for each fiscal year the 
Secretary shall use the most recent data available on the 
number of children less than 5 years of age from families whose 
income is below the poverty line, as published by the 
Department of Commerce, unless the Secretary and the Secretary 
of Commerce determine that use of the most recent data 
available would be inappropriate or unreliable. If the 
Secretary and the Secretary of Commerce determine that some or 
all of the data referred to in this paragraph are inappropriate 
or unreliable, the Secretaries shall issue a report setting 
forth their reasons in detail.
  [(5)(A) From amounts reserved and allotted pursuant to 
paragraph (4), the Secretary shall reserve such sums as may be 
necessary to award the collaboration grants described in 
subparagraphs (B) and (D).
  [(B) From the reserved sums, the Secretary may award a 
collaboration grant to each State to facilitate collaboration 
regarding activities carried out in the State under this 
subchapter, and other activities carried out in, and by, the 
State that are designed to benefit low-income children and 
families and to encourage Head Start agencies to collaborate 
with entities involved in State and local planning processes 
(including the State lead agency administering the financial 
assistance received under the Child Care and Development Block 
Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) and the entities 
providing resource and referral services in the State) in order 
to better meet the needs of low-income children and families.
  [(C) A State that receives a grant under subparagraph (B) 
shall--
  [(i) appoint an individual to serve as a State liaison 
between--
          [(I) the appropriate regional office of the 
        Administration for Children and Families and agencies 
        and individuals carrying out Head Start programs in the 
        State; and
          [(II) agencies (including local educational agencies) 
        and entities carrying out programs serving low-income 
        children and families;
  [(ii) involve the State Head Start Association in the 
selection of the individual, and involve the association in 
determinations relating to the ongoing direction of the 
collaboration;
  [(iii) ensure that the individual holds a position with 
sufficient authority and access to ensure that the 
collaboration described in subparagraph (B) is effective and 
involves a range of State agencies;
  [(iv) ensure that the collaboration described in subparagraph 
(B) involves coordination of Head Start services with health 
care, welfare, child care, education, and community service 
activities, family literacy services, activities relating to 
children with disabilities (including coordination of services 
with those State officials who are responsible for 
administering part C and section 619 of the Individuals with 
Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1431-1444, 1419)), and 
services for homeless children;
  [(v) include representatives of the State Head Start 
Association and local Head Start agencies in unified planning 
regarding early care and education services at both the State 
and local levels, including collaborative efforts to plan for 
the provision of full-working-day, full calendar year early 
care and education services for children; and
  [(vi) encourage local Head Start agencies to appoint a State 
level representative to represent Head Start agencies within 
the State in conducting collaborative efforts described in 
subparagraphs (B) and (D), and in clause (v).
  [(D) Following the award of collaboration grants described in 
subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall provide, from the 
reserved sums, supplemental funding for collaboration grants--
  [(i) to States that (in consultation with their State Head 
Start Associations) develop statewide, regional, or local 
unified plans for early childhood education and child care that 
include the participation of Head Start agencies; and
  [(ii) to States that engage in other innovative collaborative 
initiatives, including plans for collaborative training and 
professional development initiatives for child care, early 
childhood education and Head Start service managers, providers, 
and staff.
  [(E)(i) The Secretary shall--
  [(I) review on an ongoing basis evidence of barriers to 
effective collaboration between Head Start programs and other 
Federal, State, and local child care and early childhood 
education programs and resources;
  [(II) develop initiatives, including providing additional 
training and technical assistance and making regulatory 
changes, in necessary cases, to eliminate barriers to the 
collaboration; and
  [(III) develop a mechanism to resolve administrative and 
programmatic conflicts between programs described in subclause 
(I) that would be a barrier to service providers, parents, or 
children related to the provision of unified services and the 
consolidation of funding for child care services.
  [(ii) In the case of a collaborative activity funded under 
this subchapter and another provision of law providing for 
Federal child care or early childhood education, the use of 
equipment and nonconsumable supplies purchased with funds made 
available under this subchapter or such provision shall not be 
restricted to children enrolled or otherwise participating in 
the program carried out under that subchapter or provision, 
during a period in which the activity is predominantly funded 
under this subchapter or such provision.
  [(F) As used in this paragraph, the term ``low-income'', used 
with respect to children or families, shall not be considered 
to refer only to children or families that meet the low-income 
criteria prescribed pursuant to section 645(a)(1)(A).
  [(6)(A) From amounts reserved and allotted pursuant to 
paragraphs (2) and (4), the Secretary shall use, for grants for 
programs described in section 645A(a), a portion of the 
combined total of such amounts equal to 7.5 percent for fiscal 
year 1999, 8 percent for fiscal year 2000, 9 percent for fiscal 
year 2001, 10 percent for fiscal year 2002, and 10 percent for 
fiscal year 2003, of the amount appropriated pursuant to 
section 639(a), except as provided in subparagraph (B).
  [(B)(i) If the Secretary does not submit an interim report on 
the preliminary findings of the Early Head Start impact study 
currently being conducted by the Secretary (as of the date of 
enactment of the Head Start Amendments of 1998) to the 
appropriate committees by June 1, 2001, the amount of the 
reserved portion for fiscal year 2002 that exceeds the reserved 
portion for fiscal year 2001, if any, shall be used for quality 
improvement activities described in section 640(a)(3) and shall 
not be used to serve an increased number of eligible children 
under section 645A.
  [(ii) If the Secretary does not submit a final report on the 
Early Head Start impact study to the appropriate committees by 
June 1, 2002, or if the Secretary finds in the report that 
there are substantial deficiencies in the programs carried out 
under section 645A, the amount of the reserved portion for 
fiscal year 2003 that exceeds the reserved portion for fiscal 
year 2002, if any, shall be used for quality improvement 
activities described in section 640(a)(3) and shall not be used 
to serve an increased number of eligible children under section 
645A.
  [(iii) In this subparagraph:
  [(I) The term ``appropriate committees'' means the Committee 
on Education and the Workforce and the Committee on 
Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the Committee on 
Appropriations of the Senate.
  [(II) The term ``reserved portion'', used with respect to a 
fiscal year, means the amount required to be used in accordance 
with subparagraph (A) for that fiscal year.
  [(C)(i) For any fiscal year for which the Secretary 
determines that the amount appropriated under section 639(a) is 
not sufficient to permit the Secretary to reserve the portion 
described in subparagraph (A) without reducing the number of 
children served by Head Start programs or adversely affecting 
the quality of Head Start services, relative to the number of 
children served and the quality of the services during the 
preceding fiscal year, the Secretary may reduce the percentage 
of funds required to be reserved for the portion described in 
subparagraph (A) for the fiscal year for which the 
determination is made, but not below the percentage required to 
be so reserved for the preceding fiscal year.
  [(ii) For any fiscal year for which the amount appropriated 
under section 639(a) is reduced to a level that requires a 
lower amount to be made available under this subchapter to Head 
Start agencies and entities described in section 645A, relative 
to the amount made available to the agencies and entities for 
the preceding fiscal year, adjusted as described in paragraph 
(3)(A)(ii), the Secretary shall proportionately reduce--
  [(I) the amounts made available to the entities for programs 
carried out under section 645A; and
  [(II) the amounts made available to Head Start agencies for 
Head Start programs.
  [(7) For purposes of this subsection, the term ``State'' does 
not include Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated 
States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and 
Palau.]
  (a) Allotment of Funds.--
          (1) In general.--Of the funds appropriated under 
        section 639, the Secretary shall allot such amounts in 
        accordance with paragraphs (2) through (4), and subject 
        to paragraphs (5) and (6).
          (2) Thirteen percent set-aside.--The Secretary shall 
        reserve 13 percent of the amount appropriated for each 
        fiscal year for use in accordance with the following 
        order of priorities:
                  (A) Special populations.--For Indian Head 
                Start programs, services for children with 
                disabilities, and migrant and seasonal Head 
                Start programs, except that--
                          (i) there shall be made available for 
                        each fiscal year for use by Indian Head 
                        Start programs and by migrant and 
                        seasonal Head Start programs, on a 
                        nationwide basis, not less than the 
                        amount that was obligated for use by 
                        Indian Head Start programs and by 
                        migrant and seasonal Head Start 
                        programs for fiscal year 2007;
                          (ii) migrant and seasonal Head Start 
                        programs shall receive not less than 5 
                        percent of the amount appropriated for 
                        each fiscal year until such time as the 
                        Secretary can make funding decisions to 
                        ensure access to funding for eligible 
                        children of migrant and seasonal 
                        farmworkers is comparable to access to 
                        funding for other eligible children 
                        based on the data collected and 
                        reported pursuant to section 648(l), 
                        except that no future reduction in 
                        funding shall result in the termination 
                        of Head Start services provided to any 
                        eligible child 3 years of age or older 
                        who is participating in any such 
                        program on the date a reduction in 
                        funding occurs, and shall, to the 
                        extent possible, continue participation 
                        for children less than 3 years of age 
                        receiving services before such 
                        reduction in funding; and
                          (iii) Indian Head Start programs 
                        shall receive not less than 3.5 percent 
                        of the amount appropriated for each 
                        fiscal year until such time as the 
                        Secretary can make funding decisions to 
                        ensure access to funding for eligible 
                        Indian children is comparable to access 
                        to funding for other eligible children 
                        based on the data collected in 
                        accordance with the requirements of 
                        section 648(k), except that no future 
                        reduction in funding shall result in 
                        the termination of Head Start services 
                        provided to any eligible child 3 years 
                        of age or older who is participating in 
                        any such program on the date a 
                        reduction in funding occurs, and shall, 
                        to the extent possible, continue 
                        participation for children less than 3 
                        years of age receiving services before 
                        such reduction in funding.
                  (B) Payments to territories and freely 
                associated states.--Subject to paragraph (7), 
                for payments to Guam, American Samoa, the 
                Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 
                the Virgin Islands of the United States, and 
                the Republic of Palau, except that payments to 
                the Republic of Palau shall not be made after 
                fiscal year 2009.
                  (C) Training and technical assistance.--Not 
                less than 2 percent of the amount appropriated 
                for such fiscal year for training and technical 
                assistance activities to foster program quality 
                and management improvement as described in 
                section 648, of which--
                          (i) not less than 50 percent shall be 
                        available to local Head Start agencies 
                        to make program improvements identified 
                        by such agencies to use for the 
                        training and technical assistance 
                        activities described in section 648(j);
                          (ii) not less than 30 percent shall 
                        be available to the Secretary to 
                        support a State-based system or a 
                        national system, in the case of migrant 
                        and seasonal Head Start and Indian Head 
                        Start programs, of early childhood 
                        education training and technical 
                        assistance to local Head Start agencies 
                        as described in section 648(n); and
                          (iii) the remainder of such amount 
                        shall be available to the Secretary to 
                        assist local Head Start agencies in 
                        meeting and exceeding the standards 
                        described in section 641A(a)(1), 
                        including financial assistance to help 
                        Head Start programs address weaknesses 
                        identified by monitoring activities 
                        conducted by the Secretary under 
                        section 641A(c), except that--
                          (I) not less than $3,000,000 shall be 
                        available to carry out the activities 
                        described in section 648(c)(4); and
                          (II) no more than $5,000,000 shall be 
                        reserved to carry out the activities 
                        described in section 642B(b).
                  (D) Monitoring and terminations.--For 
                discretionary payments made by the Secretary, 
                including payments for all costs (other than 
                compensation of Federal employees) of reviews 
                of Head Start agencies, programs under section 
                641A(c), and of activities carried out under 
                paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 641A(d) 
                related to correcting deficiencies and 
                conducting proceedings to terminate the 
                designation of Head Start agencies.
                  (E) Research.--For payments for research, 
                demonstration, and evaluation activities under 
                section 649.
No funds reserved under this paragraph or paragraph (3) may be 
combined with funds appropriated under any other Act if the 
purpose of combining funds is to make a single discretionary 
grant or a single discretionary payment, unless such funds 
appropriated under this subchapter are separately identified in 
such grant or payment and are used for the purposes of this 
subchapter.
          (3) Quality improvement funds.--
                  (A) Determination of funds.--
                          (i) For each of the fiscal years 2008 
                        through 2012, to provide assistance for 
                        activities specified in subparagraph 
                        (B), the Secretary shall reserve, from 
                        the amount (if any) by which the funds 
                        appropriated under section 639(a) for a 
                        fiscal year exceed the adjusted prior 
                        year appropriation, a share equal to 
                        the sum of--
                          (I) 60 percent of such excess amount; 
                        and
                          (II) any additional part of such 
                        excess amount the Secretary may find 
                        necessary to address a demonstrated 
                        need for such activities.
                          (ii) As used in clause (i), the term 
                        ``adjusted prior year appropriation'' 
                        means, with respect to a fiscal year, 
                        the amount appropriated under section 
                        639(a) for the preceding fiscal year, 
                        adjusted to reflect the percentage 
                        change in the Consumer Price Index for 
                        All Urban Consumers (issued by the 
                        Bureau of Labor Statistics) during such 
                        preceding fiscal year.
                  (B) Quality improvement activities.--Funds 
                reserved under this paragraph shall be used to 
                carry out the following activities:
                          (i) Not less than one-fourth of the 
                        amount reserved under this paragraph, 
                        to improve the compensation, salary 
                        scales, and benefit standards of 
                        educational staff, family service 
                        workers, and child counselors, as 
                        described in sections 644(a) and 653, 
                        to ensure that salary levels and 
                        benefits are adequate to attract and 
                        retain qualified staff for such 
                        programs.
                          (ii) Providing on-going professional 
                        development to teachers that improves 
                        their understanding of child 
                        development, content knowledge, and 
                        appropriate teaching strategies needed 
                        to provide effective instruction and 
                        other school readiness services in the 
                        areas of early language and literacy, 
                        early mathematics, cognitive skills, 
                        approaches to learning, creative arts, 
                        science, physical health and 
                        development, and social and emotional 
                        development.
                          (iii) Improving the qualifications 
                        and skills of educational personnel to 
                        meet the professional standards 
                        established under section 648A(a)(1), 
                        including providing assistance to 
                        complete postsecondary course work, 
                        subject to section 648A(a)(2)(D).
                          (iv) Ensuring that the physical 
                        environments of Head Start programs are 
                        conducive to providing effective 
                        program services to children and 
                        families, and are accessible to 
                        children with disabilities and other 
                        individuals with disabilities.
                          (v) Employing additional qualified 
                        classroom staff necessary to reduce the 
                        child to teacher ratio in the classroom 
                        and family to staff ratio for family 
                        services workers.
                          (vi) Ensuring that such programs have 
                        qualified staff that can promote 
                        language skills and literacy growth of 
                        children and that can provide children 
                        with a variety of skills that have been 
                        identified, through scientifically 
                        based reading research, as predictive 
                        of later reading achievement.
                          (vii) Increasing hours of program 
                        operation, including--
                                  (I) conversion of part-day to 
                                full-day; and
                                  (II) number of weeks operated 
                                in a calendar year.
                          (viii) Improving the compensation and 
                        benefits of staff of Head Start 
                        agencies in order to improve the 
                        quality of Head Start programs.
                          (ix) Transportation costs associated 
                        with transporting Head Start children 
                        safely, except that--
                                  (I) no more than ten percent 
                                of funds under this paragraph 
                                may be used for such purposes;
                                  (II) a Head Start agency 
                                shall demonstrate efforts to 
                                leverage the costs of 
                                transportation through 
                                collaboration with other 
                                entities; and
                                  (III) a Head Start agency 
                                shall submit information to the 
                                Secretary describing how such 
                                use of funds is necessary to 
                                prevent reduction or 
                                termination of transportation 
                                services or, in the case of a 
                                Head Start agency serving a 
                                rural community, how such use 
                                of funds is necessary to 
                                improve services to such 
                                community.
                  (C) Allocation.--
                          (i) Funds reserved under subparagraph 
                        (A) shall be allotted by the Secretary 
                        as follows:
                                  (I) 80 percent of such funds 
                                shall be allotted among the 
                                States in the same proportion 
                                as the Secretary allots funds 
                                among the States under 
                                paragraph (4) for the 
                                respective fiscal year.
                                  (II) 20 percent of such funds 
                                shall be allotted among the 
                                States, geographical areas 
                                specified in subsection 
                                (a)(2)(B) and Indian Head Start 
                                programs and migrant and 
                                seasonal Head Start programs, 
                                and used to make grants to Head 
                                Start agencies, at the 
                                discretion of the Secretary.
                          (ii) Funds allotted under clause (i) 
                        shall be used by the Secretary to make 
                        grants to Head Start agencies that 
                        receive grants from funds allotted 
                        under paragraph (4) for such fiscal 
                        year, in such amounts as the Secretary 
                        considers to be appropriate, for 
                        expenditure for activities specified in 
                        subparagraph (B).
                          (iii) Funds received under this 
                        subparagraph shall be used to 
                        supplement, not to supplant, funds 
                        received under paragraph (2) or (4).
          (4) Grant distribution.--Subject to section 639(b), 
        the Secretary shall allot the remaining amounts 
        appropriated in each fiscal year among the States, in 
        accordance with latest satisfactory data so that--
                  (A) each State receives an amount which is 
                equal to the amount the State received for 
                fiscal year 2007; and
                  (B) any amount available after all allotments 
                are made under subparagraph (A) for such fiscal 
                year shall be distributed proportionately on 
                the basis of the number of children less than 5 
                years of age from families whose income is 
                below the poverty line.
        For purposes of this paragraph, for each fiscal year 
        the Secretary shall use the most recent data available 
        on the number of children less than 5 years of age from 
        families whose income is below the poverty line, as 
        published by the Department of Commerce, unless the 
        Secretary and the Secretary of Commerce determine that 
        use of the most recent data available would be 
        inappropriate or unreliable. If the Secretary and the 
        Secretary of Commerce determine that some or all of the 
        data referred to in this paragraph are inappropriate or 
        unreliable, the Secretaries shall issue a report 
        setting forth their reasons in detail.
          (5) Collaboration grants.--
                  (A) From amounts reserved and allotted under 
                paragraph (4), the Secretary shall award the 
                collaboration grants described in subparagraphs 
                (B), (C), and (D).
                  (B)(i) From the reserved sums, the Secretary 
                shall award upon submission of a written 
                request, a collaboration grant to each State 
                and to each national administrative office 
                serving Indian Head Start programs and migrant 
                and seasonal Head Start programs to facilitate 
                collaboration between Head Start agencies and 
                entities (including the State or national 
                administrative office) that carry out other 
                activities designed to benefit low-income 
                families and children from birth to school 
                entry. The national administrative offices 
                shall use the funds made available through the 
                grants to carry out the authorities and 
                responsibilities described in subparagraphs (B) 
                and (C).
                  (ii) Grants described in clause (i) shall be 
                used to--
                          (I) assist Head Start agencies to 
                        collaborate with entities involved in 
                        State and local planning processes to 
                        better meet the needs of low-income 
                        families and children from birth to 
                        school entry;
                          (II) assist Head Start agencies to 
                        coordinate activities with the State 
                        agency responsible for administering 
                        the State program carried out under the 
                        Child Care and Development Block Grant 
                        Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) 
                        and entities providing resource and 
                        referral services in the State, to make 
                        full-working-day and full calendar year 
                        services available to children;
                          (III) promote alignment of Head Start 
                        curricula and continuity of services 
                        with the Head Start Child Outcomes 
                        Framework and State early learning 
                        standards, as appropriate;
                          (IV) promote better linkages between 
                        Head Start agencies and other child and 
                        family agencies, including agencies 
                        that provide health, mental health, or 
                        family services, or other child or 
                        family supportive services, such as 
                        services provided under section 619 or 
                        part C of the Individuals with 
                        Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 
                        1419, 1431 et seq.); and
                          (V) carry out the activities of the 
                        State Director of Head Start 
                        Collaboration authorized in 
                        subparagraph (D).
                  (C) In order to improve coordination and 
                delivery of early education services to 
                children in the State, a State that receives a 
                collaboration grant under subparagraph (B) 
                shall--
                          (i) appoint or designate an 
                        individual to serve as, or carry out 
                        the responsibilities of, the State 
                        Director of Head Start Collaboration;
                          (ii) ensure that the State Director 
                        of Head Start Collaboration holds a 
                        position with sufficient authority and 
                        access to ensure that the collaboration 
                        described in subparagraph (B) is 
                        effective and involves a range of State 
                        agencies; and
                          (iii) involve the State Head Start 
                        Association in the selection of the 
                        Director and involve the Association in 
                        determinations relating to the ongoing 
                        direction of the collaboration office.
                  (D) The State Director of Head Start 
                Collaboration shall--
                          (i) not later than 1 year after the 
                        State receives a collaboration grant 
                        under subparagraph (B), conduct an 
                        assessment that--
                                  (I) addresses the needs of 
                                Head Start agencies in the 
                                State with respect to 
                                collaboration, coordination, 
                                and alignment of services, and 
                                alignment of curricula and 
                                assessments with the Head Start 
                                Child Outcomes Framework, and 
                                with State early learning 
                                standards, as appropriate;
                                  (II) shall be updated on an 
                                annual basis; and
                                  (III) shall be made available 
                                to the general public within 
                                the State;
                          (ii) develop a strategic plan that is 
                        based on the assessment described in 
                        clause (i) that will--
                                  (I) enhance collaboration and 
                                coordination of Head Start 
                                services with other entities 
                                providing early childhood 
                                programs and services (such as 
                                child care or services offered 
                                by museums), health care, 
                                mental health care, welfare, 
                                child protective services, 
                                education and community service 
                                activities, family literacy 
                                services, reading readiness 
                                programs (including such 
                                programs offered by public and 
                                school libraries), services 
                                relating to children with 
                                disabilities, other early 
                                childhood programs and services 
                                for limited English proficient 
                                children and homeless children, 
                                and services provided for 
                                children in foster care and 
                                children referred to Head Start 
                                programs by child welfare 
                                agencies, including agencies 
                                and State officials responsible 
                                for such services;
                                  (II) assist Head Start 
                                agencies to develop a plan for 
                                the provision of full-working-
                                day, full calendar year 
                                services for children enrolled 
                                in Head Start programs who need 
                                such care;
                                  (III) assist Head Start 
                                agencies to align curricula and 
                                assessments with the Head Start 
                                Child Outcomes Framework and to 
                                the State early learning 
                                standards, as appropriate; and
                                  (IV) enable Head Start 
                                agencies in the State to better 
                                access professional development 
                                opportunities for Head Start 
                                staff, such as by--
                                          (aa) working with 
                                        local Head Start 
                                        agencies to meet the 
                                        degree requirements 
                                        described in section 
                                        648A(a)(2)(A), 
                                        including providing 
                                        distance learning 
                                        opportunities for Head 
                                        Start staff, where 
                                        needed to make higher 
                                        education more 
                                        accessible to Head 
                                        Start staff; and
                                          (bb) enabling the 
                                        State Head Start 
                                        agencies to better 
                                        conduct outreach to 
                                        eligible families;
                          (iii) promote partnerships between 
                        Head Start agencies, State and local 
                        governments, and the private sector to 
                        help ensure that children, who are in 
                        Head Start programs, are receiving 
                        comprehensive services to prepare the 
                        children to enter school ready to 
                        succeed;
                          (iv) consult with the chief State 
                        school officer, local educational 
                        agencies, and providers of early 
                        childhood education and care, regarding 
                        early care and education services at 
                        both the State and local levels;
                          (v) promote partnerships between Head 
                        Start agencies, schools, law 
                        enforcement, relevant community-based 
                        organizations, and substance abuse and 
                        mental health treatment agencies to 
                        strengthen family and community 
                        environments and to reduce the impact 
                        on child development of substance 
                        abuse, child abuse, domestic violence, 
                        and other high risk behaviors that 
                        compromise healthy development;
                          (vi) promote partnerships between 
                        Head Start agencies and other 
                        organizations in order to enhance Head 
                        Start program quality, including 
                        partnerships to promote inclusion of 
                        more books in Head Start classrooms;
                          (vii) identify other resources and 
                        organizations (both public and private) 
                        for the provision of in-kind services 
                        to Head Start agencies in the State; 
                        and
                          (viii) work with the State Early 
                        Learning Council in order to assist the 
                        efforts of Head Start agencies to 
                        engage in effective coordination and 
                        collaboration.
          (6) Early head start.--
                  (A) Amounts reserved.--From amounts reserved 
                and allotted pursuant to paragraphs (2) and 
                (4), the Secretary shall use, for grants for 
                programs described in section 645A(a), a 
                portion of the combined total of such amounts 
                that is not less than 12 percent for fiscal 
                year 2008, not less than 14 percent for fiscal 
                year 2009, not less than 16 percent for fiscal 
                year 2010, not less than 18 percent for fiscal 
                year 2011, and not less than 20 percent for 
                fiscal year 2012 of the amount appropriated 
                pursuant to section 639(a).
                  (B) Limitations.--
                                  (i) For any fiscal year for 
                                which the Secretary determines 
                                that the amount appropriated 
                                under section 639(a) is not 
                                sufficient to permit the 
                                Secretary to reserve the 
                                portion described in 
                                subparagraph (A) without 
                                reducing the number of children 
                                served by Head Start programs 
                                or adversely affecting the 
                                quality of Head Start services, 
                                relative to the number of 
                                children served and the quality 
                                of the services during the 
                                preceding fiscal year, the 
                                Secretary may reduce the 
                                percentage of funds required to 
                                be reserved for the portion 
                                described in subparagraph (A) 
                                for the fiscal year for which 
                                the determination is made, but 
                                not below the percentage 
                                required to be so reserved for 
                                the preceding fiscal year.
                                  (ii) For any fiscal year for 
                                which the amount appropriated 
                                under section 639(a) is reduced 
                                to a level that requires a 
                                lower amount to be made 
                                available under this subchapter 
                                to Head Start agencies and 
                                entities described in section 
                                645A, relative to the amount 
                                made available to such agencies 
                                and entities for the preceding 
                                fiscal year, adjusted as 
                                described in paragraph 
                                (3)(A)(ii), the Secretary shall 
                                proportionately reduce--
                                          (I) the amounts made 
                                        available to such 
                                        entities for programs 
                                        carried out under 
                                        section 645A; and
                                          (II) the amounts made 
                                        available to such Head 
                                        Start agencies for Head 
                                        Start programs.
          (7) For purposes of this subsection, the term 
        ``State'' does not include Guam, American Samoa, the 
        Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern 
        Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, 
        the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic 
        of Palau.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(f) The Secretary shall establish procedures to enable Head 
Start agencies to develop locally designed or specialized 
service delivery models to address local community needs.]
  (f) Service Delivery Models.--
          (1) Not later than 1 year after the date of the 
        enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the 
        Secretary shall establish procedures to enable Head 
        Start agencies to develop locally designed or 
        specialized service delivery models to address local 
        community needs, including models that leverage the 
        existing capacity and capabilities of the delivery 
        system of early childhood education and child care.
          (2) In establishing the procedures, the Secretary 
        shall establish procedures to provide for--
                  (A) the conversion of part-day programs to 
                full-day programs or part-day slots to full-day 
                slots; and
                  (B) serving additional infants and toddlers 
                pursuant to section 645(a)(4).
  (g)(1) * * *
  (2) [For the purpose of expanding Head Start programs, in] In 
allocating funds to an applicant within a State, from amounts 
allotted to a State pursuant to subsection (a)(4), the 
Secretary shall take into consideration--
          (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(C) the extent to which the applicant has undertaken 
        community-wide strategic planning and needs assessments 
        involving other community organizations and public 
        agencies serving children and families (including 
        organizations serving families in whose homes English 
        is not the language customarily spoken), and 
        organizations and public entities serving children with 
        disabilities;
          [(D) the extent to which the family and community 
        needs assessment of the applicant reflects a need to 
        provide full-working-day or full calendar year services 
        and the extent to which, and manner in which, the 
        applicant demonstrates the ability to collaborate and 
        participate with other local community providers of 
        child care or preschool services to provide full-
        working-day full calendar year services;
          [(E) the numbers of eligible children in each 
        community who are not participating in a Head Start 
        program or any other early childhood program;
          [(F) the concentration of low-income families in each 
        community;
          [(G) the extent to which the applicant proposes to 
        foster partnerships with other service providers in a 
        manner that will enhance the resource capacity of the 
        applicant; and
          [(H) the extent to which the applicant, in providing 
        services, plans to coordinate with the local 
        educational agency serving the community involved and 
        with schools in which children participating in a Head 
        Start program operated by such agency will enroll 
        following such program, regarding such services and the 
        education services provided by such local educational 
        agency.]
          (C) the extent to which the applicant has undertaken 
        community-wide strategic planning and needs assessments 
        involving other community organizations and local 
        public agencies serving children and families with 
        Federal, State, or local funds (including organizations 
        and agencies providing family support services, child 
        abuse prevention services, protective services, and 
        foster care, and organizations serving families in 
        whose homes English is not the language customarily 
        spoken), and individuals, organizations, and public 
        entities serving children with disabilities or homeless 
        children, including the local educational agency 
        liaison designated under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of 
        the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 
        11432(g)(1)(J)(ii));
          (D) the extent to which the family and community 
        needs assessment of the applicant reflects a need to 
        provide full working-day or full calendar year services 
        and the extent to which, and manner in which, the 
        applicant demonstrates the ability to collaborate and 
        participate with the State and local community 
        providers of child care or preschool services to 
        provide full working-day full calendar year services;
          (E) the number of eligible children in each community 
        who are not participating in a Head Start program or 
        any other early childhood program;
          (F) the concentration of low-income families in each 
        community;
          (G) the extent to which the applicant proposes to 
        foster partnerships with other service providers in a 
        manner that will leverage the existing delivery systems 
        of such services and enhance the resource capacity of 
        the applicant;
          (H) the extent to which the applicant, in providing 
        services, successfully coordinated its activities with 
        the local educational agency serving the community 
        involved, (including the local educational agency 
        liaison designated under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of 
        the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 
        11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)) and with schools in which children 
        participating in a Head Start program operated by such 
        agency will enroll following such program, regarding 
        such services and the education services provided by 
        such local educational agency; and
          (I) the amount of funds used by such agency to pay 
        administrative expenses and the amount of available 
        funds received by such agency under this section to 
        service each enrolled child.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (l)(1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(3) In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall 
continue the administrative arrangement responsible for meeting 
the needs of children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and 
Indian children and shall ensure that appropriate funding is 
provided to meet such needs.]
  (3) In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall 
continue the administrative arrangement at the national level 
for meeting the needs of Indian children and children of 
migrant and seasonal farmworkers and shall ensure that 
appropriate funding is provided to meet such needs, including 
training and technical assistance and the appointment of a 
national migrant and seasonal Head Start collaboration director 
and a national Indian Head Start collaboration director.
  (4)(A) For the purposes of paragraph (3), the Secretary shall 
conduct an annual consultation in each affected Head Start 
region, with tribal governments operating Head Start programs 
and Early Head Start programs.
  (B) The consultations shall be for the purpose of better 
meeting the needs of Indian children and children of Alaskan 
Natives, and their families, in accordance with subsections 
(a), (b), and (c) of section 641, taking into consideration 
funding allocations, distribution formulas, and other issues 
affecting the delivery of Head Start services in their 
geographic locations.
  (C) The Secretary shall publish a notification of the 
consultations in the Federal Register before conducting the 
consultations.
  (D) A detailed report of each consultation shall be prepared 
and made available within 90 days of the annual consultation to 
all Indian tribes that receive assistance under this 
subchapter.
  (m) Enrollment of Homeless Children.--The Secretary shall 
issue rules to establish policies and procedures to remove 
barriers to the enrollment and participation of homeless 
children in Head Start programs. Such rules shall require Head 
Start agencies--
          (1) to implement policies and procedures to ensure 
        that homeless children are identified and prioritized 
        for enrollment;
          (2) to allow homeless families to apply to, enroll in 
        and attend Head Start programs while required 
        documents, such as proof of residency, immunization and 
        other medical records, birth certificates and other 
        documents, are obtained within a reasonable time frame; 
        and
          (3) coordinate individual Head Start programs with 
        efforts to implement subtitle B of title VII of the 
        McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 
        11431--11435).
  (n) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this subchapter shall 
be construed to require a State to establish a program of early 
education for children in the State, to require any child to 
participate in a program of early education, to attend school, 
or to participate in any initial screening before participating 
in such program, except as provided under sections 612(a)(3) 
and 635(a)(5) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education 
Act.
  (o) Materials.--All curricula and instructional materials 
funded under this subchapter shall be based on scientifically 
based research, age and developmentally appropriate, and 
focused on all areas of development (cognitive, social, 
emotional, and physical), learning (language and literacy, 
mathematics, science, and creative arts) and approaches to 
learning. Parents shall be permitted to inspect, upon request, 
any curricula or instructional materials used to carry out this 
subchapter.

                  [DESIGNATION OF HEAD START AGENCIES

[Sec. 641.
  [(a) The Secretary is authorized to designate as a Head Start 
agency any local public or private nonprofit or for-profit 
agency, within a community, which (1) has the power and 
authority to carry out the purposes of this subchapter and 
perform the functions set forth in section 642 within a 
community; and (2) is determined by the Secretary (in 
consultation with the chief executive officer of the State 
involved, if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out 
Head Start programs) to be capable of planning, conducting, 
administering, and evaluating, either directly or by other 
arrangements, a Head Start program.
  [(b) For purposes of this subchapter, a community may be a 
city, county, or multicity or multicounty unit within a State, 
an Indian reservation (including Indians in any off-reservation 
area designated by an appropriate tribal government in 
consultation with the Secretary), or a neighborhood or other 
area (irrespective of boundaries or political subdivisions) 
which provides a suitable organizational base and possesses the 
commonality of interest needed to operate a Head Start program.
  [(c)(1) In the administration of the provisions of this 
section (subject to paragraph (2)), the Secretary shall, in 
consultation with the chief executive officer of the State 
involved if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out 
Head Start programs, give priority in the designation of Head 
Start agencies to any local public or private nonprofit or for-
profit agency which is receiving funds under any Head Start 
program on the date of the enactment of this Act unless the 
Secretary determines that the agency involved fails to meet 
program and financial management requirements, performance 
standards described in section 641A(a)(1), results-based 
performance measures developed by the Secretary under section 
641A(b), or other requirements established by the Secretary.
  [(2) If there is no agency of the type referred to in 
paragraph (1) because of any change in the assistance furnished 
to programs for economically disadvantaged persons, the 
Secretary shall, in consultation with the chief executive 
officer of the State if such State expends non-Federal funds to 
carry out Head Start programs, give priority in the designation 
of Head Start agencies to any successor agency that is 
operating a Head Start program in substantially the same manner 
as the predecessor agency that did receive funds in the fiscal 
year preceding the fiscal year for which the determination is 
made.
  [(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, 
the Secretary shall not give such priority to any agency with 
respect to which financial assistance has been terminated, or 
an application for refunding has been denied, under this 
subchapter by the Secretary after affording such agency 
reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair hearing 
in accordance with section 646(a)(3).
  [(d) If no entity in a community is entitled to the priority 
specified in subsection (c), then the Secretary may designate a 
Head Start agency from among qualified applicants in such 
community. In selecting from among qualified applicants for 
designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall give 
priority to any qualified agency that functioned as a Head 
Start delegate agency in the community and carried out a Head 
Start program that the Secretary determines met or exceeded 
such performance standards and such results-based performance 
measures. In selecting from among qualified applicants for 
designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall 
consider the effectiveness of each such applicant to provide 
Head Start services, based on--
          [(1) any past performance of such applicant in 
        providing services comparable to Head Start services, 
        including how effectively such applicant provided such 
        comparable services;
          [(2) the plan of such applicant to provide 
        comprehensive health, nutritional, educational, social, 
        and other services needed to aid participating children 
        in attaining their full potential;
          [(3) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the 
        Head Start program it proposes to carry out, with other 
        preschool programs, including Even Start programs under 
        part B of chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et 
        seq.) and programs under part C and section 619 of the 
        Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 
        1431-1444, 1419), and with the educational programs 
        such children will enter at the age of compulsory 
        school attendance;
          [(4) the plan of such applicant--
                  [(A) to seek the involvement of parents of 
                participating children in activities (at home 
                and in the center involved where practicable) 
                designed to help such parents become full 
                partners in the education of their children;
                  [(B) to afford such parents the opportunity 
                to participate in the development, conduct, and 
                overall performance of the program at the local 
                level;
                  [(C) to offer (directly or through referral 
                to local entities, such as entities carrying 
                out Even Start programs under part B of chapter 
                1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary 
                Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.), 
                public and school libraries, and family support 
                programs) to such parents--
                          [(i) family literacy services; and
                          [(ii) parenting skills training;
                  [(D) to offer to parents of participating 
                children substance abuse counseling (either 
                directly or through referral to local 
                entities), including information on drug-
                exposed infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;
                  [(E) at the option of such applicant, to 
                offer (directly or through referral to local 
                entities) to such parents--
                          [(i) training in basic child 
                        development;
                          [(ii) assistance in developing 
                        communication skills;
                          [(iii) opportunities for parents to 
                        share experiences with other parents; 
                        or
                          [(iv) any other activity designed to 
                        help such parents become full partners 
                        in the education of their children; and
                  [(F) to provide, with respect to each 
                participating family, a family needs assessment 
                that includes consultation with such parents 
                about the benefits of parent involvement and 
                about the activities described in subparagraphs 
                (C) (D), and (E) in which such parents may 
                choose to become involved (taking into 
                consideration their specific family needs, work 
                schedules, and other responsibilities);
          [(5) the ability of such applicant to carry out the 
        plans described in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4);
          [(6) other factors related to the requirements of 
        this subchapter;
          [(7) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        non-English background children and their families, 
        including needs related to the acquisition of the 
        English language;
          [(8) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of 
        children with disabilities;
          [(9) the plan of such applicant who chooses to assist 
        younger siblings of children who will participate in 
        the proposed Head Start program to obtain health 
        services from other sources; and
          [(10) the plan of such applicant to collaborate with 
        other entities carrying out early childhood education 
        and child care programs in the community.
  [(e) If no agency in the community receives priority 
designation under subsection (c), and there is no qualified 
applicant in the community, the Secretary shall designate a 
qualified agency to carry out the Head Start program in the 
community on an interim basis until a qualified applicant from 
the community is so designated.
  [(f) The Secretary shall require that the practice of 
significantly involving parents and area residents affected by 
the program in selection of Head Start agencies be continued.
  [(g) If the Secretary determines that a nonprofit agency and 
a for-profit agency have submitted applications for designation 
of equivalent quality under subsection (d), the Secretary may 
give priority to the nonprofit agency. In selecting from among 
qualified applicants for designation as a Head Start agency 
under subsection (d), the Secretary shall give priority to 
applicants that have demonstrated capacity in providing 
comprehensive early childhood services to children and their 
families.

[SEC. 641A. QUALITY STANDARDS; MONITORING OF HEAD START AGENCIES AND 
                    PROGRAMS.

  [(a) Quality Standards.--
          [(1) Establishment of standards.--The Secretary shall 
        establish by regulation standards, including minimum 
        levels of overall accomplishment, applicable to Head 
        Start agencies, programs, and projects under this 
        subchapter, including--
                  [(A) performance standards with respect to 
                services required to be provided, including 
                health, parental involvement, nutritional, 
                social, transition activities described in 
                section 642(d), and other services;
                  [(B)(i) education performance standards to 
                ensure the school readiness of children 
                participating in a Head Start program, on 
                completion of the Head Start program and prior 
                to entering school; and
                  [(ii) additional education performance 
                standards to ensure that the children 
                participating in the program, at a minimum--
                          [(I) develop phonemic, print, and 
                        numeracy awareness;
                          [(II) understand and use language to 
                        communicate for various purposes;
                          [(III) understand and use 
                        increasingly complex and varied 
                        vocabulary;
                          [(IV) develop and demonstrate an 
                        appreciation of books; and
                          [(V) in the case of non-English 
                        background children, progress toward 
                        acquisition of the English language.
                  [(C) administrative and financial management 
                standards;
                  [(D) standards relating to the condition and 
                location of facilities for such agencies, 
                programs, and projects; and
                  [(E) such other standards as the Secretary 
                finds to be appropriate.
          [(2) Considerations in developing standards.--In 
        developing the regulations required under paragraph 
        (1), the Secretary shall--
                  [(A) consult with experts in the fields of 
                child development, early childhood education, 
                child health care, family services (including 
                linguistically and culturally appropriate 
                services to non-English language background 
                children and their families), administration, 
                and financial management, and with persons with 
                experience in the operation of Head Start 
                programs;
                  [(B) take into consideration--
                          [(i) past experience with use of the 
                        standards in effect under this 
                        subchapter on the date of enactment of 
                        this section;
                          [(ii) changes over the period since 
                        the date of enactment of this Act in 
                        the circumstances and problems 
                        typically facing children and families 
                        served by Head Start agencies;
                          [(iii) developments concerning best 
                        practices with respect to early 
                        childhood education and development, 
                        children with disabilities, family 
                        services, program administration, and 
                        financial management;
                          [(iv) projected needs of an expanding 
                        Head Start program;
                          [(v) guidelines and standards 
                        currently in effect or under 
                        consideration that promote child health 
                        services, and projected needs of 
                        expanding Head Start programs;
                          [(vi) changes in the population of 
                        children who are eligible to 
                        participate in Head Start programs, 
                        including the language background and 
                        family structure of such children; and
                          [(vii) the need for, and state-of-
                        the-art developments relating to, local 
                        policies and activities designed to 
                        ensure that children participating in 
                        Head Start programs make a successful 
                        transition to public schools; and
                  [(C)(i) review and revise as necessary the 
                performance standards in effect under this 
                subsection; and
                  [(ii) ensure that any such revisions in the 
                performance standards will not result in the 
                elimination of or any reduction in the scope or 
                types of health, education, parental 
                involvement, nutritional, social, or other 
                services required to be provided under such 
                standards as in effect on the date of enactment 
                of the Coats Human Services Reauthorization Act 
                of 1998.
          [(3) Standards relating to obligations to delegate 
        agencies.--In developing standards under this 
        subsection, the Secretary shall describe the 
        obligations of a Head Start agency to a delegate agency 
        to which the Head Start agency has delegated 
        responsibility for providing services under this 
        subchapter and determine whether the Head Start agency 
        complies with the standards. The Secretary shall 
        consider such compliance during the review described in 
        subsection (c)(1)(A) and in determining whether to 
        renew financial assistance to the Head Start agency 
        under this subchapter.
  [(b) Results-Based Performance Measures.--
          [(1) In general.--The Secretary, in consultation with 
        representatives of Head Start agencies and with experts 
        in the fields of early childhood education and 
        development, family services, and program management, 
        shall develop methods and procedures for measuring, 
        annually and over longer periods, the quality and 
        effectiveness of programs operated by Head Start 
        agencies, and the impact of the services provided 
        through the programs to children and their families 
        (referred to in this subchapter as ``results-based 
        performance measures'').
          [(2) Characteristics of measures.--The performance 
        measures developed under this subsection shall--
                  [(A) be used to assess the impact of the 
                various services provided by Head Start 
                programs and, to the extent the Secretary finds 
                appropriate, administrative and financial 
                management practices of such programs;
                  [(B) be adaptable for use in self-assessment, 
                peer review, and program evaluation of 
                individual Head Start agencies and programs, 
                not later than July 1, 1999; and
                  [(C) be developed for other program purposes 
                as determined by the Secretary.
        The performance measures shall include the performance 
        standards described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii).
          [(3) Use of measures.--The Secretary shall use the 
        performance measures developed pursuant to this 
        subsection--
                  [(A) to identify strengths and weaknesses in 
                the operation of Head Start programs 
                nationally, regionally, and locally; and
                  [(B) to identify problem areas that may 
                require additional training and technical 
                assistance resources.
          [(4) Educational performance measures.--Such results-
        based performance measures shall include educational 
        performance measures that ensure that children 
        participating in Head Start programs--
                  [(A) know that letters of the alphabet are a 
                special category of visual graphics that can be 
                individually named;
                  [(B) recognize a word as a unit of print;
                  [(C) identify at least 10 letters of the 
                alphabet; and
                  [(D) associate sounds with written words.
          [(5) Additional local results-based performance 
        measures.--In addition to other applicable results-
        based performance measures, Head Start agencies may 
        establish local results-based educational performance 
        measures.
  [(c) Monitoring of Local Agencies and Programs.--
          [(1) In general.--In order to determine whether Head 
        Start agencies meet standards established under this 
        subchapter and results-based performance measures 
        developed by the Secretary under subsection (b) with 
        respect to program, administrative, financial 
        management, and other requirements, the Secretary shall 
        conduct the following reviews of designated Head Start 
        agencies, and of the Head Start programs operated by 
        such agencies:
                  [(A) A full review of each such agency at 
                least once during each 3-year period.
                  [(B) A review of each newly designated agency 
                immediately after the completion of the first 
                year such agency carries out a Head Start 
                program.
                  [(C) Followup reviews including prompt return 
                visits to agencies and programs that fail to 
                meet the standards.
                  [(D) Other reviews as appropriate.
          [(2) Conduct of reviews.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that reviews described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) 
        of paragraph (1)--
                  [(A) are performed, to the maximum extent 
                practicable, by employees of the Department of 
                Health and Human Services who are knowledgeable 
                about Head Start programs;
                  [(B) are supervised by such an employee at 
                the site of such Head Start agency;
                  [(C) are conducted by review teams that shall 
                include individuals who are knowledgeable about 
                Head Start programs and, to the maximum extent 
                practicable, the diverse (including linguistic 
                and cultural) needs of eligible children 
                (including children with disabilities) and 
                their families;
                  [(D) include as part of the reviews of the 
                programs, a review and assessment of program 
                effectiveness, as measured in accordance with 
                the results-based performance measures 
                developed by the Secretary pursuant to 
                subsection (b) and with the performance 
                standards established pursuant to subparagraphs 
                (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1); and
                  [(E) seek information from the communities 
                and the States involved about the performance 
                of the programs and the efforts of the Head 
                Start agencies to collaborate with other 
                entities carrying out early childhood education 
                and child care programs in the community.
  [(d) Corrective Action; Termination.--
          [(1) Determination.--If the Secretary determines, on 
        the basis of a review pursuant to subsection (c), that 
        a Head Start agency designated pursuant to section 641 
        fails to meet the standards described in subsection (a) 
        or results-based performance measures developed by the 
        Secretary under subsection (b), the Secretary shall--
                  [(A) inform the agency of the deficiencies 
                that shall be corrected;
                  [(B) with respect to each identified 
                deficiency, require the agency--
                          [(i) to correct the deficiency 
                        immediately, if the Secretary finds 
                        that the deficiency threatens the 
                        health or safety of staff or program 
                        participants or poses a threat to the 
                        integrity of Federal funds;
                          [(ii) to correct the deficiency not 
                        later than 90 days after the 
                        identification of the deficiency if the 
                        Secretary finds, in the discretion of 
                        the Secretary, that such a 90-day 
                        period is reasonable, in light of the 
                        nature and magnitude of the deficiency; 
                        or
                          [(iii) in the discretion of the 
                        Secretary (taking into consideration 
                        the seriousness of the deficiency and 
                        the time reasonably required to correct 
                        the deficiency), to comply with the 
                        requirements of paragraph (2) 
                        concerning a quality improvement plan; 
                        and
                  [(C) initiate proceedings to terminate the 
                designation of the agency unless the agency 
                corrects the deficiency.
          [(2) Quality improvement plan.--
                  [(A) Agency responsibilities.--In order to 
                retain a designation as a Head Start agency 
                under this subchapter, a Head Start agency that 
                is the subject of a determination described in 
                paragraph (1) (other than an agency required to 
                correct a deficiency immediately or during a 
                90-day period under clause (i) or (ii) of 
                paragraph (1)(B)) shall--
                          [(i) develop in a timely manner, 
                        obtain the approval of the Secretary 
                        regarding, and implement a quality 
                        improvement plan that specifies--
                                  [(I) the deficiencies to be 
                                corrected;
                                  [(II) the actions to be taken 
                                to correct such deficiencies; 
                                and
                                  [(III) the timetable for 
                                accomplishment of the 
                                corrective actions specified; 
                                and
                          [(ii) eliminate each deficiency 
                        identified, not later than the date for 
                        elimination of such deficiency 
                        specified in such plan (which shall not 
                        be later than 1 year after the date the 
                        agency received notice of the 
                        determination and of the specific 
                        deficiency to be corrected).
                  [(B) Secretarial responsibility.--Not later 
                than 30 days after receiving from a Head Start 
                agency a proposed quality improvement plan 
                pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Secretary 
                shall either approve such proposed plan or 
                specify the reasons why the proposed plan 
                cannot be approved.
          [(3) Training and technical assistance.--The 
        Secretary shall provide training and technical 
        assistance to Head Start agencies with respect to the 
        development or implementation of such quality 
        improvement plans to the extent the Secretary finds 
        such provision to be feasible and appropriate given 
        available funding and other statutory responsibilities.
  [(e) Summaries of Monitoring Outcomes.--Not later than 120 
days after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall 
publish a summary report on the findings of reviews conducted 
under subsection (c) and on the outcomes of quality improvement 
plans implemented under subsection (d), during such fiscal 
year. Such report shall be widely disseminated and available 
for public review in both written and electronic formats.

              [POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD START AGENCIES

[Sec. 642.
  [(a) In order to be designated as a Head Start agency under 
this subchapter, an agency must have authority under its 
charter or applicable law to receive and administer funds under 
this subchapter, funds and contributions from private or local 
public sources which may be used in support of a Head Start 
program, and funds under any Federal or State assistance 
program pursuant to which a public or private nonprofit or for-
profit agency (as the case may be) organized in accordance with 
this subchapter, could act as grantee, contractor, or sponsor 
of projects appropriate for inclusion in a Head Start program. 
Such an agency must also be empowered to transfer funds so 
received, and to delegate powers to other agencies, subject to 
the powers of its governing board and it overall program 
responsibilities. The power to transfer funds and delegate 
powers must include the power to make transfers and delegations 
covering component projects in all cases where this will 
contribute to efficiency and effectiveness or otherwise further 
program objectives.
  [(b) In order to be so designated, a Head Start agency shall 
also--
          [(1) establish effective procedures by which parents 
        and area residents concerned will be enabled to 
        directly participate in decisions that influence the 
        character of programs affecting their interests;
          [(2) provide for their regular participation in the 
        implementation of such programs;
          [(3) provide technical and other support needed to 
        enable parents and area residents to secure on their 
        own behalf available assistance from public and private 
        sources;
          [(4) seek the involvement of parents of participating 
        children in activities designed to help such parents 
        become full partners in the education of their 
        children, and to afford such parents the opportunity to 
        participate in the development, conduct, and overall 
        performance of the program at the local level;
          [(5) offer (directly or through referral to local 
        entities, such as entities carrying out Even Start 
        programs under part B of chapter 1 of title I of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)), to parents of participating 
        children, family literacy services and parenting skills 
        training;
          [(6) offer to parents of participating children 
        substance abuse counseling (either directly or through 
        referral to local entities), including information on 
        drug-exposed infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;
          [(7) at the option of such agency, offer (directly or 
        through referral to local entities), to such parents--
                  [(A) training in basic child development;
                  [(B) assistance in developing communication 
                skills;
                  [(C) opportunities to share experiences with 
                other parents;
                  [(D) regular in-home visitation; or
                  [(E) any other activity designed to help such 
                parents become full partners in the education 
                of their children;
          [(8) provide, with respect to each participating 
        family, a family needs assessment that includes 
        consultation with such parents about the benefits of 
        parent involvement and about the activities described 
        in paragraphs (4) through (7) in which such parents may 
        choose to be involved (taking into consideration their 
        specific family needs, work schedules, and other 
        responsibilities);
          [(9) consider providing services to assist younger 
        siblings of children participating in its Head Start 
        program to obtain health services from other sources;
          [(10) perform community outreach to encourage 
        individuals previously unaffiliated with Head Start 
        programs to participate in its Head Start program as 
        volunteers; and
          [(11)(A) inform custodial parents in single-parent 
        families that participate in programs, activities, or 
        services carried out or provided under this subchapter 
        about the availability of child support services for 
        purposes of establishing paternity and acquiring child 
        support; and
          [(B) refer eligible parents to the child support 
        offices of State and local governments.
  [(c) The head of each Head Start agency shall coordinate and 
collaborate with the State agency responsible for administering 
the State program carried out under the Child Care and 
Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.), 
and other early childhood education and development programs, 
including Even Start programs under part B of chapter 1 of 
title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 
(20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.) and programs under part C and section 
619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 
U.S.C 1431-1444, 1419), serving the children and families 
served by the Head Start agency to carry out the provisions of 
this subchapter.
  [(d)(1) Each Head Start agency shall take steps to ensure, to 
the maximum extent possible, that children maintain the 
developmental and educational gains achieved in Head Start 
programs and build upon such gains in further schooling.
  [(2) A Head Start agency may take steps to coordinate with 
the local educational agency serving the community involved and 
with schools in which children participating in a Head Start 
program operated by such agency will enroll following such 
program, including--
          [(A) collaborating on the shared use of 
        transportation and facilities; and
          [(B) exchanging information on the provision of 
        noneducational services to such children.
  [(3) In order to promote the continued involvement of the 
parents of children that participate in Head Start programs in 
the education of their children upon transition to school, the 
Head Start agency shall--
          [(A) provide training to the parents--
                  [(i) to inform the parents about their rights 
                and responsibilities concerning the education 
                of their children; and
                  [(ii) to enable the parents to understand and 
                work with schools in order to communicate with 
                teachers and other school personnel, to support 
                the school work of their children, and to 
                participate as appropriate in decisions 
                relating to the education of their children; 
                and
          [(B) take other actions, as appropriate and feasible, 
        to support the active involvement of the parents with 
        schools, school personnel, and school-related 
        organizations.
  [(4) The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of 
Education, shall--
          [(A) evaluate the effectiveness of the projects and 
        activities funded under section 642A;
          [(B) disseminate to Head Start agencies information 
        (including information from the evaluation required by 
        subparagraph (A)) on effective policies and activities 
        relating to the transition of children from Head Start 
        programs to public schools; and
          [(C) provide technical assistance to such agencies to 
        promote and assist such agencies to adopt and implement 
        such effective policies and activities.
  [(e) Head Start agencies shall adopt, in consultation with 
experts in child development and with classroom teachers, an 
assessment to be used when hiring or evaluating any classroom 
teacher in a center-based Head Start program. Such assessment 
shall measure whether such teacher has mastered the functions 
described in section 648A(a)(1).

[SEC. 642A. HEAD START TRANSITION.

  Each Head Start agency shall take steps to coordinate with 
the local educational agency serving the community involved and 
with schools in which children participating in a Head Start 
program operated by such agency will enroll following such 
program, including--
          [(1) developing and implementing a systematic 
        procedure for transferring, with parental consent, Head 
        Start program records for each participating child to 
        the school in which such child will enroll;
          [(2) establishing channels of communication between 
        Head Start staff and their counterparts in the schools 
        (including teachers, social workers, and health staff) 
        to facilitate coordination of programs;
          [(3) conducting meetings involving parents, 
        kindergarten or elementary school teachers, and Head 
        Start program teachers to discuss the educational, 
        developmental, and other needs of individual children;
          [(4) organizing and participating in joint 
        transition-related training of school staff and Head 
        Start staff;
          [(5) developing and implementing a family outreach 
        and support program in cooperation with entities 
        carrying out parental involvement efforts under title I 
        of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 
        (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.);
          [(6) assisting families, administrators, and teachers 
        in enhancing educational and developmental continuity 
        between Head Start services and elementary school 
        classes; and
          [(7) linking the services provided in such Head Start 
        program with the education services provided by such 
        local educational agency.]

SEC. 641. DESIGNATION OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

  (a) Authority To Designate.--The Secretary is authorized to 
designate as a Head Start agency any local public or private 
nonprofit agency, including community-based and faith-based 
organizations, or for-profit agency, within a community, 
pursuant to the requirements of this section, except that until 
such time that the Secretary develops and implements the system 
of application review under this section, the Secretary is 
authorized to designate as a Head Start agency, any local 
public or private nonprofit agency, including community-based 
and faith-based organizations, or for-profit agency, within a 
community, in the manner and process utilized by the Secretary 
prior to the enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007.
  (b) Application for Grants.--Each entity shall submit a plan 
to the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the 
Secretary may require.
  (c) Development of Application Review System.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall develop a system 
        that integrates the recommendations of the expert panel 
        convened under paragraph (3) to determine if a Head 
        Start agency is providing a quality comprehensive early 
        learning program that meets the educational, health, 
        and nutritional needs of the children and families it 
        serves, and meets program and financial management 
        requirements and performance standards described in 
        section 641A(a)(1), based on--
                  (A) annual budget data;
                  (B) program reviews conducted under section 
                641A(c);
                  (C) annual audits required under section 647;
                  (D) classroom quality as measured under 
                section 641A(c)(2)(H); and
                  (E) Program Information Report.
          (2) Expert panel.--No later than six months after the 
        enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the 
        Secretary shall convene an expert panel of 7 members to 
        make recommendations to the Secretary on the 
        development of a transparent, reliable, and valid 
        system for evaluating grant renewal applications.
          (3) Composition of expert panel.--The Secretary, in 
        convening such panel, shall appoint the following:
                  (A) 5 members, who are competent, by virtue 
                of their training, expertise, and experience, 
                in each of at least one of the following areas:
                          (i) Early childhood program 
                        accreditation or quality assessment.
                          (ii) Research on early childhood 
                        development.
                          (iii) Governance and finance of non-
                        profit organizations.
                          (iv) Delivery of services to children 
                        and families with limited English 
                        proficiency.
                          (v) Delivery of services to children 
                        with disabilities.
                  (B) An employee from the Office of Head 
                Start.
                  (C) An executive director of a Head Start 
                agency.
          (4) Expert panel report.--Within 12 months of being 
        convened by the Secretary, the expert panel shall issue 
        a report to the Secretary that provides recommendations 
        on a proposed system of application review that takes 
        into account the criteria in paragraph (1) to evaluate 
        whether a Head Start grantee is meeting mission to 
        provide a high quality comprehensive early education 
        program, including adequately meeting its governance 
        and financial management requirements.
          (5) Public comment; report to congress.--No later 
        than 6 months after receiving the report described in 
        paragraph (4), the Secretary shall publish a proposed 
        system of application review in the Federal Register, 
        providing at least 90 days for public comment and shall 
        provide a report to the Education and Labor Committee 
        of the U.S. House of Representatives and the Health, 
        Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee of the U.S. 
        Senate that provides a detailed description of such 
        proposed system, including clear rationale for any 
        differences between the proposed system and the 
        recommendations of the expert panel, if any such 
        differences exist.
          (6) Implementation of application review system.--
        After the Secretary has reviewed all public comments 
        and finalized the system of application review, the 
        Secretary will use this system to determine which 
        grantees are successfully delivering a high quality 
        comprehensive early education program. Grantees who are 
        determined under such system to be--
                  (A) successfully delivering a high quality 
                comprehensive early education program shall be 
                designated a Head Start agency for a period of 
                5 years;
                  (B) under-performing and may enter into an 
                open competition as described in subsection 
                (e); and
                  (C) notwithstanding paragraph (B), if an 
                Indian Head Start agency is determined to be 
                underperforming, the Secretary shall engage in 
                government-to-government consultation with the 
                appropriate tribal government or governments 
                for the purpose of establishing a performance 
                enhancement plan for that agency. Such plan is 
                to be developed and implemented within 6 months 
                of the Secretary's determination. Not more than 
                6 months after implementation of that plan, the 
                Secretary shall re-evaluate the performance of 
                the Indian Head Start agency. If the Indian 
                Head Start agency remains underperforming, the 
                Secretary shall conduct an open competition as 
                described in subsection (e), subject to the 
                following limitations:
                          (i) Except as provided in paragraph 
                        (ii), a non-Indian Head Start agency 
                        may not receive a grant to carry out an 
                        Indian Head Start program.
                          (ii) In a community in which there is 
                        no Indian Head Start agency available 
                        for designation to carry out an Indian 
                        Head Start program, a non-Indian Head 
                        Start agency, on an interim basis, may 
                        receive a grant to carry out an Indian 
                        Head Start program, but only until such 
                        time as an Indian Head Start agency in 
                        such community becomes available.
  (d) Transparency, Reliability, and Validity.--The Secretary 
shall ensure the system of application evaluation is fair, 
consistent, and transparent and applied in a manner that 
designates, in a timely manner grantees as Head Start agencies 
for a period of 5 years if such grantees are providing a high 
quality comprehensive early education program. The Secretary 
shall periodically evaluate whether the criteria are being 
applied in a manner that is transparent, reliable, and valid.
  (e) Designation When No Entity Has Priority.--
          (1) In general.--If no entity in a community is 
        determined to be successfully delivering a high quality 
        comprehensive early education program, as specified in 
        subsection (c), the Secretary shall, after conducting 
        an open competition, designate for a 5-year period a 
        Head Start agency from among qualified applicants in 
        such community.
          (2) Considerations in designation.--In selecting from 
        among qualified applicants for designation as a Head 
        Start agency, the Secretary shall consider the 
        effectiveness of each such applicant to provide Head 
        Start services, based on--
                  (A) any past performance of such applicant in 
                providing services comparable to Head Start 
                services, including how effectively such 
                applicant provided such comparable services;
                  (B) the plan of such applicant to provide 
                comprehensive health (including mental and 
                behavioral health), educational, nutritional, 
                social, and other services needed to prepare 
                children to succeed in school and in life;
                  (C) the plan of such applicant to attract and 
                retain qualified staff capable of delivering a 
                high quality comprehensive early education 
                program, including demonstrating the ability to 
                provide adequate salary and benefits to 
                maintain a high quality staff;
                  (D) the ability of such applicant to maintain 
                child-teacher ratios and family service worker 
                caseloads that reflect best practices and are 
                tied to high quality service delivery;
                  (E) the capacity of such applicant to serve 
                eligible children with curriculum and teaching 
                practices that are based on scientifically 
                based research, are developmentally 
                appropriate, and that promote the school 
                readiness of children participating in the 
                program;
                  (F) the plan of such applicant to meet 
                standards set forth in section 641A(a)(1), with 
                particular attention to the standards set forth 
                in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such section;
                  (G) the proposed budget and plan of such 
                applicant to maintain strong fiscal controls 
                and cost effective fiscal management;
                  (H) the plan of such applicant to coordinate 
                the Head Start program the applicant proposes 
                to carry out, with other local early learning 
                programs for young children, including--
                          (i) programs implementing grants 
                        under the Early Reading First and Even 
                        Start programs under subparts 2 and 3 
                        of part B of title I of the Elementary 
                        and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
                        U.S.C. 6371 et seq., 6381 et seq.);
                          (ii) and programs under section 619 
                        and part C of the Individuals with 
                        Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 
                        1419, 1431 et seq.);
                          (iii) State prekindergarten programs;
                          (iv) child care programs; and
                          (v) the educational programs that the 
                        children participating in the Head 
                        Start program will enter at the age of 
                        compulsory school attendance;
                  (I) the plan of such applicant to coordinate 
                the Head Start program that the applicant 
                proposes to carry out, with public and private 
                entities that are willing to commit resources 
                to assist the Head Start program in meeting its 
                program needs;
                  (J) the plan of such applicant--
                          (i) to seek the involvement of 
                        parents (including grandparents and 
                        kinship caregivers, as appropriate) of 
                        children participating in the proposed 
                        Head Start program, in activities (at 
                        home and, if practicable, at the 
                        location of the Head Start program) 
                        designed to help such parents become 
                        full partners in the education of their 
                        children;
                          (ii) to afford such parents the 
                        opportunity to participate in the 
                        development and overall conduct of the 
                        program at the local level;
                          (iii) to offer (directly or through 
                        referral to local entities, such as 
                        entities carrying out Even Start 
                        programs under subchapter 3 of part B 
                        of title I of the Elementary and 
                        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
                        U.S.C. 6381 et seq.), public and school 
                        libraries, and entities carrying out 
                        family support programs) to such 
                        parents--
                                  (I) family literacy services; 
                                and
                                  (II) parenting skills 
                                training;
                          (iv) to offer to parents of 
                        participating children, mental health 
                        services (either directly or through 
                        referral to local entities), including 
                        substance abuse counseling and 
                        information on maternal depression and 
                        on the effect of drug-exposure on 
                        infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;
                          (v) at the option of such applicant, 
                        to offer (directly or through referral 
                        to local entities) to such parents--
                                  (I) training in basic child 
                                development (including 
                                cognitive, social, and 
                                emotional development);
                                  (II) assistance in developing 
                                literacy and communication 
                                skills;
                                  (III) opportunities to share 
                                experiences with other parents 
                                (including parent mentor 
                                relationships);
                                  (IV) regular in-home 
                                visitation;
                                  (V) mental and behavioral 
                                health services; or
                                  (VI) any other activity 
                                designed to help such parents 
                                become full partners in the 
                                education of their children;
                          (vi) to provide, with respect to each 
                        participating family, a family needs 
                        assessment that includes consultation 
                        with such parents, in a manner and 
                        language that such parents can 
                        understand, about the benefits of 
                        parent involvement and about the 
                        activities described in subparagraph 
                        (H) in which such parents may choose to 
                        become involved (taking into 
                        consideration their specific family 
                        needs, work schedules, and other 
                        responsibilities); and
                          (vii) to extend outreach to fathers, 
                        in appropriate cases, in order to 
                        strengthen the role of fathers in 
                        families, in the education of their 
                        young children, and in the Head Start 
                        program, by working directly with 
                        fathers and father figures through 
                        activities such as--
                                  (I) in appropriate cases, 
                                including fathers in home 
                                visits and providing culturally 
                                appropriate opportunities for 
                                direct father-child 
                                interactions; and
                                  (II) targeting increased male 
                                participation in the conduct of 
                                the program;
                  (K) the plan of such applicant to meet the 
                needs of limited English proficient children 
                and their families, including procedures to 
                identify such children, plans to provide 
                trained personnel, and plans to provide 
                services to assist the children in making 
                progress toward the acquisition of the English 
                language, while making meaningful progress in 
                attaining the knowledge, skills, abilities, and 
                development described in section 641A(a)(1)(B);
                  (L) the plan of such applicant to meet the 
                diverse cultural needs of the population 
                served;
                  (M) the plan of such applicant to meet the 
                needs of children with disabilities;
                  (N) the plan of such applicant who chooses to 
                assist younger siblings of children who will 
                participate in the Head Start program to obtain 
                health, including mental health, services from 
                other sources;
                  (O) the plan of such applicant to collaborate 
                with other entities carrying out public or 
                private early childhood education and child 
                care programs in the community;
                  (P) the plan of such applicant to meet the 
                needs of homeless children, including 
                transportation needs, and children in foster 
                care and children and families experiencing 
                toxic stress;
                  (Q) the plan of such applicant to maintain a 
                qualified staff, including a teaching staff 
                qualified to implement research-based curricula 
                aligned with the Head Start Child Outcomes 
                Framework developed by the Secretary and to the 
                early learning standards in State in which such 
                program would operate;
                  (R) the plan of such applicant to enter into 
                memoranda of understanding with local 
                educational agencies within the service area, 
                as described in section 642B(a); and
                  (S) other factors related to the requirements 
                of this subchapter.
  (f) Interim Provider.--If no agency in the community receives 
priority designation under subsection (c), and there is no 
qualified applicant in the community, the Secretary shall 
designate a qualified agency to carry out the Head Start 
program in the community on an interim basis until a qualified 
applicant from the community is so designated.
  (g) Parent and Community Participation.--The Secretary shall 
require that the practice of significantly involving parents 
and area residents affected by the program in the selection of 
Head Start agencies be continued.
  (h) Community.--For purposes of this subchapter, a community 
may be a city, county, or multicity or multicounty unit within 
a State, an Indian reservation (including Indians in any off-
reservation area designated by an appropriate tribal government 
in consultation with the Secretary) or a neighborhood or other 
area (irrespective of boundaries or political subdivisions) 
which provides a suitable organizational base and possesses the 
commonality of interest needed to operate a Head Start program.

SEC. 641A. QUALITY STANDARDS; MONITORING OF HEAD START AGENCIES AND 
                    PROGRAMS.

  (a) Quality Standards.--
          (1) Establishment of standards.--The Secretary shall 
        modify, as necessary, program performance standards by 
        regulation applicable to Head Start agencies, programs, 
        and projects under this subchapter, including--
                  (A) performance standards with respect to 
                services required to be provided, including 
                health, parental involvement, nutritional, 
                social, transition activities described in 
                section 642(d), and other services;
                  (B) scientifically based and developmentally 
                appropriate early learning standards related to 
                school readiness that are based on the Head 
                Start Child Outcomes Framework to ensure that 
                the children participating in the program, at a 
                minimum develop and demonstrate--
                          (i) language knowledge and skills, 
                        including oral language and listening 
                        comprehension;
                          (ii) prereading knowledge and skills 
                        that prepare children for early 
                        literacy in schools including 
                        phonological awareness, print awareness 
                        and print skills, and alphabetic 
                        knowledge;
                          (iii) mathematics knowledge and 
                        skills, including aspects of 
                        classification, seriation, number, 
                        spatial relations, and time;
                          (iv) science knowledge and skills, 
                        including measurement;
                          (v) cognitive abilities related to 
                        academic achievement and general 
                        knowledge;
                          (vi) social and emotional development 
                        related to early learning, school 
                        success, social problem-solving, and 
                        overall well-being;
                          (vii) approaches to learning related 
                        to child development and early 
                        learning;
                          (viii) creative arts; and
                          (ix) in the case of limited-English 
                        proficient children, progress toward 
                        acquisition of the English language 
                        while making meaningful progress in 
                        attaining the knowledge, skills, 
                        abilities, and development described in 
                        clauses (i) through (viii), including 
                        progress made through the use of 
                        culturally and linguistically 
                        appropriate instructional services;
                  (C) administrative and financial management 
                standards;
                  (D) standards relating to the condition and 
                location of facilities for such agencies, 
                programs, and projects; and
                  (E) such other standards as the Secretary 
                finds to be appropriate.
          (2) Considerations in developing standards.--In 
        developing the standards required under paragraph (1), 
        the Secretary shall--
                  (A) consult with experts in the fields of 
                child development, early childhood education, 
                child health care, family services (including 
                linguistically and culturally appropriate 
                services to limited English proficient children 
                and their families), administration, and 
                financial management, and with persons with 
                experience in the operation of Head Start 
                programs;
                  (B) take into consideration--
                          (i) past experience with use of the 
                        standards in effect under this 
                        subchapter on October 27, 1998;
                          (ii) changes over the period since 
                        October 27, 1998, in the circumstances 
                        and problems typically facing children 
                        and families served by Head Start 
                        agencies;
                          (iii) recommendations from the report 
                        on Developmental Outcomes and 
                        Assessments for Young Children by the 
                        National Academy of Sciences, when it 
                        becomes available;
                          (iv) developments concerning 
                        research-based practices with respect 
                        to early childhood education and 
                        development, children with 
                        disabilities, family services, program 
                        administration, and financial 
                        management;
                          (v) projected needs of an expanding 
                        Head Start program;
                          (vi) guidelines and standards 
                        currently in effect or under 
                        consideration that promote child health 
                        services and physical development, 
                        including outdoor activity that 
                        supports children's motor development 
                        and overall health and nutrition;
                          (vii) changes in the population of 
                        children who are eligible to 
                        participate in Head Start programs, 
                        including the language and cultural 
                        background and family structure of such 
                        children;
                          (viii) mechanisms to ensure that 
                        children participating in Head Start 
                        programs make a successful transition 
                        to the schools that the children will 
                        be attending; and
                          (ix) the unique challenges faced by 
                        individual programs, including those 
                        that are seasonal or short term, and 
                        those that serve rural populations; and
                  (C)(i) review and revise as necessary the 
                performance standards in effect under this 
                subsection; and
                  (ii) ensure that any such revisions in the 
                performance standards will not result in the 
                elimination of or any reduction in quality, 
                scope or types of health, education, parental 
                involvement, nutritional, social, or other 
                services required to be provided under such 
                standards as in effect on October 27, 1998.
          (3) Standards relating to obligations to delegate 
        agencies.--In developing standards under this 
        subsection, the Secretary shall describe the 
        obligations of a Head Start agency to a delegate agency 
        to which the Head Start agency has delegated 
        responsibility for providing services under this 
        subchapter and determine whether the Head Start agency 
        complies with the standards. The Secretary shall 
        consider such compliance during the review described in 
        subsection (c)(1)(A) and in determining whether to 
        renew financial assistance to the Head Start agency 
        under this subchapter.
  (b) Measures.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary, in consultation with 
        representatives of Head Start agencies and with experts 
        in the fields of early childhood education and 
        development, shall use the study on Developmental 
        Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children by the 
        National Academy of Sciences to provide guidance to 
        Head Start agencies for utilizing scientifically-based 
        measures that support, as appropriate--
                  (A) classroom instructional practices;
                  (B) identification of special needs; and
                  (C) program evaluation.
          (2) Characteristics of measures.--The measures under 
        this subsection shall
                  (A) be developmentally, linguistically, and 
                culturally appropriate for the population 
                served;
                  (B) be reviewed not less than every 4 years, 
                based on advances in the science of early 
                childhood development;
                  (C) be consistent with relevant, nationally 
                recognized professional and technical standards 
                related to the assessment of young children;
                  (D) be valid and reliable (in English, 
                Spanish, and any other language, as 
                appropriate);
                  (E) be administered by staff with appropriate 
                training for such administration;
                  (F) provide appropriate accommodations for 
                children with disabilities and children who are 
                limited English proficient; and
                  (G) be high-quality research-based measures 
                that have been demonstrated to assist with the 
                purposes for which they were devised.
          (3) Use of measures; limitations on use.--
                  (A) Measures shall be designed for the 
                purpose of--
                          (i) promoting the skills, knowledge, 
                        and competencies of children 
                        participating in Head Start programs 
                        specified in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii), 
                        with an emphasis on measuring skills 
                        that scientifically-based research has 
                        demonstrated are related to children's 
                        school readiness and later success in 
                        school;
                          (ii) improving classroom practices, 
                        including reviewing children's 
                        strengths and weaknesses;
                          (iii) identifying special needs; and
                          (iv) improving overall program 
                        performance in order to help programs 
                        identify problem areas that may require 
                        additional training and technical 
                        assistance resources.
                  (B) Such measures shall not be used to 
                exclude children from Head Start programs.
          (4) Suspended implementation of national reporting 
        system.--The Secretary shall--
                  (A) suspend implementation and terminate 
                further development and use of the National 
                Reporting System; and
                  (B) incorporate, as appropriate, 
                recommendations from the study on Developmental 
                Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children by 
                the National Academy of Sciences into any 
                assessment used in the Head Start programs, in 
                accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3).
          (5) Special rule.--The use of assessment items and 
        data on any assessment authorized under this subchapter 
        by an agent or agents of the Federal Government to 
        provide rewards or sanctions for individual children or 
        teachers is prohibited. The Secretary shall not use the 
        results of a single assessment as the sole or primary 
        method for assessing program effectiveness or making 
        grantee funding determinations at the national, 
        regional, or local level.
          (6) Confidentiality.--
                  (A) The Secretary, through regulation, shall 
                ensure the confidentiality of any personally 
                identifiable data, information and records 
                collected or maintained by the Secretary and 
                any Head Start agency. Such regulations shall 
                provide the policies, protections, and rights 
                equivalent to those provided a parent, student, 
                or educational agency or institution under 
                section 444 of the General Education Provisions 
                Act.
                  (B) Nothing in this subsection shall be 
                construed to authorize the development of a 
                nationwide database of personally identifiable 
                information on children participating in 
                measures under this subsection.
  (c) Monitoring of Local Agencies and Programs.--
          (1) In general.--To determine whether Head Start 
        agencies meet standards established under this 
        subchapter with respect to program, administrative, 
        financial management, and other requirements and in 
        order to help programs identify areas for improvement 
        and areas of strengths as part of an on-going self-
        assessment process, the Secretary shall develop and use 
        a risk-based assessment system to conduct the following 
        reviews of Head Start agencies, and of the Head Start 
        programs operated by such agencies:
                  (A) A full review of each such agency at 
                least once during each 3-year period.
                  (B) A review of each newly designated Head 
                Start agency immediately after the completion 
                of the first year such agency carries out a 
                Head Start program.
                  (C) Followup reviews, including unannounced 
                reviews as appropriate, of programs with 1 or 
                more findings of deficiencies not later than 12 
                months after the date of such finding.
                  (D) other reviews, including unannounced site 
                inspections of Head Start centers, as 
                appropriate.
          (2) Conduct of reviews.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that reviews described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) 
        of paragraph (1)--
                  (A) are conducted by review teams that--
                          (i) include individuals who are 
                        knowledgeable about Head Start programs 
                        and, to the maximum extent practicable, 
                        the diverse (including linguistic and 
                        cultural) needs of eligible children 
                        (including children with disabilities) 
                        and limited-English proficient children 
                        and their families; and
                          (ii) include, to the maximum extent 
                        practicable, current or former 
                        employees of the Department of Health 
                        and Human Services who are 
                        knowledgeable about Head Start 
                        programs;
                  (B) include as part of the reviews of the 
                programs, a review and assessment of program 
                strengths and areas in need of improvement;
                  (C) include as part of the reviews of the 
                programs, a review and assessment of whether 
                programs have adequately addressed the 
                population and community needs (including 
                populations of children with limited English 
                proficiency and children of migrant and 
                seasonal farm-working families);
                  (D) include as part of the review the extent 
                to which the program addresses the community 
                needs and strategic plan identified in section 
                640(g)(2)(C);
                  (E) include as part of the review the 
                implementation by qualified individuals with 
                demonstrated reliability, of a valid and 
                reliable research-based observational 
                instrument that assesses classroom quality, 
                including multiple dimensions of teacher-child 
                interactions that are linked to positive child 
                development and later achievement;
                  (F) are conducted in a manner that evaluates 
                program performance, quality, and overall 
                operations with consistency and objectivity, 
                and based on a transparent and reliable system 
                of review;
                  (G) in the case of Early Head Start programs, 
                are conducted by a review team that includes 
                individuals who are knowledgeable about the 
                development of infants and toddlers; and
                  (H) include as part of the review a protocol 
                for fiscal management that shall be used to 
                assess the compliance with program requirements 
                for--
                          (i) using federal funds 
                        appropriately;
                          (ii) using federal funds specifically 
                        to purchase property and to compensate 
                        personnel;
                          (iii) securing and using qualified 
                        fiscal officer support; and
                          (iv) reporting financial information 
                        and implementing appropriate internal 
                        controls to safeguard federal funds.
          (3) Use of review findings.--The findings of the 
        review shall, at a minimum--
                  (A) be presented to an agency in a timely, 
                transparent, and uniform manner that conveys 
                information of program strengths and weaknesses 
                and assists with program improvement; and
                  (B) be used by the Head Start agencies to 
                inform the development and implementation of 
                their plan for training and technical 
                assistance.
  (d) Evaluations and Corrective Actions for Delegate 
Agencies.--
          (1) Procedures.--The Head Start agency shall 
        establish procedures relating to its delegate agencies, 
        including--
                  (A) procedures for evaluating delegate 
                agencies;
                  (B) procedures for defunding delegate 
                agencies; and
                  (C) procedures for appealing a defunding 
                decision relating to a delegate agency.
          (2) Evaluations.--Each Head Start agency--
                  (A) shall evaluate its delegate agencies 
                using the procedures established under this 
                section; and
                  (B) shall inform the delegate agencies of the 
                deficiencies identified through the evaluation 
                that are required to be corrected.
          (3) Remedies to ensure corrective actions.--If the 
        Head Start agency identifies a deficiency of a delegate 
        agency through the evaluation, the Head Start agency 
        may--
                  (A) initiate procedures to terminate the 
                designation of the delegate agency unless such 
                agency corrects the deficiency; and
                  (B) conduct monthly monitoring visits to such 
                delegate agency until all deficiencies are 
                corrected or the Head Start agency decides to 
                defund such delegate agency.
          (4) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection 
        shall be construed to modify, supersede, or affect the 
        powers, duties, or functions of the Secretary with 
        respect to Head Start agencies or delegate agencies 
        that receive financial assistance under this 
        subchapter.
  (e) Corrective Action; Termination.--
          (1) Determination.--If the Secretary determines, on 
        the basis of a review pursuant to subsection (c), that 
        a Head Start agency designated pursuant to section 641 
        fails to meet the standards described in subsection (a) 
        or fails to adequately address the community needs and 
        strategic plan identified in section 640(g)(2)(C), the 
        Secretary shall--
                  (A) inform the agency of the deficiencies 
                that shall be corrected;
                  (B) with respect to each identified 
                deficiency, require the agency--
                          (i) to correct the deficiency 
                        immediately, if the Secretary finds 
                        that the deficiency threatens the 
                        health or safety of staff or program 
                        participants or poses a threat to the 
                        integrity of Federal funds;
                          (ii) to correct the deficiency not 
                        later than 90 days after the 
                        identification of the deficiency if the 
                        Secretary finds, in the discretion of 
                        the Secretary, that such a 90-day 
                        period is reasonable, in light of the 
                        nature and magnitude of the deficiency; 
                        or
                          (iii) in the discretion of the 
                        Secretary (taking into consideration 
                        the seriousness of the deficiency and 
                        the time reasonably required to correct 
                        the deficiency), to comply with the 
                        requirements of paragraph (2) 
                        concerning a quality improvement plan; 
                        and
                  (C) initiate proceedings to terminate the 
                designation of the agency unless the agency 
                corrects the deficiency.
          (2) Quality improvement plan.--
                  (A) Agency and program responsibilities.--To 
                retain a designation as a Head Start agency 
                under this subchapter, or in the case of a Head 
                Start program to continue to receive funds from 
                such agency, a Head Start agency, or Head Start 
                program that is the subject of a determination 
                described in paragraph (1) (excluding an agency 
                or program required to correct a deficiency 
                immediately or during a 90-day period under 
                clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(B)) shall--
                          (i) develop in a timely manner, a 
                        quality improvement plan that shall be 
                        subject to the approval of the 
                        secretary, or in the case of a program, 
                        the sponsoring agency, and which shall 
                        specify--
                                  (I) the deficiencies to be 
                                corrected;
                                  (II) the actions to be taken 
                                to correct such deficiencies; 
                                and
                                  (III) the timetable for 
                                accomplishment of the 
                                corrective actions specified; 
                                and
                          (ii) eliminate each deficiency 
                        identified, not later than the date for 
                        elimination of such deficiency 
                        specified in such plan (which shall not 
                        be later than 10 months after the date 
                        the agency or program obtains approval 
                        of its quality improvement plan).
                  (B) Secretarial responsibility.--Not later 
                than 30 days after receiving from a Head Start 
                agency a proposed quality improvement plan 
                pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Secretary 
                shall either approve such proposed plan or 
                specify the reasons why the proposed plan 
                cannot be approved.
                  (C) Agency responsibility for program 
                improvement.--Not later than 30 days after 
                receiving from a Head Start program, a proposed 
                quality improvement plan pursuant to 
                subparagraph (A), the Head Start agency shall 
                either approve such proposed plan or specify 
                the reasons why the proposed plan cannot be 
                approved.
          (3) Training and technical assistance.--The Secretary 
        shall provide training and technical assistance to Head 
        Start agencies and programs with respect to the 
        development or implementation of such quality 
        improvement plans to the extent the Secretary finds 
        such provision to be feasible and appropriate given 
        available funding and other statutory responsibilities.
  (f) Summaries of Monitoring Outcomes.--Not later than 120 
days after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall 
publish a summary report on the findings of reviews conducted 
under subsection (c) and on the outcomes of quality improvement 
plans implemented under subsection (e), during such fiscal 
year. Such report shall be made available to all parents with 
children receiving assistance under this subchapter in an 
understandable and uniform format, and to the extent 
practicable, provided in a language that the parents can 
understand, and in addition, make the information widely 
available through public means such as distribution through 
public agencies, and at a minimum posting such information on 
the Internet immediately upon publication. Such reports shall 
contain detailed data on compliance with specific performance 
standards and measures sufficient to allow individual Head 
Start agencies to use such data to improve the quality of their 
program.
  (g) Self-assessments.--
          (1) In general.--Not less frequently than once each 
        program year, with the consultation and participation 
        of policy councils, and as applicable, policy 
        committees, and as appropriate, other community 
        members, each Head Start agency and each delegate 
        agency that receives financial assistance under this 
        subchapter shall conduct a comprehensive self-
        assessment of its effectiveness and progress in meeting 
        program goals and objectives (including professional 
        development plans) and in implementing and complying 
        with Head Start program performance standards.
          (2) Report and improvement plans.--
                  (A) Report.--An agency conducting a self-
                assessment shall report the findings of the 
                self-assessment to the relevant policy council, 
                policy committee, governing body, and 
                Secretary. Each self-assessment shall identify 
                areas of strength and weakness.
                  (B) Improvement plan.--The agency shall 
                develop and report to the Secretary an 
                improvement plan approved by the governing body 
                of the agency to strengthen any areas 
                identified in the self-assessment as weaknesses 
                or in need of improvement.
          (3) Ongoing monitoring.--Each Head Start agency, 
        delegate Head Start agency, and entity that carries out 
        an Early Head Start program a shall establish and 
        implement procedures for the ongoing monitoring of 
        their respective programs, to ensure that the 
        operations of the programs work toward meeting program 
        goals and objectives and Head Start performance 
        standards.
  (h) Enrollment Reporting Requirement.--
          (1) Head Start agencies shall report on a regular 
        basis to the Secretary--
                  (A) the actual enrollment in such program; 
                and
                  (B) if such actual enrollment is less than 
                the funded enrollment, any apparent reason for 
                such enrollment shortfall.
          (2) The Secretary shall determine on a regular basis 
        which Head Start agencies are operating with an actual 
        enrollment that is less than the funded enrollment and 
        shall provide appropriate and timely training and 
        technical assistance to increase actual enrollment, as 
        appropriate.
          (3) In this subsection:
                  (A) The term ``actual enrollment'' means, 
                with respect to a Head Start program, the 
                actual number of children enrolled in such 
                program in a given month.
                  (B) The term ``base grant'' means, with 
                respect to Head Start agency for a fiscal year, 
                that portion of the grant derived from--
                          (i) amounts reserved for use in 
                        accordance with section 640(a)(2)(A), 
                        for a Head Start agency administering 
                        an Indian Head Start program or migrant 
                        and seasonal Head Start program;
                          (ii) amounts reserved for payments 
                        under section 640(a)(2)(B); or
                          (iii) amounts available under section 
                        640(a)(2)(D) or allotted among States 
                        under section 640(a)(4).
                  (C) The term ``funded enrollment'' means, 
                with respect to the program of a Head Start 
                agency in a fiscal year, the number of children 
                that the agency is funded to serve through a 
                grant for the program during such fiscal year, 
                as indicated in the grant award.
  (i) Redistribution of Funds.--Funds held by the Secretary as 
a result of recapturing, withholding, or reducing a base grant, 
except when such action is the result of an open competition 
641(d)) or termination 646(d) shall be redistributed in such 
fiscal year as follows:
          (1) If such funds are derived from an Indian Head 
        Start program, then such funds shall be redistributed 
        to increase enrollment in such fiscal year in 1 or more 
        Indian Head Start programs.
          (2) If such funds are derived from the operation of a 
        migrant and seasonal Head Start program, then such 
        funds shall be redistributed to increase enrollment in 
        such fiscal year in 1 or more migrant and seasonal Head 
        Start programs.
          (3) If such funds are derived from the operation of a 
        Head Start program in a State (excluding Indian Head 
        Start program and migrant and seasonal Head Start 
        programs), then such funds shall be redistributed to 
        increase enrollment in such fiscal year in 1 or more 
        Head Start programs (excluding Indian Head Start 
        programs and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs) 
        that are carried out in such State, except that--
                  (A) not less than 50 percent of the funds 
                shall be prioritized to increase the program 
                participation of children and families served 
                under Early Head Start; and
                  (B) not less than 25 percent of the funds 
                shall be prioritized to increase program 
                participation of underserved populations of 
                eligible children.

SEC. 642. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD START AGENCIES.

  (a) Legal Authority.--To be designated as a Head Start agency 
under this subchapter, an agency must have authority under its 
charter or applicable law to receive and administer funds under 
this subchapter, funds and contributions from private or local 
public sources which may be used in support of a Head Start 
program, and funds under any Federal or State assistance 
program pursuant to which a public or private nonprofit or for-
profit agency (as the case may be) organized in accordance with 
this subchapter, could act as grantee, contractor, or sponsor 
of projects appropriate for inclusion in a Head Start program. 
Such an agency must also be empowered to transfer funds so 
received, and to delegate powers to other agencies, subject to 
the powers of its governing board and its overall program 
responsibilities. The power to transfer funds and delegate 
powers must include the power to make transfers and delegations 
covering component projects in all cases where this will 
contribute to efficiency and effectiveness or otherwise further 
program objectives.
  (b) Family and Community Involvement; Family Services.--To be 
so designated, a Head Start agency shall, at a minimum, do all 
the following to involve and serve families and communities:
          (1) Establish effective procedures by which parents 
        and area residents concerned will be enabled to 
        directly participate in decisions that influence the 
        character of programs affecting their interests.
          (2) Seek the involvement of parents, area residents, 
        and local business in the design and implementation of 
        the program.
          (3) Establish effective procedures to facilitate and 
        seek the involvement of parents of participating 
        children in activities designed to help such parents 
        become full partners in the education of their 
        children, and to afford such parents the opportunity to 
        participate in the development and overall conduct of 
        the program at the local level, including a process 
        through which parents of children currently 
        participating in a Head Start program or an Early Head 
        Start program select the parent representatives to 
        serve on the council under section 642(b)(4)(B)(ii).
          (4) Offer (directly or through referral to local 
        entities, such as entities carrying out Even Start 
        programs under subpart 3 of part B of title I of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)), to parents of participating 
        children, family literacy services and parenting skills 
        training.
          (5) Offer to parents of participating children mental 
        health services (either directly or through referral to 
        local entities), including substance abuse counseling, 
        and including information on maternal depression and on 
        drug-exposed infants and fetal alcohol syndrome.
          (6) At the option of such agency, offer (directly or 
        through referral to local entities) to such parents--
                  (A) training in basic child development 
                (including cognitive, social, and emotional 
                development);
                  (B) assistance in developing literacy and 
                communication skills;
                  (C) opportunities to share experiences with 
                other parents (including parent-mentor 
                relationships);
                  (D) mental and behavioral health services;
                  (E) regular in-home visitation; or
                  (F) any other activity designed to help such 
                parents become full partners in the education 
                of their children.
          (7) Provide, with respect to each participating 
        family, a family needs assessment that includes 
        consultation with such parents, in a manner and 
        language that such parents can understand, about the 
        benefits of parent involvement and about the activities 
        described in paragraphs (5) through (8) in which such 
        parents may choose to be involved (taking into 
        consideration their specific family needs, work 
        schedules, and other responsibilities).
          (8) Consider providing services to assist younger 
        siblings of children participating in its Head Start 
        program to obtain health, including mental health, 
        services from other sources.
          (9) Perform community outreach to encourage 
        individuals previously unaffiliated with Head Start 
        programs to participate in its Head Start program as 
        volunteers.
          (10)(A) Inform custodial parents in single-parent 
        families that participate in programs, activities, or 
        services carried out or provided under this subchapter 
        about the availability of child support services for 
        purposes of establishing paternity and acquiring child 
        support; and
          (B) Refer eligible parents to the child support 
        offices of State and local governments.
          (11) Provide parents of limited English proficient 
        children outreach and services under this subchapter, 
        in an understandable and uniform format and, to the 
        extent practicable, in a language that such parents can 
        understand.
          (12) Provide technical and other support needed to 
        enable parents and area residents to secure on their 
        own behalf available assistance from public and private 
        sources.
          (13) Promote the continued involvement of the parents 
        (including grandparents and kinship caregivers, as 
        appropriate) of children that participate in Head Start 
        programs in the education of their children upon 
        transition to school, the Head Start agency shall work 
        with the local educational agency--
                  (A) to provide training to the parents;
                          (i) to inform the parents about their 
                        rights and responsibilities concerning 
                        the education of their children; and
                          (ii) to enable the parents--
                                  (I) to understand and work 
                                with schools in order to 
                                communicate with teachers and 
                                other school personnel;
                                  (II) to support the 
                                schoolwork of their children; 
                                and
                                  (III) to participate as 
                                appropriate in decisions 
                                relating to the education of 
                                their children; and
                  (B) to take other actions, as appropriate and 
                feasible, to support the active involvement of 
                the parents with schools, school personnel, and 
                school-related organizations.
          (14) Provide parents of a child suspected of having a 
        disability information about services available under 
        section 619 or part C of the Individuals With 
        Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et 
        seq.) and refer such child to the appropriate agency 
        for an evaluation of eligibility under such Act.
  (c) Program Governance.--Head Start agencies must establish 
and maintain a formal structure of shared governance through 
which an independent governing body with legal and fiscal 
responsibility for administering and overseeing programs under 
this subchapter and a parent policy council and parent policy 
committee, as appropriate, shall ensure that such agency 
operates a high quality Head Start program in compliance with 
all applicable Federal, State, and local laws.
          (1) Governing body.--
                  (A) Composition.--The governing body shall be 
                composed as follows:
                          (i) Not less than 1 member with 
                        significant financial management or 
                        accounting experience.
                          (ii) Not less than 1 member shall 
                        have a background and expertise in 
                        early childhood development.
                          (iii) Not less than 1 member shall be 
                        a licensed attorney familiar with 
                        issues that come before the governing 
                        body.
                          (iv) Additional members shall be 
                        selected for their expertise in 
                        education, business administration, and 
                        community affairs and shall reflect the 
                        community served.
                          (v) Exceptions shall be made when 
                        members of the governing body oversee a 
                        public entity and are selected by 
                        public election or are political 
                        appointments.
                  (B) Conflict of interest.--Members of the 
                governing body shall--
                          (i) not have a conflict of interest 
                        with the Head Start agency or delegate 
                        agencies, exceptions shall be made when 
                        a board member of a public entity is 
                        selected by election or politically 
                        appointed;
                          (ii) not receive compensation for the 
                        purposes of serving on the governing 
                        body or for providing services to the 
                        Head Start agency, exceptions shall be 
                        made when a board member of a public 
                        entity is selected by election or 
                        politically appointed;
                          (iii) not be employed nor shall 
                        members of their immediate family be 
                        employed by the Head Start agency or 
                        one of its delegate agencies, 
                        exceptions shall be made when a board 
                        member of a public entity is selected 
                        by election or politically appointed; 
                        and
                          (iv) operate as an entity independent 
                        of staff employed by the Head Start 
                        agency entity or applicant, exceptions 
                        shall be made when a board member of a 
                        public entity is selected by election 
                        or politically appointed.
                  (C) Consultants.--In the case that persons 
                described in subparagraph (A) are not available 
                to serve as members, the governing body shall 
                make use of consultants in the areas described 
                in subparagraph (A) to work directly with the 
                governing body.
                  (D) Training.--All members of the governing 
                body shall receive training in management 
                responsibilities and obligations, ethics, and 
                financial literacy management.
                  (E) Responsibilities of governing body.--The 
                governing body shall be responsible for--
                          (i) adoption of practices that assure 
                        active, independent and informed 
                        governance of the Head Start agency;
                          (ii) oversight to ensure that the 
                        Head Start agency under the direction 
                        of the executive director is delivering 
                        high quality services to children and 
                        families in compliance with all 
                        applicable standards in effect under 
                        this subchapter and with the applicable 
                        performance measures established by the 
                        Secretary under section 644;
                          (iii) establish an audit and finance 
                        committee whose primary responsibility 
                        shall be--
                                  (I) to approve annually the 
                                operating budget of the Head 
                                Start agency;
                                  (II) to review and recommend 
                                to the governing body the 
                                selection of independent 
                                auditors who shall report all 
                                critical accounting policies 
                                and practices to the finance 
                                and audit committee, except 
                                when the auditor is assigned by 
                                the State under State law;
                                  (III) to review and recommend 
                                to the governing body the 
                                termination or extension of the 
                                existing audit firm at least 
                                once every 5 years;
                                  (IV) to review and advise the 
                                governing body of the audit 
                                management letter provided 
                                pursuant to the chapter 75 of 
                                title 31, United States Code, 
                                and of any audit findings; and
                                  (V) to monitor agency actions 
                                to correct any such audit 
                                findings or other actions 
                                necessary to comply with 
                                applicable laws (including 
                                regulations) governing 
                                financial statements and 
                                accounting practices;
                          (iv) approve all major policies of 
                        the agency, including the mission of 
                        the agency and policies addressing 
                        accounting, financial management, 
                        procurement, record confidentiality, 
                        and personnel (including specific 
                        standards governing salaries, salary 
                        adjustments, travel and per diem 
                        allowances, and other employee 
                        benefits);
                          (v) approve all major financial 
                        expenditures of the agency;
                          (vi) approve the selection or 
                        dismissal of the Head Start Director or 
                        the equivalent position within the Head 
                        Start agency;
                          (vii) approve or disapprove all 
                        policies, applications, and decisions 
                        of the Policy Council made under the 
                        authority of paragraph (2);
                          (viii) to oversee the program 
                        planning of the Head Start agency, 
                        including adoption of policies for 
                        setting long- and short-range goals and 
                        objectives;
                          (ix) oversee and approve the agency's 
                        applications to receive funds made 
                        available under this subchapter; and
                          (x) to establish, adopt and 
                        periodically update written standards 
                        of conduct that establish standards and 
                        formal procedures for disclosing, 
                        addressing, and resolving--
                                  (I) any conflict of interest, 
                                and any appearance of a 
                                conflict of interest, by 
                                members of the governing body, 
                                officers, employees, 
                                consultants and agents who 
                                provide services or furnish 
                                goods to the Head Start agency; 
                                and
                                  (II) complaints, including 
                                investigations, when 
                                appropriate.
          (2) Policy council.--
                  (A) Composition.--The Policy Council or 
                Policy Committee, as appropriate, shall be 
                composed as follows:
                          (i) Members of the Policy Council 
                        shall be either parents of children 
                        currently enrolled in the Head Start 
                        agency's (or delegate's) Head Start or 
                        Early Head Start program or that are 
                        parents of children who were enrolled 
                        in the program in the previous year 
                        (Parent Members) or shall be members of 
                        the community served by the Head Start 
                        agency or delegate (Community Members).
                          (ii) Parent members of the Policy 
                        Council shall constitute a majority of 
                        the members of the Policy Council and 
                        shall be elected by parents of 
                        currently enrolled children.
                          (iii) Parent members shall represent, 
                        proportionately, all program options 
                        and settings operated by the Head Start 
                        agency or delegate.
                          (iv) The term of a Policy Council 
                        member shall be no more than 2 years 
                        and no Policy Council member shall 
                        serve longer than 6 years.
                  (B) Responsibilities of policy council.--In 
                order to be designated as a Head Start agency, 
                an entity or delegate of such an entity shall 
                have a Policy Council which shall approve and 
                submit to the governing body decisions about 
                the following activities:
                          (i) The strategic direction of the 
                        program, including long and short-term 
                        planning goals and objectives (such 
                        planning and goals shall take into 
                        account the annual community assessment 
                        and self-assessment).
                          (ii) Selection of delegate agencies 
                        and their service areas.
                          (iii) Recruitment, selection and 
                        enrollment priorities.
                          (iv) Funding applications and 
                        amendments to funding applications for 
                        Head Start or Early Head Start prior to 
                        submission of such applications.
                          (v) Budget planning for program 
                        expenditures.
                          (vi) Bylaws for the operation of the 
                        Policy Council including procedures by 
                        which Policy Council members are 
                        chosen.
                          (vii) Program personnel policies, 
                        including standards of conduct for 
                        program staff, contractors and 
                        volunteers.
                          (viii) Decisions regarding employment 
                        of Head Start staff other than the 
                        director and executive director.
                          (ix) Activities to support the active 
                        involvement of parents in supporting 
                        program operations.
                          (x) Program responsiveness to 
                        community and parent needs.
                  (C) Training.--Appropriate training and 
                technical assistance shall be provided to the 
                members of the Policy Council to ensure that 
                the members understand the information the 
                members receive and effectively oversee and 
                participate in the programs of the Head Start 
                agency or delegate.
          (3) Impasse policy.--The Secretary shall develop 
        policies and procedures describing how Head Start 
        agencies will implement shared decision-making, 
        including a process for resolving any impasse between 
        the Governing Body and the Policy Council.
  (d) Collaboration and Coordination.--To be so designated, a 
Head Start agency must collaborate and coordinate with public 
and private entities to improve the available services to Head 
Start children and families, including the following 
activities:
          (1) Conduct outreach to schools in which children 
        participating in Head Start programs enroll, local 
        educational agencies, the local business community, 
        community-based organizations, faith-based 
        organizations, museums, and libraries to generate 
        support and leverage the resources of the entire local 
        community in order to improve school readiness.
          (2) In communities where both public prekindergarten 
        programs and Head Start programs operate, a Head Start 
        agency shall collaborate and coordinate activities with 
        the local educational agency or other public agency 
        responsible for the operation of the prekindergarten 
        program and providers of prekindergarten, including 
        outreach activities to identify eligible children, as 
        possible.
          (3) Head Start agency staff shall, with the 
        permission of the parents of children enrolled in Head 
        Start programs, regularly communicate with the 
        elementary schools such children will be attending--
                  (A) to share information about such children; 
                and
                  (B) to ensure a smooth transition to 
                elementary school for such children.
          (4) Each Head Start agency shall collaborate, as 
        appropriate, with providers of social and community 
        services available to children and families 
        participating in Head Start programs, and may support 
        such partnerships with financial agreements, when 
        applicable, for the provision of such services.
          (5) A Head Start agency shall take steps to 
        coordinate activities with the local educational agency 
        serving the community involved and with schools in 
        which children participating in a Head Start program 
        operated by such agency will enroll following such 
        program, including--
                  (A) collaborating on the shared use of 
                transportation and facilities;
                  (B) collaborating to enhance the efficiency 
                of services while increasing the program 
                participation of underserved populations of 
                eligible children; and
                  (C) exchanging information on the provision 
                of noneducational services to such children.
          (6) The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary 
        of Education, shall--
                  (A) evaluate the effectiveness of the 
                projects and activities funded under section 
                642A;
                  (B) disseminate to Head Start agencies 
                information (including information from the 
                evaluation required by subparagraph (A)) on 
                effective policies and activities relating to 
                the transition of children from Head Start 
                programs to public schools; and
                  (C) provide technical assistance to such 
                agencies to promote and assist such agencies to 
                adopt and implement such effective policies and 
                activities.
  (e) Quality Standards, Curricula and Assessment.--To be so 
designated, each Head Start agency shall--
          (1) take steps to ensure, to the maximum extent 
        possible, that children maintain the developmental and 
        educational gains achieved in Head Start programs and 
        build upon such gains in further schooling;
          (2) establish a program with standards set forth in 
        section 641A(a)(1), with particular attention to the 
        standards set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of 
        such section;
          (3) implement a research-based early childhood 
        curriculum that promotes young children's school 
        readiness in the areas of language and cognitive 
        development, early reading and premathematics skills, 
        socio-emotional development, physical development, and 
        approaches to learning. Such curricula shall be--
                  (A) based on scientifically based research 
                and have standardized training procedures and 
                curriculum materials to support implementation;
                  (B) comprehensive, linked to ongoing 
                assessment, with developmental and learning 
                goals and measurable objectives; and focused on 
                improving the learning environment, teaching 
                practices, family involvement, and child 
                outcomes across all areas of development; and
                  (C) aligned to the Head Start Child Outcomes 
                Framework developed by the Secretary and to 
                State early learning standards, as appropriate;
          (4) use ongoing, research-based assessment methods 
        that are developmentally appropriate, culturally and 
        linguistically responsive, and tied to children's daily 
        activities in order to support the educational 
        instruction of children in the program, including 
        language skills, prereading knowledge and 
        premathematics knowledge. Assessment instruments shall 
        be those designed and validated for making decisions 
        about teaching and learning and aligned with the 
        programs curricula and section 641A(a)(1);
          (5) use high-quality research-based developmental 
        screening tools that have been demonstrated to be 
        standardized, reliable, valid, and accurate for 
        children from a range of racial, ethnic, linguistic, 
        and cultural backgrounds, for the purpose of meeting 
        the relevant performance standards;
          (6) adopt, in consultation with experts in child 
        development and with classroom teachers, an assessment 
        to be used when hiring or evaluating any classroom 
        teacher in a center-based Head Start program. Such 
        assessment shall measure whether such teacher has 
        mastered the functions described in section 648A(a)(1) 
        and attained a level of literacy appropriate to 
        implement Head Start curricula;
          (7) use the information provided from the assessment 
        conducted under section 640A(C)(2)(H) to adopt a 
        professional development plan that leads to improved 
        teacher effectiveness;
          (8) establish measurable objectives for the provision 
        of health, educational, nutritional, and social 
        services related to the program mission and to school 
        readiness and provided under this subchapter; and
          (9) develop procedures for identifying children as 
        limited English proficient, and inform the parents of 
        such children as to the instructional services used to 
        help children make progress towards acquiring the 
        knowledge and skills described in section 641A(a)(1)(B) 
        and acquisition of the English language.
  (f) Funded Enrollment; Waiting List.--Each Head Start agency 
shall enroll 100 percent of its funded enrollment and maintain 
an active waiting list at all times with ongoing outreach to 
the community and activities to identify underserved 
populations.
  (g) Technical Assistance and Training Plan.--In order to 
receive funds under this subchapter, a Head Start agency shall 
develop an annual technical assistance and training plan. Such 
plan shall be based on the agency's self-assessment, the 
community-wide needs assessment, the needs of parents and 
children to be serviced by such agency, and the results of the 
reviews conducted under section 641A(c).
  (h) Financial Management.--In order to receive funds under 
this subchapter, a Head Start agency shall document strong 
fiscal controls, including the employment of well-qualified 
fiscal staff with a history of successful management of a 
public or private organization.

SEC. 642A. HEAD START TRANSITION AND ALIGNMENT WITH K-12 EDUCATION.

  Each Head Start agency shall take steps to coordinate with 
the local educational agency serving the community involved and 
with schools in which children participating in a Head Start 
program operated by such agency will enroll following such 
program to promote continuity of services and effective 
transitions, including--
          (1) developing and implementing a systematic 
        procedure for transferring, with parental consent, Head 
        Start program records for each participating child to 
        the school in which such child will enroll;
          (2) establishing ongoing channels of communication 
        between Head Start staff and their counterparts in the 
        schools (including teachers, social workers, McKinney-
        Vento liaisons as established under section 722 
        (g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance 
        Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)), and health staff) 
        to facilitate coordination of programs;
          (3) establish on-going communication for developing 
        continuity of developmentally appropriate curricula 
        between Head Start and local educational agencies to 
        ensure an effective transition and appropriate shared 
        expectations for children's learning and development as 
        they make such transition to school;
          (4) organizing and participating in joint training, 
        including transition-related training for school staff 
        and Head Start staff;
          (5) conducting meetings involving parents, 
        kindergarten or elementary school teachers, and Head 
        Start program teachers to discuss the educational, 
        developmental, and other needs of individual children;
          (6) helping parents of limited English Proficient 
        children understand the method of instruction and other 
        services provided by the school in which such child 
        will enroll after participation in Head Start and as 
        appropriate, information provided to parents of limited 
        English proficient children under section 3302 of title 
        III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
        1965 (20U.S.C. 7012);
          (7) developing and implementing a family outreach and 
        support program in cooperation with entities carrying 
        out parental involvement efforts under title I of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 6301 et seq.) and family outreach and support 
        efforts under subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-
        Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431--11435);
          (8) assisting families, administrators, and teachers 
        in enhancing educational and developmental continuity 
        and continuity in parental involvement activities 
        between Head Start services and elementary school 
        classes;
          (9) linking the services provided in such Head Start 
        program with the education services, including services 
        relating to language, literacy, and numeracy, provided 
        by such local educational agency;
          (10) helping parents (including grandparents and 
        kinship caregivers, as appropriate) to understand the 
        importance of parental involvement in a child's 
        academic success while teaching them strategies for 
        maintaining parental involvement as their child moves 
        from Head Start to elementary school;
          (11) developing and implementing a system to increase 
        program participation of underserved populations of 
        eligible children; and
          (12) coordinating activities and collaborating to 
        ensure that curricula used in the Head Start program 
        are aligned with--
                  (A) the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework 
                as developed by the Secretary; and
                  (B) State early learning standards, as 
                appropriate, with regard to cognitive, social, 
                emotional, and physical competencies that 
                children entering kindergarten are expected to 
                demonstrate.

SEC. 642B. LOCAL AND STATE INTEGRATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.

  (a) Local Integration.--In general, Head Start agencies shall 
enter into ongoing partnerships with local educational agencies 
and with State-funded preschool and other early childhood 
programs.
          (1) Memoranda of understanding.--Each Head Start 
        agency shall enter into a memorandum of understanding 
        with any local educational agencies or local councils, 
        responsible for managing publicly funded 
        prekindergarten programs in the service area of the 
        Head Start agency (or if such agencies and such 
        councils are not applicable in the service area, with 
        the largest provider of publicly funded prekindergarten 
        in the service area), that shall include plans to 
        coordinate the following activities:
                  (A) Educational activities, curricula, and 
                instruction.
                  (B) Public information dissemination and 
                access to programs for families contacting any 
                of the early childhood programs.
                  (C) Selection priorities for eligible 
                children to be served by programs.
                  (D) Service delivery areas.
                  (E) Staff training, including opportunities 
                for joint staff training on topics such as 
                academic content standards, instructional 
                methods, and social and emotional development.
                  (F) Program technical assistance.
                  (G) Provision of additional services to meet 
                the needs of working parents.
                  (H) Planning and parent education for smooth 
                transitions to kindergarten as required in 
                section 642A(3) and 642A(6).
                  (I) Provision and use of facilities, 
                transportation, and other program elements.
                  (J) Other elements mutually agreed to by the 
                parties to such memorandum.
          (2) Timing of memoranda.--Each Head Start agency 
        shall enter into a memorandum of understanding under 
        paragraph (1) not later than 1 year after the effective 
        date of this section.
          (3) Secretarial review.--Each memorandum of 
        understanding entered into under paragraph (1) shall be 
        submitted to the Secretary not later than 30 days after 
        entering into such memorandum.
                  (A) If a Head Start agency is unable to 
                comply with the requirement in paragraph (1) 
                the Head Start agency shall notify the 
                Secretary and the chief executive officer of 
                the State not later than 30 days after 
                determining that they are unable to enter into 
                such memorandum. The Secretary, in cooperation 
                with the State Early Learning Council and the 
                State Director of Head Start Collaboration, 
                shall evaluate the causes of failure to enter 
                into a memorandum of understanding under 
                paragraph (1). With the assistance of the State 
                Early Learning Council and the State Director 
                of Head Start Collaboration, all parties shall 
                again attempt to enter into a memorandum of 
                understanding under paragraph (1). Then if no 
                such memorandum of understanding is entered 
                into, the Secretary shall make 1 of the 
                following determinations:
                          (i) The local educational agency, 
                        local council, or other appropriate 
                        entity is unable or unwilling to enter 
                        into such a memorandum despite 
                        reasonable efforts on the part of the 
                        Head Start agency.
                          (ii) The Head Start agency has not 
                        engaged in reasonable efforts to 
                        successfully negotiate and enter into a 
                        memorandum of understanding pursuant to 
                        paragraph (1).
                          (iii) There is an absence of publicly 
                        funded prekindergarten in the service 
                        area of the Head Start agency.
                  (B) If the Secretary determines the Head 
                Start agency is not making reasonable efforts 
                to enter into a memorandum of understanding 
                pursuant to paragraph (1), the Head Start 
                agency shall be found to be noncompliant with 
                program performance standards.
                  (C) If the Secretary concludes that the local 
                educational agency, local council, or other 
                appropriate entity is not making reasonable 
                efforts to reach such a memorandum of 
                understanding, the Head Start agency shall not 
                be found out of compliance with paragraph (1).
          (4) Revision of memoranda.--Each memorandum of 
        understanding shall be revised and renewed annually by 
        the parties to such memorandum, in alignment with the 
        beginning of the school year.
          (5) Absence of prekindergarten.--In the absence of 
        publicly funded prekindergarten in the service area of 
        a Head Start agency, the Head Start agency shall submit 
        notice to the Secretary and the chief executive officer 
        of the State and shall work with the State Early 
        Learning Council and the State Director of Head Start 
        Collaboration to improve coordination in their service 
        area.
  (b) State Early Learning Councils.--From the amounts reserved 
under section 640(a)(2)(C)(iii), the Secretary shall award, 
upon submission of a written request and pursuant to the 
requirements of paragraph (2), an early learning collaboration 
grant to each State for the purposes of supporting a State 
Early Learning Council responsible for advancing the 
development of a coordinated early childhood services delivery 
system in the State. A State that receives a grant under this 
subparagraph shall--
          (1) establish a State Early Learning Council, which 
        shall include--
                  (A) the State Director of Head Start 
                Collaboration;
                  (B) representatives from the State preschool 
                programs;
                  (C) representatives of local educational 
                agencies;
                  (D) the State official who oversees child 
                care programs;
                  (E) the State official who oversees section 
                619 and part C of the Individuals with 
                Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 
                1431 et seq.);
                  (F) the State official who oversees the State 
                educational agency;
                  (G) representatives from Head Start agencies 
                located in the State, including migrant and 
                seasonal Head Start programs and Indian Head 
                Start programs;
                  (H) representatives of local child care 
                programs or organizations; and
                  (I) a representative of the State agency 
                responsible for health and mental health care;
        except that the chief executive officer of the State 
        may designate an existing entity to serve as the Early 
        Learning Council if such entity includes 
        representatives described in this paragraph;
          (2) ensure that allotted funds distributed to a State 
        for a fiscal year to carry out this subsection may be 
        used by the State to pay not more than 50 percent of 
        the cost of carrying out this subsection;
          (3) direct the early learning council to improve the 
        coordination and quality of early childhood services 
        within the State, including--
                  (A) to increase coordination and 
                collaboration among State preschool, Head Start 
                programs, child care programs, early childhood 
                special education, and other early childhood 
                programs, including in the areas of outcomes 
                and standards, technical assistance, 
                coordination of services, cross-sector 
                professional development and training, 
                community outreach, communication, and better 
                serving the needs of working families through 
                provision of full-day and full-year early 
                education services;
                  (B) to work with State agencies responsible 
                for education, child care, and early 
                intervention to provide leadership and 
                assistance to local Head Start programs, local 
                education agencies, and State and locally 
                funded preschool and child care programs to 
                increase integration among early childhood 
                programs through adoption of local memoranda of 
                understanding described in subparagraph (A) and 
                other means;
                  (C) to work with State agencies responsible 
                for education, child care, and early 
                intervention to provide leadership and 
                assistance to develop developmentally 
                appropriate standards for children birth 
                through the early elementary grades to effect a 
                smooth transition to and success in the early 
                elementary grades;
                  (D) to develop or conduct periodic Statewide 
                needs assessments concerning early care and 
                education programs for children from birth to 
                school entry;
                  (E) to work to identify and address barriers 
                to and opportunities for integration between 
                entities carrying out Federal and State child 
                development, child care, and early childhood 
                education programs;
                  (F) to develop recommendations regarding 
                means of establishing a unified data collection 
                system for early care and education programs 
                operating throughout the State;
                  (G) to address coordination of early learning 
                programs with health care (including mental and 
                behavioral health care), welfare, family 
                literacy and services for homeless children;
                  (H) to support a State system of early 
                childhood education, and training and technical 
                assistance that improves the quality of early 
                learning programs and the capacity of such 
                programs to deliver services pursuant to 
                section 648(b);
                  (I) to develop a plan for increasing the 
                participation of children underrepresented in 
                State early childhood education and child care 
                programs, including Head Start, State preschool 
                programs, and programs carried out under the 
                Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 
                1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.);
                  (J) developing a Statewide professional 
                development and career ladder plan for early 
                care and education in the State; and
                  (K) assisting 2- and 4-year public and 
                private institutions of higher education to 
                develop articulation agreements concerning 
                degrees in early childhood and related fields.
          (4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to 
        provide the Early Learning Council with authority to 
        modify, supersede, or affect the operation of this 
        subchapter.
          (5) Funds made available under this section shall be 
        used to supplement, and not supplant, other Federal, 
        State, and local funds that would otherwise be expended 
        to carry out the purposes of this section.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


               ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS

Sec. 644.
  [(a) Each Head Start agency shall observe standards of 
organization, management, and administration which will assure, 
so far as reasonably possible, that all program activities are 
conducted in a manner consistent with the purposes of this 
subchapter and the objective of providing assistance 
effectively, efficiently, and free of any taint of partisan 
political bias or personal or family favoritism. Each such 
agency shall establish or adopt rules to carry out this 
section, which shall include rules to assure full staff 
accountability in matters governed by law, regulations, or 
agency policy. Each agency shall also provide for reasonable 
public access to information, including public hearings at the 
request of appropriate community groups and reasonable public 
access to books and records of the agency or other agencies 
engaged in program activities or operations involving the use 
of authority or funds for which it is responsible. Each such 
agency shall adopt for itself and other agencies using funds or 
exercising authority for which it is responsible, rules 
designed to (1) establish specific standards governing 
salaries, salary increases, travel and per diem allowances, and 
other employee benefits; (2) assure that only persons capable 
of discharging their duties with competence and integrity are 
employed and that employees are promoted or advanced under 
impartial procedures calculated to improve agency performance 
and effectiveness; (3) guard against personal or financial 
conflicts of interest; (4) define employee duties in an 
appropriate manner which will in any case preclude employees 
from participating, in connection with the performance of their 
duties, in any form of picketing, protest, or other direct 
action which is in violation of law.]
  (a) In General.--
          (1) Standards.--Each Head Start agency shall observe 
        standards of organization, management, and 
        administration which will ensure, so far as reasonably 
        possible, that all program activities are conducted in 
        a manner consistent with the purposes of this 
        subchapter and the objective of providing assistance 
        effectively, efficiently, and free of any taint of 
        partisan political bias or personal or family 
        favoritism. Each such agency shall establish or adopt 
        rules to carry out this section, which shall include 
        rules to assure full staff accountability in matters 
        governed by law, regulations, or agency policy. Each 
        agency shall also provide for reasonable public access 
        to information, including public hearings at the 
        request of appropriate community groups and reasonable 
        public access to books and records of the agency or 
        other agencies engaged in program activities or 
        operations involving the use of authority or funds for 
        which it is responsible.
          (2) Annual report.--Each Head Start agency shall make 
        available to the public a report published at least 
        once in each fiscal year that discloses the following 
        information from the then most recently concluded 
        fiscal year, except that reporting such information 
        shall not reveal personally identifiable information 
        about an individual child or parent:
                  (A) The total amount of public and private 
                funds received and the amount from each source.
                  (B) An explanation of budgetary expenditures 
                and proposed budget for the following fiscal 
                year.
                  (C) The total number of children and families 
                served and percent of average monthly 
                enrollment, including the percent of eligible 
                children served.
                  (D) The results of the most recent review by 
                the Secretary and the financial audit.
                  (E) The percentage of enrolled children that 
                received medical and dental exams.
                  (F) Information about parent involvement 
                activities.
                  (G) The agency's efforts to prepare children 
                for kindergarten.
                  (H) Any other information required by the 
                Secretary.
          (3) Procedural conduct.--Each such agency shall adopt 
        for itself and other agencies using funds or exercising 
        authority for which it is responsible, rules designed 
        to--
                  (A) establish specific standards governing 
                salaries, salary increases, travel and per diem 
                allowances, and other employee benefits;
                  (B) assure that only persons capable of 
                discharging their duties with competence and 
                integrity are employed and that employees are 
                promoted or advanced under impartial procedures 
                calculated to improve agency performance and 
                effectiveness;
                  (C) guard against personal or financial 
                conflicts of interest; and
                  (D) define employee duties in an appropriate 
                manner which will in any case preclude 
                employees from participating, in connection 
                with the performance of their duties, in any 
                form of picketing, protest, or other direct 
                action which is in violation of law.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(f)(1) The Secretary shall establish uniform procedures for 
Head Start agencies to request approval to purchase facilities, 
or to request approval of the purchase (after December 31, 
1986) of facilities, to be used to carry out Head Start 
programs. The Secretary shall suspend any proceedings pending 
against any Head Start agency to claim costs incurred in 
purchasing such facilities until the agency has been afforded 
an opportunity to apply for approval of the purchase and the 
Secretary has determined whether the purchase will be approved. 
The Secretary shall not be required to repay claims previously 
satisfied by Head Start agencies for costs incurred in the 
purchase of such facilities.
  [(2) Financial assistance provided under this subchapter may 
not be used by a Head Start agency to purchase a facility 
(including paying the cost of amortizing the principal, and 
paying interest on, loans) to be used to carry out a Head Start 
program unless the Secretary approves a request that is 
submitted by such agency and contains--
          [(A) a description of the site of the facility 
        proposed to be purchased or that was previously 
        purchased;
          [(B) the plans and specifications of such facility;
          [(C) information demonstrating that--
                  [(i) the proposed purchase will result, or 
                the previous purchase has resulted, in savings 
                when compared to the costs that would be 
                incurred to acquire the use of an alternative 
                facility to carry out such program; or
                  [(ii) the lack of alternative facilities will 
                prevent, or would have prevented, the operation 
                of such program;
          [(D) in the case of a request regarding a previously 
        purchased facility, information demonstrating that the 
        facility will be used principally as a Head Start 
        center, or a direct support facility for a Head Start 
        program; and
          [(E) such other information and assurances as the 
        Secretary may require.
  [(3) Upon a determination by the Secretary that suitable 
facilities are not otherwise available to Indian tribes to 
carry out Head Start programs, and that the lack of suitable 
facilities will inhibit the operation of such programs, the 
Secretary, in the discretion of the Secretary, may authorize 
the use of financial assistance, from the amount reserved under 
section 640(a)(2)(A), to make payments for the purchase of 
facilities owned by such tribes. The amount of such a payment 
for such a facility shall not exceed the fair market value of 
the facility.]
  (f) Facilities.--
          (1) The Secretary shall establish uniform procedures 
        for Head Start agencies to request approval to purchase 
        facilities, or to request approval of the purchase 
        (after December 31, 1986) of facilities, to be used to 
        carry out Head Start programs. The Secretary shall 
        suspend any proceedings pending against any Head Start 
        agency to claim costs incurred in purchasing such 
        facilities until the agency has been afforded an 
        opportunity to apply for approval of the purchase and 
        the Secretary has determined whether the purchase will 
        be approved. The Secretary shall not be required to 
        repay claims previously satisfied by Head Start 
        agencies for costs incurred in the purchase of such 
        facilities.
          (2) Financial assistance provided under this 
        subchapter may not be used by a Head Start agency to 
        purchase a facility (including paying the cost of 
        amortizing the principal and paying interest on loans) 
        to be used to carry out a Head Start program unless the 
        Secretary approves a request that is submitted by such 
        agency and contains--
                  (A) a description of the consultation 
                conducted by the Head Start agency with the 
                providers in the community demonstrating 
                capacity and capability to provide services 
                under this subchapter, and of the potential for 
                collaboration with such providers and the cost 
                effectiveness of such collaboration as opposed 
                to the cost effectiveness of the purchase of a 
                facility;
                  (B) a description of the site of the facility 
                proposed to be purchased or that was previously 
                purchased;
                  (C) the plans and specifications of such 
                facility;
                  (D) information demonstrating that--
                          (i) the proposed purchase will 
                        result, or the previous purchase has 
                        resulted, in savings when compared to 
                        the costs that would be incurred to 
                        acquire the use of an alternative 
                        facility to carry out such program; or
                          (ii) the lack of alternative 
                        facilities will prevent, or would have 
                        prevented, the operation of such 
                        program;
                  (E) in the case of a request regarding a 
                previously purchased facility, information 
                demonstrating that the facility will be used 
                principally as a Head Start center, or a direct 
                support facility for a Head Start program; and
                  (F) such other information and assurances as 
                the Secretary may require.
          (3) Upon a determination by the Secretary that 
        suitable facilities are not otherwise available to 
        Indian tribes to carry out Head Start programs, and 
        that the lack of suitable facilities will inhibit the 
        operation of such programs, the Secretary may authorize 
        the use of financial assistance, from the amount 
        reserved under section 640(a)(2)(A), to make payments 
        for the purchase of facilities owned by such tribes. 
        The amount of such a payment for such a facility shall 
        not exceed the fair market value of the facility.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                  PARTICIPATION IN HEAD START PROGRAMS

  Sec. 645. (a)(1) The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe 
eligibility for the participation of persons in Head Start 
programs assisted under this subchapter. Except as provided in 
paragraph (2), such criteria may provide--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) pursuant to such regulations as the 
                Secretary shall prescribe, that--
                          [(i) programs assisted under this 
                        subchapter may include, to a reasonable 
                        extent, participation of children in 
                        the area served who would benefit from 
                        such programs but whose families do not 
                        meet the low-income criteria prescribed 
                        pursuant to subparagraph (A); and]
                          (i) programs assisted under this 
                        subchapter may include, to a reasonable 
                        extent, participation of children in 
                        the area served who would benefit from 
                        such programs, including children 
                        referred by child welfare services, but 
                        whose families do not meet the low-
                        income criteria prescribed pursuant to 
                        subparagraph (A) (A homeless child 
                        shall be deemed to meet the low-income 
                        criteria.); and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (3) The amount of a basic allowance provided under section 
403 of title 37, United States Code, on behalf of an individual 
who is a member of the uniformed services for housing that is 
acquired or constructed under the authority of subchapter IV of 
chapter 169 of title 10, United States Code, or any other 
related provision of law, shall not be considered to be income 
for purposes of determining the eligibility of a child of the 
individual for programs assisted under this subchapter.
  (4)(A) Upon written request and pursuant to the requirements 
of this paragraph, a Head Start agency may use funds under 
section 640(a) to serve infants and toddlers if the agency 
submits an application to the Secretary containing the 
following information, as specified in rules issued by the 
Secretary--
          (i) the amount of funds under section 640(a) that are 
        proposed to be used in accordance with section 645A(b);
          (ii) a community-wide needs assessment demonstrating 
        how the use of such funds would best meet the needs of 
        the community;
          (iii) a description of how the needs of pregnant 
        women, and of infants and toddlers, will be addressed 
        in accordance with section 645A(b), and with 
        regulations prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to 
        section 641A in areas including the agency's approach 
        to child development and provision of health services, 
        approach to family and community partnerships, and 
        approach to program design and management;
          (iv) a description of how the needs of eligible Head 
        Start children will be met in the community;
          (v) assurances that the agency will participate in 
        technical assistance activities (including a planning 
        period, start-up site visits, and national training 
        activities) in the same manner as recipients of grants 
        under section 645A; and
          (vi) evidence that the agency meets the same 
        eligibility criteria as recipients of grants under 
        section 645A.
  (B) An application that satisfies the requirements specified 
in subparagraph (A) shall be approved by the Secretary unless 
the Secretary finds that--
          (i) the agency lacks adequate capacity and capability 
        to carry out an effective Early Head Start program; or
          (ii) the information provided under subparagraph (A) 
        is inadequate.
  (C) Any Head Start agency approved under subparagraph (B) 
shall be considered to be an entity that receives assistance 
under section 645A, and such funds under (i) shall be subject 
to the same rules, regulations, and conditions as apply to 
recipients of grants under section 645A.
  (5)(A) Upon written request and pursuant to the requirements 
of this paragraph, a Head Start agency may consider children 
from low-income families to be eligible for participation in 
programs assisted under this subchapter if their family income 
is at or above the poverty line but below 130 percent of the 
poverty line, if the agency submits an application to the 
Secretary containing the following information, as specified in 
rules issued by the Secretary--
          (i) a description of how the needs of eligible Head 
        Start children, as described in paragraph (1)(A) are 
        being adequately met in the agency's service area;
          (ii) a description of outreach efforts to the 
        community to reach full enrollment under the 
        eligibility guidelines under paragraph (1), including 
        using outreach efforts that are linguistically and 
        culturally appropriate;
          (iii) assurance that the agency will prioritize 
        serving children currently eligible under the 
        guidelines under paragraph (1); and
          (iv) a description of why increasing the number of 
        infants and toddlers being served, as described in 
        paragraph (4), is not appropriate based upon the 
        communitywide needs assessment or the agency's 
        capability.
  (B) In approving such applications, the Secretary shall take 
into account the--
          (i) cost of living for families living the area 
        served by the Head Start agency;
          (ii) the efforts the Head Start agency has undertaken 
        to be fully enrolled under the eligibility criteria in 
        paragraph (1); and
          (iii) the policies and procedures the Head Start 
        agency will implement to ensure that children currently 
        eligible under the criteria described under paragraph 
        (1) will be prioritized.
  (C) No more than 20 percent of children served by such Head 
Start agency may be from families above the poverty line.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Each Head Start program operated in a community shall be 
permitted to provide more than 1 year of Head Start services to 
eligible children [(age 3 to compulsory school attendance)] in 
the State. Each Head Start program operated in a community 
shall be permitted to recruit and accept applications for 
enrollment of children throughout the year.
  (d)(1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, an 
Indian tribe that operates both a Head Start program and an 
Early Head Start program under section 645A may, at its 
discretion, at any time during the grant period involved, 
reallocate funds between the Head Start program and the Early 
Head Start program in order to address fluctuations in client 
population, including pregnant women and children birth to 
compulsory school age. The reallocation of such funds between 
programs by an Indian tribe shall not serve as the basis for 
the Secretary to reduce a base grant (as defined in section 
641A(g)(1)) for either program in succeeding years.

[SEC. 645A. EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS FOR FAMILIES WITH INFANTS AND 
                    TODDLERS.

  [(a) In General.--The Secretary shall make grants, in 
accordance with the provisions of this section for programs 
providing family-centered services for low-income families with 
very young children designed to promote the development of the 
children, and to enable their parents to fulfill their roles as 
parents and to move toward self-sufficiency.
  [(b) Scope and Design of Programs.--In carrying out a program 
described in subsection (a), an entity receiving assistance 
under this section shall--
          [(1) provide, either directly or through referral, 
        early, continuous, intensive, and comprehensive child 
        development and family support services that will 
        enhance the physical, social, emotional, and 
        intellectual development of participating children;
          [(2) ensure that the level of services provided to 
        families responds to their needs and circumstances;
          [(3) promote positive parent-child interactions;
          [(4) provide services to parents to support their 
        role as parents and to help the families move toward 
        self-sufficiency (including educational and employment 
        services as appropriate);
          [(5) coordinate services with services provided by 
        programs in the State and programs in the community 
        (including programs for infants and toddlers with 
        disabilities) to ensure a comprehensive array of 
        services (such as health and mental health services);
          [(6) ensure formal linkages with local Head Start 
        programs in order to provide for continuity of services 
        for children and families;
          [(7) in the case of a Head Start agency that operates 
        a program and that also provides Head Start services 
        through the age of mandatory school attendance, ensure 
        that children and families participating in the program 
        receive such services through such age;
          [(8) ensure formal linkages with the agencies and 
        entities described in section 644(b) of the Individuals 
        with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1444(b)) and 
        providers of early intervention services for infants 
        and toddlers with disabilities under the Individuals 
        with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et 
        seq.); and
          [(9) meet such other requirements concerning design 
        and operation of the program described in subsection 
        (a) as the Secretary may establish.
  [(c) Persons Eligible To Participate.--Persons who may 
participate in programs described in subsection (a) include--
          [(1) pregnant women; and
          [(2) families with children under age 3;
who meet the income criteria specified for families in section 
645(a)(1).
  [(d) Eligible Service Providers.--To be eligible to receive 
assistance under this section, an entity shall submit an 
application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and 
containing such information as the Secretary may require. 
Entities that may apply to carry out activities under this 
section include--
          [(1) entities operating Head Start programs under 
        this subchapter; and
          [(2) other public entities, and nonprofit or for-
        profit private entities, capable of providing child and 
        family services that meet the standards for 
        participation in programs under this subchapter and 
        meet such other appropriate requirements relating to 
        the activities under this section as the Secretary may 
        establish.
  [(e) Selection of Grant Recipients.--From the portion 
specified in section 640(a)(6), the Secretary shall award 
grants under this subsection on a competitive basis to 
applicants meeting the criteria specified in subsection (d) 
(giving priority to entities with a record of providing early, 
continuous, and comprehensive childhood development and family 
services).
  [(f) Distribution.--In awarding grants to eligible applicants 
under this section, the Secretary shall--
          [(1) ensure an equitable national geographic 
        distribution of the grants; and
          [(2) award grants to applicants proposing to serve 
        communities in rural areas and to applicants proposing 
        to serve communities in urban areas.
  [(g) Monitoring, Training, Technical Assistance, and 
Evaluation.--
          [(1) Requirement.--In order to ensure the successful 
        operation of programs assisted under this section, the 
        Secretary shall use funds from the portion specified in 
        section 640(a)(6) to monitor the operation of such 
        programs, evaluate their effectiveness, and provide 
        training and technical assistance tailored to the 
        particular needs of such programs.
          [(2) Training and technical assistance account.--
                  [(A) In general.--Of the amount made 
                available to carry out this section for any 
                fiscal year, not less than 5 percent and not 
                more than 10 percent shall be reserved to fund 
                a training and technical assistance account.
                  [(B) Activities.--Funds in the account may be 
                used by the Secretary for purposes including--
                          [(i) making grants to, and entering 
                        into contracts with, organizations with 
                        specialized expertise relating to 
                        infants, toddlers, and families and the 
                        capacity needed to provide direction 
                        and support to a national training and 
                        technical assistance system, in order 
                        to provide such direction and support;
                          [(ii) providing ongoing training and 
                        technical assistance for regional and 
                        program staff charged with monitoring 
                        and overseeing the administration of 
                        the program carried out under this 
                        section;
                          [(iii) providing ongoing training and 
                        technical assistance for existing 
                        recipients (as of the date of such 
                        training or assistance) of grants under 
                        subsection (a) and support and program 
                        planning and implementation assistance 
                        for new recipients of such grants; and
                          [(iv) providing professional 
                        development and personnel enhancement 
                        activities, including the provision of 
                        funds to recipients of grants under 
                        subsection (a) for the recruitment and 
                        retention of qualified staff with an 
                        appropriate level of education and 
                        experience.]

SEC. 645A. EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS FOR FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN UNDER 3 
                    YEARS OF AGE.

  (a) In General.--The Secretary shall make grants, in 
accordance with this section for programs (to be known as 
``Early Head Start programs'') that provide family-centered 
services for low-income families with very young children 
designed to promote the development of the children, and to 
enable their parents to fulfill their roles as parents and to 
move toward self-sufficiency.
  (b) Scope and Design of Programs.--In carrying out a program 
described in subsection (a), an entity receiving assistance 
under this section shall--
          (1) provide, either directly or through referral, 
        early, continuous, intensive, and comprehensive child 
        development and family support services that will 
        enhance the physical, social, emotional, and 
        intellectual development of participating children;
          (2) ensure that the level of services provided to 
        families responds to their needs and circumstances;
          (3) promote positive parent-child interactions;
          (4) provide services to parents to support their role 
        as parents (including parenting skills training and 
        training in basic child development) and to help the 
        families move toward self-sufficiency (including 
        educational and employment services as appropriate);
          (5) coordinate services with services provided by 
        programs in the State (including home-based services) 
        and programs in the community (including programs for 
        infants and toddlers with disabilities and programs for 
        homeless infants and toddlers) to ensure a 
        comprehensive array of services (such as health and 
        mental health services and family support services);
          (6) ensure formal linkages with local Head Start 
        programs in order to provide for continuity of services 
        for children and families;
          (7) in the case of a Head Start agency that operates 
        a program and that also provides Head Start services 
        through the age of mandatory school attendance, ensure 
        that children and families participating in the program 
        receive such services through such age;
          (8) ensure formal linkages with the agencies and 
        entities described in section 644(b) of the Individuals 
        with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1444(b)) and 
        providers of early intervention services for infants 
        and toddlers with disabilities under the Individuals 
        with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et 
        seq.) and the agency responsible for administering 
        section 106 of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment 
        Act (42 U.S.C. 5106a);
          (9) develop and implement a systematic procedure for 
        transitioning children and parents from an Early Head 
        Start program under this section into a Head Start 
        program or other local early childhood education 
        program;
          (10) establish channels of communication between 
        staff of Early Head Start programs under this section 
        and staff of Head Start programs or other local early 
        childhood education programs, to facilitate the 
        coordination of programs; and
          (11) meet such other requirements concerning design 
        and operation of the program described in subsection 
        (a) as the Secretary may establish.
  (c) Persons Eligible To Participate.--Persons who may 
participate in programs described in subsection (a) include--
          (1) pregnant women; and
          (2) families with children under age 3;
who meet the income criteria specified for families in section 
645(a)(1).
  (d) Eligible Service Providers.--To be eligible to receive 
assistance under this section, an entity shall submit an 
application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and 
containing such information as the Secretary may require. 
Entities that may apply to carry out activities under this 
section include--
          (1) entities operating Head Start programs under this 
        subpart;
          (2) Indian Head Start programs; and
          (3) other public entities, and nonprofit or for-
        profit private entities, including community-based and 
        faith-based organizations, capable of providing child 
        and family services that meet the standards for 
        participation in programs under this subchapter and 
        meet such other appropriate requirements relating to 
        the activities under this section as the Secretary may 
        establish.
  (e) Selection of Grant Recipients.--From the portion 
specified in section 640(a)(6), the Secretary shall award 
grants under this subsection on a competitive basis to 
applicants meeting the criteria specified in subsection (d) 
(giving priority to entities with a record of providing early, 
continuous, and comprehensive childhood development and family 
services).
  (f) Distribution.--In awarding grants to eligible applicants 
under this section, the Secretary shall--
          (1) ensure an equitable national geographic 
        distribution of the grants; and
          (2) award grants to applicants proposing to serve 
        communities in rural areas and to applicants proposing 
        to serve communities in urban areas.
  (g) Monitoring, Training, Technical Assistance, and 
Evaluation.--
          (1) Requirement.--To ensure the successful operation 
        of programs assisted under this section, the Secretary 
        shall use funds from the portion specified in section 
        640(a)(6) to monitor the operation of such programs, 
        evaluate their effectiveness, and provide training and 
        technical assistance tailored to the particular needs 
        of such programs.
          (2) Training and technical assistance account.--
                  (A) In general.--Of the amount made available 
                to carry out this section for any fiscal year, 
                not less than 5 percent and not more than 10 
                percent shall be reserved to fund a training 
                and technical assistance account.
                  (B) Activities.--Funds in the account may be 
                used by the Secretary for purposes including--
                          (i) making grants to, and entering 
                        into contracts with, organizations with 
                        specialized expertise relating to 
                        infants, toddlers, and families and the 
                        capacity needed to provide direction 
                        and support to a national training and 
                        technical assistance system, in order 
                        to provide such direction and support;
                          (ii) providing ongoing training and 
                        technical assistance for regional and 
                        program staff charged with monitoring 
                        and overseeing the administration of 
                        the program carried out under this 
                        section;
                          (iii) providing ongoing training and 
                        technical assistance for existing 
                        recipients (as of the date of such 
                        training or assistance) of grants under 
                        subsection (a) and support and program 
                        planning and implementation assistance 
                        for new recipients of such grants;
                          (iv) providing professional 
                        development and personnel enhancement 
                        activities, including the provision of 
                        funds to recipients of grants under 
                        subsection (a) for the recruitment and 
                        retention of qualified staff with an 
                        appropriate level of education and 
                        experience; and
                          (v) providing professional 
                        development designed to increase 
                        program participation for underserved 
                        populations of eligible children.
  (h) Center-Based Staff.--The Secretary shall ensure that, not 
later than September 30, 2009, all teachers providing direct 
services to children and families participating in early Head 
Start programs located in early Head Start centers have a 
minimum of a child development associate credential, and have 
been trained (or have equivalent course work) in early 
childhood development.
  (i) Staff Qualifications and Development.--
          (1) Home visitor staff standards.--In order to 
        further enhance the quality of home visiting services 
        provided to families of children participating in home-
        based, center-based, or combination program options 
        under this subchapter, the Secretary shall establish 
        standards for training, qualifications, and the conduct 
        of home visits for home visitor staff in Early Head 
        Start programs.
          (2) Contents of standards.--The standards for 
        training, qualifications, and the conduct of home 
        visits shall include content related to--
                  (A) structured child-focused home visiting 
                that promotes parents' ability to support the 
                child's cognitive, social, emotional, and 
                physical development;
                  (B) effective strengths-based parent 
                education, including methods to encourage 
                parents as their child's first teachers;
                  (C) early childhood development with respect 
                to children from birth through age 3;
                  (D) methods to help parents promote emergent 
                literacy in their children from birth through 
                age 3;
                  (E) ascertaining what health and 
                developmental services the family receives and 
                working with these providers to eliminate gaps 
                in service by offering annual health, vision, 
                hearing, and developmental screening for 
                children from birth to entry into kindergarten, 
                when needed;
                  (F) strategies for helping families coping 
                with crisis; and
                  (G) the relationship of health and well-being 
                of pregnant women to prenatal and early child 
                development.

SEC. 645B. PARENTAL CONSENT REQUIREMENT FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES.

  (a) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:
          (1) The term ``health care service'' includes--
                  (A) any nonemergency intrusive physical 
                examination; and
                  (B) any screening, including but not limited 
                to, a medical, dental, developmental, mental 
                health, social, or behavioral screening.
          (2) The term ``nonemergency intrusive physical 
        examination'' means, with respect to a child, a 
        physical examination that--
                  (A) is not immediately necessary to protect 
                the health or safety of such child, or the 
                health or safety of another individual; and
                  (B) includes incision or is otherwise 
                invasive, or includes exposure of private body 
                parts.
  (b) Requirement.--Before administering any health care 
service to a child (or referring a child to obtain such 
service) in connection with participation in a program under 
this subchapter, a Head Start agency and an entity that 
receives assistance under section 645A shall obtain the written 
consent of a parent of such child indicating consent for each 
specific health care service to be performed.
  (c) Rule of Construction.--
          (1) Nothing in this section shall be construed to 
        prohibit a Head Start agency or an entity that receives 
        assistance under section 645A from using established 
        methods for handling cases of suspected or known child 
        abuse and neglect, that are in compliance with 
        applicable Federal, State, or tribal law.
          (2) Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to 
        permit a Head Start agency, an entity that receives 
        assistance under section 645A, or the personnel of such 
        agency or entity to administer any health care service 
        to a child (or to refer a child to obtain such service) 
        without the informed written consent of a parent of 
        such child indicating consent for each specific health 
        care service to be performed.
          (3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to 
        require a Head Start agency or an entity that receives 
        assistance under section 645A to provide separate 
        consent forms for each specific health care service.

                      APPEALS, NOTICE, AND HEARING

  Sec. 646. (a) The Secretary shall prescribe procedures to 
assure that--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(3) financial assistance under this subchapter shall 
        not be terminated or reduced, an application for 
        refunding shall not be denied, and a suspension of 
        financial assistance shall not be continued for longer 
        than 30 days, unless the recipient has been afforded 
        reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair 
        hearing; and]
          (3) if financial assistance under this subchapter is 
        terminated or reduced, an application for a 
        noncompeting continuation award is denied based on a 
        previous failure to comply with terms applicable to 
        financial assistance previously provided under this 
        subchapter, or suspension of financial assistance is 
        continued for more than 30 days, the recipient with 
        respect to whom such action is taken shall have the 
        opportunity to appeal such action in accordance with 
        such procedures, except that no funds made available 
        under this subchapter may be used to reimburse any such 
        recipient for legal fees and other costs incurred in 
        pursuing such an appeal; and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                           RECORDS AND AUDITS

Sec. 647. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (d) Each recipient of financial assistance under this 
subchapter shall--
          (1) maintain, and annually submit to the Secretary, a 
        complete accounting of its administrative expenses 
        (including a detailed statement identifying the amount 
        of financial assistance provided under this subchapter 
        used to pay expenses for salaries and compensation and 
        the amount (if any) of other funds used to pay such 
        expenses);
          (2) within 30 days after the completion of an audit 
        conducted in the manner and to the extent provided in 
        chapter 75 of title 31, United States Code (commonly 
        known as the ``Single Audit Act Amendments of 1996''), 
        submit to the Secretary a copy of the audit management 
        letter and of any audit findings as it relates to the 
        Head Start program; and
          (3) provide such additional documentation as the 
        Secretary may require.

                   [TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING

[Sec. 648.
  [(a) The Secretary shall provide, directly or through grants 
or other arrangements (1) technical assistance to communities 
in developing, conducting, and administering programs under 
this subchapter; and (2) training for specialized or other 
personnel needed in connection with Head Start programs, in 
accordance with the process, and the provisions for allocating 
resources, set forth in subsections (b) and (c).
  [(b) The process for determining the technical assistance and 
training activities to be carried out under this section 
shall--
          [(1) ensure that the needs of local Head Start 
        agencies and programs relating to improving program 
        quality and to program expansion are addressed to the 
        maximum extent feasible;
          [(2) incorporate mechanisms to ensure responsiveness 
        to local needs, including an ongoing procedure for 
        obtaining input from the individuals and agencies 
        carrying out Head Start programs; and
          [(3) ensure the provision of technical assistance to 
        assist Head Start agencies, entities carrying out other 
        child care and early childhood programs, communities, 
        and States in collaborative efforts to provide quality 
        full-working-day, full calendar year services, 
        including technical assistance related to identifying 
        and assisting in resolving barriers to collaboration.
  [(c) In allocating resources for technical assistance and 
training under this section, the Secretary shall--
          [(1) give priority consideration to--
                  [(A) activities to correct program and 
                management deficiencies identified through 
                reviews carried out pursuant to section 641A(c) 
                (including the provision of assistance to local 
                programs in the development of quality 
                improvement plans under section 641A(d)(2)); 
                and
                  [(B) assisting Head Start agencies in--
                          [(i) ensuring the school readiness of 
                        children; and
                          [(ii) meeting the educational 
                        performance measures described in 
                        section 641A(b)(4);
          [(2) supplement amounts provided under section 
        640(a)(3)(C)(ii) in order to address the training and 
        career development needs of classroom staff (including 
        instruction for providing services to children with 
        disabilities) and nonclassroom staff, including home 
        visitors and other staff working directly with 
        families, including training relating to increasing 
        parent involvement and services designed to increase 
        family literacy and improve parenting skills;
          [(3) assist Head Start agencies in the development of 
        collaborative initiatives with States and other 
        entities within the States, to foster effective early 
        childhood professional development systems;
          [(4) provide technical assistance and training, 
        either directly or through a grant, contract, or 
        cooperative agreement with an entity that has 
        experience in the development and operation of 
        successful family literacy services programs, for the 
        purpose of--
                  [(A) assisting Head Start agencies providing 
                family literacy services, in order to improve 
                the quality of such family literacy services; 
                and
                  [(B) enabling those Head Start agencies that 
                demonstrate effective provision of family 
                literacy services, based on improved outcomes 
                for children and their parents, to provide 
                technical assistance and training to other Head 
                Start agencies and to service providers that 
                work in collaboration with such agencies to 
                provide family literacy services;
          [(5) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        conducting and participating in communitywide strategic 
        planning and needs assessment;
          [(6) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        developing and implementing full-working-day and full-
        calendar-year programs where community need is clearly 
        identified and making the transition to such programs, 
        with particular attention to involving parents and 
        programming for children throughout the day, and assist 
        the agencies and programs in expediting the sharing of 
        information about innovative models for providing full-
        working-day, full calendar year services for children;
          [(7) assist Head Start agencies in better serving the 
        needs of families with very young children;
          [(8) assist Head Start agencies and programs in the 
        development of sound management practices, including 
        financial management procedures;
          [(9) assist in efforts to secure and maintain 
        adequate facilities for Head Start programs;
          [(10) assist Head Start agencies in developing 
        innovative program models, including mobile and home-
        based programs; and
          [(11) provide support for Head Start agencies 
        (including policy councils and policy committees, as 
        defined in regulation) that meet the standards 
        described in section 641A(a) but that have, as 
        documented by the Secretary through reviews conducted 
        pursuant to section 641A(c), significant programmatic, 
        quality, and fiscal issues to address.
  [(d) The Secretary may provide, either directly or through 
grants to public or private nonprofit entities, training for 
Head Start personnel in the use of the performing and visual 
arts and interactive programs using electronic media to enhance 
the learning experience of Head Start children. Special 
consideration shall be given to entities that have demonstrated 
effectiveness in educational programming for preschool children 
that includes components for parental involvement, care 
provider training, and developmentally appropriate related 
activities.
  [(e) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or through 
grants or other arrangements, funds from programs authorized 
under this subchapter to support an organization to administer 
a centralized child development and national assessment program 
leading to recognized credentials for personnel working in 
early childhood development and child care programs, training 
for personnel providing services to non-English language 
background children (including services to promote the 
acquisition of the English language), training for personnel in 
helping children cope with community violence, and resource 
access projects for personnel working with disabled children.]

SEC. 648. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING.

  (a) The Secretary shall provide, directly or through grants 
or other arrangements--
          (1) technical assistance to communities in 
        developing, conducting, and administering programs 
        under this subchapter; and
          (2) training for specialized or other personnel 
        needed in connection with Head Start programs, in 
        accordance with the process, and the provisions for 
        allocating resources, set forth in subsections (b) and 
        (c).
  (b) The process for determining the technical assistance and 
training activities to be carried out under this section 
shall--
          (1) ensure that the needs of local Head Start 
        agencies and programs relating to improving program 
        quality and to program expansion are addressed to the 
        maximum extent feasible;
          (2) incorporate mechanisms to ensure responsiveness 
        to local needs, including an ongoing procedure for 
        obtaining input from the individuals and agencies 
        carrying out Head Start programs; and
          (3) ensure the provision of technical assistance to 
        assist Head Start agencies, entities carrying out other 
        child care and early childhood programs, communities, 
        and States in collaborative efforts to provide quality 
        full-working-day, full calendar year services, 
        including technical assistance related to identifying 
        and assisting in resolving barriers to collaboration.
  (c) In allocating resources for technical assistance and 
training under this section, the Secretary shall--
          (1) give priority consideration to--
                  (A) activities to correct program and 
                management deficiencies identified through 
                reviews carried out pursuant to section 641A(c) 
                (including the provision of assistance to local 
                programs in the development of quality 
                improvement plans under section 641A(d)(2)); 
                and
                  (B) assisting Head Start agencies in--
                          (i) ensuring the school readiness of 
                        children; and
                          (ii) meeting the educational 
                        performance measures described in 
                        section 641A(b)(4);
          (2) supplement amounts provided under section 
        640(a)(3)(C)(ii) in order to address the training and 
        career development needs of classroom staff (including 
        instruction for providing services to children with 
        disabilities), and nonclassroom staff, including home 
        visitors and other staff working directly with 
        families, including training relating to increasing 
        parent involvement and services designed to increase 
        family literacy and improve parenting skills;
          (3) assist Head Start agencies in the development of 
        collaborative initiatives with States and other 
        entities within the States, to foster effective early 
        childhood professional development systems;
          (4) provide technical assistance and training, either 
        directly or through a grant, contract, or cooperative 
        agreement with an entity that has experience in the 
        development and operation of successful family literacy 
        services programs, for the purpose of--
                  (A) assisting Head Start agencies providing 
                family literacy services, in order to improve 
                the quality of such family literacy services; 
                and
                  (B) enabling those Head Start agencies that 
                demonstrate effective provision of family 
                literacy services, based on improved outcomes 
                for children and their parents, to provide 
                technical assistance and training to other Head 
                Start agencies and to service providers that 
                work in collaboration with such agencies to 
                provide family literacy services;
          (5) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        conducting and participating in community-wide 
        strategic planning and needs assessment, including the 
        needs of homeless children and their families;
          (6) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        developing and implementing full-working-day and full-
        calendar-year programs where community need is clearly 
        identified and making the transition to such programs, 
        with particular attention to involving parents and 
        programming for children throughout the day, and assist 
        the agencies and programs in expediting the sharing of 
        information about innovative models for providing full-
        working-day, full calendar year services for children;
          (7) assist Head Start agencies in better serving the 
        needs of families with very young children;
          (8) assist Head Start agencies and programs in the 
        development of sound management practices, including 
        financial management procedures;
          (9) assist in efforts to secure and maintain adequate 
        facilities for Head Start programs;
          (10) assist Head Start agencies in developing 
        innovative program models, including mobile and home-
        based programs;
          (11) provide support for Head Start agencies 
        (including policy councils and policy committees) that 
        meet the standards described in section 641A(a) but 
        that have, as documented by the Secretary through 
        reviews conducted pursuant to section 641A(c), 
        significant programmatic, quality, and fiscal issues to 
        address;
          (12) assist Head Start agencies and programs in 
        increasing program participation of homeless children;
          (13) assist Head Start agencies and Head Start 
        programs in improving outreach to, and the quality of 
        services available to, limited English proficient 
        children and their families, particularly in 
        communities that have experienced a large percentage 
        increase in the population of limited English 
        proficient individuals, as measured by the Bureau of 
        the Census;
          (14) assist Head Start agencies in developing 
        appropriate methods and approaches for identifying and 
        working with children and families experiencing toxic 
        stress;
          (15) assist programs in improving outreach to serve 
        additional children with disabilities, if such 
        program's enrollment opportunities or funded enrollment 
        for children with disabilities is less than 10 percent; 
        and
          (16) provide assistance to address and remove 
        barriers related to recruitment and retention of Head 
        Start teachers for rural communities, and remove 
        barriers related to outreach efforts to eligible 
        families in rural communities.
  (d) The Secretary may provide, either directly or through 
grants to public or private nonprofit entities, training for 
Head Start personnel in the use of the performing and visual 
arts and interactive programs using electronic media to enhance 
the learning experience of Head Start children. Special 
consideration shall be given to entities that have demonstrated 
effectiveness in educational programming for preschool children 
that includes components for parental involvement, care 
provider training, and developmentally appropriate related 
activities.
  (e) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or through 
grants or other arrangements, funds from programs authorized 
under this subchapter to support an organization to administer 
a centralized child development and national assessment program 
leading to recognized credentials for personnel working in 
early childhood development and child care programs, training 
for personnel providing services to limited English proficient 
children (including services to promote the acquisition of the 
English language), training for personnel providing services to 
children determined to be abused or neglected, training for 
personnel providing services to children referred by or 
receiving child welfare services, training for personnel in 
helping children cope with community violence, resource access 
projects for personnel working with disabled children, and 
training for appropriate personnel to recognize common health, 
including mental health, problems in children for appropriate 
referral.
  (f) The Secretary shall provide, either directly or through 
grants, or other arrangements, funds for training of Head Start 
personnel in addressing the unique needs of migrant and 
seasonal working families, families with 1 or more children 
with disabilities, families with a limited English proficiency, 
homeless families, and children and families experiencing toxic 
stress.
  (g) More than 50 percent of funds expended under this section 
shall be used to provide high quality, sustained, intensive, 
and classroom-focused training and technical assistance in 
order to have a positive and lasting impact on classroom 
instruction. Funds shall be used to carry out activities 
related to any or all of the following:
          (1) Education and early childhood development.
          (2) Child health, nutrition, and safety.
          (3) Family and community partnerships and services.
          (4) Other areas that impact the quality or overall 
        effectiveness of Head Start programs.
  (h) The Secretary shall develop and implement a program of 
outreach to recruit and train minority men to become Head Start 
teachers in order to reflect the communities in which Head 
Start children live and to increase the provision of quality 
services and instruction to children with diverse backgrounds.
  (i) Funds under this subchapter used for training shall be 
used for needs identified annually by a grant applicant or 
delegate agency in their program improvement plan, except that 
funds shall not be used for long-distance travel expenses for 
training activities available locally or regionally or for 
training activities substantially similar to locally or 
regionally available training activities.
  (j) Funds made available under section 640(a)(2)(C)(i) shall 
be used by a Head Start agency for any of the following:
          (1) Activities that ensure that Head Start programs 
        meet or exceed the program performance standards 
        described in section 641A(a)(1).
          (2) Activities that ensure that Head Start programs 
        have adequate numbers of trained, qualified staff who 
        have skills in working with children and families, 
        including children and families who are limited English 
        proficient and children with disabilities.
          (3) Activities to pay expenses, including direct 
        training for expert consultants working with any staff, 
        to improve the management and implementation of Head 
        Start services and systems.
          (4) Activities that help ensure that Head Start 
        programs have qualified staff who can promote language 
        skills and literacy growth of children and who can 
        provide children with a variety of skills that have 
        been identified as predictive of later reading 
        achievement, school success, and the skills, knowledge, 
        abilities, development, and progress described in 
        section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii).
          (5) Activities to improve staff qualifications and to 
        assist with the implementation of career development 
        programs and to encourage the staff to continually 
        improve their skills and expertise, including 
        developing partnerships with programs that recruit, 
        train, place, and support college students in Head 
        Start centers to deliver an innovative early learning 
        program to preschool children.
          (6) Activities that help local programs ensure that 
        the arrangement, condition, and implementation of the 
        learning environments in Head Start programs are 
        conducive to providing effective program services to 
        children and families.
          (7) Activities to provide training necessary to 
        improve the qualifications of Head Start staff and to 
        support staff training, child counseling, health 
        services, and other services necessary to address the 
        needs of children enrolled in Head Start programs, 
        including children from families in crises, children 
        who experience chronic violence or homelessness, 
        children who experience substance abuse in their 
        families, and children under 3 years of age, where 
        applicable.
          (8) Activities to provide classes or in-service-type 
        programs to improve or enhance parenting skills, job 
        skills, adult and family literacy, including financial 
        literacy, or training to become a classroom aide or bus 
        driver in a Head Start program.
          (9) Additional activities deemed appropriate to the 
        improvement of Head Start agencies' programs, as 
        determined by the agencies' technical assistance and 
        training plans.
          (10) Any other activities regarding the use of funds 
        as determined by the Secretary.
  (k) The Secretary shall--
          (1) work in collaboration with the Head Start 
        agencies that carry out Indian Head Start programs, the 
        Indian Head Start collaboration director, and other 
        appropriate entities, including tribal governments and 
        the National Indian Head Start Directors Association--
                  (A) to undertake a study or set of studies 
                designed to focus on the American Indian and 
                Alaska Native Head Start-eligible population, 
                with a focus on issues such as curriculum 
                development, availability and need for 
                services, appropriate research methodologies 
                and measures for these populations, and best 
                practices for teaching and educating American 
                Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Children;
                  (B) to accurately determine the number of 
                children nationwide who are eligible to 
                participate in Indian Head Start programs each 
                year;
                  (C) to document how many of these children 
                are receiving Head Start services each year;
                  (D) to the extent practicable, to ensure that 
                access to Indian Head Start programs for 
                eligible children is comparable to access to 
                other Head Start programs for other eligible 
                children; and
                  (E) to make the funding decisions required in 
                section 640(a)(2)(A)(iii), after completion of 
                the studies required in that section, taking 
                into account:
                          (i) the Federal government's unique 
                        trust responsibility to American 
                        Indians and Alaska Natives;
                          (ii) limitations faced by tribal 
                        communities in accessing non-Federal 
                        sources of funding to supplement 
                        Federal funding for early childhood 
                        programs; and
                          (iii) other factors that uniquely and 
                        adversely impact children in American 
                        Indian and Alaska Native communities 
                        such as highly elevated poverty, 
                        unemployment and violent crime rates, 
                        as well as depressed levels of 
                        educational achievement and limited 
                        access to non-Federal health, social 
                        and educational resources;
          (2) in carrying out paragraph (1), consult with the 
        Secretary of Education about the Department of 
        Education's systems for collecting and reporting data 
        about, and maintaining records on, American Indian and 
        Alaska Native students;
          (3) not later than 9 months after the effective date 
        of this subsection, publish in the Federal Register a 
        notice of how the Secretary plans to carry out 
        paragraph (1) and shall provide a period for public 
        comment. To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall 
        consider comments received before submitting a report 
        to the Congress;
          (4) not later than 1 year after the effective date of 
        this subsection, submit a report to the Committee on 
        Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and 
        the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 
        of the Senate, detailing how the Department of Health 
        and Human Services plans to carry out paragraph (1);
          (5) through regulation, ensure the confidentiality of 
        any personally identifiable data, information, and 
        records collected or maintained by the Secretary, by 
        Head Start agencies that carry out Indian Head Start 
        programs, and by State Directors of Head Start 
        Collaboration, by the Indian Head Start Collaboration 
        Project Director and by other appropriate entities 
        pursuant to this subsection (Such regulations shall 
        provide the policies, protections, and rights 
        equivalent to those provided a parent, student, or 
        educational agency or institution under section 444 of 
        the General Education Provisions Act.); and
          (6) ensure that nothing in this subsection shall be 
        construed to authorize the development of a nationwide 
        database of personally identifiable information on 
        individuals involved in studies or other collections of 
        data under this subsection.
  (l) The Secretary shall--
          (1) in order to increase access to Head Start 
        services for eligible migrant and seasonal children, 
        work in collaboration with migrant and seasonal Head 
        Start providers, the Department of Agriculture (land 
        grant universities), the Department of Labor, the 
        Bureau of Migrant Health, and the Department of 
        Education to--
                  (A) establish a system for collecting and 
                reporting data on farm workers and their 
                families in order to adequately account for the 
                number of seasonal and migrant children that 
                are eligible for Head Start and determine how 
                many of these eligible children receive 
                services;
                  (B) identify barriers that prevent eligible 
                migrant and seasonal children from accessing 
                Head Start services and develop a plan for 
                eliminating barriers and increasing enrollment; 
                and
                  (C) develop a system through which migrant 
                and seasonal Head Start programs can 
                effectively track health records and 
                educational documents as a child moves from 
                state to state;
          (2) not later than 6 months after the effective date 
        of this subsection, publish in the Federal Register a 
        notice on how the Secretary plans to carry out the 
        activities identified in paragraph (1) and shall 
        provide a period for public comment. To the extent 
        practicable, the Secretary shall consider comments 
        received before implementing any of the activities 
        identified in paragraph (1);
          (3) not later than 1 year after the effective date of 
        this subsection, submit a report to the Committee on 
        Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and 
        the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee of 
        the Senate detailing how the Secretary plans to carry 
        out the activities identified in (1);
          (4) submit a report to Congress annually on the 
        migrant and seasonal Head Start program including a 
        report on the progress made in carrying out the 
        activities identified in paragraph (1), the progress 
        made in reaching out to and serving eligible migrant 
        and seasonal children, and information on states where 
        migrant and seasonal children are still underserved;
          (5) through regulation, ensure the protection of the 
        confidentiality of any personally identifiable data, 
        information, and records collected or maintained by the 
        Secretary, by Head Start agencies that carry out 
        migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, by the State 
        director of Head Start Collaboration, by the Migrant 
        and Seasonal Farmworker Collaboration project Director 
        (Such regulations shall provide the policies, 
        protections, and rights equivalent to those provided a 
        parent, student, or educational agency or institution 
        under section 444 of the General Education Provisions 
        Act.); and
          (6) ensure that nothing in this subsection shall be 
        construed to authorize the development of a nationwide 
        database of personally identifiable information on 
        individuals involved in studies or other collections of 
        data under this subsection.
  (m) For purposes of this section, the term ``eligible 
entities'' means an institution of higher education or other 
entity with expertise in delivering training in early childhood 
development, family support, and other assistance designed to 
improve the delivery of Head Start services.
  (n) For the purposes of delivering a State-based training and 
technical assistance system, as described in section 
640(a)(C)(ii), that will meet the needs of local grantees and 
provide high quality, sustained, and intensive training and 
technical assistance to Head Start programs in order to help 
them meet or exceed the program performance standards described 
in section 641A(a)(1), the Secretary shall--
          (1) enter into contracts in each State with 1 or more 
        entities who have a demonstrated expertise in 
        supporting the delivery of high quality early education 
        programs, except that bi-State contracts may be entered 
        in to if the demographics of proximal States make such 
        a system more appropriate;
          (2) ensure that the entities described in 
        subparagraph (1) determine the types of services to be 
        provided through consultation with--
                  (A) local Head Start agencies;
                  (B) the State Head Start collaboration 
                office; and
                  (C) the State Head Start Association;
          (3) provide a report, to the Committee on Education 
        and Labor of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of 
        the Senate. no later than 90 days after the end of the 
        fiscal year, summarizing the funding for such contracts 
        and the activities carried out thereunder; and
          (4) periodically evaluate the usefulness of the 
        delivery of services in each State and their 
        effectiveness in promoting program quality.
  (o) To support enhanced early language and preliteracy 
development of children in Head Start programs, and to provide 
the children with high-quality oral language skills, and 
environments that are rich in literature, in which to acquire 
language and preliteracy skills, each Head Start agency shall 
ensure that--
  (1) all of the agency's Head Start teachers receive ongoing 
training in language and emergent literacy (referred to in this 
subsection as ``literacy training''), and including appropriate 
curricula and assessment to improve instruction and learning;
  (2) such literacy training shall include training in methods 
to promote vocabulary development and phonological awareness 
(including phonemic awareness) in a developmentally, 
culturally, and linguistically appropriate manner and support 
children's development in their home language;
  (3) the literacy training shall include training in how to 
work with parents to enhance positive language and early 
literacy development at home;
  (4) the literacy training shall include specific methods to 
best address the needs of children who are limited English 
proficient; and
  (5) the literacy training shall include training on how to 
best address the language and literacy needs of children with 
disabilities, including training on how to work with 
specialists in language development.
  (p) The Secretary is encouraged to contract, on a competitive 
basis, with an institution of higher education (as defined in 
section 102 of the Higher Education Act of 1965) to develop an 
on-line graduate-level professional development program with 
the goal of improving the leadership of those working in Head 
Start programs and improving teacher quality and the capacity 
of effective Head Start teachers.
  (q) Indoor Air Quality.--The Secretary shall consult with 
experts on issues of air quality related to children's health 
and inform Head Start agencies of existing programs or 
combination of programs that provide methods for improving 
indoor air quality.
  (r) Demonstration for Career Ladder Partnerships with Tribal 
Colleges and Hispanic-Serving Institutions.--
          (1) Tribal college career ladder demonstration 
        program.--The Secretary is authorized to award 
        demonstration grants, for periods of not less than 5 
        years, to tribal colleges and universities to--
                  (A) implement education programs that include 
                education concerning tribal culture and 
                language and increase the number of associate, 
                baccalaureate, and graduate degrees in early 
                childhood and related fields that are earned by 
                Indian Head Start agency staff members, parents 
                of children served by such an agency, and 
                members of the tribal community involved;
                  (B) develop and implement the programs under 
                subparagraph (A) in technology-mediated 
                formats, including providing the programs 
                through such means as distance learning and use 
                of advanced technology, as appropriate; and
                  (C) provide technology literacy programs for 
                Indian Head Start agency staff members and 
                children and families of children served by 
                such an agency.
          (2) Hispanic-serving institutions career ladder 
        demonstration program.--The Secretary is authorized to 
        award demonstration grants, for periods of not less 
        than 5 years, to Hispanic-serving institutions to--
                  (A) provide assistance for stipends and costs 
                related to tuition, fees, and books for 
                enrolling Head Start agency staff members and 
                parents of children served by such an agency in 
                courses required to complete the degree and 
                certification requirements to become bilingual 
                teachers in early childhood education and 
                related fields;
                  (B) develop career ladder program curricula 
                to increase the number of associate's, 
                bachelor's, and graduate degrees earned by Head 
                Start agency staff who have the linguistic 
                skills and expertise to teach in programs 
                serving a large number of limited English 
                proficient children and parents of children 
                served by such an agency; and
                  (C) other activities to upgrade the skills 
                and qualifications of noncertified educational 
                personnel to meet the professional standards in 
                section 648A(a)(1), including certification and 
                licensure as bilingual education teachers and 
                other educational personnel who serve limited 
                English proficient children.
          (3) Requirement.--Individuals who receive assistance 
        under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall subsequently teach 
        in a Head Start center for a period of time equivalent 
        to the period for which they received assistance or 
        repay the amount of funds.

SEC. 648A. STAFF QUALIFICATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT.

  [(a) Classroom Teachers.--
          [(1) Professional requirements.--The Secretary shall 
        ensure that each Head Start classroom in a center-based 
        program is assigned one teacher who has demonstrated 
        competency to perform functions that include--
                  [(A) planning and implementing learning 
                experiences that advance the intellectual and 
                physical development of children, including 
                improving the readiness of children for school 
                by developing their literacy and phonemic, 
                print, and numeracy awareness, their 
                understanding and use of language, their 
                understanding and use of increasingly complex 
                and varied vocabulary, their appreciation of 
                books, and their problem solving abilities;
                  [(B) establishing and maintaining a safe, 
                healthy learning environment;
                  [(C) supporting the social and emotional 
                development of children; and
                  [(D) encouraging the involvement of the 
                families of the children in a Head Start 
                program and supporting the development of 
                relationships between children and their 
                families.
          [(2) Degree requirements.--
                  [(A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure 
                that not later than September 30, 2003, at 
                least 50 percent of all Head Start teachers 
                nationwide in center-based programs have--
                          [(i) an associate, baccalaureate, or 
                        advanced degree in early childhood 
                        education; or
                          [(ii) an associate, baccalaureate, or 
                        advanced degree in a field related to 
                        early childhood education, with 
                        experience in teaching preschool 
                        children.
                  [(B) Progress.--The Secretary shall require 
                Head Start agencies to demonstrate continuing 
                progress each year to reach the result 
                described in subparagraph (A).]
  (a) Classroom Teachers.--
          (1) Professional requirements.--The Secretary shall 
        ensure that each Head Start classroom in a center-based 
        program is assigned 1 teacher who has demonstrated 
        competency to perform functions that include--
                  (A) planning and implementing learning 
                experiences that advance the intellectual and 
                physical development of children, including 
                improving the readiness of children for school 
                by developing their literacy, phonemic, and 
                print awareness, their understanding and use of 
                language, their understanding and use of 
                increasingly complex and varied vocabulary, 
                their appreciation of books, their 
                understanding of early math and early science, 
                their problem solving abilities, and their 
                approaches to learning;
                  (B) establishing and maintaining a safe, 
                healthy learning environment;
                  (C) supporting the social and emotional 
                development of children; and
                  (D) encouraging the involvement of the 
                families of the children in a Head Start 
                program and supporting the development of 
                relationships between children and their 
                families.
          (2) Degree requirements.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure 
                that not later than September 30, 2013, at 
                least 50 percent of all Head Start teachers 
                nationwide in center-based programs have--
                          (i) a baccalaureate, or advanced 
                        degree in early childhood education;
                          (ii) a baccalaureate or advanced 
                        degree in a field related to early 
                        childhood education, with experience in 
                        teaching preschool children; or
                          (iii) except that teachers providing 
                        services in migrant and seasonal Head 
                        Start classrooms that serve children 
                        under age 3 shall be required to meet 
                        the teacher requirements described in 
                        section 645A(h).
                  (B) Progress report.--
                          (i) On an annual basis, each Head 
                        Start agency shall provide to the 
                        Secretary a report indicating the 
                        number and percentage of classroom 
                        instructors with child development/ 
                        early childhood education associate 
                        credentials and associate, 
                        baccalaureate, or advanced degrees, and 
                        number of classroom instructors who 
                        successfully transferred associate 
                        credit and completed a baccalaureate 
                        degree disaggregated by race, 
                        ethnicity, and proficiency in a 
                        language other than English, with a 
                        description of those languages.
                          (ii) Not later than September 30, 
                        2008 the Secretary shall compile and 
                        transmit reports received under (i) to 
                        the Committee on Education and Labor of 
                        the House of Representatives and the 
                        Committee on Health, Education, Labor, 
                        and Pensions of the Senate.
                  (C) Progress.--Each Head Start agency shall 
                provide to the Secretary a report indicating 
                the number and percentage of teachers and 
                teacher's aides with child development 
                associate credentials and associate, 
                baccalaureate, or advanced degrees. The 
                Secretary shall compile all program reports and 
                make them available to the Committee on 
                Education and Labor of the House of 
                Representatives and the Committee on Health, 
                Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate.
                  (D) Requirement for new head start 
                teachers.--In accordance with rules issued by 
                the Secretary and made effective 2 years after 
                the effective date of this subparagraph, all 
                Head Start agencies shall require that all Head 
                Start teachers hired after such rules take 
                effect to provide Head Start services in 
                center-based programs--
                          (i) have an associate, baccalaureate, 
                        or advanced degree in early childhood 
                        education or a related field; or
                          (ii) be currently enrolled in a 
                        program of study leading to an 
                        associate degree in early childhood 
                        education or a related field, and agree 
                        to complete degree requirements not 
                        later than 3 years after the date of 
                        hire.
                  (E) Service requirements.--The Secretary 
                shall establish requirements to ensure that 
                individuals who receive financial assistance 
                under this subchapter in order to comply with 
                the requirements under section 648A(a)(2) shall 
                subsequently teach in a Head Start center for a 
                period of time equivalent to the period for 
                which they received assistance or repay the 
                amount of the funds.
                  (F) Limitation.--The Secretary shall require 
                that any Federal funds provided directly or 
                indirectly to comply with subparagraph (A) 
                shall be used toward degrees awarded by an 
                institution of higher education, as defined by 
                sections 101 or 102 of the Higher Education Act 
                (20 U.S.C. 1001, 1002).
          (3) Alternative credentialing requirements.--The 
        Secretary shall ensure that, for center-based programs, 
        each Head Start classroom that does not have a teacher 
        that meets the requirements of clause (i) or (ii) of 
        paragraph (2)(A) is assigned one teacher who has--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) a State-awarded certificate for preschool 
                teachers that meets or exceeds the requirements 
                for a child development associate credential; 
                [or]
                  (C) a degree in a field related to early 
                childhood education with experience in teaching 
                preschool children and a State-awarded 
                certificate to teach in a preschool program[.]; 
                or
                  (D) a baccalaureate and has been admitted 
                into the Teach For America program, passed a 
                rigorous early childhood content exam, such as 
                the Praxis II, participated in a Teach For 
                America summer training institute that includes 
                teaching preschool children, and is receiving 
                ongoing professional development and support 
                from Teach For America's professional staff.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(b) Mentor Teachers.--
          [(1) Definition; function.--For purposes of this 
        subsection, the term ``mentor teacher'' means an 
        individual responsible for observing and assessing the 
        classroom activities of a Head Start program and 
        providing on-the-job guidance and training to the Head 
        Start program staff and volunteers, in order to improve 
        the qualifications and training of classroom staff, to 
        maintain high quality education services, and to 
        promote career development, in Head Start programs.
          [(2) Requirement.--In order to assist Head Start 
        agencies in establishing positions for mentor teachers, 
        the Secretary shall--
                  [(A) provide technical assistance and 
                training to enable Head Start agencies to 
                establish such positions;
                  [(B) give priority consideration, in 
                providing assistance pursuant to subparagraph 
                (A), to Head Start programs that have 
                substantial numbers of new classroom staff or 
                that are experiencing difficulty in meeting 
                applicable education standards;
                  [(C) encourage Head Start programs to give 
                priority consideration for such positions to 
                Head Start teachers at the appropriate level of 
                career advancement in such programs; and
                  [(D) promote the development of model 
                curricula, designed to ensure the attainment of 
                appropriate competencies of mentor teachers in 
                Head Start programs.]
  (c) Family Service Workers.--To improve the quality and 
effectiveness of staff providing in-home and other services 
(including needs assessment, development of service plans, 
family advocacy, and coordination of service delivery) to 
families of children participating in Head Start programs, the 
Secretary, in coordination with concerned public and private 
agencies and organizations examining the issues of standards 
and training for family service workers, shall--
          (1) review and, as necessary, revise or develop new 
        qualification standards for Head Start staff providing 
        such services;
          (2) review, and as necessary, revise or develop 
        maximum caseload requirements, as suggested by best 
        practices;
          (3) promote the development of model curricula (on 
        subjects including parenting training and family 
        literacy) designed to ensure the attainment of 
        appropriate competencies by individuals working or 
        planning to work in the field of early childhood and 
        family services; and
          (4) promote the establishment of a credential that 
        indicates attainment of the competencies and that is 
        accepted nationwide.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (f) Professional Development Plans.--Each Head Start agency 
and program shall create, in consultation with an employee, a 
professional development plan for all full-time Head Start 
employees who provide direct services to children and shall 
ensure that such plans are regularly evaluated for their impact 
on teacher and staff effectiveness.

SEC. 649. RESEARCH, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND EVALUATION.

  (a) In General.--
          (1) Requirement; general purposes.--The Secretary 
        shall carry out a continuing program of research, 
        demonstration, and evaluation activities, in order to--
                  (A) * * *
                  [(B) use the Head Start programs to develop, 
                test, and disseminate new ideas and approaches 
                for addressing the needs of low-income 
                preschool children (including children with 
                disabilities) and their families and 
                communities (including demonstrations of 
                innovative noncenter-based program models such 
                as home-based and mobile programs), and 
                otherwise to further the purposes of this 
                subchapter.]
                  (B) use the Head Start programs to develop, 
                test, and disseminate new ideas and based on 
                existing scientifically based research, for 
                addressing the needs of low-income preschool 
                children (including children with disabilities, 
                homeless children, children who have been 
                abused or neglected, and children in foster 
                care) and their families and communities 
                (including demonstrations of innovative non-
                center-based program models such as home-based 
                and mobile programs), and otherwise to further 
                the purposes of this subchapter.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (d) Specific Objectives.--The research, demonstration, and 
evaluation activities under this subchapter shall include 
components designed to--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (7) provide for disseminating and promoting the use 
        of the findings from such research, demonstration, and 
        evaluation activities; and
          (8) promote exploration of areas in which knowledge 
        is insufficient, and that will otherwise contribute to 
        fulfilling the purposes of this subchapter[;].
          [(9) study the experiences of small, medium, and 
        large States with Head Start programs in order to 
        permit comparisons of children participating in the 
        programs with eligible children who did not participate 
        in the programs, which study--
                  [(A) may include the use of a data set that 
                existed prior to the initiation of the study; 
                and
                  [(B) shall compare the educational 
                achievement, social adaptation, and health 
                status of the participating children and the 
                eligible nonparticipating children; and
          [(10) provide for--
                  [(A) using the Survey of Income and Program 
                Participation to conduct an analysis of the 
                different income levels of Head Start 
                participants compared to comparable persons who 
                did not attend Head Start programs;
                  [(B) using the National Longitudinal Survey 
                of Youth, which began gathering data in 1988 on 
                children who attended Head Start programs, to 
                examine the wide range of outcomes measured 
                within the Survey, including outcomes related 
                to cognitive, socio-emotional, behavioral, and 
                academic development;
                  [(C) using the Survey of Program Dynamics, 
                the new longitudinal survey required by section 
                414 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 614), 
                to begin annual reporting, through the duration 
                of the Survey, on Head Start program attendees' 
                academic readiness performance and 
                improvements;
                  [(D) ensuring that the Survey of Program 
                Dynamics is linked with the National 
                Longitudinal Survey of Youth at least once by 
                the use of a common performance test, to be 
                determined by the expert panel, for the greater 
                national usefulness of the National 
                Longitudinal Survey of Youth database; and
                  [(E) disseminating the results of the 
                analysis, examination, reporting, and linkage 
                described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) to 
                persons conducting other studies under this 
                subchapter.
[The Secretary shall ensure that an appropriate entity carries 
out a study described in paragraph (9), and prepares and 
submits to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
containing the results of the study, not later than September 
30, 2002.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (g) National Head Start Impact Research.--
          (1) Expert panel.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall appoint 
                an independent panel consisting of experts in 
                program evaluation and research, education, and 
                early childhood programs--
                          [(i) to review, and make 
                        recommendations on, the design and plan 
                        for the research (whether conducted as 
                        a single assessment or as a series of 
                        assessments) described in paragraph 
                        (2), within 1 year after the date of 
                        enactment of the Coats Human Services 
                        Reauthorization Act of 1998;]
                          [(ii)] (i) to maintain and advise the 
                        Secretary regarding the progress of the 
                        research; and
                          [(iii)] (ii) to comment, if the panel 
                        so desires, on the interim and final 
                        research reports submitted under 
                        paragraph (7).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (7) Reports.--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  [(C) Transmittal of reports to congress.--
                          [(i) In general.--The Secretary shall 
                        transmit, to the committees described 
                        in clause (ii), the first interim 
                        report by September 30, 1999, the 
                        second interim report by September 30, 
                        2001, and the final report by September 
                        30, 2003.
                          [(ii) Committees.--The committees 
                        referred to in clause (i) are the 
                        Committee on Education and the 
                        Workforce of the House of 
                        Representatives and the Committee on 
                        Labor and Human Resources of the 
                        Senate.]
                  (C) Transmittal of report to congress.--Not 
                later than September 30, 2009, the Secretary 
                shall transmit the final report to the 
                Committee on Education and Labor of the House 
                of Representatives and the Committee on Health, 
                Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(h) Quality Improvement Study.--
          [(1) Study.--The Secretary shall conduct a study 
        regarding the use and effects of use of the quality 
        improvement funds made available under section 
        640(a)(3) since fiscal year 1991.
          [(2) Report.--The Secretary shall prepare and submit 
        to Congress not later than September 2000 a report 
        containing the results of the study, including 
        information on--
                  [(A) the types of activities funded with the 
                quality improvement funds;
                  [(B) the extent to which the use of the 
                quality improvement funds has accomplished the 
                goals of section 640(a)(3)(B);
                  [(C) the effect of use of the quality 
                improvement funds on teacher training, 
                salaries, benefits, recruitment, and retention; 
                and
                  [(D) the effect of use of the quality 
                improvement funds on the development of 
                children receiving services under this 
                subchapter.]
  (h) Limited English Proficient Children.--
          (1) Study.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, the 
        Secretary shall conduct a study on the status of 
        limited English proficient children and their families 
        in participating Head Start programs and Early Head 
        Start programs.
          (2) Report.--The Secretary shall prepare and submit 
        to Congress, not later than September 2008, a report 
        containing the results of such study, including 
        information on--
                  (A)(i) the demographics of limited English 
                proficient children less than 5 years of age 
                and the geographical distribution of such 
                children; and
                  (ii) the number of such children receiving 
                Head Start services and the number of such 
                children receiving Early Head Start services, 
                and the geographical distribution of such 
                children receiving such services;
                  (B) the nature of the Head Start services and 
                of the Early Head Start services provided to 
                limited English proficient children and their 
                families, including the types, content, 
                duration, intensity, and costs of family 
                services, language assistance, and educational 
                services;
                  (C) procedures in Head Start programs for 
                assessing language needs and for making the 
                transition of limited English proficient 
                children to kindergarten, including the extent 
                to which Head Start programs meet the 
                requirements of section 642A for limited 
                English proficient children;
                  (D) the qualifications and training provided 
                to Head Start teachers and Early Head Start 
                teachers who serve limited English proficient 
                children and their families;
                  (E) the home languages of Head Start and 
                Early Head Start teachers;
                  (F) the rate of progress made by limited 
                English proficient children and their families 
                in Head Start programs and in Early Head Start 
                programs, including--
                          (i) the rate of progress made by 
                        limited English proficient children 
                        toward meeting the additional 
                        educational standards described in 
                        section 641A(a)(1)(B)(ii) while 
                        enrolled in Head Start programs;
                          (ii) the correlation between such 
                        progress and the type and quality of 
                        instruction and educational programs 
                        provided to limited English proficient 
                        children; and
                          (iii) the correlation between such 
                        progress and the health and family 
                        services provided by Head Start 
                        programs to limited English proficient 
                        children and their families; and
                  (G) the extent to which Head Start programs 
                make use of funds under section 640(a)(3) to 
                improve the quality of Head Start services 
                provided to limited English proficient children 
                and their families.
  (i) Children, Families, and Programs Affected by Hurricanes 
Katrina and Rita.--
          (1) Purpose.--The purpose of this subsection is to 
        evaluate the status of Head Start and Early Head Start 
        programs affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita as 
        well as the challenges those programs have faced in 
        reestablishing themselves and reenrolling eligible 
        children and families, with the ultimate goal of 
        providing all Head Start and Early Head Start programs 
        with recommendations for developing and implementing 
        disaster plans.
          (2) Definition.--The term ``areas affected by 
        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita'' means any parish or 
        county for which it was determined that assistance was 
        warranted from the Federal Government under the Robert 
        T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance 
        Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) as a result of Hurricanes 
        Katrina and Rita.
          (3) Study.--The Secretary shall conduct a study on 
        the status of children and families participating in 
        Head Start and Early Head Start programs in areas 
        affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
          (4) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        the enactment of the Improving Head Start Act of 2007, 
        the Secretary shall prepare and submit to Congress a 
        report containing the results of such study, including
                  (A) information on the population served, 
                including--
                          (i) the number of children and 
                        families participating in Head Start 
                        and Early Head Start programs in areas 
                        affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 
                        before and after Hurricanes Katrina and 
                        Rita;
                          (ii) the demographics of such 
                        children and families; and
                          (iii) the geographical distribution 
                        of such children and families;
                  (B) information on staff and programs, 
                including--
                          (i) the number and geographic 
                        distribution of staff serving Head 
                        Start and Early Head Start children and 
                        families from areas affected by 
                        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita;
                          (ii) the current status, including 
                        employment status and geographic 
                        location, of Head Start and Early Head 
                        Start staff serving in areas affected 
                        by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita prior to 
                        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; and
                          (iii) the response and recovery 
                        efforts of Head Start and Early Head 
                        Start staff serving in areas affected 
                        by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
                  (C) information on facilities, including--
                          (i) the number of Head Start and 
                        Early Head Start facilities operating 
                        prior to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 
                        areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina 
                        and Rita;
                          (ii) the current status of each such 
                        facility; and
                          (iii) information on any new Head 
                        Start or Early Head Start facility that 
                        has opened in areas affected by 
                        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita or that 
                        serves children and families who lived 
                        in areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina 
                        and Rita at the time of Hurricanes 
                        Katrina and Rita;
                  (D) information on coordination with the 
                Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 
                areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 
                including--
                          (i) areas of success that Head Start 
                        agencies and programs had in working 
                        with FEMA;
                          (ii) challenges that Head Start 
                        agencies and programs had in working 
                        with FEMA; and
                          (iii) the number of Head Start 
                        families that received individualized 
                        assistance (as defined under the Robert 
                        T. Stafford Disaster Relief and 
                        Emergency Act) and the types of 
                        assistance received by such families.
                  (E) challenges that were faced by Head Start 
                and Early Head Start programs and families in 
                areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 
                including--
                          (i) the availability of Head Start 
                        services for families displaced during 
                        the period of transition;
                          (ii) identification of and outreach 
                        to families displaced by the Hurricanes 
                        Katrina and Rita; and
                          (iii) the extent to which non-Federal 
                        disaster assistance was available to 
                        Head Start agencies and programs, and 
                        coordination of such services with non-
                        Federal disaster assistance resources.
          (5) Disaster plan preparedness.--Not later than 1 
        year after the date of the enactment of Improving Head 
        Start Act of 2007, the Secretary shall prepare and 
        submit to Congress, Head Start disaster plan 
        recommendations based upon the report initiated in 
        paragraph (4), including recommendations for 
        prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery, that 
        can be used to advise Head Start and Early Head Start 
        programs in the development and implementation of 
        disaster plans.

SEC. 650. REPORTS.

  (a) Status of Children.--At least once during every 2-year 
period, the Secretary shall prepare and submit, to the 
[Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources 
of the Senate] Committee on Education and Labor of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, 
and Pensions of the Senate, a report concerning the status of 
children (including disabled [and non-English language 
background children] children, homeless children, children in 
foster care, and limited English proficient children) in Head 
Start programs, including the number of children and the 
services being provided to such children. Such report shall 
include--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (8) information concerning children participating in 
        programs that receive Head Start funding, including 
        information on family income, racial and ethnic 
        background, homelessness, whether the child is in 
        foster care or was referred by a child welfare agency, 
        disability, and receipt of benefits under part A of 
        title IV of the Social Security Act;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

Promptly after submitting such report to the [Committee on 
Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate] 
Committee on Education and Labor of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, 
and Pensions of the Senate, the Secretary shall publish in the 
Federal Register a notice indicating that such report is 
available to the public and specifying how such report may be 
obtained.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Set-Aside Activities.--Not later than 60 days after the 
end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit to the 
Committee on Education and Labor of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, 
and Pensions of the Senate, a report detailing the different 
amounts of expenditures under section 640(a)(2) and the 
activities carried out thereunder.
  (d) Fiscal Protocol.--The Secretary shall conduct an annual 
review to assess whether the design and implementation of the 
triennial reviews described in section 641A(c) include 
compliance procedures that provide reasonable assurance that 
Head Start agencies are complying with applicable fiscal laws 
and regulations. The Secretary shall report the findings and 
conclusions of the annual review to the House Committee on 
Education and Labor, and the Senate Committee on Health, 
Education, Labor and Pensions within 30 days of completing the 
review.
  (e) Use of Individualized Education Plans.--The Secretary 
shall track the use of Head Start Individualized Education 
Plans by Head Start agencies in order to evaluate the reasons 
why Head Start agencies are opting not to use Individualized 
Education Plans for children with disabilities (as specified in 
the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 
1414(d)), whether Head Start Individualized Education Plans are 
used to provide services prior to the development of an 
Individualized Education Plan, as required under the 
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, and the length of 
time programs use Head Start Individualized Education Plans 
before an Individualized Education Plan as required under 
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act is developed. The 
Secretary shall provide a report to the Committee on Education 
and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, not later 
than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Improving 
Head Start Act of 2007.
  (f) Evaluation and Recommendations Regarding Obesity 
Prevention.--The Secretary shall evaluate and publish 
regulations on the issue of and concerns related to preventing 
and reducing obesity in children who participate in Head Start 
programs and shall consult, at a minimum, with experts in child 
and maternal health, child development, child and family 
nutrition and physical education, to determine the effective 
methods by which Head Start agencies can help address childhood 
obesity. The regulations should include guidance on how Head 
Start agencies can incorporate, at a minimum, more physical 
activity and nutrition education into such programs related to 
preventing and reducing obesity. Not later than 1 year after 
the effective date of this subsection, the Secretary shall 
submit to the House Committee on Education and Labor and the 
Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, a 
report containing such recommendations and the results of such 
evaluation.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                        [COMPARABILITY OF WAGES

  [Sec. 653. The Secretary shall take such action as may be 
necessary to assure that persons employed in carrying out 
programs financed under this subchapter shall not receive 
compensation at a rate which is (1) in excess of the average 
rate of compensation paid in the area where the program is 
carried out to a substantial number of the persons providing 
substantially comparable services, or in excess of the average 
rate of compensation paid to a substantial number of the 
persons providing substantially comparable services in the area 
of the person's immediately preceding employment, whichever is 
higher; or (2) less than the minimum wage rate prescribed in 
section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The 
Secretary shall encourage Head Start agencies to provide 
compensation according to salary scales that are based on 
training and experience.]

SEC. 653. WAGES AND COMPENSATION.

  (a) Comparability of Wages.--The Secretary shall take such 
action as may be necessary to assure that persons employed in 
carrying out programs financed under this subchapter shall not 
receive compensation at a rate which is (1) in excess of the 
average rate of compensation paid in the area where the program 
is carried out to a substantial number of the persons providing 
substantially comparable services, or in excess of the average 
rate of compensation paid to a substantial number of the 
persons providing substantially comparable services in the area 
of the person's immediately preceding employment, whichever is 
higher; or (2) less than the minimum wage rate prescribed in 
section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The 
Secretary shall encourage Head Start agencies to provide 
compensation according to salary scales that are based on 
training and experience.
  (b) Federal Rate Limitation.--Notwithstanding any other 
provision of law, no Federal funds shall be used to pay all or 
any part of the compensation of an individual employed by a 
Head Start agency in carrying out programs under this 
subchapter, either as direct or indirect costs of any proration 
thereof, at a rate in excess of the rate then payable for level 
II of the Executive Schedule under section 5313 of title 5, 
United States Code.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 656A. LIMITATION ON CERTAIN USES OF FUNDS.

  No funds made available to carry out this subchapter may be 
used--
          (1) for publicity or propaganda purposes not 
        heretofore authorized by the Congress; or
          (2) unless authorized by law in effect on the 
        effective date of this section, to produce any pre-
        packaged news story intended for broadcast or 
        distribution unless such story includes a clear 
        notification contained within the text or audio of such 
        story stating that the prepackaged news story was 
        prepared or funded by the Department of Health and 
        Human Services.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                     XVII. Committee Correspondence

  None.

                             MINORITY VIEWS

    Head Start was established in 1965 by President Lyndon B. 
Johnson as part of the War on Poverty and is one of the 
nation's most popular domestic programs. The program provides 
educational and other support services to prepare extremely 
low-income children for school. Head Start is the federal 
government's largest effort to prepare the nation's most 
disadvantaged children for school.
    Head Start provides a range of services, including 
education, nutrition, health, and parent training, to over 
900,000 children and their families living in poverty. Federal 
Head Start funds are provided directly to local grantees, 
rather than through States. Programs are locally designed and 
administered by a network of more than 1,600 public and private 
non-profit and for-profit agencies, or grantees operating about 
2,600 programs nationwide. Grantees are required to reserve at 
least ten percent of their slots for children with 
disabilities. In 1994, Early Head Start was established to 
serve pre-natal mothers and infants and toddlers under the age 
of three.
    Committee Republicans are pleased that H.R. 1429, the 
Improving Head Start Act of 2007, reforms Head Start to improve 
the overall school readiness of disadvantaged children. Similar 
to H.R. 2123, the School Readiness Act of 2005 introduced by 
Congressman Mike Castle (R-DE) and approved by the House in 
2005, improving school preparedness and teacher quality are key 
components of H.R. 1429. Head Start research shows that 
participating children are making progress yet continue to fall 
short of expectations by lagging behind their more affluent 
peers in some domains of achievement. Eliminating academic and 
developmental disparities early on is an important goal of this 
legislation given the requirements of the No Child Left Behind 
Act, which mandate that children read on grade level by the end 
of third grade.
    We are pleased that H.R. 1429 addresses many Republican 
priorities and that the bill was developed through bipartisan 
negotiation. However, we are concerned that the bill does not 
adequately protect the civil liberties of faith-based 
organizations participating or seeking to participate in Head 
Start. Committee Republicans strongly supported an amendment 
offered by Congressman Luis Fortuno, which the Democrats 
opposed, to protect these rights.

         Enhancing the School Readiness of Head Start Children

    Knowledge about children's learning has expanded greatly 
during the past two decades. Research in the neurobiological 
and behavioral sciences suggests the importance of a child's 
experiences during the first years of life for healthy brain 
development. From birth through age five, children rapidly 
develop the capabilities on which subsequent development 
builds.
    While the resources to fund Head Start are significant, 
more work is needed to achieve the ultimate program goal of 
closing the readiness gap between Head Start children and their 
more advantaged peers when they enter kindergarten. Studies 
indicate that children who are enrolled in Head Start make 
progress, but still are lagging behind national norms in all 
aspects of school readiness. Data from the Family and Child 
Experiences Survey (FACES) and the first year findings of the 
Head Start Impact study both suggest that Head Start 
participants show progress on some measures after completion of 
a year in Head Start, but on balance remain below the national 
average. However, FACES data finds the achievement gap has been 
closed in the areas of pre-reading and pre-writing by the time 
Head Start children complete kindergarten. The Committee looks 
forward to future reports from the Impact study to see if these 
results are replicated.
    To accomplish the goal of ensuring that Head Start children 
develop the cognitive competencies necessary to succeed, the 
Improving Head Start Act enhances program emphasis on the 
academic components of school readiness, while retaining the 
commitment to providing comprehensive early learning and social 
services. Committee Republicans recognize the importance of all 
domains of development in order for a child to be school ready; 
however, Head Start is not making good on its promise if Head 
Start children are not fully prepared to enter school.
    A critical component of school readiness is the attainment 
of pre-reading abilities. As such, Head Start programs should 
provide children from low income families a high-quality, oral 
language and literature-rich environment. Through scientific 
research, much has been learned about the way children learn to 
read and the strong foundation that is important before 
children are given formal reading instruction in kindergarten 
and first grade. Head Start must play a pivotal role in this 
effort. In addition to supporting the socio-emotional 
development of children under their care, Head Start programs 
must encourage and promote cognitive development activities 
along with professional development for teachers and staff 
based on scientific research in reading.
    Committee Republicans also recognize the importance of pre-
mathematics and pre-science skills for young children. 
Promoting pre-mathematics and pre-science knowledge and 
abilities is important for school readiness. These competencies 
may be promoted through early science and math experiences, 
including observing with senses, predicting, inferring, 
defining and controlling variables, working in teams, and 
communicating discoveries. Examples of science and math 
experiences may include planting different seeds, with various 
types of growing medium, light, and water; building towers with 
various block sizes; employing ramps and different balls; 
watching ice melt in different environments, etc.
    The Improving Head Start Act updates the Head Start quality 
standards to reflect scientific advances relating to the core 
areas of competence fundamental to children's school readiness. 
The new quality standards will require Head Start teachers to 
ensure that children enrolled in the program develop and 
demonstrate the following: language knowledge and skills; pre-
reading knowledge and skills, including phonological awareness, 
print awareness and skills, and alphabetic knowledge; 
mathematics knowledge and skills, such as aspects of 
classification, seriation, number, spatial relations and time; 
science knowledge and skills, including measurement; cognitive 
abilities related to academic achievement; social and emotional 
development related to early learning, school success, problem-
solving, and overall well-being; approaches to learning related 
to childhood development and early learning; creative arts; and 
for limited English proficient children, progress toward 
acquisition of the English language while making meaningful 
progress towards attaining the same school readiness knowledge 
and skills as other participating children. Additionally, we 
are pleased that the Improving Head Start Acteliminates the 
previous educational performance measures that were arbitrary and 
misaligned with the school readiness competencies specified under the 
quality and educational standards section.
    Committee Republicans strongly support the definition of 
scientifically based research and the requirement that Head 
Start grantees demonstrate the capacity to serve eligible 
children with programs based on scientifically based research 
that promotes school readiness and meets quality standards. 
Consistent with the No Child Left Behind Act, we strongly 
believe that Head Start programs should be utilizing sound 
scientifically-based research when making program decisions. 
The language in H.R. 1429 will ensure that instructional 
strategies have resulted from the application of rigorous, 
systematic, and objective procedures; employ systematic 
empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; 
involve rigorous data analyses; rely upon measurements or 
observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators 
and observers and across multiple measurements and 
observations; and have been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal 
or approved by a panel of independent experts through a 
comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review. We 
believe these requirements will lead to improved program 
quality and better outcomes for the children participating in 
Head Start.

                            Teacher Quality

    According to the National Research Council report, Eager to 
Learn, all preschool programs should have a teacher with at 
least a bachelor's degree in early childhood education or a 
related field (National Research Council, 2000). Well educated 
teachers are a key to early childhood program quality and 
outcomes for children.
    Since its inception, the Head Start program has been 
providing training and professional development to its workers. 
Today, a certified Child Development Associate, or CDA, is the 
minimum teacher requirement in every Head Start classroom, and 
three-quarters of all Head Start teachers have at least an 
associate's degree in child development or a related field. 
This is good progress, but the program must build upon this to 
advance the qualifications of educational staff. Improved 
academic achievement in Head Start cannot be accomplished 
without well-qualified Head Start teachers who are trained in 
child development, utilize research-based literacy techniques, 
and understand the importance of a language-rich, interactive 
environment for children.
    In 1998, Congress required 50 percent of Head Start 
teachers nationwide to acquire a minimum of an associate degree 
by 2008--a goal that Head Start has successfully met.
    The Improving Head Start Act sets a new target for teacher 
qualifications. It requires that by two years after enactment 
all newly hired Head Start teachers have at least an associate 
degree or be enrolled in a program leading to an associate 
degree. Additionally, it would require that half of all Head 
Start teachers nationwide have a minimum of a baccalaureate 
degree by September 30, 2013. The bill does not create a 
requirement for individual programs. This revised requirement 
would help to make teacher qualifications more consistent with 
K-12 schools and many state pre-kindergarten programs. Twenty-
seven state pre-kindergarten programs, and the District of 
Columbia, require that all preschool teachers have at least a 
bachelor's degree, yet only about 38 percent of Head Start 
teachers have more than a two-year degree. In some States, the 
difference in the teacher requirements between Head Start and 
state school readiness programs can be a barrier to 
collaboration and integration between the two programs.
    H.R. 1429 also requires all Head Start grantees to create a 
professional development plan for all full-time employees who 
provide direct educational services to children. The Committee 
believes that this activity will result in high quality 
professional development that directly benefits the individual 
instructor, Head Start students, and the overall program.
    The Improving Head Start Act provides financial support to 
achieve higher teacher qualifications. The bill significantly 
increases the percentage of new dollars that must be spent on 
quality improvement. In an effort to ensure that Head Start 
programs are of the highest possible quality, and to ensure 
that funds are available to assist Head Start reach new 
requirements for teacher quality, H.R. 1429 requires the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services to reserve 60 percent of 
all new Head Start funds for purposes of quality improvement. 
Not less than 25 percent of that 60 percent must be used to 
increase teacher salaries and assist programs in recruiting and 
retaining quality staff. Remaining quality improvement funds 
would be available to provide ongoing professional developing 
to teachers, improve the qualifications and skills of 
educational personnel, ensure the physical environments of Head 
Start programs are conducive to providing effective program 
services and are accessible, employ additional staff to reduce 
the child to teacher ratio in the classroom and family to staff 
ratio for family services workers, ensure programs have 
qualified staff that can promote language skills and literacy 
growth, and increase hours of program operation.

                        Developmental Screening

    Head Start currently requires a timely and systematic 
approach toward diagnostic screening of participating children 
in order to identify which children require more formal 
assessments of their developmental needs and follow-up 
services. The Head Start Program Performance Standards require 
all grantees and delegate agencies to perform or obtain 
linguistically and age appropriate screening procedures to 
identify concerns regarding a child's developmental, sensory, 
behavioral, motor, language, social, cognitive, perceptual, and 
emotional skills (CFR 1304.20(b)(1)) within 45 days of the 
child's entry into the program. However, screenings may be 
conducted only after a program files a written parental 
authorization for such services. Though the HHS Performance 
Standards provide important guidance on characteristics of 
screening tools, no particular strategy, instrument, or 
technique is required.
    Committee Republicans strongly support language in the 
Improving Head Start Act that reinforces that Head Start 
program must in every circumstance obtain written parental 
consent prior to conducting any health related service, 
including developmental and mental health screenings, and 
physical examinations.

                         Program Accountability

    While the majority of Head Start grantees provide quality 
services, there are some grantees that are not fulfilling their 
obligation to ensure that our nation's neediest children enter 
school with the knowledge they need to succeed. This is 
evidenced by the approximately 170 Head Start programs that 
have been terminated by the Department due to concerns over 
their quality over the past 10 years.
    Since January 2003, media accounts in numerous U.S. cities 
and communities alleged serious financial abuses and 
irregularities by local individuals and/or entities entrusted 
with managing local Head Start programs. Other reports 
involving financial mismanagement suggested that often Head 
Start grantees have good intentions, yet lack strong fiscal 
controls and the skills needed to effectively manage complex, 
multi-million dollar non-profit organizations. The incidents 
identified in these media reports collectively involve the use 
of tens of millions in federal Head Start funds that were 
intended to serve more than 10,000 disadvantaged U.S. children. 
These reports suggest that an unacceptable share of Head Start 
funding never reaches the disadvantaged children the money is 
intended to serve, and is instead lost to financial abuse, 
mismanagement, impropriety, or outright theft within the Head 
Start system.
    In light of these reports, the Committee Republicans are 
concerned about the degree to which Head Start grantees are 
held accountable at both the federal and local levels. We 
believe the current Head Start monitoring system is not 
adequate to ensure that programs are consistently delivering 
the level of high quality services necessary for children to 
advance in all areas of development. This is confirmed by a 
March 2005 report published by the Government Accountability 
Office that evaluated federal financial controls that exist in 
the Head Start system.
    GAO provided a series of recommendations to hold grantees 
more fiscally accountable for federal Head Start funds. The GAO 
urged changes that could be made by HHS/ACF to improve the 
oversight of the Head Start program. These changes include: (1) 
implementing a comprehensive risk assessment of the Head Start 
Program; (2) improving the processes used to collect 
information on program risks; and (3) making greater use of 
authority to re-compete the grants that are currently awarded 
to poorly performing grantees (GAO, 2005). We are pleased that 
the Improving head Start Act addresses these recommendations 
and includes several new provisions to ensure greater public 
disclosure of information and accountability in the use of 
funds.

              Increasing Competition for Head Start Grants

    Evidence shows that competition fosters continuous program 
improvement and high expectations. H.R. 1429 ensures high 
quality programs continue to provide services in their 
communities, while providing the Secretary greater authority to 
replace grantees that are not meeting expectations. In our 
view, programs that are not proving high quality, comprehensive 
early education program must not be given a free pass to 
continue receiving taxpayer funds.
    The Improving Head Start Act was crafted to ensure high 
quality programs continue to provide services in their 
communities, while programs that are not meeting expectations 
will be asked to compete for funds. The Secretary will develop 
and implement a system for application review that integrates 
the recommendations of an expert panel to determine if a Head 
Start agency is providing a quality comprehensive early 
learning program. The Secretary shall base the system of review 
on annual budget data, triennial Head Start program reviews, 
annual audits, self-assessments, measurements of classroom 
quality, and program information reports. Once the system for 
application evaluation is finalized, the Secretary will use 
this system to determine which grantees are successfully 
delivering a high quality comprehensive early education 
program. Grantees that are determined under such system to be 
successfully delivering a high quality comprehensive early 
education program would have their application renewed for a 
period of five years. Underperforming grantees would be 
eligible to compete in an open competition for a subsequent 
Head Start grant.
    Competition breeds quality by fostering high expectations. 
We are concerned about the lack of applicants in current Head 
Start grant competitions and encourage the Secretary to explore 
new options and approaches to encourage greater number and 
diversity of applicants in future Head Start grant 
competitions. Head Start children deserve to be served by the 
highest quality program that could be available to them and by 
increasing the role of competition the Improving Head Start Act 
will accomplish just that.

             Local Accountability and Parental Involvement

    We are pleased that H.R. 1429 maintains the vital role of 
parents in ensuring the success of Head Start. Committee 
Republicans support maintaining the policy of shared governance 
between a parent policy council and a governing body.
    To be designated as a Head Start agency, the grantee must 
establish an independent governing body. Members must include 
representatives of the local community (including at least one 
member with significant financial management or accounting 
experience and one with expertise in early childhood 
development). Additional members shall be selected for their 
expertise in education, business administration, community 
affairs, government, legal affairs, and such other areas of 
expertise as may contribute to effective governance of the Head 
Start agency. All members of the board shall receive training 
in the management responsibilities and obligations, ethics, and 
financial literacy and management, and shall adopt practices 
that assure active, independent and informed governance of the 
Head Start agency, including independent oversight of the 
financial and management practices of such agency. It is our 
intent that all legal and fiduciary responsibilities shall rest 
with the governing board and it shall take action on the 
recommendations of the policy council.
    A Head Start agency must also designate a parent policy 
council. The council shall be composed of either parents of 
children currently enrolled in Head Start or Early Head Start 
program or were enrolled the previous year or are members of 
the community served by the Head Start agency. Parent members 
shall constitute a majority of the member of the policy counsel 
and shall be elected by parents of currently enrolled children. 
The policy council shall approve and submit to the governing 
body decisions about the strategic direction of the 
program,including long and short-term planning goals and objectives; 
selection of delegate agencies; recruitment, selection and enrollment 
priorities; program personnel policies; and other program activities.
    The Secretary shall develop policies and procedures 
describing how Head Start agencies will implement or share 
decision-making, including a process for resolving any impasse 
between the two bodies.

         Improving Coordination, Collaboration, and Integration

    We believe it is critically important to ensure continuity 
between Head Start and other early childhood programs that 
exist with increasing frequency in States and local communities 
in order to ensure that all children have the necessary 
knowledge to enter school ready to learn. We support efforts in 
the Improving Head Start Act to increase local and State 
integration of early childhood education by requiring Head 
Start agencies and local providers of State pre-kindergarten to 
enter into ongoing partnerships to create an efficient and 
effective system of early childhood and school readiness 
services in each State; and authorizing State Early Learning 
Councils to advance the development of a coordinated early 
childhood services delivery system in each State.
    H.R. 1429 requires Head Start grantees to enter into a 
memorandum of understanding (MOU) with providers, such as LEAs, 
of State pre-kindergarten programs in their service area in 
order to better align their activities. Specifically, Head 
Start grantees, LEAs, and providers of State pre-kindergarten 
programs are required to coordinate: educational activities, 
curricula, and instruction aligned to State early learning 
standards; public information dissemination and access to 
programs for families; selection priorities for eligible 
children to be served by programs; service delivery areas; 
staff training, including opportunities for joint staff 
training on topics such as academic content standards and 
instructional methods; program technical assistance; provision 
of additional services to meet the child care needs of working 
parents; planning and parent education for smooth transitions 
to kindergarten; provision and use of facilities, 
transportation, and other program elements; and other elements 
mutually agreed to by the parties to such memorandum.
    H.R. 1429 also attempts to improve the integration of Head 
Start with other early education services by authorizing funds 
for establishing or expanding State Early Learning Councils to 
advance the development of a coordinated delivery system for 
early childhood services within a State, These State Early 
Learning Councils will bring together Head Start, State pre-
kindergarten programs, State child care programs and the 
schools that will one day serve the children enrolled in Head 
Start and other preschool programs.

                            Early Head Start

    Neuroscience suggests that the ages of birth to three is 
the most critical period for a child's brain growth. It is 
during this period that children acquire the ability to think, 
speak, learn, and reason. Disparities in children's cognitive 
and social abilities become evident well before they enter Head 
Start or pre-kindergarten programs at age four. Early Head 
Start minimizes these disparities and helps to establish the 
foundation needed for children to enter school ready to learn.
    We are encouraged by the positive effects of Early Head 
Start on child development and parent self-sufficiency, as 
documented in the evaluation mandated by Congress and completed 
in 2002. The strong and careful implementation effort from 
Early Head Start's inception, supported by a national and 
regional training and technical assistance system with 
expertise in infant and toddler development contributed to 
these positive outcomes.
    Currently, 10 percent of Head Start funds are allocated 
specifically for funding the Early Head Start program. Since 
infants and toddlers have needs different than three and four 
year olds, operating Early Head Start programs requires 
different environments and staff trained with the needed 
expertise in infant and toddler development. Seven hundred 
Early Head Start programs serve over 71,000 low-income families 
with infants and toddlers.
    H.R. 1429 increases the current set-aside for the program 
to 20 percent over the course of the authorization, as long as 
the increase does not diminish funds available for the current 
Head Start program. The bill also allows current Head Start 
funds to be converted to Early Head Start programs as long as 
Early Head Start program requirements are met and the 
conversion appropriately addresses community needs.

                  Committee Consideration of H.R. 1429


                       PROTECTING CONFIDENTIALITY

    Head Start programs are currently required to measure 
children's progress in key aspects of development, including 
language development, literacy, mathematics, science, creative 
arts, social and emotional development, approaches toward 
learning, and physical health and development. Programs are 
required to evaluate each child's progress three times per year 
and use the results to help make decisions about staff 
training, mentoring and supervision; needed improvements in 
curriculum; reallocation of program resources; and plans for 
transitions of children from Head Start into elementary 
schools.
    Committee Republicans believe that monitoring children's 
growth and development throughout the Head Start year can be 
very helpful to continuous improvement in program quality. But 
in order for these assessments to provide teachers with useful 
information that can serve as a basis for teaching decisions, 
it is important that the self-assessment methods in the areas 
of emergent literacy and mathematics be research-based, 
developmentally appropriate, and culturally and linguistically 
responsive. The Committee believes it is important that these 
assessments be tied to children's daily activities in order to 
better support educational instruction and decisions about 
teaching and curricula. The National Academy of Sciences is 
conducting a study on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments 
for Young Children. The Secretary will use this study to guide 
Head Start agencies in the use of scientifically-based measures 
to support classroom instructional practices and program 
evaluation.
    While we support these changes, we are concerned about 
confidentiality of participant records. To address these 
concerns, Congresswoman Virginia Foxx (R-NC) offered an 
amendment, accepted by voice vote, to require the Secretary, 
through regulation, to ensure the confidentiality of any 
personally identifiable data, information and records collected 
or maintained by the Secretary and any Head Start agency. Such 
regulations shall provide the policies, protections and rights 
equivalent to those provided a parent, student, or educational 
agency or institution under section 444 of the General 
Education Provisions Act (the Family Educational Rights and 
Privacy Act [FERPA]). In addition, the amendment ensures that, 
as measures are revised, the Secretary does not develop a 
nationwide database of personally identifiable information on 
children participating in measures under the Head Start 
program.
    The amendment also reaffirms the Head Start program's 
commitment to parental involvement and oversight by ensuring 
parents have access to information or records regarding their 
children and protects the confidentiality of such records. 
These regulations would need to provide protections and rights 
equivalent to those provided a parent, student, or educational 
agency under FERPA. Under FERPA, educational agencies and 
institutions that receive federal funds must provide parents 
with access to the educational records of their children within 
a reasonable time. In addition, FERPA prohibits such agencies 
from having a policy or practice of releasing the educational 
records of a student without the written consent of his or her 
parents. Certain exceptions exist for research-related 
requests.

                         FAITH-BASED INITIATIVE

    Congressman Luis Fortuno (R-PR) offered an amendment during 
Committee consideration to protect the rights of religious 
organizations to hire on a religious basis when they take part 
in the Head Start program. In addition, the amendment would 
have protected the governance of such organizations and ensured 
religious organizations are not discriminated against on the 
basis of their religious character. The current Head Start act 
requires faith-based organizations to compromise their identity 
to compete for federal funds. The amendment was defeated 19-26 
in Committee, with all Democrats opposing the amendment and 
Republicans supporting it.
    Faith-based organizations such as churches, synagogues, and 
other faith-based charities, are a central part of the fabric 
of communities across America. Many of these organizations 
provide assistance and services to the neediest members of 
society, offering a helping hand to the least fortunate among 
us. Many faith-based organizations make a vital contribution to 
Federal assistance programs.
    Recognizing these contributions, President Bush signed an 
Executive Order on Equal Protection of the Laws for Faith-based 
and Community Organizations in December 2002. That Executive 
Order recognizes that the Nation's social service capacity will 
benefit if all eligible organizations, including faith-based 
and other community organizations, are able to compete on an 
equal footing for Federal financial assistance used to support 
social service programs, like Head Start. This amendment would 
have codified current practice, as outlined in the President's 
Executive Order. Similar language already is part of the 
Community Services Block Grant law and welfare reform law, both 
of which received bipartisan support.
    Head Start already has a proud history of inclusion of 
faith-based organizations. Approximately 5 percent of Head 
Start programs are operated by faith-based organizations. Mr. 
Fortuno's amendment would have ensured that, as new grantees 
are selected, religious organizations can compete on equal 
footing with public or private entities without requiring 
religious organizations to eliminate their religious character 
in order to participate.
    The amendment would have allowed faith-based organizations 
that participate in the Head Start program to use their 
facilities to provide services supported with Federal financial 
assistance, without removing or altering religious art, icons, 
or other symbols from these facilities. In addition, a faith-
based organization that applies for or participates in Head 
Start could retain its governance structure, which may include 
having religious terms in its organization's name, selecting 
its board members on a religious basis, and including religious 
references in its organization's mission statements and other 
chartering or governing documents.
    Constitutional protections are included. The amendment 
states that implementation must be consistent with the First 
Amendment constitutional law. The amendment prohibits funds 
from being used for worship, instruction or proselytization in 
keeping with Constitutional requirements. This amendment would 
not permit religious organizations to refuse to assist 
individuals on the basis of religion, a religious belief or 
refusal to participate in a religious practice. The 
nondiscrimination language of the current Head Start statute 
prevents discrimination in the provision of service on the 
basis of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, political 
affiliation, or beliefs.
    Through regulations adopted July 16, 2004, the Department 
of Health and Human Services clarified these protections and 
required that any organizations that receive direct financial 
assistance from the Department (such as being a Head Start 
grantee) may not engage in inherently religious activities, 
such as worship, religious instruction, or proselytization, as 
part of the programs or services funded by the Department. 
While an organization may conduct such activities, the 
activities must be offered separately, in time or location, 
from the programs or services funded by the Department, and 
participation must be voluntary for program beneficiaries. [45 
CFR Part 87, Section 87.1(c)] Additionally, these organizations 
may not, in providing services, discriminate against a program 
beneficiary or prospective program beneficiary on the basis of 
religion or religious belief [45 CFR Part 87, Section 87.1(e)]
    The amendment also would have made Head Start consistent 
with the legislation governing other major social service 
programs by extending the Title VII hiring protections to 
faith-based organizations participating in Head Start.
    When faith-based groups hire employees on a religious 
basis, they are exercising their civil liberties. The Civil 
Rights Act made clear when faith-based groups hire employees on 
a religious basis, it is an exercise of the group's civil 
liberties and does not constitute ``discrimination'' under 
Federal law. Under Section 702(a) of Title VII of the Civil 
Rights Act of 1964, as amended in 1972 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 2000e-
1(a)):

          This subchapter shall not apply to an employer with 
        respect to the employment of aliens outside any State, 
        or to a religious corporation, association, educational 
        institution, or society with respect to the employment 
        of individuals of a particular religion to perform work 
        connected with the carrying on by such corporation, 
        association, educational institution, or society of its 
        activities. (emphasis added).

    This language explicitly allows faith-based organizations 
to hire on a religious basis, and any Federal legislation 
governing Federal social service funds should continue to 
protect the rights of religious organizations to hire on a 
religious basis when they take part in Federal social service 
efforts.
    President Bill Clinton signed four laws that explicitly 
allow religious organizations to retain their right to staff on 
a religious basis when they receive federal funds, including 
the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 
Act; the Community Services Block Grant Act of 1998; the 
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
of 1996 (the welfare reform law); and the Community Renewal Tax 
Relief Act of 2000. In Corporation of the Presiding Bishop v. 
Amos, a unanimous Supreme Court upheld the freedom to hire 
those who share the religious organization's beliefs.
    The Fortuno amendment reflects the exact sentiment as did 
those four laws: that the faith and values that motivate 
Americans to serve their neighbors should not be held against 
them. An intolerant attitude that forces faith-based groups to 
give up who they are because they want to assist their 
community has no place in this Congress or this country.

                          STATE DEMONSTRATION

    Congressman Tom Price (R-GA) offered an amendment to H.R. 
1429 to require the Secretary to allow States to participate in 
a limited demonstration project by which no more than eight 
States--who are currently matching 50 percent of the federal 
commitment with State and local money in an early childhood 
education program--could voluntarily apply for and receive the 
option of coordinating Head Start programs with their own early 
childhood education programs. In order to participate, States 
would have been required to contribute an additional five 
percent match, and have standards for education and 
comprehensive services at least as extensive as those currently 
found in Head Start. The demonstration would be limited to 
States with a demonstrated investment in early childhood 
education and an established, pre-existing preschool system. 
Participating States would be barred from making funding cuts 
to early childhood education programs as a condition of their 
participation. In addition, a ``hold harmless'' provision was 
included guaranteeing funding for Head Start centers in 
participating States for at least the first three years of 
implementation of the demonstration project.
    The amendment is similar to a provision that was included 
in the House-passed reauthorization bill considered in 2003. 
The amendment was defeated in Committee.
    We believe that the Committee missed an opportunity to make 
significant reform in the Head Start program by failing to 
allow this demonstration program. The State Demonstration 
Program would have provided an important opportunity for 8 
States with a proven and effective system of early childhood 
education to leverage their experience and improve the school 
readiness of children in their State.
    For years, experts in early childhood education and child 
development have been calling for a seamless system of early 
childhood education that integrates the existing patchwork of 
programs that includes Head Start, Title I pre-kindergarten, 
child care, and State pre-kindergarten. When Head Start began 
in 1965, State pre-kindergarten programs did not exist. State 
investment in pre-kindergarten initiatives has increased 
significantly in the past ten years as Governors and the public 
have recognized the importance of early education in preparing 
children for school. The emergence of State pre-K programs has 
lead to the duplication of services and inconsistent standards 
for program quality within States. Some States have developed 
innovative programs and made significant investments so that 
high-quality early education experiences are available for 
young children, especially those most at risk of school 
failure. Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act, 
Governors have an even greater stake in ensuring the school 
readiness of children. Governors are held accountable for the 
results of children beginning at the end of the third grade.
    Governors have experience. They currently oversee K-12 
education; childcare programs operating under the Child Care 
and Development Block Grant; Title I and State-run preschool; 
and a variety of other social services programs, including 
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families and Medicaid that are 
utilized by Head Start families. However, because States have 
no authority over the Head Start program, coordination can be 
challenging and occurs only if individual grantees within a 
State agree to work with these other players within the larger 
State system.
    Under the current patchwork system, States face many 
barriers to developing a Statewide school readiness curriculum 
for all pre-kindergarten programs that is aligned with their 
Statewide standards for K-12 education. The State Demonstration 
Program would have provided eligible States with the 
opportunity to improve coordination of services and operate 
programs more efficiently, thereby increasing their ability to 
serve more children. The experiences of these States would have 
provided valuable information about how States with advanced 
early childhood education systems are able to innovate and 
improve results for children. We are disappointed that this 
demonstration was not given a chance and that this information 
will not be learned.

                                   Howard P. ``Buck'' McKeon.
                                   Thomas E. Petri.
                                   Pete Hoekstra.
                                   Mike Castle.
                                   Vernon J. Ehlers.
                                   Todd R. Platts.
                                   Ric Keller.
                                   Joe Wilson.
                                   John Kline.
                                   Cathy McMorris Rodgers.
                                   K. Marchant.
                                   Luis Fortuno.
                                   C. W. Boustany, Jr.
                                   Virginia Foxx.
                                   John R. ``Randy'' Kuhl, Jr.
                                   Rob Bishop.
                                   David Davis.
                                   Dean Heller.