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111th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                    111-302

======================================================================
 
                      SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ACT

                                _______
                                

October 15, 2009.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Gordon of Tennessee, from the Committee on Science and Technology, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 3585]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Science and Technology, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 3585) to guide and provide for United States 
research, development, and demonstration of solar energy 
technologies, and for other purposes, having considered the 
same, report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend 
that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Bill............................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................7
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................7
  IV. Hearing Summary.................................................9
   V. Committee Actions..............................................10
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill........................11
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis....................................12
VIII. Committee Views................................................14
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................15
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................16
  XI. Compliance with Public Law 104-4...............................17
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............17
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........17
 XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................18
  XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................18
 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act...............................18
XVII. Earmark Identification.........................................18
XVIII.Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........18

 XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........18
  XX. Committee Recommendations......................................36
 XXI. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup.........................37
XXII. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................77
XXIII.Additional Views..............................................160


                                I. Bill

  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Solar Technology Roadmap Act''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of 
        Energy.
          (2) Solar technology.--The term ``solar technology'' means--
                  (A) photovoltaic technologies, including technologies 
                utilizing--
                          (i) crystalline silicon;
                          (ii) cadmium telluride;
                          (iii) semiconductor materials containing 
                        copper, indium, and selenium;
                          (iv) thin film silicon;
                          (v) gallium arsenide alloy and 
                        multijunctions;
                          (vi) dye-sensitized and organic solar cell 
                        technologies;
                          (vii) concentrating photovoltaics; and
                          (viii) other photovoltaic methods identified 
                        by the Secretary;
                  (B) solar thermal electric technology, including 
                linear concentrator systems, dish/engine systems, and 
                power tower systems;
                  (C) solar thermal water heating technology;
                  (D) solar heating and air conditioning technologies;
                  (E) passive solar design in architecture, including 
                both heating and lighting applications; and
                  (F) related or enabling technologies, including thin 
                films, semiconducting materials, transparent 
                conductors, optics, and technologies that increase 
                durability or decrease cost or weight.

   TITLE I--SOLAR TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

SEC. 101. PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, 
development, and demonstration for solar technology, including--
          (1) photovoltaics;
          (2) solar hot water and solar space heating and cooling;
          (3) concentrating solar power;
          (4) lighting systems that integrate sunlight and electrical 
        lighting in complement to each other in common lighting 
        fixtures for the purpose of improving energy efficiency;
          (5) manufacturability of low cost, high-quality solar energy 
        systems;
          (6) development of solar technology products that can be 
        easily integrated into new and existing buildings; and
          (7) other areas as the Secretary considers appropriate.
  (b) Awards.--The Secretary shall provide awards under this section to 
promote a diversity of research, development, and demonstration 
activities for solar technology on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis 
to--
          (1) academic institutions, national laboratories, Federal 
        research agencies, State research agencies, nonprofit research 
        organizations, industrial entities, or consortia thereof for 
        research, development, and demonstration activities; and
          (2) industry-led consortia for research, development, and 
        demonstration of advanced techniques for manufacturing a 
        variety of solar energy products.
  (c) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that at least 75 
percent of funding for solar technology research, development, and 
demonstration activities conducted by the Department of Energy after 
fiscal year 2014 support a diversity of activities identified by and 
recommended under the Solar Technology Roadmap as described in section 
102.
  (d) Special Consideration.--As a criteria for providing awards under 
this Act, the Secretary shall consider areas with high unemployment.
  (e) Competitiveness.--In carrying out section 105, the Department of 
Energy shall strongly consider projects utilizing solar technologies 
manufactured in the United States.

SEC. 102. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee established under 
section 103 shall develop and transmit to the Secretary of Energy and 
the Congress a Solar Technology Roadmap that--
          (1) presents the best current estimate of the near-term (up 
        to 2 years), mid-term (up to 7 years), and long-term (up to 15 
        years) research, development, and demonstration needs in solar 
        technology; and
          (2) provides guidance to the solar technology research, 
        development, and demonstration activities supported by the 
        Federal Government for the purposes of meeting national 
        priorities in energy security, United States competitiveness, 
        mitigation of adverse environmental impacts, and energy 
        diversification.
  (b) Contents.--The Solar Technology Roadmap shall--
          (1) identify research, development, and demonstration needs 
        for a diversity of solar technologies to address--
                  (A) the key solar energy production challenges of 
                intermittency, transience, storage, and scaling, 
                including determining--
                          (i) which solar-related technological 
                        solutions are appropriate for various 
                        applications, locations, and seasons;
                          (ii) how to store excess solar energy in 
                        batteries, supercapacitors, compressed air, 
                        flywheels, hydrogen, synthetic fuels, thermal 
                        storage, or superconductors, or through other 
                        means;
                          (iii) how and when to integrate solar energy 
                        into the electricity grid effectively, 
                        including--
                                  (I) the integration of solar 
                                technologies with a Smart Grid;
                                  (II) electrical power smoothing;
                                  (III) microgrid integration;
                                  (IV) solar resource forecasting;
                                  (V) long distance transmission 
                                options, including direct current and 
                                superconducting transmission; and
                                  (VI) ways to address arbitrage over 
                                minutes, hours, days, weeks, and 
                                seasons with respect to the full range 
                                of project scales; and
                          (iv) how best to integrate solar technologies 
                        into buildings;
                  (B) modeling and simulation;
                  (C) the design, materials, and manufacture of solar 
                technologies, as well as related factory sciences;
                  (D) the development of standards;
                  (E) the need for demonstration facilities;
                  (F) optimized packaging methods;
                  (G) environmental, safety, and health concerns 
                including reuse, recycling, hazardous materials 
                disposal, and photovoltaic waste issues; and
                  (H) other areas identified by the Secretary;
          (2) identify opportunities for coordination with partner 
        industries such as those for semiconductors, lighting, energy 
        storage, Smart Grid, and wind that can benefit from similar 
        advances;
          (3) establish research, development, and demonstration goals 
        with recommended timeframes with respect to solar technologies 
        for--
                  (A) improving performance;
                  (B) decreasing cost of electricity generated;
                  (C) improving reliability; and
                  (D) decreasing potential negative environmental 
                impacts and maximizing the environmental benefits of 
                solar technologies;
          (4) include recommendations, as appropriate, to guide solar 
        technology research, development, and demonstration activities; 
        and
          (5) outline the various technologies and practices considered 
        by the Committee and the benefits and shortcomings of each, as 
        appropriate.
  (c) Revisions and Updates.--
          (1) Revisions.--Once every 3 years after completion of the 
        first Solar Technology Roadmap under this Act, the Solar 
        Technology Roadmap Committee shall conduct a comprehensive 
        review and revision of the Solar Technology Roadmap.
          (2) Updates.--The Solar Technology Roadmap Committee shall 
        update the Solar Technology Roadmap annually as necessary.

SEC. 103. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP COMMITTEE.

  (a) Establishment.--Not later than 4 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall establish, and provide 
support for as necessary, a Solar Technology Roadmap Committee.
  (b) Membership.--
          (1) In general.--The Solar Technology Roadmap Committee shall 
        consist of at least 11 members. Each member shall be appointed 
        by the Secretary from among subject matter experts 
        representing--
                  (A) different sectors of the domestic solar 
                technology industry, including manufacturers and 
                equipment suppliers;
                  (B) national laboratories;
                  (C) academia;
                  (D) relevant Federal agencies;
                  (E) relevant State and local government entities;
                  (F) private research institutions; and
                  (G) other entities or organizations, as appropriate.
          (2) Terms.--
                  (A) In general.--Except as provided in subparagraph 
                (B), the term of a member of the Solar Technology 
                Roadmap Committee shall be 3 years.
                  (B) Original terms.--Of the members appointed 
                originally to the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee, 
                approximately \1/3\ shall be appointed for a 2-year 
                term, approximately \1/3\ shall be appointed for a 3-
                year term, and approximately \1/3\ shall be appointed 
                for a 4-year term.
          (3) Limit on terms.--A member of the Solar Technology Roadmap 
        Committee may serve more than 1 term, except that such member 
        may not serve a subsequent term unless 2 years have elapsed 
        since the end of a previous term.
          (4) Industry participation.--At least \1/3\ and not more than 
        \1/2\ of the members of the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee 
        shall be individuals described in paragraph (1)(A).
          (5) Chair.--The Secretary shall select a Chair from among the 
        members of the Committee. The Chair shall not be an employee of 
        the Federal Government.
          (6) Conflicts of interest.--The Secretary, in appointing 
        members to the Committee, shall make every effort to ensure 
        that--
                  (A) no individual appointed to serve on the Committee 
                has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the 
                functions to be performed, unless such conflict is 
                promptly and publicly disclosed and the Secretary 
                determines that a waiver is appropriate;
                  (B) the Committee membership is fairly balanced as 
                determined by the Secretary to be appropriate for the 
                functions to be performed; and
                  (C) the final report of the Committee will be the 
                result of the Committee's independent judgment.
        The Secretary shall require that individuals that are appointed 
        or intended to be to appointed to serve on the Committee inform 
        the Department of Energy of any individual's conflicts of 
        interest that are relevant to the functions to be performed.
  (c) Expert Advice.--In developing the Solar Technology Roadmap, the 
Solar Technology Roadmap Committee may establish subcommittees, working 
groups comprised of experts outside the membership of the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Committee, and other means of gathering expert 
advice on--
          (1) particular solar technologies or technological 
        challenges;
          (2) crosscutting issues or activities relating to more than 1 
        particular solar technology or technological challenge; or
          (3) any other area the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee 
        considers appropriate.
  (d) Compensation and Expenses.--A member of the Solar Technology 
Roadmap Committee shall not be compensated for service on the 
Committee, but may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in 
lieu of subsistence, in accordance with subchapter I of chapter 57 of 
title 5, United States Code.
  (e) Federal Advisory Committee Act.--The Federal Advisory Committee 
Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Solar Technology Roadmap 
Committee.

SEC. 104. INTERAGENCY COORDINATION.

  The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
review and coordinate Federal interagency activities identified in and 
related to the Solar Technology Roadmap as appropriate.

SEC. 105. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS.

  (a) Establishment of Program.--The Secretary shall establish a 
program to provide grants for demonstration projects to support the 
development of solar energy production, consistent with the Solar 
Technology Roadmap as available.
  (b) Implementation.--In carrying out the demonstration program under 
this section, to the extent practicable, the Secretary shall--
          (1) include at least 10 photovoltaic technology projects that 
        generate between 1 and 3 megawatts;
          (2) include at least 3 but not more than 5 solar technology 
        projects that generate greater than 30 megawatts; and
          (3) make awards for projects that--
                  (A) are located and can be replicated at a wide range 
                of sites;
                  (B) are located and can be replicated in a variety of 
                regions and climates;
                  (C) demonstrate technologies that address 
                intermittency, transience, storage challenges, and 
                independent operational capability;
                  (D) facilitate identification of optimum techniques 
                among competing alternatives;
                  (E) include business commercialization plans that 
                have the potential for production of equipment at high 
                volumes;
                  (F) improve United States competitiveness and lead to 
                development of manufacturing technology;
                  (G) demonstrate positive environmental performance 
                through life-cycle analysis;
                  (H) provide the greatest potential to reduce energy 
                costs for consumers;
                  (I) promote overall electric infrastructure 
                reliability and sustainability should grid functions be 
                disrupted or damaged; and
                  (J) satisfy other criteria that the Secretary 
                considers necessary to carry out the program.
  (c) Grant Awards.--Funding provided under this section may be used, 
to the extent that funding is not otherwise available through other 
Federal programs or power purchase agreements, for--
          (1) a necessary and appropriate site engineering study;
          (2) a detailed economic assessment of site-specific 
        conditions;
          (3) appropriate feasibility studies to determine whether the 
        demonstration can be replicated;
          (4) installation of equipment, service, and support;
          (5) operation for a minimum of 3 years and monitoring for the 
        duration of the demonstration; and
          (6) validation of technical, economic, and environmental 
        assumptions and documentation of lessons learned.
  (d) Grant Selection.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall 
conduct a national solicitation for applications for grants under this 
section. Grant recipients shall be selected on a merit-reviewed, 
competitive basis. The Secretary shall give preference to proposals 
that address multiple elements described in subsection (b).
  (e) Limitations.--Funding shall not be provided under this section 
for more than 50 percent of the costs of the project for which 
assistance is provided. Not more than a total of $300,000,000 shall be 
provided under this section for the period encompassing fiscal years 
2011 through 2015.

SEC. 106. PHOTOVOLTAIC PERFORMANCE STUDY.

  (a) In General.--Not later than one year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress and the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Committee the results of a study that analyzes the 
performance of photovoltaic installations in the United States. The 
study shall assess the current performance of photovoltaic 
installations and identify opportunities to improve the energy 
productivity of these systems. Such study shall include--
          (1) identification of the average energy productivity of 
        current commercial and residential installations;
          (2) assessment of areas where energy productivity is reduced, 
        including wire loss, module mismatch, shading, dust, and other 
        factors;
          (3) identification of technology development and technical 
        standards that improve energy productivity;
          (4) analysis of the potential cost savings and energy 
        productivity gains to the Federal, State, and local 
        governments, utilities, private enterprise, and consumers 
        available through the adoption, installation, and use of high-
        performance photovoltaic technologies and practices; and
          (5) an overview of current government incentives at the 
        Federal, State, and local levels that encourage the adoption of 
        highly efficient photovoltaic systems and practices.
  (b) Public Input.--The Secretary shall ensure that interested 
stakeholders, including affected industry stakeholders and energy 
efficiency advocates, have a meaningful opportunity to provide 
comments, data, and other information on the scope, contents, and 
conclusions of the study. All forums for the Department to receive this 
input from interested stakeholders shall be announced in the Federal 
Register.

SEC. 107. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM REAUTHORIZATION.

  (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
Secretary to carry out section 101(a)--
          (1) $350,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;
          (2) $400,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;
          (3) $450,000,000 for fiscal year 2013;
          (4) $500,000,000 for fiscal year 2014; and
          (5) $550,000,000 for fiscal year 2015.
  (b) Roadmap Identified Activities.--The Secretary shall dedicate a 
percentage of funding received pursuant to subsection (a) for research, 
development, and demonstration activities identified by and recommended 
under the Solar Technology Roadmap in the following percentages:
          (1) For fiscal year 2012, at least 30 percent.
          (2) For fiscal year 2013, at least 45 percent.
          (3) For fiscal year 2014, at least 60 percent.
          (4) For fiscal year 2015, at least 75 percent.
  (c) Solar Technology Roadmap.--The Secretary may use up to $2,000,000 
of the funds appropriated pursuant to subsection (a) for each fiscal 
year to support the establishment and maintenance of the Solar 
Technology Roadmap.
  (d) Extension of Authorizations.--Of funds authorized by subsection 
(a), there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry 
out--
          (1) section 602 of the Energy Independence and Security Act 
        of 2007 (42 U.S.C. 17171) $12,000,000 for each of the fiscal 
        years 2013 through 2015;
          (2) section 604 of the Energy Independence and Security Act 
        of 2007 (42 U.S.C. 17172) $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal 
        years 2013 through 2015;
          (3) section 605 of the Energy Independence and Security Act 
        of 2007 (42 U.S.C. 17173) $3,500,000 for each of the fiscal 
        years 2013 through 2015; and
          (4) section 606 of the Energy Independence and Security Act 
        of 2007 (42 U.S.C. 17174) $2,500,000 for each of the fiscal 
        years 2013 through 2015.

SEC. 108. EXISTING PROGRAMS.

  Except as otherwise specified in this Act, this Act shall supersede 
any duplicative solar research, development, and demonstration programs 
within the Department of Energy.

SEC. 109. REPEALS.

  The following are hereby repealed:
          (1) The Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration 
        Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5551 et seq.), except for section 10.
          (2) The Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and 
        Demonstration Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 5581 et seq.).
          (3) Section 4(a)(2) and (3) of the Renewable Energy and 
        Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (42 
        U.S.C. 12003(a)(2) and (3)).

                    TITLE II--PHOTOVOLTAIC RECYCLING

SEC. 201. PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICE RECYCLING RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND 
                    DEMONSTRATION.

  (a) Definition.--In this section, the term ``photovoltaic device'' 
includes photovoltaic cells and the electronic and electrical 
components of such devices.
  (b) In General.--In order to address the issues described in section 
102(b)(1)(G), the Secretary shall award multiyear grants for research, 
development, and demonstration activities to create innovative and 
practical approaches to increase reuse and recycling of photovoltaic 
devices and, through such activities, to contribute to the professional 
development of scientists, engineers, and technicians in the fields of 
photovoltaic and electronic device manufacturing, design, refurbishing, 
and recycling. The activities supported under this section shall 
address--
          (1) technology to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic 
        device recycling and maximize the recovery of valuable raw 
        materials for use in new products while minimizing the life-
        cycle environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions 
        and water usage;
          (2) expanded uses for materials from recycled photovoltaic 
        devices;
          (3) development and demonstration of environmentally 
        responsible alternatives to the use of hazardous materials in 
        photovoltaic devices and the production of such devices;
          (4) development of methods to separate and remove hazardous 
        materials from photovoltaic devices and to recycle or dispose 
        of those materials in a safe manner;
          (5) product design and construction to facilitate disassembly 
        and recycling of photovoltaic devices;
          (6) tools and methods to aid in assessing the environmental 
        impacts of the production of photovoltaic devices and 
        photovoltaic device recycling and disposal;
          (7) product design and construction and other tools and 
        techniques to extend the life cycle of photovoltaic devices, 
        including methods to promote their safe reuse;
          (8) strategies to increase consumer acceptance and practice 
        of recycling of photovoltaic devices; and
          (9) processes to reduce the costs and environmental impact of 
        disposal of toxic materials used in photovoltaic devices.
  (c) Merit Review.--Grants shall be awarded under this section on a 
merit-reviewed, competitive basis.
  (d) Applications.--Each application shall include a description of--
          (1) the project that will be undertaken and the contributions 
        of each participating entity;
          (2) the applicability of the project to increasing reuse and 
        recycling of photovoltaic devices with the least environmental 
        impacts as measured by life-cycle analyses, and the potential 
        for incorporating the research results into industry practice; 
        and
          (3) how the project will promote collaboration among 
        scientists and engineers from different disciplines, such as 
        electrical engineering, materials science, and social science.
  (e) Dissemination of Results.--The results of activities supported 
under this section shall be made publicly available through--
          (1) development of best practices or training materials for 
        use in the photovoltaics manufacturing, design, refurbishing, 
        or recycling industries;
          (2) dissemination at industry conferences;
          (3) coordination with information dissemination programs 
        relating to recycling of electronic devices in general;
          (4) demonstration projects; and
          (5) educational materials for the public produced in 
        conjunction with State and local governments or nonprofit 
        research organizations on the problems and solutions related to 
        reuse and recycling of photovoltaic devices.
  (f) Photovoltaic Materials Physical Property Database.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall establish a 
        comprehensive physical property database of materials for use 
        in photovoltaic devices. This database shall include--
                  (A) identification of materials used in photovoltaic 
                devices;
                  (B) a list of commercially available amounts of these 
                materials;
                  (C) amounts of these materials projected to be 
                available through mining or recycling of photovoltaic 
                and other electronic devices; and
                  (D) a list of other significant uses for each of 
                these materials.
          (2) Priorities.--The Secretary, working with private 
        industry, shall develop a plan to establish priorities and 
        requirements for the database under this subsection, including 
        the protection of proprietary information, trade secrets, and 
        other confidential business information.
          (3) Coordination.--The Secretary shall coordinate with the 
        Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to 
        facilitate the incorporation of the database under this 
        subsection with any existing database for electronic 
        manufacturing and recycling.

                              II. Purpose

    The purpose of H.R. 3585, sponsored by Rep. Giffords, is to 
authorize a comprehensive research, development, and 
demonstration program to advance solar energy technologies.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    Solar energy constitutes the largest global energy 
resource. Currently the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has 158 
active solar applications, covering 1.8 million acres with a 
projected capacity to generate 97,000 megawatts of electricity 
on the public lands that have been fast-tracked for renewable 
energy development in six western states. These BLM solar 
projects could provide the equivalent of 29 percent of the 
nation's household electricity use. In addition, the United 
States Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that 48 percent of 
total water withdrawals in 2000 were used for electric power 
generation. The combination of environmental benefits and 
government incentives has resulted in a boom in the growth of 
applications for solar energy projects on public and private 
lands and on residential, commercial, and municipal sites. An 
array of solar technologies are currently available for use in 
lighting, heating, and cooling (air or water) as well as to 
generate electricity on a wide range of scales from the 
residential level to utility-scale installations.
    The solar industry faces a number of challenges to 
achieving a significant, stable domestic energy supply for U.S. 
consumers while meeting greenhouse gas emission reduction 
targets. Reaching these goals will require the coordination of 
the solar energy technology research and manufacturing supply 
chains. The U.S. solar industry faces a number of barriers to 
entry in energy supply markets. Utilities are justifiably risk-
averse and need access to best practices and expertise in order 
to efficiently integrate solar loads especially in urban areas. 
Some examples of this were identified in the April 2009 NREL 
publication: Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary 
Network Distribution Systems--Success Stories. In addition, 
there are additional opportunities for the solar manufacturing 
industry to make large gains through technological advancement.
    The United States has a long history of leadership in solar 
energy technology, in part due to the development of 
photovoltaic technologies for space applications. However, in 
recent years other nations have come to dominate the solar 
market through aggressive policy and favorable market 
conditions. Spain and Germany installed the largest amounts of 
solar energy capacity in 2007 and 2008. And China, Korea, and 
Taiwan continue to show significant growth in photovoltaic 
manufacturing capacity.
    To help accelerate the widespread deployment of solar 
technologies in the U.S., the Administration recently dedicated 
$118 million in Recovery Act funds to projects administered by 
the DOE solar program. This program currently has a base annual 
budget of roughly $200 million.
    In reviewing ways to support the long-term growth of a 
domestic solar manufacturing industry the semiconductor 
industry may provide a model for partnership on R&D; between 
government and the private sector.
    In the case of semiconductors, in the mid-1980s the U.S.--
and the Department of Defense in particular--became concerned 
that Japanese semiconductor manufacturers were limiting access 
to semiconductor chips for two years or longer, delaying or 
halting the progress of technological advancement. In order to 
protect its strategic interest in advancing electronics the 
U.S. opted to support the growth of a domestic semiconductor 
industry through support for a semiconductor manufacturing 
technology research consortium. Sematech was created along with 
a National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
    These two activities brought together key players within 
the industry, from semiconductor manufacturers to manufacturing 
equipment builders and members of the semiconductor materials 
supply chain. This model of coordination and collaboration 
helped to keep the technology moving forward at a quick pace, 
encouraged the industry to adopt cost and time-saving 
standards, and helped to eliminate the duplication of research 
efforts on pre-competitive technologies through communication 
and coordination. The U.S. continues to host some of the 
world's most prominent semiconductor companies including Intel, 
AMD, National Semiconductor, and Texas Instruments.
    By 1994, the U.S. semiconductor industry had grown 
considerably and expanded its share of the world market for 
these products. The membership of Sematech voted to end federal 
matching funds for its activities in that same year and all 
federal funding for Sematech ended in 1996. During that same 
time period, Sematech expanded its membership to include non-
U.S. manufacturers and it continues to serve the industry as a 
global consortium supporting collaborative research.
    In late April 2009, the National Academies organized a 
meeting on ``The Future of Photovoltaic Manufacturing in the 
U.S.'' At this meeting a large number of industry players 
including DuPont, Dow Corning, FirstSolar, SunPower, Applied 
Materials, and IBM expressed the view that the photovoltaic 
industry needed to develop a comprehensive R&D; agenda in order 
to grow the industry. They also suggested the government could 
facilitate these activities.
    While there are American solar companies that have emerged 
as strong players in the world solar market, they do not have 
the resources to individually support long-term research, 
development, and commercial application of new solar 
technologies while sustaining rapid growth and expanding 
production capacity. Additionally, significant obstacles in the 
approval process for siting, constructing and operating new 
solar facilities has further stymied industry's pursuit of 
cutting edge technological advances. A jointly-developed 
comprehensive solar technology plan with public and private 
support may provide a framework for strengthening U.S. 
leadership in renewable energy technology.

                          IV. Hearing Summary

    The Energy and Environment Subcommittee held a hearing in 
the 111th Congress on July 14, 2009 to receive testimony on 
solar as well as wind research activities supported by the 
Department of Energy. Witnesses included:
    Mr. Steve Lockard, CEO of TPI Composites and co-chair of 
the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Research & 
Development Committee
    Mr. John Saintcross, Energy and Environmental Markets 
Program Manager, New York State Energy Research and Development 
Authority
    Prof. Andrew Swift, Director of the Wind Science and 
Engineering Research Center at Texas Tech University
    Mr. Ken Zweibel, Director of the George Washington 
University Solar Institute
    Ms. Nancy Bacon, Senior Advisor for United Solar Ovonic and 
Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.
    The hearing examined the need for a comprehensive 
roadmapping process for solar research, development, and 
demonstration activities from the perspective of the solar 
industry, government, and academic institutions.
    Mr. Zweibel and Ms. Bacon spoke in strong support of 
creating a solar technology roadmap with substantial input from 
both the public and private sectors. Mr. Zweibel stated that 
``if we do not try to connect our solar technology development 
in government with our deployment expectations, we will be 
doing ourselves a disservice, paying more and perhaps much more 
than we would otherwise for the same solar electricity. In 
addition, we have a responsibility to maximize our domestic 
competitiveness in solar, since solar can provide a huge 
harvest of jobs.'' He also noted that the roadmap must be 
developed and adopted ``with openness to frequent revision.''
    Ms. Bacon noted that a joint roadmap ``is an excellent 
vehicle to help achieve the Subcommittee's and the 
Administration's goals.'' She stated that while industry will 
clearly play a vital role in developing such a roadmap, ``no 
solar company is large enough to bear the financial burden of 
doing research all along the supply chain in an efficient 
manner. There are areas where collaboration makes sense and we 
and others in the industry support working with academia, 
national labs and each other . . . DOE in coordination with 
other agencies of the federal government and industry can play 
an important role as a neutral party that can facilitate 
communication and support along the research, development and 
commercialization path to reduce the costs of solar systems and 
help advance solar photovoltaic technology and processes to 
make domestically manufactured solar systems accessible and 
affordable across the country.''

                          V. Committee Actions

    The Subcommittee on Energy and Environment met to consider 
H.R. 3585 on September 30, 2009.
    Mr. Bartlett offered an amendment to extend authorizations 
in Sections 605 and 606 of the Energy Independence and Security 
Act of 2007 for research and development in direct solar 
lighting systems and solar air conditioning. The amendment was 
agreed to by voice vote.
    Mr. Baird moved that the Subcommittee favorably report H.R. 
3585, as amended, to the Full Committee. The motion was agreed 
to by voice vote.
    The full Committee on Science and Technology met to 
consider H.R. 3585 on Wednesday, October 7, 2009.
    Ms. Giffords offered a manager's amendment to make several 
technical and clarifying changes. The amendment also adds 
language to address potential issues of conflict of interest 
among members of the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee. The 
amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Mr. Peters offered an amendment ensure that the United 
States is the primary beneficiary of the activities of the 
Solar Technology Roadmap Committee. The amendment was agreed to 
by voice vote.
    Mr. Lujan offered an amendment to ensure that specific long 
distance transmission options, including direct current and 
superconducting transmission, are supported in this Act. The 
amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Mrs. Biggert offered an amendment to add a sunset to the 
activities of the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee in 2015. 
The amendment was defeated by voice vote.
    Mrs. Biggert offered an amendment instructing the 
Department to make awards for demonstration projects that 
provide the greatest potential to reduce energy costs for 
consumers. The amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Mr. Bartlett offered an amendment to increase the number of 
large demonstration projects, and make instructions to award 
these projects technology neutral. The amendment also instructs 
the Secretary to make awards for demonstration projects that 
promote overall electric infrastructure reliability and 
sustainability should grid functions be disrupted or damaged. 
The amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Mr. Bilbray offered an amendment to ensure that 
intellectual property issues are respected in the establishment 
of a photovoltaic materials database. The amendment was agreed 
to by voice vote.
    Mr. Broun offered an amendment to remove the minimum 
percentage of solar research funding required to follow the 
recommendations of the Solar Technology Roadmap. The amendment 
was defeated by voice vote.
    Mr. Broun offered an amendment to reduce the authorization 
levels for the Secretary of Energy to carry out this Act to 
$200 million for each fiscal year from 2011 through 2013. The 
amendment was defeated by roll call vote: Yays-6, Nays-19, 
Present-1.
    Mr. Gordon moved that the Committee favorably report the 
bill, H.R. 3585, as amended, to the House. The motion was 
agreed to by a voice vote.

              VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    H.R. 3585 directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct a 
research, development, and demonstration program for solar 
technology, including photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, 
solar hot water, solar space heating and cooling, solar 
lighting, solar manufacturing, integration of solar technology 
in buildings, and other areas the Secretary considers 
appropriate. The Secretary is also directed to award grants on 
a merit-review basis to academic institutions, nonprofit 
organizations, industrial entities, or consortia thereof for 
research, development, and demonstration activities.
    In addition, the bill directs the Secretary to appoint a 
Solar Technology Roadmap Committee, comprised of at least 11 
members, within four months of enactment of the Act. At least 
one-third but not more than half of the members of the 
Committee must come from the solar industry. The Secretary must 
also appoint a Committee chair, who shall not be a federal 
government employee.
    The bill requires that the Committee create a Solar 
Technology Roadmap within eighteen months of enactment of the 
Act. The Roadmap shall present the best current estimate of the 
near-term (up to two years), mid-term (up to seven years), and 
long-term (up to 15 years) research, development, and 
demonstration needs in solar technology. The Roadmap must also 
provide guidance for solar technology research, development, 
and demonstration activities supported by the federal 
government. The bill requires that the Roadmap: (1) identify 
research, development, and demonstration needs for solar 
technology challenges; (2) identify opportunities for 
coordination with partner industries; and (3) expedite the 
process of improving solar technologies by identifying research 
goals that improve performance, decrease the cost of generated 
electricity, improve reliability, and maximize the 
environmental benefits of solar technologies.
    The bill specifies that interagency activities recommended 
by the Roadmap be coordinated by the director of the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The Committee must update 
the Roadmap annually as needed, and comprehensively review and 
revise the Roadmap every three years.
    H.R. 3585 authorizes DOE to conduct at least 10 
photovoltaic demonstration projects ranging from one-to-three 
megawatts in size and three-to-five solar projects greater than 
30 megawatts in size. DOE is also required to study the 
performance of photovoltaic installations and identify 
opportunities to improve the energy productivity of these 
systems. The bill also establishes a program of research, 
development, and demonstration related to the reuse, recycling, 
and safe disposal of photovoltaic devices.
    The bill authorizes appropriations of $350,000,000 for FY 
2011, $400,000,000 for FY 2012, $450,000,000 for FY 2013, 
$500,000,000 for FY 2014, and $550,000,000 for 2015 to the 
Secretary to carry out the activities identified in the bill. 
$2,000,000 per year of this funding is authorized to support 
the establishment and maintenance of the Solar Technology 
Roadmap. The bill also reauthorizes solar research activities 
established in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 
2007.

                    VII. Section-by-Section Analysis


Sec. 1. Short title

    Gives title of the bill as ``Solar Technology Roadmap Act''

Sec. 2. Definitions

    Provides definitions for ``SECRETARY'' and ``SOLAR 
TECHNOLOGY''

   TITLE I--SOLAR TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION


Sec. 101. Program

    Directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct a research, 
development, and demonstration program for solar technology, 
including photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar hot 
water, solar space heating and cooling, solar lighting, solar 
manufacturing, and integration solar technology in buildings.
    Any grants awarded must be merit reviewed. Grants may be 
awarded to academic institutions, national laboratories, 
Federal research agencies, state research agencies, nonprofit 
organizations, industrial entities, or consortia thereof.
    Paragraph (c) states that it is the policy of the United 
States that at least 75% of solar RD&D; funding conducted by DOE 
after 2014 shall support activities identified by and 
recommended under the Solar Technology Roadmap described in 
Sec. 102.

Sec. 102. Solar Technology Roadmap

    Directs that within 18 months of enactment, the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Committee (established in Sec. 103) shall 
create the first Solar Technology Roadmap.
    The roadmap shall present the best current estimate of the 
near-term (up to 2 years), mid-term (up to 7 years), and long-
term (up to 15 years) research, development, and demonstration 
needs in solar technology; and provide(s) guidance to the solar 
technology research, development, and demonstration activities 
supported by the Federal Government.
    The purposes of the roadmap are:
          (1) to identify research, development, and 
        demonstration needs for solar technology challenges;
          (2) identify opportunities for coordination with 
        partner industries (such as those for semiconductors, 
        energy storage, Smart Grid, etc.);
          (3) and expedite the process of improving solar 
        technologies by identifying research goals that improve 
        performance; decrease cost of electricity generated; 
        improve reliability; and maximize the environmental 
        benefits of solar technologies.
    The roadmap is subject to comprehensive revision every 3 
years and may be updated annually as needed.

Sec. 103. Solar Technology Roadmap Committee

    The Secretary of Energy shall appoint members of the 
Roadmap Committee within 4 months after enactment.
    The Roadmap Committee must contain at least 11 members and 
the members serve 3-year terms. One-third but not more than 
one-half of the members of the committee must come from the 
solar industry. The Secretary chooses the chair, but the chair 
cannot be a federal government employee.

Sec. 104. Interagency Coordination

    Interagency activities identified and recommended by the 
Solar Technology Roadmap shall be coordinated by the Director 
of OSTP.

Sec. 105. Solar Technology Demonstration Projects

    Authorizes the DOE to conduct at least ten photovoltaic 
projects ranging from 1 to 3 megawatts in size and 2 to 3 solar 
projects greater than 30 megawatts in size.

Sec. 106. Photovoltaic Performance Study

    DOE shall study and publish best practices to improve 
performance of photovoltaic installations. The study shall 
examine the effectiveness of federal, state, and local 
incentives to enhance system performance.

Sec. 107. Solar Energy Program Reauthorization

    Authorizes to be appropriated to the Secretary of Energy to 
carry out this Act $350,000,000 in FY 2011, $400,000,000 in FY 
2012, $450,000,000 in FY 2013, $500,000,000 in FY 2014, and 
$550,000,000 in FY 2015. Of this funding, $2 million per year 
is authorized to support the establishment and maintenance of 
the Solar Technology Roadmap. This section also reauthorizes 
solar research activities established in the Energy 
Independence and Security Act of 2007.

Sec. 108. Existing Programs

    Except as otherwise specified in this Act, this Act shall 
supersede any duplicative or conflicting solar RD&D; programs 
within the DOE.

Sec. 109. Repeals

    This section repeals outdated solar research legislation 
from 1974, 1978, and 1989. A provision that is not repealed is 
Sec. 10 of the Solar Energy Research, Development, and 
Demonstration Act of 1974, which established the national 
laboratory that is now NREL.

                    TITLE II--PHOTOVOLTAIC RECYCLING


Sec. 201. Photovoltaic Device Recycling Research, Development, and 
        Demonstration

    This section establishes a program of RD&D; in the reuse, 
recycling, and safe disposal of photovoltaic devices and 
substances used in the manufacture of such devices.

                         VIII. Committee Views

    The Committee on Science and Technology (henceforth 
referred to as ``the Committee'') believes that the U.S. solar 
industry is at a crossroads, and a strong, comprehensive 
roadmapping process incorporating the best ideas and greatest 
needs of both the public and private sectors is critical to 
reasserting U.S. leadership in this fast-growing energy market. 
The Committee encourages the Secretary of Energy to appoint a 
broad representation of stakeholders to serve on the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Committee (henceforth referred to as ``the 
Roadmap Committee''), including academics, researchers at 
national laboratories, experts within the Department of Energy 
(DOE) as well as other agencies, and a mandatory minimum of \1/
3\ of the Roadmap Committee from the best minds of the domestic 
solar industry. This requirement of industry participation 
ensures that the Roadmap Committee will provide recommendations 
that will be beneficial to the U.S. in the near-term, while a 
maximum industry participation of \1/2\ of the Roadmap 
Committee ensures that mid- and long-term needs and 
opportunities are properly addressed as well. Any conflicts of 
interest among members of the Roadmap Committee must be 
publicly disclosed, and the Committee will closely monitor any 
indication that the Roadmap Committee is not acting in the best 
interests of the U.S. and our domestic solar industry as a 
whole.
    The Committee believes that having a robust minimum 
percentage of solar research, development, and demonstration 
funds that must follow roadmap recommendations--gradually 
increasing to 75% in 2015--is critical to ensuring that the 
roadmap process is a serious undertaking by both DOE and the 
private sector. This roadmap, which will be updated and revised 
on a regular basis, will be a publicly disclosed blueprint for 
the future of the U.S. solar research program. Currently, the 
DOE solar program within the Office of Energy Efficiency and 
Renewable Energy (EERE) has no requirement to seek advice and 
guidance outside of the Department. It can, should the 
Secretary wish, delegate grant award decisions to a single 
program manager. This roadmap will be a vehicle for 
comprehensive strategic planning with far more transparency 
than we have today.
    The Committee notes that while the Roadmap Committee is 
expected to provide recommendations to be carried out by EERE, 
its recommendations need not be limited to EERE programs. The 
DOE Office of Science conducts significant basic research 
programs relevant to solar energy, and should be involved in 
developing and implementing long-term solar research 
recommendations. In 2005, the Office of Science produced a 
report entitled Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy 
Utilization. The recommendations of this report should be 
reviewed by the initial Roadmap Committee and incorporated into 
the first Solar Technology Roadmap as appropriate. Other 
agencies including the National Science Foundation, the 
National Institutes of Standards and Technology, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of 
Defense have all played a role in solar technology development 
over the past 40 years as well. The Roadmap Committee should 
seek expertise from and provide recommendations to any agencies 
that may benefit. The Roadmap Committee is also free to provide 
recommendations for collective private sector activities as it 
sees fit.
    In carrying out its solar demonstration program, the 
Committee encourages DOE to collaborate with the Department of 
Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, and other 
agencies, where appropriate, to direct projects to locations 
that carry out vital government functions or missions in order 
to explore the capability of advanced solar technologies to 
support critical infrastructure, operations, or missions in the 
event of a significant grid failure. These demonstration sites 
should include federally operated facilities as well as private 
sector facilities that conduct these vital activities. It is 
not necessary for each demonstration project to meet each of 
the criteria described in section 105(b)(3), however the set of 
demonstration projects should meet these criteria, and priority 
should be given to projects that meet multiple elements of 
105(b)(3). The Committee believes that DOE should award 
demonstration projects utilizing solar technologies 
manufactured in the United States unless there is strong 
justification otherwise.
    The Committee believes that workforce training and 
education either at the workplace or at local community 
colleges and other institutions of higher education will 
contribute to the professional development of scientists, 
engineers, and technicians employed by the solar industry.
    The Committee supports the fast-tracking of applications to 
develop renewable energy projects on federal lands. This 
process should facilitate expedited permitting to accelerate 
and ensure the deployment of these critical additions to our 
energy infrastructure.

                           IX. Cost Estimate

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science and Technology prior to the filing of 
this report and is included in Section X of this report 
pursuant to House Rule XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 3585 does not contain new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. H.R. 
3585 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section X of this report.

              X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate


H.R. 3585--Solar Technology Roadmap Act

    Summary: H.R. 3585 would authorize appropriations totaling 
$2.25 billion over the 2011-2015 period for the Department of 
Energy (DOE) to support various programs related to solar 
energy technology. The bill also would require DOE to assess 
the performance of existing solar power facilities in the 
United States. Finally, the bill would repeal certain laws 
related to solar energy research and development.
    Based on information from DOE and assuming appropriation of 
the authorized and necessary amounts, CBO estimates that 
implementing the legislation would cost about $1.4 billion over 
the 2011-2014 period and about $840 million after 2014. 
Enacting the legislation would not affect direct spending or 
revenues.
    H.R. 3585 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the federal government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 3585 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 250 
(general science, space, and technology).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2010      2011      2012      2013      2014    2010-2014
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

New Research, Development, and Demonstration
 Programs:
    Authorization Level............................         0       350       400       428       478      1,656
    Estimated Outlays..............................         0       193       325       408       451      1,377
Authorization of Existing Programs:
    Authorization Level............................         0         0         0        22        22         44
    Estimated Outlays..............................         0         0         0        12        19         31
Solar Facility Assessment:
    Estimated Authorization Level..................         1         0         0         0         0          1
    Estimated Outlays..............................         1         *         0         0         0          1
    Total Changes:
        Estimated Authorization Level..............         1       350       400       450       500      1,701
        Estimated Outlays..........................         1       193       325       420       470     1,409
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: * = less than $500,000.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
3585 will be enacted near the start of fiscal year 2010 and 
that the authorized and necessary amounts will be appropriated 
for each fiscal year. Estimated outlays are based on historical 
spending patterns for similar DOE programs.

         NEW RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS

    H.R. 3585 would authorize the appropriation of about $2.18 
billion over the 2011-2015 period for DOE programs to support 
the research, development, and demonstration of solar energy 
technologies. Of that amount, DOE would be required to spend at 
least $1 billion for projects recommended by the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Committee, which would be established under 
the bill to develop a long-term plan for the development of 
solar energy technologies. Assuming appropriation of the 
authorized amounts, CBO estimates that implementing those 
provisions would cost about $1.4 billion over the 2011-2014 
period and about $800 million after 2014.

                   AUTHORIZATION OF EXISTING PROGRAMS

    H.R. 3585 would authorize the appropriation of $12 million 
a year over the 2013-2015 period for a program aimed at 
developing lower-cost thermal energy storage technologies. The 
bill also would authorize the appropriation of $10 million a 
year over the 2013-2015 period for a workforce training program 
to support the expansion of the solar energy industry. Assuming 
appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO estimates that 
implementing those provisions would cost $31 million over the 
2013-2014 period and $35 million after 2014.

                          FACILITY ASSESSMENT

    H.R. 3585 would require the Secretary of Energy to assess 
the performance of existing solar power facilities in the 
United States. Based on information from DOE regarding the cost 
of similar assessments, CBO estimates that conducting the 
facility assessment would cost about $1 million in 2010.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 3585 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would impose no costs on state, local, or 
tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Jeff LaFave; Impact on 
State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Ryan Miller; Impact on 
the Private Sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                  XI. Compliance With Public Law 104-4

    H.R. 3585 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The oversight findings and recommendations of the Committee 
on Science and Technology are reflected in the body of this 
report.

      XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    Pursuant to clause (3)(c) of House rule XIII, the goal of 
H.R. 3585 is to authorize a comprehensive research, 
development, and demonstration program to advance solar energy 
technologies.

                XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 3585.

                XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    H.R. 3585 does not establish nor authorize the 
establishment of an advisory committee, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 
App.

                 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 3585 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

                      XVII. Earmark Identification

    H.R. 3585 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of rule XXI.

     XVIII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

       XIX.Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets and 
existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in roman):

   SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION ACT OF 1974

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, [That this 
Act may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research, Development, 
and Demonstration Act of 1974''.

                  [DECLARATION OF FINDINGS AND POLICY

    [Sec. 2. (a) The Congress hereby finds that--
          [(1) the needs of a viable society depend on an ample 
        supply of energy;
          [(2) the current imbalance between domestic supply 
        and demand for fuels and energy is likely to persist 
        for some time;
          [(3) dependence on nonrenewable energy resources 
        cannot be continued indefinitely, particularly at 
        current rates of consumption;
          [(4) it is in the Nation's interest to expedite the 
        long-term development of renewable and nonpolluting 
        energy resources, such as solar energy;
          [(5) the various solar energy technologies are today 
        at widely differing stages of development, with some 
        already near the stage of commercial application and 
        others still requiring basic research;
          [(6) the early development and export of viable 
        equipment utilizing solar energy, consistent with the 
        established preeminence of the United States in the 
        field of high technology products, can make a valuable 
        contribution to our balance of trade;
          [(7) the mass production and use of equipment 
        utilizing solar energy will help to eliminate the 
        dependence of the United States upon foreign energy 
        sources and promote the national defense;
          [(8) to date, the national effort in research, 
        development, and demonstration activities relating to 
        the utilization of solar energy has been extremely 
        limited; therefore
          [(9) the urgency of the Nation's critical energy 
        shortages and the need to make clean and renewable 
        energy alternatives commercially viable require that 
        the Nation undertake an intensive research, 
        development, and demonstration program with an 
        estimated Federal investment which may reach or exceed 
        $1,000,000,000.
    [(b) The Congress declares that it is the policy of the 
Federal Government to--
          [(1) pursue a vigorous and viable program of research 
        and resource assessment of solar energy as a major 
        source of energy for our national needs; and
          [(2) provide for the development and demonstration of 
        practicable means to employ solar energy on a 
        commercial scale.

                              [DEFINITIONS

    [Sec. 3. For the purposes of this Act--
          [(1) the term ``solar energy'' means energy which has 
        recently originated in the Sun, including direct and 
        indirect solar radiation and intermediate solar energy 
        forms such as wind, sea thermal gradients, products of 
        photosynthetic processes, organic wastes, and others;
          [(2) the term ``byproducts'' includes, with respect 
        to any solar energy technology or process, any solar 
        energy products (including energy forms) other than 
        those associated with or constituting the primary 
        product of such technology or process;
          [(3) the term ``insolation'' means the rate at which 
        solar energy is received at the surface of the Earth;
          [(4) the term ``Project'' means the Solar Energy 
        Coordination and Management Project; and
          [(5) the term ``Chairman'' means the Chairman of the 
        Project.

           [SOLAR ENERGY COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    [Sec. 4. (a) There is hereby established the Solar Energy 
Coordination and Management Project.
    [(b)(1) The Project shall be composed of six members as 
follows:
          [(A) an Assistant Director of the National Science 
        Foundation;
          [(B) an Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban 
        Develop- ment;
          [(C) a member of the Federal Power Commission;
          [(D) an Associate Administrator of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration;
          [(E) the General Manager of the Atomic Energy 
        Commission;
          [(F) a member to be designated by the President.
      [(2) The President shall designate one member of the 
Project to Serve as Chairman of the Project.
      [(3) If the individual designated under paragraph (1) (F) 
is an officer or employee of the Federal Government, he shall 
receive no additional pay on account of his service as a member 
of the Project. If such individual is not an officer or 
employee of the Federal Government, he shall be entitled to 
receive the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in 
effect for level IV of the Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5315) 
for each day (including traveltime) during which he is engaged 
in the actual performance of duties vested in the Project.
      [(c) The Project shall have overall responsibility for 
the provision of effective management and coordination with 
respect to a national solar energy research, development, and 
demonstration program, including--.
          [(1) the determination and evaluation of the resource 
        base, including its temporal and geographic 
        characteristics;
          [(2) research and development on solar energy 
        technologies; and
          [(3) the demonstration of appropriate solar energy 
        technologies.
      [(d)(1) The Project shall carry out its responsibilities 
under this section in cooperation with the following Federal 
agencies:
          [(A) the National Science Foundation, the 
        responsibilities of which shall include research;
          [(B) the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration, the responsibilities of which shall 
        include the provision of management capability and the 
        development of technologies;
          [(C) the Atomic Energy Commission, the 
        responsibilities of which shall include the development 
        of technologies;
          [(D) the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
        the responsibilities of which shall include fostering 
        the utilization of solar energy for the heating and 
        cooling of buildings, pursuant to the Solar Heating and 
        Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-409; 88 
        Stat. 1069); and
          [(E) the Federal Power Commission, the 
        responsibilities of which shall include fostering the 
        utilization of solar energy for the generation of 
        electricity and for the production of synthetic fuels.
      [(2) Upon request of the Chairman, the head of any such 
agency is authorized to detail or assign, on a reimbursable 
basis or otherwise, any of the personnel of such agency to the 
Project to assist it in carrying out its responsibilities under 
this Act.
      [(e) The Project shall have exclusive authority with 
respect to the establishment or approval of programs or 
projects initiated under this Act, but the agency involved in 
any particular program or project shall be responsible for the 
operation and administration of such program or project.
      [(f) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is 
authorized to undertake and carry out those programs assigned 
to it by the Project.

                 [RESOURCE DETERMINATION AND ASSESSMENT

      [Sec. 5. (a) The Chairman shall initiate a solar energy 
resource determination and assessment program with the 
objective of making a regional and national appraisal of all 
solar energy resources, including data on insolation, wind, sea 
thermal gradients, and potentials for photosynthetic 
conversion. The program shall emphasize identification of 
promising areas for commercial exploitation and development. 
The specific goals shall include--
          [(1) the development of better methods for predicting 
        the availability of all solar energy resources, over 
        long time periods and by geographic location;
          [(2) the development of advanced meteorological, 
        oceanographic, and other instruments, methodology, and 
        procedures necessary to measure the quality and 
        quantity of all solar resources on periodic bases;
          [(3) the development of activities, arrangements, and 
        proce- dures for the collection, evaluation, and 
        dissemination of information and data relating to solar 
        energy resource assessment.
    [(b) The Chairman, acting through the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, and other appropriate agencies, shall--
          [(1) develop and carry out a general plan for 
        inventorying all forms of solar energy resources 
        associated with Federal lands and (where consistent 
        with property rights) non-Federal lands;
          [(2) conduct regional surveys based upon such general 
        plan, using innovative meteorological, oceanographic, 
        and space-related techniques, in sufficient numbers to 
        lead to a national inventory of solar energy resources 
        in the United States;
          [(3) publish and make available maps, reports, and 
        other documents developed from such surveys to 
        encourage and facilitate the commercial development of 
        solar energy resources; and
          [(4) make such recommendations for legislation as may 
        appear to be necessary to establish policies for solar 
        resources involving Federal lands and waters, 
        consistent with known inventories of various resource 
        types, with the state of technologies for solar energy 
        development, and with evaluation of the environmental 
        impacts of such development.

                       [RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    [Sec. 6. (a) The Chairman shall initiate a research and 
development program for the purpose of resolving the major 
technical problems inhibiting commercial utilization of solar 
energy in the United States.
    [(b) In connection with or as a part of such program, the 
Chairman shall--
          [(1) conduct, encourage, and promote scientific 
        research and studies to develop effective and 
        economical processes and equipment for the purpose of 
        utilizing solar energy in an acceptable manner for 
        beneficial uses;
          [(2) carry out systems, economic, social, and 
        environmental studies to provide a basis for research, 
        development and demonstration planning and phasing; and
          [(3) perform or cause to be performed technology 
        assessments relevant to the utilization of solar 
        energy.
    [(c) The specific solar energy technologies to be addressed 
or dealt with in the program shall include--
          [(1) direct solar heat as a source for industrial 
        processes, including the utilization of low-level heat 
        for process and other industrial purposes;
          [(2) thermal energy conversion, and other methods, 
        for the generation of electricity and the production of 
        chemical fuels;
          [(3) the conversion of cellulose and other organic 
        materials (including wastes) to useful energy or fuels;
          [(4) photovoltaic and other direct conversion 
        processes;
          [(5) sea thermal gradient conversion;
          [(6) windpower conversion;
          [(7) solar heating and cooling of housing and of 
        commercial and public buildings; and
          [(8) energy storage.

                             [DEMONSTRATION

    [Sec. 7. (a) The Chairman is authorized to initiate a 
program to design and construct, in specific solar energy 
technologies (including, but, not limited to, those listed in 
section (6)(c), facilities or power-plants of sufficient size 
to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of 
utilizing the various forms of solar energy. The specific goals 
of such programs shall include--
          [(1) production of electricity from a number of 
        powerplants, on the order of one to ten megawatts each;
          [(2) production of synthetic fuels in commercial 
        quantities;
          [(3) large-scale utilization of solar energy in the 
        form of direct heat;
          [(4) utilization of thermal and all other byproducts 
        of the solar facilities;
          [(5) design and development of hybrid systems 
        involving the concomitant utilization of solar and 
        other energy sources; and
          [(6) the continuous operation of such plants and 
        facilities for a period of time.
    [(b) For each of the technologies for which a successful 
and appropriate development program is completed, the Chairman 
shall make a determination to proceed to demonstration based on 
criteria including, but not necessarily limited to, the 
following:
          [(1) the technological feasibility of the project;
          [(2) the costs and benefits of the project, as 
        determined by an nomic assessment;
          [(3) the immediate and the potential uses of the 
        solar energy utilized in the project;
          [(4) long-term national need for the technology;
          [(5) environmental impact;
          [(6) potential for technology transfer to other 
        applications; and
          [(7) the nature and extent of Federal participation, 
        if any, in the project.
    [(c) In carrying out his responsibilities under this 
section, the Chairman, acting through the appropriate Federal 
agencies, may provide for the establishment of one or more 
demonstration projects utilizing each form of solar energy, 
which shall include, as appropriate, the specific research, 
development, pilot plant construction and operation, 
demonstration plant construction and operation, and other 
facilities and activities which may be necessary to show 
commercial viability of the specific solar technology.
    [(d) The Chairman, acting through the appropriate Federal 
agencies, is authorized to investigate and enter into 
agreements for the cooperative development of facilities to 
demonstrate solar technologies. The responsible Federal agency 
may consider--
          [(1) cooperative agreements with non-Federal entities 
        for construction of facilities and equipment to 
        demonstrate solar energy technologies; and
          [(2) cooperative agreements with other Federal 
        agencies for the construction of facilities and 
        equipment and operation of facilities to produce energy 
        for direct Federal utilization.
    [(e) The Chairman, acting through appropriate Federal 
agencies is authorized to construct and operate demonstration 
projects without entering into cooperative agreements with 
respect to such projects, if the Chairman finds that--
          [(1) the nature of the resource, the geographical 
        location, the scale and engineering design of the 
        facilities, the techniques of production, or any other 
        significant factor of the specific demonstration 
        project offers opportunities to make important 
        contributions to the general knowledge of solar 
        resources, the techniques of its development, or public 
        confidence in the technology; and
          [(2) there is no opportunity for cooperative 
        agreements with any non-Federal entity willing and able 
        to cooperate in the demonstration project under 
        subsection (d)(1), and there is no opportunity for 
        cooperative agreements with other Federal agencies 
        under subsection (d)(2).
    [(f) If the estimate of the Federal investment with respect 
to construction and operation costs of any demonstration 
project proposed to be established under this section exceeds 
$20,000,000, no amount may be appropriated for such project 
except as specifically authorized by legislation hereafter 
enacted by the Congress.
    [(g)(1) At the conclusion of any demonstration project 
established under this section, or as soon thereafter as may be 
practicable, the responsible Federal agencies shall, by sale, 
lease, or otherwise, dispose of all Federal property interests 
which they have acquired pursuant to this section in accordance 
with existing law and the terms of the cooperative agreements 
involved.
    [(2) The agency involved shall, under appropriate 
agreements or other arrangements, provide for the disposition 
of electricity, synthetic fuels, and other byproducts of the 
project administered by such agency.

                  [SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION

    [Sec. 8. (a)(1) In carrying out his functions under this 
Act the Chairman, utilizing the capabilities of the National 
Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, the Department of Commerce, the Atomic Energy 
Commission, and other appropriate Federal agencies to the 
maximum extent possible, shall establish and operate a Solar 
Energy Information Data Bank (hereinafter in this subsection 
referred to as the ``bank'') for the purpose of collecting, 
reviewing, processing, and disseminating information and data 
in all of the solar energy technologies referred to in section 
7(c) in a timely and accurate manner in support of the 
objectives of this Act.
    [(2) Information and data compiled in the bank shall 
include--
          [(A) technical information (including reports, 
        journal articles, dissertations, monographs, and 
        project descriptions) on solar energy research, 
        development, and applications;
          [(B) similar technical information on the design, 
        construction, and maintenance of equipment utilizing 
        solar energy;
          [(C) general information on solar energy applications 
        to be disseminated for popular consumption;
          [(D) physical and chemical properties of materials 
        required for solar energy activities and equipment; and
          [(E) engineering performance data on equipment and 
        devices utilizing solar energy.
    [(3) In accordance with regulations prescribed under 
section 12, the Chairman shall provide retrieval and 
dissemination services with respect to the information 
described under paragraph (2) for--
          [(A) Federal, State, and local government 
        organizations that are active in the area of energy 
        resources (and their contractors);
          [(B) universities and colleges in their related 
        research and consulting activities; and
          [(C) the private sector upon request in appropriate 
        cases.
    [(4) In carrying out his functions under this subsection, 
the Chairtnan shall utilize, when feasible, the existing data 
base of scientific and technical information in Federal 
agencies, adding to such data base any information described in 
paragraph (2) which does not already reside in such base. He 
shall coordinate or merge this data bank with other Federal 
energy information data banks as necessary to assure efficient 
and effective operation.
    [(b) In carrying out his functions under this Act the 
Chairman shall perform or cause to be performed studies and 
research on incentives to promote broader utilization and 
consumer acceptance of solar energy technologies.
    [(c) The Chairman shall enter into such arrangements and 
take such other steps as may be necessary or appropriate to 
provide for the effective coordination of solar energy 
technology utilization with all other technology utilization 
programs within the Federal Government.

                  [SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION

    [Sec. 9. The Chairman, acting through the National Science 
Foundation, is authorized and directed to support programs of 
education in the sciences and engineering to provide the 
necessary trained personnel to perform the solar energy 
research, development, and demonstration activities required 
under this Act. Such support may include fellowships, 
traineeships, technical training programs, technologist 
training programs, and summer institute programs.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                       [INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    [Sec. 11. (a) The Chairman, in furtherance of the 
objectives of this Act, is authorized to cooperate and 
participate jointly with other nations, especially those with 
agreements for scientific cooperation with the United States, 
in the following activities:
          [(1) interinstitutional, bilateral, or multilateral 
        research projects in the field of solar energy; and
          [(2) agreements and programs which will facilitate 
        the exchange of information and data relating to solar 
        energy resource assessment and solar energy 
        technologies.
    [(b) The National Science Foundation is authorized to 
encourage, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent 
with the other objectives of this Act, international 
participation and cooperation in the development and 
maintenance of programs of education to carry out the policy 
set forth in section 9.

                              [REGULATIONS

    [Sec. 12. The Chairman, in consultation with the heads of 
the Federal agencies having functions under this Act and with 
other appropriate officers and agencies, shall prescribe such 
regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out 
this Act promptly and efficiently. Each such officer or agency, 
in consultation with the Chairman, may prescribe such 
regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out his 
or its particular functions under this Act promptly and 
efficiently.

                            [ANNUAL REPORTS

    [Sec. 13. A summary of all actions taken under the 
provisions of this Act and action planned for the ensuing year 
shall be included in the annual report required by section 657 
of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7267).

                        [INFORMATION TO CONGRESS

    [Sec. 14. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
Chairman (or the head of any agency which assumes the functions 
of the Project pursuant to section 16) shall keep the 
appropriate committees of the House of Representatives and the 
Senate fully and currently informed with respect to all 
activities under this Act.

                   [COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM DEFINITION

    [Sec. 15. (a) The Chairman is authorized and directed to 
prepare a comprehensive program definition of an integrated 
effort and commitment for effectively developing solar energy 
resources. The Chairman, in preparing such program definition, 
shall utilize and consult with the appropriate Federal 
agencies, State and local government agencies, and private 
organizations.
    [(b) The Chairman shall transmit such comprehensive program 
definition to the President and to each House of the Congress. 
An interim report shall be transmitted not later than March 1, 
1975. The comprehensive program definition shall be transmitted 
as soon as possible thereafter, but in any case not later than 
June 30, 1975.

                         [TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

    [Sec. 16. Within sixty days after the effective date of the 
law creating a permanent Federal organization or agency having 
jurisdiction over the energy research and development functions 
of the United States (or within sixty days after the date of 
the enactment of this Act if the effective date of such law 
occurs prior to the date of the enactment of this Act), all of 
the authorities of the Project and all of the research and 
development functions (and other functions except those related 
to scientific and technical education) vested in Federal 
agencies under this Act along with related records, documents, 
personnel, obligations, and other items, to the extent 
necessary or appropriate, shall, in accordance with regulations 
prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget, be 
transferred to and vested in such organization or agency.

                    [AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    [Sec. 17. To carry out the provisions of this Act, there 
are authorized to be appropriated--
          [(1) for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, 
        $75,000,000;
          [(2) for subsequent fiscal years, only such sums as 
        the Congress hereafter may authorize by law;
          [(3) such amounts as may be authorized for the 
        construction of demonstrations pursuant to section 7(f) 
        of this Act; and
          [(4) to the National Science Foundation for the 
        fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, not to exceed 
        $2,000,000 to be made available for use in the 
        preparation of the comprehensive program definition 
        under section 15.]
                              ----------                              


SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION ACT 
                                OF 1978

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, [That this 
Act may be cited as the ``Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, 
Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978''.

                          FINDINGS AND POLICY

          [Sec. 2.(a) The Congress hereby finds that--
          [(1) the United States of America is faced with a 
        finite and diminishing resource base of native fossil 
        fuels, and as a consequence must develop as quickly as 
        possible a diversified, pluralistic national energy 
        capability and posture;
          [(2) the current imbalance between supply and demand 
        for fuels and energy in the United States is likely to 
        grow for many years;
          [(3) the early demonstration of the feasibility of 
        using solar photovoltaic energy systems for the 
        generation of electricity could help to relieve the 
        demand on existing fuel and energy supplies;
          [(4) the national security and economic well-being of 
        the United States is endangered by its dependence on 
        imported energy supplies which are subject to resource 
        limitations, artificial pricing mechanisms which do not 
        accurately reflect supply and demand relationships, and 
        supply interruptions;
          [(5) the early development and widespread utilization 
        of photovoltaic energy systems could significantly 
        expand the domestic energy resource base of the United 
        States, thereby lessening its dependence on foreign 
        supplies;
          [(6) the establishment of sizable markets for 
        photovoltaic energy systems will justify private 
        investment in plant and equipment necessary to realize 
        the economies of scale, and will result in significant 
        reductions in the unit costs of these systems;
          [(7) the use of solar photovoltaic energy systems for 
        certain limited applications has already proved 
        feasible;
          [(8) there appear to be no insoluble technical 
        obstacles to the widespread commercial use of solar 
        photovoltaic energy technologies;
          [(9) an aggressive research and development program 
        should solve existing technical problems of solar 
        photovoltaic systems; and, supported by an assured and 
        growing market for photovoltaic systems during the next 
        decade, should maximize the future contribution of 
        solar photovoltaic energy to this Nation's future 
        energy production;
          [(10) it is the proper and appropriate role of the 
        Federal Government to undertake research, development, 
        and demonstration programs in solar photovoltaic energy 
        technologies and to supplement and assist private 
        industry and other entities and thereby the general 
        public, so as to hasten the general commercial use of 
        such technologies;
          [(11) the high cost of imported energy sources 
        impairs the economic growth of many nations which lack 
        sizable domestic energy supplies or are unable to 
        develop these resources;
          [(12) photovoltaic energy systems are economically 
        competitive with conventional energy resources for a 
        wide variety of applications in many foreign nations at 
        the present time, and will find additional applications 
        with continued cost reductions;
          [(13) the early development and export of solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems, consistent with the 
        established preeminence of the United States in the 
        field of high technology products, can make a valuable 
        contribution to the well-being of the people of other 
        nations and to this Nation's balance of trade;
          [(14) the widespread use of solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems to supplement and replace conventional methods 
        for the generation of electricity would have a 
        beneficial effect upon the environment;
          [(15) to increase the potential application of solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems in remote locations, and to 
        minimize the need for backup systems depending on 
        fossil fuel, programs leading to the development of 
        inexpensive and reliable systems for the storage of 
        electricity should be pursued as part of any solar 
        photovoltaic energy research, development, and 
        demonstration program;
          [(16) evaluation of the performance and reliability 
        of solar photovoltaic energy technologies can be 
        expedited by testing of prototypes under carefully 
        controlled conditions;
          [(17) commercial application of solar photovoltaic 
        energy technologies can be expedited by early 
        commercial demonstration under practical conditions;
          [(18) photovoltaic energy systems are currently 
        adaptable on a life cycle, cost-justified basis for 
        certain of the energy needs of the Federal Government, 
        and will find additional applications as continued 
        refinements improve performance and reduce unit costs;
          [(19) the Federal Government can stimulate innovation 
        and economic efficiency in the production of 
        photovoltaic energy systems through the development and 
        implementation of policies to promote diversity and 
        maximum competition between firms engaged in the 
        research, manufacture, installation, and/or maintenance 
        of these systems;
          [(20) innovation and creativity in the development of 
        solar photovoltaic energy components and systems can be 
        fostered through encouraging direct contact between the 
        manufacturers of such systems and the architects, 
        engineers, developers, contractors, and other persons 
        interested in utilizing such systems; and
          [(21) it is contemplated that the ten-year program 
        established by this Act will require the expenditure of 
        $1,500,000,000 by the Federal Government.
    [(b) It is therefore declared to be the policy of the 
United States and the purpose of this Act to establish during 
the next decade an aggressive research, development, and 
demonstration program involving solar photovoltaic energy 
systems and in the long term, to have as an objective the 
production of electricity from photovoltaic systems cost 
competitive with utility-generated electricity from 
conventional sources. Further, it is declared to be the policy 
of the United States and the purpose of this Act that the 
objectives of this research, development, and demonstration 
program are--
          [(1) to double the production of solar photovoltaic 
        energy systems each year during the decade starting 
        with fiscal year 1979, measured by the peak generating 
        capacity of the systems produced, so as to reach a 
        total annual United States production of solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems of approximately two 
        million peak kilowatts, and a total cumulative 
        production of such systems of approximately four 
        million peak kilowatts by fiscal year 1988;
          [(2) to reduce the average cost of installed solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems to $1 per peak watt by 
        fiscal year 1988; and
          [(3) to stimulate the purchase by private buyers of 
        at least 90 per centum of all solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems produced in the United States during fiscal 
        year 1988.

                              [DEFINITIONS

    [Sec. 3. For purposes of this Act--
          [(1) a ``solar photovoltaic energy system'' is a 
        system of components which generates electricity from 
        incident sunlight by means of the photovoltaic effect, 
        and which shall include all components, including 
        energy storage devices where appropriate, necessary to 
        provide electricity for individual, industrial, 
        agricultural, or governmental use;
          [(2) the term ``solar photovoltaic energy system'' 
        may be used interchangeably with the term 
        ``photovoltaic system'';
          [(3) a ``hybrid solar photovoltaic energy system'' is 
        a system of components that generates electricity from 
        incident sunlight by means of the photovoltaic effect 
        and, in conjunction with electronic and, if 
        appropriate, optical, thermal and storage devices, 
        provides electricity, as well as heat and/or light for 
        individual, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or 
        governmental use:
          [(4) ``photovoltaic effect'' refers to the physical 
        phenomenon exhibited under certain circumstances by 
        some materials in which a portion of the light energy 
        striking the material is directly converted to 
        electrical energy;
          [(5) ``facility'' means any building, agricultural, 
        commercial or industrial complex or other device 
        constructively employing photovoltaic systems; and
          [(6) ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of Energy.

[RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY 
                                SYSTEMS

    [Sec. 4. The Secretary is directed to establish immediately 
and carry forth such research, development, and demonstration 
programs as may be necessary to meet the objectives of this Act 
as set forth in section 2(b), and as a part of any such program 
shall--
          [(a) conduct, and promote the coordination and 
        acceleration of, research, development, and 
        demonstrations relating to solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems and components thereof, and
          [(b) conduct, and promote the coordination and 
        acceleration of, research, development, and 
        demonstrations for systems and components to be used in 
        applications that are dependent for their energy on 
        solar photovoltaic energy systems.
    [Sec. 5.(a) In carrying out the provisions of section (4), 
the Secretary is authorized--
          [(1) to establish procedures whereby any public or 
        private entity wishing to install solar photovoltaic 
        components and systems in any new or existing facility 
        may apply for Federal assistance in purchasing and 
        installing, in such facility, photovoltaic components 
        or systems;
          [(2) to select, as soon as he deems it feasible, a 
        number of the applicants under paragraph (1) and enter 
        into agreements with them for the design, purchase, 
        fabrication, testing, installation, and demonstration 
        of photovoltaic components and systems. Such selection 
        shall be based on the need to obtain scientific, 
        technological, and economic information from a variety 
        of such systems under a variety of circumstances and 
        conditions; and
          [(3) to arrange, as part of any agreement entered 
        into under paragraph (2), to provide up to 75 per 
        centum of the purchase and installation costs of 
        photovoltaic components or systems, taking into account 
        relevant considerations involving the relative stage of 
        consumer and industry interest and development at the 
        time of the financial assistance action. Such 
        arrangements shall be contingent upon terms and 
        conditions prescribed by the Secretary, including an 
        express agreement that the entity with whom the 
        agreement is entered into shall, in such manner and 
        form and on such terms and conditions as the Secretary 
        may prescribe, observe and monitor (or permit the 
        Secretary or his agents to observe and monitor) the 
        performance and operation of such system for a period 
        of five years, and that such entity (including any 
        subsequent owner of the property) shall regularly 
        furnish the Secretary with such reports thereon as the 
        agreement may require.
    [(b) The Secretary shall, as he deems appropriate, 
undertake any projects or activities (including demonstration 
projects) to further the attainment of the objectives of this 
section.
    [Sec. 6. (a) The Secretary is authorized to select on the 
basis of open competitions--
          [(1) a number of readily available photovoltaic 
        components and systems;
          [(2) a number of design concepts for various types of 
        applications which demonstrate adaptability to the 
        utilization of photovoltaic components and systems; and
          [(3) a number of designs for applications selected 
        under paragraph (2), so that each design includes 
        specific provisions for the utilization of solar 
        photovoltaic components and systems selected under 
        paragraph (1).
    [(b) The Secretary, in accordance with the applicable 
provisions of sections 7, 8, and 9 of the Federal Nonnuclear 
Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5901 et 
seq.) and with such program guidelines as the Secretary may 
establish, shall--
          [(1) enter into such contracts and grants as may be 
        necessary or appropriate for the development for 
        commercial production and utilization of photovoltaic 
        components and systems, including any further planning 
        and design which may be required to conform with the 
        specifications set forth in any applicable criteria;
          [(2) select, as being compatible with the design 
        concepts chosen under subsection (a) (2) of this 
        section, a reasonable number of photovoltaic components 
        and systems; and
          [(3) enter into contracts with a number of persons or 
        firms for the procurement of photovoltaic components 
        and systems, including adequate numbers of spare and 
        replacement parts for such systems.
    [(c) The Secretary is authorized to award contracts for the 
design integration between the application concepts and the 
photovoltaic systems procured by the Secretary under subsection 
(b) (3), and for the demonstration of prototype solar 
photovoltaic systems, and, when appropriate, for the 
utilization of such systems in existing facilities. Title to 
and ownership of the facilities so constructed and of 
photovoltaic systems installed hereunder may be conveyed to 
purchasers of such facilities under terms and conditions 
prescribed by the Secretary, including an express agreement 
that ally such purchaser shall, in such manner and form and on 
such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, 
observe and monitor (or permit the Secretary to observe and 
monitor) the performance and operation of such systems for a 
period of five years, and that such purchaser (including any 
subsequent owner) shall regularly furnish the Secretary with 
such reports thereon as the agreement may require.
    [(d) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator 
of General Services or the Secretary of Defense or both (as may 
be appropriate) shall enter into arrangements with appropriate 
Federal agencies concurrently with the conduct of the programs 
under this section and section 7 of this Act, to carry out such 
projects and activities (including demonstration projects), 
with respect to Federal buildings and facilities, as may be 
appropriate for the demonstration of photovoltaic systems 
suitable and effective for use in such applications.
    [(e) The Secretary shall, as he deems appropriate, 
undertake any projects or activities (including demonstration 
projects) to further the attainment of the objectives of this 
section.

               [TEST PROCEDURES AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

    [Sec. 7. (a) The Secretary shall conduct a testing program 
for photovoltaic systems to assist in the development and 
demonstration of prototype photovoltaic systems, including 
collectors, controls, power conditioning, and energy storage 
systems.
    [(b) Data obtained from the testing program under 
subsection (a) shall be evaluated and used in establishing 
performance criteria. These performance criteria shall be used 
in the demonstration program described in sections 4, 5, and 6 
of this Act.
    [(c) The Secretary shall determine, prescribe, and publish 
in the Federal Register, at a time which he determines to be 
feasible and justified--
          [(1) performance criteria for photovoltaic components 
        and systems to be used in appropriate applications, and 
        procedures whereby manufacturers of photovoltaic 
        components and systems shall have their products tested 
        in order to provide certification that such products 
        conform to the performance criteria established under 
        this paragraph; and
          [(2) revised performance criteria for photovoltaic 
        components and systems to be used in appropriate 
        applications, and procedures whereby manufacturers of 
        photovoltaic components and systems shall have their 
        products tested in order to provide certification that 
        such products conform to the performance criteria 
        established under this paragraph. Such criteria may be 
        annually revised by the Secretary, as he deems 
        appropriate.
    [(d) Any photovoltaic component or system procured or 
installed by the Federal Government or procured or installed 
with Federal assistance under section (5) or section (6) shall 
meet appropriate performance criteria prescribed under this 
section, if such performance criteria have been prescribed.

                 [COORDINATION MONITORING, AND LIAISON

    [Sec. 8. (a) The Secretary, in coordination with such 
Government agencies as may be appropriate, shall--
          [(1) monitor the performance and operation of 
        photovoltaic systems installed under this Act;
          [(2) collect and evaluate data and information on the 
        performance and operation of photovoltaic systems 
        installed under this Act; and
          [(3) from time to time carry out such studies and 
        investigations and take such other actions, including 
        the submission of special reports to the Congress when 
        appropriate, as may be necessary to assure that the 
        programs for which the Secretary is responsible under 
        this Act effectively carry out the policy of this Act.
    [(b) In the development of the performance criteria and 
test procedures required under section 7 of this Act, the 
Secretary shall work closely with the appropriate scientific, 
technical, and professional societies and industry 
representatives in order to assure the best possible use of 
available expertise in this area.
    [(c) The Secretary shall also maintain continuing liaison 
with related industries and interests, and with the scientific 
and technical community, during and after the period of the 
programs carried out under this Act, in order to assure that 
the projected benefits of such programs are and will continue 
to be realized.

             [SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    [Sec. 9. (a) There is hereby established a Solar 
Photovoltaic Energy Advisory Committee, which shall study and 
advise the Secretary on--
          [(1) the scope and pace of research and development 
        with respect to solar photovoltaic energy systems;
          [(2) the need for and timing of solar photovoltaic 
        energy systems demonstration projects;
          [(3) the need for change in any research, 
        development, or demonstration program established under 
        this Act; and
          [(4) the economic, technological, and environmental 
        consequences of the use of solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems.
    [(b) The Committee shall be composed of thirteen members, 
including eleven members appointed by the Secretary from 
industrial organizations, academic institutions, professional 
societies or institutions, and other sources as he sees fit, 
and two members of the public appointed by the President. The 
Chairman of the Committee shall be elected from among the 
members thereof.
    [(c) The heads of the departments, agencies, and 
instrumentalities of the executive branch of the Federal 
Government shall cooperate with the Committee in carrying out 
the requirements of this section, and shall furnish to the 
Committee such information as the Committee deems necessary to 
carry out this section.
    [(d) Section 624 of the Department of Energy Organization 
shall be applicable to the Committee, except as inconsistent 
with this section.

[DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND OTHER ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE PRACTICAL 
                 USE OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES

    [Sec. 10 (a) The Secretary shall take all possible steps to 
assure that full and complete information with respect to the 
demonstrations and other activities conducted under this Act is 
made available to Federal, State, and local authorities, 
relevant segments of the economy, the scientific and technical 
community, and the public at large, both during and after the 
close of the programs under this Act, with the objective of 
promoting and facilitating to the maximum extent feasible the 
early and widespread practical use of photovoltaic energy 
throughout the United States. Any trade secret or other 
proprietary information shall be exempted from such mandatory 
disclosure, as otherwise specified in law applicable to 
research, development and demonstration programs of the 
Department of Energy, including, but not limited to, section 17 
of the Federal Non-Nuclear Energy Research and Development Act 
of 1974, Public Law 93-577, as amended.
    [(b) The Secretary shall--
          [(1) study the effect of the widespread utilization 
        of photovoltaic systems on the existing electric 
        utility system at varying levels of photovoltaic 
        contribution to the system;
          [(2) study and investigate the effect of utility rate 
        structures, building codes, zoning ordinances, and 
        other laws, codes, ordinances, and practices upon the 
        practical use of photovoltaic systems;
          [(3) determine the extent to which such laws, codes, 
        ordinances, arid practices should be changed to permit 
        or facilitate such use and the methods by which any 
        such changes may best be accomplished; and
          [(4) determine the necessity of a program of 
        incentives to accelerate the commercial application of 
        photovoltaic technologies.
    [(c) The Secretary is authorized and directed, within one 
year of the date of enactment of this Act, to make 
recommendations to the President and to the Congress for 
Federal policies relating to barriers to the early and 
widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems in order to 
realize the goals set forth in section 2. These recommendations 
shall include but not be limited to--
          [(1) the potential for integration of electricity 
        derived from photovoltaic energy systems into the 
        existing national grid system, including the potential 
        of photovoltaic-generated electricity to meet the peak-
        load energy needs of electric utilities, load 
        management and reliability implications of the 
        utilization of photovoltaic electricity by utilities, 
        the implications of utility ownership of photovoltaic 
        components leased to others primarily for decentralized 
        applications, the impacts of utility use of electricity 
        derived from photovoltaic energy systems on utility 
        rate structures, and the potential for reducing or 
        obviating the need for energy storage components for 
        photovoltaic energy systems through utility interface;
          [(2) the extent of competition between firms 
        currently engaged in the fabrication and installation 
        of photovoltaics components and systems as it affects 
        the character and growth potential of the American 
        photovoltaics industry, and the likelihood that small 
        photovoltaic firms will have reasonable opportunities 
        to compete and participate in the various programs 
        authorized by this Act;
          [(3) the need to identify legal alternatives to 
        ensure access to direct sunlight for photovoltaic 
        energy systems, the appropriate methods of encouraging 
        the adoption of such alternatives, and the implications 
        of widespread utilization of photovoltaic energy 
        systems for land use and urban development;
          [(4) the availability of private capital at 
        reasonable interest rates for individuals, businesses 
        and others desiring to establish commercial enterprises 
        to manufacture, market, install, and/or, maintain 
        photovoltaic components and systems, or purchase and 
        install such systems for private, industrial, 
        agricultural, commercial or other uses;
          [(5) the need for industry-wide warranty and 
        reliability standards for photovoltaic energy 
        components and systems for private sector applications, 
        and, if appropriate, the mechanisms for establishing 
        such standards; and
          [(6) the attainability of the goals specified in 
        subsection 2(b), and any modification of such goals 
        which the Secretary proposes for consideration by 
        Congress, with supporting analyses.
    [(d) In carrying out his functions under this section, the 
Secretary shall consult with the appropriate government 
agencies, industry representatives, and members of the 
scientific and technical community having expertise and 
interest in this area. The Secretary also shall ensure that any 
study or report prepared pursuant to this section is fully 
coordinated with and reflective of any analyses or reports 
prepared pursuant to the requirements in section 208 of the 
Department of Energy Act of 1978--Civilian Applications, Public 
Law 95-238, and in the President's Solar Energy Domestic Policy 
Review. The Secretary, as appropriate, may merge any continuing 
or on-going studies under section 208 or the Domestic Policy 
Review with those required by this section or avoid any 
unnecessary duplication of effort or funding. The separate 
report requirements of section 208 and this section, however, 
shall remain in force.

              [INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION AND COOPERATION

    [Sec. 11. (a) Within one year after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary, in consultation with the 
Secretary of State, the Administrator of the Agency for 
International Development, the Director of the Export/Import 
Bank and other appropriate Federal officials, shall submit to 
the House Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate 
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources a plan for 
demonstrating applications of solar photovoltaic energy systems 
and facilitating their widespread use in other nations, 
especially those with agreements for scientific cooperation 
with the United States.
    [(b) The Secretary is authorized to encourage, to the 
maximum ent practicable, international participation and 
cooperation in the development and maintenance of programs 
established under this plan. The Secretary, in consultation and 
cooperation with the Federal officials specified in subsection 
(a), shall insure to the maximum extent possible that the plan 
submitted under subsection (a) and any other international 
activities under this section are consistent with and 
reflective of any similar activities or requirements under any 
other Federal statute, specifically including any of the 
several programs under other agencies and Departments involving 
United States international cooperation and assistance in 
nonnuclear energy technology, and will not duplicate activities 
under such programs. The plan required in subsection (a) shall 
specifically identify all such programs and statutes and 
describe how the activities under this section will be 
consistent with such programs, will be coordinated with them, 
and will avoid duplication of activities under such programs.

            [ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF SMALL BUSINESS

    [Sec. 12. In carrying out his functions under this Act, the 
Secretary shall take steps to assure that small-business 
concerns will have realis tic and adequate opportunities to 
participate in the programs under this Act to the maximum 
extent practicable, and the Secretary is directed to set aside 
at least 10 per centum of the funds authorized and appropriated 
for the participation of small business concerns.

                              [PRIORITIES

    [Sec. 13. The Secretary shall set priorities, as far as 
possible consistent with the intent and operation of this Act, 
in accordance with the following criteria:
    [(1) The applications utilizing photovoltaic systems which 
will be part of the research, development, and demonstration 
program and testing and demonstration programs referred to in 
sections 4, 5, 6, and 7 shall be located in a sufficient number 
of different geographic areas in the United States to assure a 
realistic and effective demonstration of the use of 
photovoltaic systems and of the applications themselves, in 
both rural and urban locations and under climatic conditions 
which vary as much as possible.
    [(2) The projected costs of commercial production and 
maintenance of the photovoltaic systems utilized in the testing 
and demonstration programs established under this Act should be 
taken into account.
    [(3) Encouragement should be given in the conduct of 
programs under this Act to those projects in which funds are 
appropriated by any State or political subdivision thereof for 
the purpose of sharing costs with the Federal Government for 
the purchase and installation of photovoltaic components and 
systems.
    [Sec. 14. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to negate, 
duplicate, or otherwise affect the provisions of title V 
(Federal Initiatives), part 4 (Federal Photovoltaic 
Utilization), National Energy Conservation Policy Act, H.R. 
5037, 95th Congress, if and when that Act becomes enacted by 
the Ninety-fifth Congress, and such part 4 shall be exempted 
fully from the provisions of this Act and any regulations, 
guidelines, or criteria pursuant thereto.

                    [AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    [Sec. 15. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated to 
the Secretary, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979, 
$125,000,000, inclusive of any funds otherwise authorized for 
photovoltaic programs, (1) to carry out the functions vested in 
the Secretary by this Act, (2) to carry out the functions in 
fiscal year 1979, vested in the Secretary by part 4 of title V 
of H.R. 5037, 95th Congress, if enacted by the 95th Congress, 
and (3) for transfer to such other agencies of the Federal 
Government as may be required to enable them to carry out their 
respective functions under this Act. Funds appropriated 
pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended: 
Provided, That any contract or agreement entered into pursuant 
to this Act shall be effective only to such extent or in such 
amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts. 
Authorizations of appropriations for fiscal years after fiscal 
year 1979 shall be contained in the annual authorization for 
the Department of Energy, except for those funds authorized for 
fiscal years 1980 and 1981 contained in part 4 of title V of 
H.R. 5037, Ninety-fifth Congress, if enacted by the Ninety-
fifth Congress.]
                              ----------                              


SECTION 4 OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY COMPETITIVENESS 
                              ACT OF 1989


SEC. 4. NATIONAL GOALS AND MULTI-YEAR FUNDING FOR FEDERAL WIND, 
                    PHOTOVOLTAICS, AND SOLAR THERMAL PROGRAMS.

  (a) National Goals.--The following are declared to be the 
national goals for the wind, photovoltaics, and solar thermal 
energy programs being carried out by the Secretary:
          (1) * * *
          [(2) Photovoltaics.--(A) In general, the goals of the 
        Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program shall include 
        improving the reliability and conversion efficiencies 
        of and lowering the costs of photovoltaic conversion. 
        Research efforts shall emphasize advancements in the 
        performance, stability, and durability of photovoltaic 
        materials.
          [(B) Specific goals of the Photovoltaic Energy 
        Systems Program shall be to--
                  [(i) improve operational reliability of 
                photovoltaic modules to 30 years by 1995;
                  [(ii) increase photovoltaic conversion 
                efficiencies by 20 percent by 1995;
                  [(iii) decrease new photovoltaic module 
                direct manufacturing costs to $800 per kilowatt 
                by 1995; and
                  [(iv) increase cost efficiency of 
                photovoltaic power production to 10 cents per 
                kilowatt hour by 1995.
          [(3) Solar thermal.--(A) In general, the goal of the 
        Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program shall be to 
        advance research and development to a point where solar 
        thermal technology is cost-competitive with 
        conventional energy sources, and to promote the 
        integration of this technology into the production of 
        industrial process heat and the conventional utility 
        network. Research and development shall emphasize 
        development of a thermal storage technology to provide 
        capacity for shifting power to periods of demand when 
        full insolation is not available; improvement in 
        receivers, energy conversion devices, and innovative 
        concentrators using stretch membranes, lenses, and 
        other materials; and exploration of advanced 
        manufacturing techniques.
          [(B) Specific goals of the Solar Thermal Energy 
        Systems Program shall be to--
                  [(i) reduce solar thermal costs for 
                industrial process heat to $9.00 per million 
                Btu by 1995; and
                  [(ii) reduce average solar thermal costs for 
                electricity to 4 to 5 cents per kilowatt hour 
                by 1995.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                     XX. Committee Recommendations

    On October 7, 2009, the Committee on Science and Technology 
by voice vote favorably reported the bill, H.R. 3585, as 
amended, to the House with the recommendation that the bill, as 
amended, do pass.


   XXI: PROCEEDINGS OF THE MARKUP BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND 
         ENVIRONMENT ON H.R. 3585, SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ACT

                              ----------                              


                     WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 2009

                  House of Representatives,
            Subcommittee on Energy and Environment,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:00 a.m., in 
Room 2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Brian 
Baird [Chairman of the Subcommittee] presiding.
    Chairman Baird. Good morning. The Subcommittee will now 
come to order.
    Pursuant to notice, the Subcommittee on Energy and 
Environment meets to consider the following measures: H.R. 
3650, the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control 
Amendments Act of 2009; H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap 
Act; and H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water Research Integration 
Act. Today we will consider these there bills that cover a wide 
range of topics in this subcommittee's purview.
    First, the Subcommittee will consider my bill, H.R. 3650, 
the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control 
Amendments Act of 2009. As we heard in this subcommittee two 
weeks ago, rapid overproduction of algae can have devastating 
effects on aquatic plant and animal life and human health. 
Unfortunately, despite years of research, the frequency and 
duration of the harmful algal blooms and hypoxia are on the 
rise, and affecting more of our coastlines and inland waters. 
This bill directs the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration to implement research strategies and plans to 
better understand and respond to these blooms and hypoxic 
events. I look forward to discussing the bill more when we call 
it up for consideration.
    Our third bill will be H.R. 3585. We are changing the order 
slightly in order for Chairman Gordon to make an Energy and 
Commerce markup, so our third bill will be H.R. 3585, the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Act, authored by the Space and Aeronautics 
Subcommittee Chair, Ms. Gabrielle Giffords. This bill instructs 
the Department of Energy to create a comprehensive and 
updatable roadmap for solar research, development and 
demonstration activities with strong private and public input. 
This roadmap will be critically important to using our limited 
research dollars as effectively as possible in harnessing the 
truly immense solar resources we have in the U.S.
    Then our second bill will be H.R. 3598, the Energy and 
Water Research Integration Act, authored by the Full Committee 
Chairman, Mr. Bart Gordon. A little over a year ago, the 
Chairman began a comprehensive review of our federal research 
and technology development efforts to improve utilization of 
our precious water resources. The Committee has since held five 
hearings and passed out of the House three bills pertaining to 
this important topic. We now look forward to hearing from 
Chairman Gordon on this next installment, which addresses the 
critical linkage between our nation's energy and water 
resources and directs the Department of Energy to better 
integrate water into existing federal efforts in this field.
    The three bills we have before us today target several 
important research needs. I thank you all for your attendance 
and participation this morning, and I look forward to a 
productive markup.
    I recognize Mr. Inglis to present his opening remarks.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Baird follows:]
               Prepared Statement of Chairman Brian Baird
    I welcome everyone to this morning's Energy and Environment 
Subcommittee markup.
    Today we will consider three bills that cover a wide range of 
topics in this subcommittee's purview.
    First, the Subcommittee will consider my bill, H.R. 3650, the 
Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 
2009. As we heard in this subcommittee two weeks ago, rapid 
overproduction of algae can have devastating effects on aquatic plant 
and animal life and human health.
    Unfortunately, despite years of research, the frequency and 
duration of the harmful algal blooms and hypoxia are on the rise, and 
affecting more of our coastlines and inland waters. This bill directs 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to implement 
research strategies and plans to better understand and respond to these 
blooms and hypoxic events. I look forward to discussing the bill more 
when we bring it up for consideration.
    Next, we will consider H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap Act, 
authored by the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Chair, Ms. Gabrielle 
Giffords. This bill instructs the Department of Energy to create a 
comprehensive, updatable roadmap for solar research, development, and 
demonstration activities with strong private and public input.
    This roadmap will be critically important to using our, limited 
research dollars as effectively as possible in harnessing the truly 
immense solar resources we have in the U.S.
    Finally, we will take up H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water Research 
Integration Act, authored by the Full Committee Chairman, Mr. Bart 
Gordon. In the last Congress the Chairman announced his intention to 
undertake a comprehensive review of our federal research and technology 
development efforts to improve utilization of our precious water 
resources. We have since held five hearings and passed out of the House 
three bills pertaining to this important topic.
    We now look forward to hearing from Chairman Gordon on this next 
installment which addresses the critical linkage between our nation's 
energy and water resources, and directs the Department of Energy to 
better integrate water into existing federal efforts in this field.
    The three bills we have before us today target several important 
research needs. I thank you all for your attendance and participation 
this morning, and I look forward to a productive markup.

    Mr. Inglis. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Today we address three 
pieces of legislation that aim to improve the health of our 
environment, our investment in solar energy and impact of 
energy use and development on water resources.
    The first bill we will look at is the Harmful Algal Bloom 
and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 2009. It 
will advance efforts at the federal level to reduce the 
negative impact that algal blooms have on the environment. 
Every summer we hear stories about the impact of runaway algae 
growth on local air quality, animal deaths and environmental 
quality. Not only do these blooms impact recreation, they 
burden marine, commerce and human health. This legislation will 
promote a better understanding of algal blooms and will help us 
effectively prevent and respond to blooms and hypoxia.
    Second, we will discuss the Solar Technology Roadmap Act. 
This bill aims to increase the strength of our domestic solar 
technology industry through a coordinated research and 
development program and public-private partnerships. It also 
requires industry, academia and government researchers to 
develop a long-term roadmap that will advance our clean energy 
alternatives. I hope we can ensure the roadmap is not focused 
on technology options we are already aware of but also 
emphasizes cutting-edge advancements that will define the 
future of solar power.
    Finally, we turn to the Energy and Water Research 
Integration Act, which directs the Department of Energy to take 
into consideration energy-related water issues in research, 
development and demonstration projects. While I agree with the 
intent of the bill, I am concerned that this only reframes 
existing DOE priorities and ignores the large role that water 
resource information should play. I am looking forward to 
working together to improve the bill.
    Thank you again, Mr. Chairman, and I look forward to 
addressing this legislation.
    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Mr. Inglis. Members may place 
statements for the record at this point.
    We will now--I appreciate the patience of the gentlelady 
from Arizona. We will now consider H.R. 3585, the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Act. I recognize Ms. Giffords to speak about 
her bill.
    Ms. Giffords. Great. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Thank you, 
Ranking Member Inglis.
    The United States has some of the best solar resources of 
any industrialized country in the world. Not just the State of 
Arizona but every single one of our states has incredible solar 
potential. This resource is just waiting to be tapped. 
Supporting an American solar industry is a smart decision for 
many reasons. The solar industry is already a source of 
thousands of good jobs and has the potential to create 
thousands more. Solar power strengthens our national security 
by reducing our demand for foreign energy and distributed solar 
increases the security of our electricity grid and decreases 
the cost and transmission. Finally, solar can help meet our 
increasing energy demands with a clean, renewable energy 
resource.
    The United States is currently a leader in solar technology 
development but other countries are devoting much more effort 
and attention to this field. Consequently, United States 
competitiveness in this burgeoning industry is truly in 
jeopardy. There have been several recent articles in many 
newspapers, many reports that have highlighted the fast growth 
of the solar industry in China and other places, Europe, of 
course. Whether it is the IMEC in Belgium or the Fraunhofer 
Institute in Germany, collaborative research in solar 
technology is gaining support abroad.
    Back in July, this committee heard testimony outlining the 
history of thin film solar technologies that have created two 
of the most successful solar companies in the world, First 
Solar and Uni-Solar. These companies are technology leaders and 
the research that led to their technology was largely a result 
of research grants being given by the Department of Energy. We 
invented this technology but we are going to have to work a lot 
harder if we are going to retain our leadership, and this is 
the essence of this bill.
    In the early 1980s, the global competitive landscape for 
semiconductors was similar to the landscape for solar 
technology today. By increasing communication between the 
diverse members of the supply chain, the United States 
semiconductor industry was able to develop standards and avoid 
duplication in research efforts. Through organized coordination 
efforts and an increased focus on developing manufacturing 
technologies, the United States gave rise to semiconductor 
giants like Intel and AMD. As a result of these coordinated R&D; 
efforts, the United States continues to lead the world in 
semiconductor development.
    Today, solar researchers in the United States are in a 
similar situation. To maintain a competitive advantage, they 
must come together to meet their common pre-competitive goals 
whether in simulation, developing new materials, energy 
storage, power and grid manufacturing, mounting or even weather 
forecasting. This bill would require the Department of Energy 
to learn from the roadmap laid out in the 1980s in the 
semiconductor industry to engage diverse stakeholders now in 
the solar community and work across programs to create a 
comprehensive plan, a roadmap to guide funding for the research 
needed to make the United States the global center for 
innovation.
    This bill aims to make DOE responsive to the solar industry 
and to encourage increased collaboration and communication 
across technologies. To Mr. Inglis's question, this bill is 
agnostic toward any specific type of technology. What this bill 
would do would connect research from early stage all the way 
through deployment, supporting research in areas that benefit 
the solar industry as a whole and shepherding new technologies 
through the valley of death. This will help the United States 
retain its position as a leader in solar technology.
    Mr. Chairman, Ranking Member Inglis, we have an opportunity 
to be the leading developer and exporter of clean solar 
technologies in the coming years and decades. This technology 
is fantastic not just for Arizona but for all of our states. I 
want us to be able to look back 10 years from now and know that 
here in this subcommittee we started the roadmap plan for solar 
that will truly lead to the advancement of this incredible 
technology, and I urge my colleagues to support this bill.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Giffords follows:]
        Prepared Statement of Representative Gabrielle Giffords
    Thank you Mr. Chairman.
    The United States has some of the best solar resources of any 
industrialized country in the world. Our solar resource is a tremendous 
opportunity that is just waiting to be tapped.
    Supporting an American Solar industry is a smart decision for many 
reasons. The solar industry is already a source of thousands of good 
jobs and has the potential to create thousands more. Solar power 
strengthens our national security by reducing our demand for foreign 
energy, and distributed solar increases the security of our electricity 
grid and decreases the cost transmission. Finally, solar can help us 
meet our increasing energy demands with a clean, renewable resource.
    The U.S. is currently a leader in solar technology development; but 
other countries are devoting much more effort and attention to this 
field. Consequently, U.S. competitiveness in this burgeoning industry 
is in jeopardy.
    Several recent articles in the New York Times have highlighted the 
fast growth of the solar industry in China and across Europe. Whether 
it is the IMEC in Belgium or the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany, 
collaborative research in solar technology is gaining support abroad.
    Back in July, this committee heard testimony outlining the history 
of thin-film solar technologies that have created two of the most 
successful solar companies in the world: First Solar and Unisolar. 
These companies are technology leaders, and they got their start with 
the support of DOE research. The research that led to these 
technologies, and current research that can drive down the cost of 
manufacturing them, is largely the result of research grants from our 
Department of Energy.
    We invented this technology, but we must continue to work hard to 
retain our leadership. That is the essence of my bill.
    In the early 1980's the global competitive landscape for 
semiconductors was similar to the landscape for solar today. By 
increasing communication between the diverse members of the 
semiconductor supply chain, the U.S. industry was able to develop 
standards and avoid the duplication of research efforts. Through 
organized coordination efforts and an increased focus on developing 
manufacturing technologies, the U.S. gave rise to semiconductor giants 
like Intel and AMD. The result of these coordinated R&D; efforts was 
that the U.S. continued to lead the world in semiconductor development.
    Today, solar researchers in the U.S. find themselves in a similar 
situation. To maintain a competitive advantage they must come together 
to meet their common, pre-competitive goals--whether in simulation, 
developing new materials, energy storage, power and grid management, 
mounting, or even weather forecasting.
    This bill asks the Department of Energy to engage stakeholders and 
work across programs to create a comprehensive plan--a roadmap--to 
guide funding for the research needed to make the U.S. the global 
center for Solar innovation. It aims to make DOE responsive to the 
solar industry, and to encourage increased collaboration and 
communication across technologies. Connecting research from early stage 
all the way through to deployment, supporting research in areas that 
benefit the solar industry as a whole and shepherd promising 
technologies through the ``Valley of Death'' will help the U.S. retain 
its position as a leader in solar technology.
    The U.S. has an opportunity to be the leading developer and 
exporter of clean solar technologies in the coming years and decades. 
My bill is designed to advance that goal and I urge my colleagues to 
support it.

    Chairman Baird. Ms. Giffords, thank you for your eloquent 
remarks and your leadership on this issue, which as you said so 
well, obviously your state is very influenced by this but it 
affects the entire Nation and it would be a real tragedy if the 
United States lost its leading role, and there is a real 
possibility that that will happen with many other nations 
making very vigorous commitments. I applaud you for this bill.
    I now recognize Mr. Inglis to present any remarks.
    Mr. Inglis. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Interest in new solar projects is booming right now though 
our domestic manufacturing capabilities are lagging behind 
international trading partners. This bill seeks to change that 
through an energized research program and a roadmap that will 
direct research and development according to specific near, mid 
and long-term goals. This roadmap should leave room for the 
unforeseeable opportunities that may come up at DOE or as DOE, 
academia and the private sector continue investing in solar 
research.
    It may also be necessary to reconsider the authorization 
levels included in this bill as they are considerably above the 
current base budget for solar power.
    I would like to applaud Ms. Giffords for her dedication to 
make the United States a leadership in solar power and solar 
technologies and look forward to discussing this bill further.
            Prepared Statement of Representative Bob Inglis
    Interest in new solar projects is booming right now, though our 
domestic manufacturing capabilities are lagging behind international 
trading partners. This bill seeks to change that through an energized 
research program and a Roadmap that will direct research and 
development according to specific near-, mid-, and long-term goals. 
This roadmap should leave room for the unforeseeable opportunities that 
may come up as DOE, academia, and the private sector continue investing 
in solar research. It may also be necessary to reconsider the 
authorization levels included in this bill, as they are considerably 
above the current base budget for solar power.
    I'd like to applaud Ms. Giffords for her dedication to making the 
United States a leader in solar power and solar technologies.

    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Mr. Inglis.
    Are there others who wish to be recognized?
    Dr. Ehlers.
    Mr. Ehlers. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. During the energy 
situation we have had in the past few years and the future 
projections, more and more people talk about the need for 
alternative sources of energy. We talk about it a lot too and 
we try to do something about it, but I think we are missing the 
point on a couple of things. I am amazed at the number of 
things that the Federal Government has decided should be 
supported with tax credits or some other means of support. For 
example, I see in the paper every day, put better windows in 
your house, the Federal Government will pay you $1,500 and 
things like that. I wish we would be as serious about 
alternative energy sources, and solar energy has the potential 
of being most useful when it is widely dispersed. In other 
words, I am very skeptical about the big solar farms that 
people talk about building. That is very expensive and the 
amount of energy you get is going to be quite costly, but if 
you get people--if we develop solar shingles or if we get 
people to put solar panels on their houses, it is directly 
attached to the devices that are going to use the energy and 
this is certainly better than some of the subsidies that we are 
giving now for things that are not going to have as much 
payoff. So it really devolves to a question, and I am sorry I 
haven't had time to study your bill, Congresswoman Giffords, 
but to what extent does this bill also include incentives for 
individuals to put solar devices on their buildings, their 
houses, their offices? To what extent does it support 
manufacturers who are trying to develop new solar technologies 
and are doing research and development on it and trying to sell 
them to individuals? I yield to you.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Ehlers. What this bill would 
do--and I spoke earlier about the semiconductor industry in the 
1980s--it lays out a roadmap so ramping up over a course of 
years at 75 percent of DOE's funding towards any solar 
technology would have to comply with the roadmap commission's 
decisions and the members will serve three years and they will 
cycle off to allow for new people to come on to the commission. 
It directs the DOE to conduct a research, development and 
demonstration program for solar technologies which would 
include all the technologies from CSP to photovoltaics to hot 
water to solar space heating and cooling, lighting, 
manufacturing and integration for solar technologies in 
buildings, and then it would award grants where they are 
merited. What we have seen in the past is that DOE has focused 
on DOE, and we want it to be more competitive. So the grants 
can be awarded to academic institutions, the national labs, 
federal research agencies, state research agencies, non-
profits, industrial entities and consortia thereof. So it 
really is a funding mechanism based on where we should be going 
nationally, and we learned so much through the semiconductor 
process that again to be reinventing the wheel and to have 
these companies not collaborating and coordinating sets them 
behind. So we don't specifically look at any specific type of 
technology. The roadmap is created through this, you know, 
multi-member commission to look at all types of research that 
is available and then grants are awarded, you know, 75 percent 
ramping up to 75 percent of DOE's solar research funding. It 
won't just be a hodgepodge. It will actually go through this 
process and allow for better collaboration and coordination.
    Chairman Gordon. Would the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Ehlers. Yes, I yield, and then I want to respond.
    Chairman Gordon. I think the purpose of this legislation is 
to develop the research so that those products will be 
available, the shingles, as Mr. Rohrabacher points out, with 
nano and solar combined in paint, you can even, you know, paint 
it on your house. And so this will make those products 
available. It will probably be up to the Ways and Means 
Committee to provide the tax incentives to allow the products 
to be integrated on a large-scale basis. I yield back. Thank 
you.
    Mr. Ehlers. And I thank both you for your comments. My 
point is simply that we have done a lot of research. There is a 
lot of research going on. I encourage that and I certainly 
support what you are trying to do. But my point is simply that 
if the Federal Government is giving tax credits to people to 
put in new furnaces, to put in new windows, et cetera, we as a 
Congress should start thinking seriously about if we are going 
to do that, we should also be supporting alternative forms of 
energy which may be a more efficient way of getting the money 
out there and using the money rather than just giving tax 
credits for things which may or may not be good, may or may not 
be necessary.
    I had the people who installed my furnace 10 years ago talk 
to me and say hey, we have got this tax credit now, you really 
should put in a new furnace. I said well, I don't really need 
it--well, it doesn't matter, you can get $1,500 now so I 
encourage you to do it before it wears out. Well, I hope I have 
at least another 10, 15 years of that furnace. So my point is 
simply we ought to be talking about and working with our 
colleagues on sharing the wisdom of this committee on what tax 
credits make sense and which ones don't, and I recognize it is 
the Ways and Means' jurisdiction but I think they could benefit 
from some scientific assistance as well. I yield back.
    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Dr. Ehlers.
    Dr. Bartlett, another scientist who will offer his wisdom.
    Mr. Bartlett. I would like to echo what Dr. Ehlers has 
said. Before this recession, oil was $150 a barrel. The IEA and 
the EIA had both noted that world oil production had been flat 
for the last three years and of course with a flat oil 
production and increasing demands, that is why oil was $150 a 
barrel. Now we have had this recession which has bought us some 
time. There is an old saying, it is an ill wind that blows no 
good, and one of the few benefits of this recession is that it 
has bought us some time where we could have aggressively 
pursued the development of alternatives. Except for what this 
committee has done, I see little evidence that our country has 
paid any attention to the necessity of aggressively pursuing 
alternative energy because the sad fact is that unless we do 
that, the world never, ever again will have sustained good 
times because as soon as the world's economies come back, the 
demand for oil will go up. It will be $150, $200, $250 a barrel 
and that will squelch the economy again. So kudos to this 
committee and sadly, I note that our country has taken and the 
world has little advantage of the time that has been bought by 
this recession, so thank you very much for what you are doing 
here.
    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Dr. Bartlett. Are there others 
wishing to comment on the bill?
    Mr. Tonko. Just briefly. I would like to compliment the 
sponsor of the bill. I think that we in this country need to 
make solar a legacy piece, especially in light of the 
opportunities that have been showcased in other countries where 
they are dealing with solar hot water, their concepts in 
Germany where they are relying more and more on solar power, 
and in this Nation there are many regions of the country that 
have more solar power hours than some of these already emerging 
nations and so I think the investment in R&D; allows us to shave 
some of the priceyness off of the option and allows us to 
take--if cap-and-trade legislation were signed into law, would 
allow us to take much of those resources and piggyback them 
with this legislative idea and the initiatives there can be 
very, very strong and powerful in talking about the direction 
this country needs to go and the impact that it needs to make. 
Cap-and-trade legislation coupled with Ms. Giffords' 
legislation would be a powerful statement and so I applaud the 
sponsor.
    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Mr. Tonko. Are there any other 
comments?
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Chairman, I would just like to respond to 
a couple of things very briefly----
    Chairman Baird. The gentlelady is recognized.
    Ms. Giffords.--to respond to Mr. Bartlett. Mr. Bartlett, 
before I got to the Congress, I used to always talk about 
alternative energy just like you talked about, and, you know, I 
have noticed that I had a constituent that approached me and 
said you know what, solar and wind and these other types of 
energy, you know, when you call it alternative, people think 
that it is not serious energy. So I really tried to correct 
myself and referred to them as renewable energy or clean energy 
because when people still have this belief out there that it is 
an alternative, that it is some sort of fringe type of energy, 
they don't take the technology as serious. You know, other 
countries have moved ahead and they are powering extraordinary 
amounts of their economy and their innovation and looking at 
their security. We are not there yet. Obviously with the 
leadership of this committee I think we will get there. But, 
you know, I always try to catch myself, and words matter.
    The second thing, and I wanted Mr. Ehlers to know as well 
that part of this bill has a photovoltaic performance study 
that the DOE will actually publish and we are making sure that 
it is published on the Internet so that everyone has access to 
it, not just Members of Congress or it is not going to be just 
thrown in a drawer somewhere, but best practices to improve 
performance of photovoltaic installations, federal, State and 
local incentives as well as to enhance system performance, so 
we are going to make all of this work that comes out of the 
roadmap as accessible to everyone as possible because that is 
the way that folks that aren't close to Washington or aren't 
close to a DOE lab will be able to benefit from the work that 
is done by the Roadmap Committee members.
    And finally, I just want Members to know that we have done 
a lot of work and staff has been great on both sides to make 
sure that Department of Energy has had their full involvement 
with the crafting of this legislation. We have had the private 
sector, all different types of solar companies, manufacturing 
from CSP to photovoltaics involved in the drafting of this 
legislation, research institutions as well, and the nice thing 
is that everyone agrees that, you know, this isn't about one 
technology or another, one company, one region. It is really 
about that global roadmap for us here in the United States to 
be able to make sure that we take our resource and use them 
wisely. So I just thank all the folks that have contributed. If 
there are additional ideas, and I know that we have an 
amendment coming up, but you are welcome to incorporate them. 
But it is exciting that we are going to actually have a path 
and a plan for this new type of technology for us.
    Mr. Ehlers. Will you yield?
    Ms. Giffords. Oh, of course, Mr. Ehlers.
    Mr. Ehlers. Thank you for yielding. I would just like to 
add to my comments. I agree with you, ``alternatives'' is not a 
particularly attractive term to use but if you really want to 
be accurate, what we are talking about is solar energy. Wind 
energy is caused by differential heating of the Earth's 
atmosphere by the sun. Hydropower is solar energy because the 
sun evaporates water and it gets up in the sky, falls behind a 
dam and you collect energy as it goes through the turbines. You 
go right down the line. The only real sources of energy we have 
are solar, fossil and nuclear. Those are the three major 
categories. Some people refer to nuclear as alternative. It is 
not. It has been around a while. I just want to support what 
you are doing and what you are saying but let us realize that 
the term ``alternatives'' doesn't mean much to me as a 
scientist or to the public as a layperson. If you really want 
to be serious, all these are types of solar collecting and 
solar flux that is coming to the Earth daily, and if you 
actually sit down and calculate how much energy is contained in 
the sunlight hitting the Earth in a day, all the energy 
contained in all the fossil fuels we know about in the Earth is 
less than a few weeks of solar energy. We get abundant energy 
from the sun. We are just not using it properly. Thank you.
    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Dr. Ehlers.
    With that, I will ask unanimous consent that the bill is 
considered as read and open to amendment at any point and that 
Members proceed with the amendments in the order of the roster. 
Without objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentleman from Maryland, Dr. Bartlett. Dr. Bartlett, are 
you ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Bartlett. I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Baird. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 015, 
offered by Mr. Bartlett of Maryland.
    Chairman Baird. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered. I recognize the 
gentleman for five minutes to explain his amendment.
    Mr. Bartlett. To help you understand how supportive I am of 
this legislation, you need to know that I have been using solar 
energy electricity for 25 years. In the late 1970s and early 
1980s, I was a home builder and I built--I still am the largest 
solar home builder in Frederick County, so I was building solar 
homes in the late 1970s and early 1980s before it was cool to 
do that.
    Thank you, Chairman Baird, Ranking Member Inglis as well as 
Ms. Giffords for introducing this legislation. First of all, I 
would like to echo Chairman Baird, Mr. Inglis and Ms. Giffords. 
We are united in our belief that it is imperative for the 
Congress to adopt policies that will maximize the effectiveness 
of Federal Government programs to promote solar and other 
renewable sources of energy. As a scientist and engineer, I 
know that any program could be improved if the rules equally 
reward constant review and incremental improvements as well as 
their replacement by innovations. I support the continuation, 
creation and funding of programs at DOE that will empower 
America's scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs to engage in 
and accelerate cutting-edge research in new technologies. I 
would like to implore and encourage this committee to make sure 
that the bill this committee will approve takes a technology-
neutral approach to solar energy research and development 
programs.
    There is a danger in explicitly delineating research in 
known technologies and approaches. Congress can inadvertently 
direct the Federal Government to pursue an industrial policy or 
corporate welfare approach that would discourage research in 
new areas that could yield unforeseen benefits. I am sure 
Madame Curie could have had no notion of what her discovery 
would lead to.
    I would also be cautious about empowering a committee to 
choose winners and losers of taxpayers' money. By doing so, 
Congress can similarly inadvertently direct the flow of money 
through an old boys' network that excludes support for 
revolutionary innovations.
    And now to my specific small amendment. My amendment very 
simply corrects what I am sure was an inadvertent exclusion 
from the draft of H.R. 3585. My amendment would extend Section 
605 and 606 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 
2007. Section 605 and 606 were amendments to this bill that 
were unanimously approved by this committee. These new programs 
have not yet been funded. It is premature for Congress to send 
the potential message that these programs should be excluded 
from the Department of Energy's solar R&D; programs before they 
have even been started. Specifically, Section 605 is the direct 
solar pipe daylighting program that I co-sponsored with 
Congressman Tom Petri of Wisconsin. Solar light pipe technology 
brings the power of sunlight to illuminate the interiors of 
buildings without electricity. Daylighting provides an 
important alternative or traditional power generation for 
lighting that promotes greater energy conservation and improved 
energy year round.
    Section 606 established a research, development and 
demonstration program to promote more reliable, decentralized 
and distributed and we hope more cost-effective solar-powered 
air conditioning for individuals and businesses. Most people 
don't understand that you can cool your house with heat. You 
can do that. Creation of the program as a part of this bill was 
supported by the Solar Energy Industries Association, Western 
Renewables Group, Austin Energy, Sacramento Municipal Utility 
District and San Diego Gas and Electric. Solar-derived air 
conditioning could provide less vulnerable on-site 
decentralized and distributed cooling, reduce peak load 
electricity demands, particularly in desert climates, during 
the summer as well as contribute to greater resilience of our 
grid.
    I urge and request support for the adoption of this 
amendment to explicitly extend Section 605 and 606 in this 
bill. Thank you very much.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Bartlett follows:]
        Prepared Statement of Representative Roscoe G. Bartlett
    Thank you Chairman Baird, Ranking Member Inglis as well as Ms. 
Giffords for introducing this legislation.
    First, I would like to echo Chairman Baird, Mr. Inglis, and Ms. 
Giffords. We are united in our belief that it is imperative for the 
Congress to adopt policies that will maximize the effectiveness of 
Federal Government programs to promote solar and other renewable 
sources of energy.
    As an engineer, I know that any program can be improved if the 
rules equally reward constant review and incremental improvements as 
well as their replacement by innovations. I support the continuation, 
creation and funding of programs at DOE that will empower America's 
scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs to engage in and accelerate 
cutting edge research and new technologies. I would implore and 
encourage this committee to make sure that the bill this committee will 
approve takes a technology neutral approach to solar energy research 
and development programs.
    There is a danger in explicitly delineating research in known 
technologies and approaches. Congress can inadvertently direct the 
Federal Government to pursue an industrial policy or corporate welfare 
approach that would discourage research in new areas that could yield 
unforeseen benefits. I would also be cautious about empowering a 
committee to choose winners and losers of taxpayers' money. By doing 
so, Congress can similarly inadvertently direct the flow of money 
through an old boy's network that excludes support for revolutionary 
innovations.
    My amendment, very simply corrects what I am sure was an 
inadvertent exclusion from the draft of H.R. 3585. It would extend 
Sections 605 and 606 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 
2007. Sections 605 and 606 were amendments to EISA that were 
unanimously approved by this committee. These new programs have not yet 
been funded. It's premature for Congress to send the potential message 
that these programs should be excluded from the Department of Energy's 
solar R&D; programs before they've even started.
    Specifically, Sect. 605 is the Direct Solar Pipe Daylighting 
program that I co-sponsored with Congressman Tom Petri of Wisconsin. 
Solar light pipe technology brings the power of sunlight to illuminate 
the interiors of buildings without electricity. Daylighting provides an 
important alternative to traditional power generation for lighting that 
promotes greater energy conservation and improved efficiency year-
round.
    Sect. 606 established a research, development and demonstration 
program to promote more reliable, decentralized and distributed and, we 
hope, more cost-effective solar-powered air conditioning for 
individuals and businesses. Creation of the program as part of EISA was 
supported by the Solar Energy Industry Association (SEIA); Western 
Renewables Group; Austin Energy; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, 
and San Diego Gas & Electric. Solar-derived air conditioning could 
provide less vulnerable on-site, decentralized and distributed cooling, 
reduce peak load electricity demands, particularly in desert climates 
and during the summer, as well as contribute to greater resilience of 
our grid.
    I urge and request support for the adoption of this amendment to 
explicitly extend Sect. 605 and Sect. 606 of EISA in H.R. 3585.

    Chairman Baird. Is there further discussion on the 
amendment?
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Baird. Ms. Giffords.
    Ms. Giffords. I appreciate Mr. Bartlett's work, and these 
were bills that we worked on over the last couple of years and 
I appreciate the inclusion, and you have terrific ideas and 
that is what I like about this committee so much. It is truly a 
bipartisan committee. Everyone has good ideas. And when it 
comes to solar, we just need to get going on it, so bring your 
ideas on and I am looking forward to this bill making it to the 
President's desk.
    Chairman Baird. I thank the gentlelady.
    Dr. Ehlers.
    Mr. Ehlers. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I just want to add to 
this a little tidbit that I want to pass on to the Committee. A 
few weeks ago we had testimony from one of the commissioners of 
FERC, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and I had a good 
conversation afterwards with staff members who were here, and I 
said I really should learn more about FERC. Well, they invited 
me over and yesterday I spent almost four hours there talking 
to them. A fascinating thing that you might want to see, the 
Chairman of FERC has decided that they should lead the way on 
efficient energy lighting, and so his office and all the areas 
around it are the most advanced possible. They don't have solar 
light pipes but they might. They try to make maximum use of the 
sun's energy coming through the windows. They have monitors 
which measure the ambient light level and they dim the lights 
or turn lights off as the light level coming through the 
windows changes. Also for the first time I saw what I regard as 
a really good use of LEDs, a fluorescent light fixture in which 
they put in light bars which contain LEDs, fairly expensive at 
this point but extremely energy efficient. And so there is so 
much to be done here, and I encourage the Chairman to arrange 
for any Members of the Committee who are interested to take the 
same tour. It is amazing what you can learn just a few blocks 
away from here if we just bother to go look. With that I yield 
back.
    Chairman Baird. I keep waiting for Dr. Bartlett to invite 
us for a cookout, a vegetarian cookout at his home cooked on 
solar ovens. But in all seriousness, one of the things I admire 
greatly about Dr. Bartlett is, he not only talks the talk but 
he walks the talk and has done so for many, many years and so 
when he speaks about--you know, maybe we should not just call 
it renewable or alternative energy, maybe we should call it 
responsible energy, which has some implications for the other 
kinds of energy, but he knows whereof he speaks.
    Mr. Ehlers. We could call it Bartlett energy.
    Chairman Baird. Bartlett matters.
    Mr. Diaz-Balart.
    Mr. Diaz-Balart. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I just want to 
make sure that also one of the things that is looked at is some 
of the things that have not worked regarding solar energy. I 
think we are all familiar with the experience that Spain has 
had, for example, and we want to make sure that yes, I think 
research is important, that we obviously take the right steps 
and we don't do stupid things that would actually, you know, 
send us backwards and cause the taxpayer to have to eat a huge 
chunk of additional cost. And I know that is obviously not the 
intention, I just want to make sure that we are on the same 
track, that we make sure we do research for the good things but 
also they look at what has not worked, what has been a fiasco, 
what has been a disaster, what has been overly costly, what has 
been ineffective and inefficient, and I am sure that is 
obviously what the sponsor is looking at.
    Chairman Baird. Thank you, Mr. Diaz-Balart.
    Is there further discussion of the amendment? If no, the 
vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor say aye. Opposed, 
no. The ayes have it. The amendment is agreed to.
    No further amendments having been offered, the vote occurs 
on the bill, H.R. 3585 as amended. All those in favor say aye. 
All those opposed, no. In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes 
have it.
    I now recognize myself for a motion. I move that the 
Subcommittee favorably report H.R. 3585 as amended to the Full 
Committee. Furthermore, I move that the staff be instructed to 
prepare the Subcommittee report and make necessary technical 
and conforming changes to the bill in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Subcommittee.
    The question is on the motion to report the bill favorably. 
Those in favor of the motion will signify by saying aye. 
Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The bill is favorably reported. 
Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon the 
table. Members will have two subsequent calendar days in which 
to submit supplemental Minority or additional views on the 
measure.
    With that, I thank my colleagues for their input and the 
outstanding staff for their work on this legislation, and with 
that, this markup stands adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 11:15 a.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


        H.R. 3585, Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendment Roster






                     Section-by-Section Analysis of
              H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap Act

Sec. 1: SHORT TITLE

    Gives short title of the bill as ``Solar Technology Roadmap Act''

Sec. 2: DEFINITIONS

    Provides definitions for ``SECRETARY'' and ``SOLAR TECHNOLOGY''

TITLE I--SOLAR TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

Sec. 101: PROGRAM

    Directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct a research, development, 
and demonstration program for solar technology, including 
photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar hot water, solar space 
heating and cooling, solar lighting, solar manufacturing, and 
integration solar technology in buildings.
    Any grants awarded must be merit reviewed. Grants may be awarded to 
academic institutions, national laboratories, federal research 
agencies, State research agencies, nonprofit organizations, industrial 
entities, or consortia thereof.
    Paragraph (c) states that it is the policy of the United States 
that at least 75 percent of solar RD&D; funding conducted by DOE after 
2014 shall support activities identified by and recommended under the 
Solar Technology Roadmap described in Sec. 102.

Sec. 102: SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP

    Directs that within 18 months of enactment, the Solar Technology 
Roadmap Committee (established in Sec. 103) shall create the first 
Solar Technology Roadmap.
    The roadmap shall present the best current estimate of the near-
term (up to two years), mid-term (up to seven years), and long-term (up 
to 15 years) research, development, and demonstration needs in solar 
technology; and provide(s) guidance to the solar technology research, 
development, and demonstration activities supported by the Federal 
Government.
    The purposes of the roadmap are:

        1)  to identify research, development, and demonstration needs 
        for solar technology challenges;

        2)  identify opportunities for coordination with partner 
        industries (such as those for semiconductors, energy storage, 
        Smart Grid, etc.);

        3)  and expedite the process of improving solar technologies by 
        identifying research goals that improve performance; decrease 
        cost of electricity generated; improve reliability; and 
        maximize the environmental benefits of solar technologies.

    The Roadmap is subject to comprehensive revision every three years 
may be updated annually as needed.

Sec. 103: SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP COMMITTEE

    The Secretary of Energy shall appoint members of the Roadmap 
Committee within four months after enactment.
    The Roadmap Committee must contain at least 11 members and the 
members serve three-year terms. One-third of the members of the 
committee must come from the solar industry. The Secretary chooses the 
Chair, but the Chair cannot be a Federal Government employee.

Sec. 104: INTERAGENCY COORDINATION

    Interagency activities identified and recommended by the Solar 
Technology Roadmap shall be coordinated by the Director of OSTP.

Sec. 105: SOLAR TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS

    Authorizes the DOE to conduct at least ten photovoltaic projects 
ranging from one to three megawatts in size and two to three solar 
projects greater than 30 megawatts in size.

Sec. 106: PHOTOVOLTAIC PERFORMANCE STUDY

    DOE shall study and publish best practices to improve performance 
of photovoltaic installations. The study shall examine the 
effectiveness of federal, State, and local incentives to enhance system 
performance.

Sec. 107: SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM REAUTHORIZATION

    Authorizes to be appropriated to the Secretary of Energy to carry 
out this Act $350,000,000 in FY 2011, $400,000,000 in FY 2012, 
$450,000,000 in FY 2013, $500,000,000 in FY 2014, and $550,000,000 in 
FY 2015. Of this funding, $2 million per year is authorized to support 
the establishment and maintenance of the Solar Technology Roadmap. This 
section also reauthorizes solar research activities established in the 
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

Sec. 108: EXISTING PROGRAMS

    Except as otherwise specified in this Act, this Act shall supersede 
any duplicative or conflicting solar RD&D; programs within the DOE.

Sec. 109: REPEALS

    This section repeals outdated solar research legislation from 1974, 
1978, and 1989. A provision that is not repealed is Sec. 10 of the 
Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974, 
which established the national laboratory that is now NREL.

TITLE II--PHOTOVOLTAIC RECYCLING

Sec. 201: PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICE RECYCLING RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND 
                    DEMONSTRATION

    This section establishes a program of RD&D; in the reuse, recycling, 
and safe disposal of photovoltaic devices and substances used in the 
manufacture of such devices.




  XXII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 3585, SOLAR 
                         TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ACT

                              ----------                              


                       WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 7, 2009

                  House of Representatives,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:38 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Bart Gordon 
[Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Gordon. Good morning, everyone. The Committee will 
come to order. Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science and 
Technology meets to consider the following measures: H.R. 3650, 
the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control 
Amendments Act of 2009, H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap 
Act, and H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water Research Integration 
Act.
    First, we will consider a bill by the Subcommittee's 
Chairman, Brian Baird, and co-authored by Research and Science 
Education Ranking Member, Dr. Ehlers. H.R. 3650, the Harmful 
Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 
2009, seeks to address the devastating effects that the rapid 
overproduction of algae can have on aquatic plant and animal 
life and human health.
    The bill directs the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration to implement research strategies to better 
understand and respond to algal blooms and hypoxic events.
    Next, we will consider H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology 
Roadmap Act, authored by the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee 
Chair, Ms. Gabrielle Giffords. This bill instructs the 
Department of Energy to coordinate with public and private 
sector entities in developing a comprehensive, updated roadmap 
for solar research, development and demonstration activities in 
the United States.
    This roadmap will be a critical tool in utilizing limited 
research dollars as effectively as possible to harness the 
truly immense solar resources we have in the United States.
    Finally, we will take up H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water 
Research Integration Act. In the last Congress, this committee 
undertook a comprehensive review of federal research and 
technology development efforts focusing in on improving 
utilization of our precious water resources. We have since held 
five hearings and passed out of the House three bills 
pertaining to this important topic.
    H.R. 3598, in which we will address the critical linkage 
between our nation's energy and water resources by directing 
the Department of Energy to better integrate water into 
existing federal energy research efforts.
    The three bills we have before us today target several 
important research needs. And as always, we appreciate the 
Minority offering a number of valuable ideas and suggestions, 
and we have worked hard to incorporate almost all of them in an 
effort to improve these bipartisan bills.
    I now recognize Mr. Hall to present his opening remarks.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Gordon follows:]
               Prepared Statement of Chairman Bart Gordon
    Good Morning. Today the Committee will consider three bills 
reported last week from the Energy and Environment Subcommittee.
    First, we will consider a bill by the Subcommittee's Chairman, Dr. 
Baird, and co-authored by the Research and Science Education Ranking 
Member, Dr. Ehlers. H.R. 3650, the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia 
Research and Control Amendments Act of 2009, seeks to address the 
devastating effects that rapid overproduction of algae can have on 
aquatic plant and animal life and human health.
    The bill directs the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration to implement research strategies to better understand 
and respond to algal blooms and hypoxic events.
    Next, we will consider H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap Act, 
authored by the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Chair, Ms. Gabrielle 
Giffords. This bill instructs the Department of Energy to coordinate 
with public and private sector entities in developing a comprehensive, 
updatable roadmap for solar research, development, and demonstration 
activities in the U.S.
    This roadmap will be a critical tool in utilizing limited research 
dollars as effectively as possible to harness the truly immense solar 
resources we have in the U.S.
    Finally, we will take up my bill, H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water 
Research Integration Act. In the last Congress this committee undertook 
a comprehensive review of federal research and technology development 
efforts focused on improving utilization of our precious water 
resources. We have since held five hearings and passed out of the House 
three bills pertaining to this important topic.
    With H.R. 3598 we address the critical linkage between our nation's 
energy and water resources by directing the Department of Energy to 
better integrate water into existing federal energy research efforts.
    The three bills we have before us today target several important 
research needs. As always we appreciate the Minority offering a number 
of valuable ideas and suggestions, and we have worked hard to 
incorporate almost all of them in an effort to improve these bipartisan 
bills.
    Despite this, I see that the Minority will have a number of 
amendments. While it is unfortunate these concerns could not be 
resolved before the markup I look forward to a healthy debate on the 
amendments, and supporting these bills for final passage.
    I thank you all for your attendance and participation this morning, 
and I look forward to a productive markup.
    I now recognize Mr. Hall to present his opening remarks.

    Mr. Hall. I thank you, Mr. Chairman, and today, as you have 
pointed out, we are marking up H.R. 3650, the Harmful Algal 
Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 2009, 
H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap Act, and H.R. 3598, the 
Energy and Water Research Integration Act. I would like to 
thank you, Mr. Chairman, and thank your staff for working with 
us, working with the Minority, on these bills and you helped us 
address as much as possible our concerns. Unfortunately, we 
were not able to come to an agreement on all of our concerns 
but I realize that that can't always be the case. I will 
elaborate on these when the bills are brought up for amendment. 
We will have amendments that address those areas of the bills 
that we feel still need some attention, and particularly in the 
solar and energy and water bills. I do hope that the Chairman 
and other Members of this committee will give our amendments 
thoughtful consideration as we feel they are intended to 
improve the bills and enhance support for them.
    With that, I yield back the balance of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Hall follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Ralph M. Hall
    Today, we are marking up H.R. 3650, the Harmful Algal Blooms and 
Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 2009, H.R. 3585, the 
Solar Technology Roadmap Act, and H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water 
Research Integration Act. I would like to thank you, Mr. Chairman, and 
thank your staff for working with us, working with the Minority, 
working with us on these bills and you helped us address as much as 
possible our concerns. Unfortunately, we were not able to come to an 
agreement on all of our concerns but I realize that that can't always 
be the case. I will elaborate on these when the bills are brought up 
for amendment. We will have amendments that address those areas of the 
bills that we feel still need some attention, and particularly in the 
solar and energy and water bills. I do hope that the Chairman and other 
Members of this committee will give our amendments thoughtful 
consideration as we feel they are intended to improve the bills and 
enhance support for them.

    Chairman Gordon. Members may place statements in the record 
at this point.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Mitchell follows:]
         Prepared Statement of Representative Harry E. Mitchell
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Today we will mark up H.R. 3650, the Harmful Algal Blooms and 
Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act, H.R. 3585, the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Act, and H.R. 3598, the Energy and Water Research 
Integration Act.
    I would like to take a moment to speak about H.R. 3585, the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Act, legislation which I believe is critical in 
order to spur further research and development of solar technology.
    We're lucky in Arizona to enjoy over 300 days of sunshine. We have 
a real opportunity to brighten our state's future by investing in solar 
energy research and technology.
    As solar technology advances, I believe that Arizona will be a 
leader in clean, alternative energy production. Refocusing our energy 
production on alternative sources such as solar is critical for our 
national security and the environment.
    Moreover, investing in solar energy is vital to Arizona's economy.
    With the help of solar tax credits, Abengoa Solar and Arizona 
Public Service are developing the world's largest solar energy plant 
outside of Gila Bend. The Solana solar generating station will create 
1,500 to 2,000 jobs and provide clean, emission-free energy for 70,000 
homes. Solana is expected to ultimately spur $1 billion in economic 
development.
    H.R. 3585, the Solar Technology Roadmap Act, would take us one step 
further toward making large scale solar energy production a reality. 
Specifically, this legislation would establish a Solar Technology 
Roadmap Committee tasked with creating a Solar Technology Roadmap to 
evaluate near-term, mid-term, and long-term research, development, and 
demonstration needs in solar technology. This committee would include 
stakeholders in the solar industry to provide insights on the 
deployment of this technology.
    I urge my colleagues to support this important measure, and at this 
time, I yield back.

    Chairman Gordon. We will now consider H.R. 3585, the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Act, and I recognize the Chairman of--well, 
we will recognize Mr. Hall to begin, Mr. Hall, on H.R. 3585.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I thank you and I thank 
Representative Giffords for her working with us on your bill. 
While we are certainly supportive of solar energy and see great 
potential to be a
contributor of energy to our constituents, we do have concerns 
with the large authorization in the bill and requirement of 
funds to be directed to the roadmap recommendations.
    First, the bill authorizes $2.25 million over five years, 
and that is a lot of money and one wonders if it would be 
better to provide at least some money for investment tax 
credits for solar energy or long-term incentives to develop 
renewable energy in general. That has kind of been the thrust 
of the past and there have been thrusts in the past on solar 
they are worthwhile thrusts. This is a worthwhile thrust.
    Second, the bill directs the Secretary to spend a minimum 
increasing amount with no maximum limit of the authorization on 
the R&D; set forth by the Roadmap Committee, at least one-third 
of which is made up of industry who are explicitly exempted 
from the Federal Advisory Committee Act, which is intended to 
provide an open and transparent process. The optics of this are 
that you really have a committee whose membership could be 
primarily industry telling the DOE where to direct taxpayer 
money or R&D; that could benefit their companies by not having 
to answer to anyone or defend their recommendations, even when 
they fail, and then benefit by their own failure. I am sure 
this is not what Ms. Giffords intends or wants to happen but 
there is nothing in the legislation as written that would 
prevent it from happening. We do appreciate the inclusion at 
our request and our suggestion the language dealing with 
potential conflicts of interest in regard to Roadmap Committee 
membership. And with that, I yield back my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Hall follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Ralph M. Hall
    Thank you Mr. Chairman, and thank you Representative Giffords for 
working with us on your bill. While we are certainly supportive of 
solar energy and see the great potential that it has to be a 
contributor of energy to our constituents, we do have some concerns 
with the large authorization in the bill and the requirement of funds 
to be directed to the roadmap recommendations.
    First, the bill authorizes $2.25 billion over five years. This is a 
lot of money, and one wonders if it would be better to provide at least 
some money for investment tax credits for solar energy or long-term 
incentives to develop renewable energy in general.
    Second, the bill directs the Secretary to spend a minimum 
increasing amount with no maximum limit of the authorization on the 
RD&D; set forth by the Roadmap Committee--at least one third of which is 
made up of industry--who are explicitly exempted from the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act, which is intended to provide an open and 
transparent process. The optics of this are that you now have a 
committee, whose membership could be primarily industry, telling the 
DOE where to direct taxpayer money into RD&D; that could benefit their 
companies while not having to answer to anyone or defend their 
recommendations. I am sure that this is not what Ms. Giffords intends 
or wants to happen, but there is nothing in the legislation as written 
that would prevent it from happening. We do appreciate the inclusion, 
at our suggestion, of language dealing with potential conflicts of 
interest in regard to Roadmap Committee membership.
    With that I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. The author of the bill, the gentlelady 
from Arizona, Ms. Giffords, is recognized.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Ranking Member 
Hall. I appreciate some of the comments that were made by the 
Ranking Member and I know that there will be some amendments 
brought forward where we can more specifically talk about some 
of the concerns that the Minority has. I would just like to 
state that one of the benefits of this committee is from a 
bipartisan standpoint, Members really understand and get 
renewable energy. We get clean energy. We understand it. I know 
some of the details is something that we go back and forth 
about. But I am excited by the fact that the United States has 
this tremendous potential for this resource. In fact, we have 
some of the best solar potential of any industrialized country 
in the world. We have enough solar power to power the whole 
country several times over, and of course, these resources are 
not limited to states like my State of Arizona or even to the 
Southwest. Major companies in Europe and China have been very 
aggressive over the last several years in building up their 
manufacturing capacity and competing internationally to meet 
the demands, and if our policies and innovation models for 
solar energy don't change, the United States may simply 
transition from importing foreign oil, which we do tremendously 
right now, to importing foreign-made solar panels. Our country 
actually invented the first photovoltaic technologies and we 
still have some of the smartest, most talented people in the 
world working to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness 
of solar cells today.
    But in order to use our precious resource dollars as 
effectively as possible, these people, these patriots, in fact, 
need a serious roadmap and that is why I am so pleased to offer 
today's bill. After many substantive discussions with a wide 
range of industry and academic leaders as well as the 
Department of Energy, I believe there is a lot that the United 
States solar industry can learn from the experience of our 
national semiconductor industry years ago. About 20 years ago, 
the United States was in danger of losing its semiconductor 
industry to the Japanese. In response, the industry created a 
technology roadmap for semiconductors. The focus of the 
initiative was creating a roadmap that was to guide research 
and development efforts across the industry and by increasing 
communication between the diverse members of the supply chain, 
the United States semiconductor industry was able to develop 
standards and avoid the duplication of research efforts. These 
organized coordination efforts gave rise to the United States 
semiconductor giants like Intel and AMD and the United States 
continues to lead the world in semiconductor development.
    Today, solar researchers in the United States are almost in 
the same exact situation. To maintain a competitive edge, they 
must come together to meet their common pre-competitive goals, 
whether in simulation, developing new materials, energy 
storage, power grid management, mounting or even weather 
forecasting.
    Mr. Chairman, this bill would require the Department of 
Energy to engage diverse stakeholders in the solar community 
and work across programs to create a comprehensive plan, a 
roadmap, to guide funding for research needed to make the 
United States the global center for solar innovation. The 
roadmap would identify short-, medium- and long-term research 
goals and make recommendations on how to channel R&D; resources 
to meet these goals. The bill would make DOE more responsive to 
our solar industry's needs and encourage increased 
collaboration and communication across technologies with well-
vetted strategies.
    I would like to thank my colleagues on both sides of the 
aisle for their contributions that have made this bill better. 
In fact, about 25 of the 28 changes in our manager's amendment 
were suggested or requested by the Minority. I also look 
forward to supporting several amendments offered by the 
Majority and the Minority today and greatly appreciate the 
sponsorship of Chairman Gordon, Chairman Baird, Mr. McCaul, 
Chairman Lipinski, Mr. Chandler, Mr. Lujan and Mr. Tonko as 
well as several Members outside of the Committee. I want to be 
able to make sure the Members understand that industry leaders 
like IBM, SEIA, which has about 2,500 members, and National 
Semiconductor also support this. We have letters here from each 
of them (see Appendix). We also consulted with and received 
verbal support from First Solar, Unisolar, Applied Materials, 
Sun Power, and PC Recycling. Again, many are members of SEIA. 
In addition, we have also consulted with researchers from some 
of the premier solar universities--University of Delaware, 
Colorado State, George Washington University--as well as DOE's 
top program managers.
    Just in closing, the United States has an opportunity to 
lead and be a developer and exporter of solar technologies in 
the coming years and decades, and I want this committee and 
this bill to be a part of that. The bill is designed to advance 
this goal and I urge my colleagues to support it.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Giffords follows:]
        Prepared Statement of Representative Gabrielle Giffords
    Thank you Mr. Chairman. The United States has some of the best 
solar resources of any industrialized country in the world--enough to 
power the whole country several times over--and these resources are not 
only limited to the American Southwest.
    It turns out that our friends up north in Alaska have about the 
same solar resource as all of Germany. And yet, in 2006 Germany 
installed about seven times more solar power than the entire U.S.
    Major companies in Europe and China have been very aggressive over 
the last several years in building up their manufacturing capacity and 
competing internationally to meet demand. If our policies and 
innovation models for solar energy don't change, the U.S. may simply 
transition from importing foreign oil to importing foreign-made panels.
    This country actually invented the first photovoltaic technologies, 
and we still have some of the smartest, most talented people in the 
world working to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of solar 
cells today.
    But in order to use our precious research dollars as effectively as 
possible, these people--these patriots--need a serious roadmap, and 
that's why I'm so pleased to offer this bill today.
    After many substantive discussions with a wide range of industry 
and academic leaders as well as the Department of Energy, I believe 
there's a lot that the U.S. solar industry can learn from the 
experience of our semiconductor industry.
    20 years ago, the U.S. was in danger of losing its semiconductor 
industry to Japan. In response, the industry created the Technology 
Roadmap for Semiconductors. The focus of this initiative was creating a 
roadmap to guide research and development efforts across the industry.
    By increasing communication between the diverse members of the 
supply chain, the U.S. semiconductor industry was able to develop 
standards and avoid the duplication of research efforts. These 
organized coordination efforts gave rise to U.S. semiconductor giants 
like Intel and AMD, and the U.S. continues to lead the world in 
semiconductor development.
    Today, solar researchers in the U.S. are in a similar situation. To 
maintain a competitive advantage they must come together to meet their 
common, pre-competitive goals--whether in simulation, developing new 
materials, energy storage, power and grid management, mounting, or even 
weather forecasting.
    This bill would require the Department of Energy to engage diverse 
stakeholders in the solar community and work across programs to create 
a comprehensive plan--a roadmap--to guide funding for the research 
needed to make the U.S. the global center for Solar innovation. The 
roadmap would be required to identify short-, medium-, and long-term 
goals, and make recommendations for how to channel R&D; resources to 
meet those goals.
    The bill will make DOE more responsive to our solar industry's 
needs, and encourage increased collaboration and communication across 
technologies with well-vetted strategies.
    I would like to thank my colleagues on both sides of the aisle for 
their contributions that have made this a better bill. In fact about 25 
of the 28 changes in our manager's amendment were suggested or 
requested by the Minority.
    I also look forward to supporting several amendments offered by 
both the Majority and the Minority today, and greatly appreciate the 
co-sponsorship of Chairman Gordon, Chairman Baird, Mr. McCaul, Chairman 
Lipinski, Mr. Chandler, Mr. Lujan, and Mr. Tonko, as well as several 
Members outside of the Committee.
    Another sign of the time and effort we all put into getting this 
bill right is that it's been endorsed by industry leaders including 
IBM, the Solar Energy Industries Association, and National 
Semiconductor. We also consulted with, and received verbal support 
from, First Solar, Unisolar, Applied Materials, Sunpower, and PC 
Recycling LLC, many of whom are members of SEIA. In addition, we 
consulted with researchers at the University of Delaware, Colorado 
State and George Washington University, as well as DOE's top solar 
program managers.
    The U.S. has an opportunity to be the leading developer and 
exporter of clean solar technologies in the coming years and decades.
    My bill is designed to advance that goal and I urge my colleagues 
to support it.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Ms. Giffords, for all your 
really diligent good work on bringing this bill to us. I know 
you have put a lot of effort into that.
    Does anyone else wish to be recognized? Mr. McCaul is 
recognized.
    Mr. McCaul. Mr. Chairman, let me voice my bipartisan 
support for this bill. I was proud to be a co-sponsor of this 
bill. While no bill is perfect, I think it really takes this 
country in the direction we need to go in terms of investments 
towards energy independence. My hometown of Austin, Texas, has 
become a green technology center. The University of Texas 
obviously was working on a lot of projects in this area, and I 
appreciate the gentlelady's leadership and involvement of the 
private sector on this commission with Applied Materials in my 
District and many other solar companies. This is exactly the 
direction I think we need to go since we are talking about 
being a true leader in this area. The smart grid technology 
that is in this bill is also I think a very, very good point to 
make, and, you know, again, we come from states with a lot of 
sunshine, Arizona and Texas, and I think we need to harness 
that energy. We are beginning to do that but there is a lot of 
advancement that needs to take place. There is a lot of 
technology challenges that need to take place including 
storage, transportation, transmission of that energy, and 
bringing the price down. Once these photovoltaics, the price 
comes down to a level that consumers, everyday consumer can 
purchase. I believe that this is one of the most promising 
areas of future energy that we have for this country.
    So let me just again voice my support, and with that, I 
yield back.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. McCaul.
    Does anyone else wish to be recognized?
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Let us see. Mr. Carnahan is recognized.
    Mr. Carnahan. I want to thank Ms. Giffords and Mr. McCaul 
for their work on this bill and many others. I will just point 
out, this isn't just about sites that have a lot of sun. One of 
the world leaders in solar technology and solar use is Germany, 
not exactly known as a pantheon of sunshine. So other states 
around our country can use this technology, benefit from it, 
and I think this is a great way to keep us in the forefront of 
this technology going forward. So thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Rohrabacher is recognized.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. Let me 
just note before I proceed that I have a history and a record 
of supporting solar energy research. When Republicans took the 
Majority in 1995, I was the Chairman of the Energy and 
Environment Subcommittee on this committee, and while we made 
dramatic cuts in other research like fusion research, I was not 
supportive of cutting solar power research, and so just to note 
that before I mention my objections to this particular bill.
    If this bill was simply increasing the level of funding for 
direct research, I would be much more supportive, but frankly I 
just disagree with the entire approach that this bill 
represents otherwise. I mean, yes, we beat the Japanese in 
their competition from semiconductors and I doubt it is because 
we had more central planning than the Japanese had. What we 
have got here is a suggestion that we are on the edge of this 
great changeover to solar power, which I agree with and have 
been pushing for, and we are going to set up a commission to 
set a roadmap. You know, this just sounds--everything sounds--
like a central plan. I mean, do we really need a commission. In 
Russian, ``commission'' means ``Soviet.'' Do we really need to 
set up a Soviet commission and have our commissars, the 
commissioners, make a plan, a central plan, a five-year plan? 
Is that what really is going to bring progress, this change in 
our society? I don't think so. It is just a totally alien 
approach to what I believe. Now, there are honest disagreements 
as to how to bring about change. This is not the way to do it. 
We need to be encouraging dreamers who are not confined by a 
roadmap, entrepreneurs who are not confined by a roadmap, 
investors who are not confined by a roadmap. We need to free up 
people rather than restrict them and guide their energies. That 
is the whole difference in why America has succeeded in the 
past and not that we have had better commissions and better 
controls and better central plans than others.
    And let me just note one other thing about this bill, which 
is, we can do all the research we want, we can have all the 
central plans we want into that research but unless we have got 
an implementation of the research, we should be--solar energy 
has reached the point now that we should be focusing on the 
implementation of solar energy or, much more important, 
eliminating the impediments in our society to the utilization 
of solar energy. We have 150, Mr. Chairman, 150 requests to 
build solar energy plants in the desert and we have at last 
come to the point where those solar plants would be competitive 
with gas-powered and coal-fired plants but the Bureau of Land 
Management hasn't approved one, not one of the 150 applications 
to move forward and actually implement and put this technology 
to work. I have a piece of legislation, I would invite all of 
my colleagues to join me, which would have the Bureau of Land 
Management facilitate these 150 requests and let us start using 
solar energy. But I would ask my colleagues to seriously 
consider that and that will do much more to move along solar 
energy and actually promote the utilization of this great new 
technology that we have developed in these last 20 years than 
setting up a commission and having a five-year plan and making 
sure that we have got the roadmap and the controls necessary to 
get us to the other end of this journey.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Chairman----
    Mr. Rohrabacher. I certainly will yield to the gentlelady, 
who I respect.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Mr. Rohrabacher. 
What you are talking about is--and you have been here on this 
committee for a very long period of time--incredibly promising. 
There is so much development happening in solar. If you read 
the bill and if you will take the time to understand it, you 
will understand that this is not a plan for the entire solar 
industry. For example, the Department of Defense has a 
requirement that by 2025, 25 percent of their energy will come 
from a renewable energy resource so a lot of the research they 
are doing, they are moving forward in a very aggressive way, 
obviously not included in this. What this bill does is set a 
roadmap for federal R&D; money coming from the Department of 
Energy, and that money has been spent in the past and it will 
continue to get spent, and instead of having some bureaucrats 
in the Department of Energy deciding where the money is going 
to go, this is an opportunity for the private sector, for the 
universities, for DOE to collaborate together to actually have 
a plan rather than a piecemeal effort for where federal R&D; 
funds are going. So it is not a plan for the entire industry. 
There is a lot of innovation. There is a lot of other State 
funding and other types of federal dollars that will likely 
come forward.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Reclaiming my time for one moment. I know 
I have actually run out of time and I will just say that I 
think piecemeal is better than directed. In many ways piecemeal 
and a broad approach is much better than an aimed approach. So 
with that said, thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Comrade Rohrabacher's time has expired. 
Before we go to amendments, is there anyone else that would 
like to speak? Dr. Ehlers is recognized.
    Mr. Ehlers. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. First of all, I want 
to reassure Mr. Rohrabacher that I don't think we have to worry 
about commissars and the Soviet here. In this country, we call 
them czars and put them in the White House. But having said 
that and alienated more than half of my colleagues, I just want 
to--I know, Mr. Bush said it too. But in any event, I commend 
Ms. Giffords for her efforts I this. This is a field that 
desperately needs encouragement because the economics just 
haven't been there but they are very close to being there in a 
number of ways. First of all, you heard the comments about 
centralized power sources, which I am very skeptical of because 
you have to recognize that sunlight is everywhere. It is very 
diffuse. It is not good quality energy. It is what scientists 
call low-quality energy because of the thermodynamics of the 
sun's rays and it is very diffuse. It is everywhere. But if you 
have a diffuse source, you should have diffuse set of 
collectors, and the best way to do that is to have solar 
panels, and I would rather call them solar shingles, on every 
house in the country, and that would be a real effective way of 
collecting solar energy. As someone observed, Germany is the 
leader. The point is, you do not direct sunlight but you do 
need sunlight, and so even with clouds the UV still gets 
through, a lot of energy still gets through and we can collect 
that. I spoke to some individuals from Dow Chemical just a few 
days ago and they believe they are at the point where solar 
shingles would be competitive with the price of ordinary 
shingles on housing. That totally changes the dynamic of this. 
Obviously it weakens the case for centralized collection and 
sending it out through electrical lines, transmission lines and 
so forth. If you can collect it on your house and use it on 
your house, that is by far the most efficient and least costly 
way of doing it. So suddenly we are reaching a point where 
there is a huge amount of development throughout the entire 
field of solar energy and I think it is very important that the 
help that the Department of Energy can give is making clear 
what the physical parameters are that you have to deal with. 
Not every company that gets into the solar business totally 
understands all the physics involved in photovoltaic collectors 
and so forth whereas we have the NREL Lab in Golden, Colorado, 
who have been studying this. As part of DOE, it has been 
studying this for years and that information and knowledge 
should be spread out. I would hope that this bill would lead, 
and it may have to be amended in time, but would lead to the 
DOE being a leader in solar energy, not in terms of just the 
funding research or anything like that but also by saying to 
companies, helping companies who want to develop solar energy, 
this is a pathway that will work and this is a pathway that 
will not work. We have a lot of good scientists in DOE. They 
have done a lot of good work, and I sometimes think they keep 
it too much to themselves. I always have chided the DOE 
directorate over the pat years that the one thing that has been 
done by a government agency that very directly improved energy 
efficiency and cut costs for business was EPA, believe it or 
not, with their Green Lights program where they went around the 
country and convinced businesspeople that they could put in 
efficient lights in the factories, their plants or offices and 
save money and use less energy and have more light, and it 
worked. The payback was typically a year and a half for the 
cost of putting these in. That is the sort of information that 
DOE should be getting out. Thank you very much.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Dr. Ehlers.
    It looks like no one else is requesting time----
    Mr. Hall. I would like time.
    Chairman Gordon. Oh, so I am sure Mr. Inglis would like to 
yield to you.
    Mr. Inglis. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I would like to be 
recognized and I would be happy to yield to Mr. Hall.
    Mr. Hall. I thank you, and I thank the very capable 
chairman.
    Let me just say, I like the thrust of this bill, I like the 
goal of this bill. I like it so much, I went out to the 
beautiful State of Arizona with the author of this bill. I had 
a wonderful hearing out there, and I believe if we ever do 
control solar and have access to solar to where it would be in 
what we call paying quantities in the oil patch it would be 
wonderful. We could do without fossil fuels and never have any 
more fear of electrical breakdowns or the carbon in the air or 
anything. It is a laudy goal, and I pedestalize the author for 
a lot of reasons and that--it doesn't do me--I don't feel good 
criticizing her bill but let me just point out a few things 
that I hope she will look at as we wonder through and go ahead. 
I think you are going to pass it here. The previous votes we 
have taken today kind of indicate that you are probably going 
to prevail, and I have an old habit that I followed all my 
life. I ignore the impossible and cooperate with the 
inevitable, so I am trying to get along with the author of this 
bill. I am trying to get along with the source of the bill, the 
Chairman of the bill, those of you who are for the bill but I 
want to point out that at least a third of this Roadmap 
Committee made up of men and women of industry and they will 
have a right to vote on what they direct the DOE to do and the 
optics of this are that you have a committee whose membership 
could be primarily industry, it is primarily industry, a third, 
I think, telling the DOE where to direct taxpayer money and 
that industry could do a part of the thrust and part of the 
people who serve as contractors to the government and I don't 
see anything in here where it talks about it being open to the 
public. Maybe that is one reason--you know, they are explicitly 
exempted from the Federal Advisory Committee Act. I don't 
understand why that has to be in there because the very first 
thing, one of the first things in the Advisory Act is each 
advisory committee shall be open to the public. I don't see 
that anywhere in here. I think it is probably intended but just 
isn't here. On down on page 488, Section 12 of the Federal 
Advisory Act, it says each agency shall keep records that will 
fully disclose the disposition of any funds which may be made 
at disposal of the advisory committee and the nature of the 
extent of their activities. I think you are in a dangerous area 
there and I hope you will look at it very closely. I laud the 
goal but I have been lauding the goal on solar almost all my 
life and I am 86 years old, and I have a Wall Street Journal 
here that you might be interested in. It says renewable fuels 
may provide 25 percent of U.S. energy by 2025. That was in 
2006. That is in November of this year. Now, I also have a Wall 
Street Journal dated August 22, 1978, solar power seen meeting 
20 percent of needs by 2000. Carter--President Carter, that 
great, great man that gave away the Panama Canal, may seek 
outlay boost and it says federal planners have concluded that 
solar energy can contribute as much as 20 percent of the U.S. 
energy needed by so and so, and that is in 1978, obviously 
22nd. We have been pursuing this. It is a good pursuit but we 
never before put $2.2 billion or $2.25 billion on the line and 
turn it over to a board that has very few restrictions and very 
few ``thou shall nots.'' I hope you will look at that and I 
hope we can work together on that as we go through. I yield 
back my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Hall, and I will give 
Senator Baker your best also.
    If there is no further discussion, then I ask unanimous 
consent that the bill is considered as read and open to 
amendment at any point and that the Members proceed with the 
amendments in the order of the roster. Without objection, so 
ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is a manager's amendment 
offered by the gentlelady from Arizona, Ms. Giffords. Are you 
ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes, I am, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 064, 
offered by Ms. Giffords of Arizona.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentlelady for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Chairman, thank you. As I mentioned 
before in my opening remarks, we worked very closely with the 
Minority in crafting this amendment. In fact, the vast majority 
of the text was suggested or provided by my colleagues and 
their staff on the other side of the aisle, and it did make the 
bill better. Beyond technical changes, the amendment adds 
important language to address potential issues of conflict of 
interest among the Roadmap Committee members--Ranking Member 
Hall talked about this--actually capping the private industry 
participation on the Committee to no more than 50 percent, so 
by far the concerns that he brought up will not overrun the 
Roadmap Committee members in setting a minimum threshold of 33 
percent at the base. The amendment also provides further 
guidance on establishing a photovoltaic materials database.
    I would like to go back to some of the concerns that were 
brought forward by Ranking Member Hall about the issues of 
exemption of the
    Federal Advisory Committee Act. We want the Solar 
Technology Roadmap Committee to be as nimble as possible with 
the ability to quickly respond to issues or opportunities as 
the need arises. While the FACA requirements make sense for 
some activities such as guiding long-term basic research 
programs conducted by the DOE Office of Science and NSF, they 
can be an obstacle to providing time-sensitive guidance for 
fast-growing industries like solar. We want the Roadmap 
Committee to have the flexibility it needs to be as effective 
as possible. A committee following FACA requirements must 
notice all meetings in the Federal Register well in advance. 
Also, FACA committees also have quorum requirements to meet and 
in some cases it may be more appropriate or productive for a 
subgroup to work on particular issues and topics. In addition, 
FACA committees automatically expire every two years unless the 
Administration works through the process of renewing them, 
which can further impede or delay committee actions. The 
Roadmap Committee's activities are still subject to the Freedom 
of Information Act. We will work with the Minority to address 
any concerns about FACA exemptions in the manager's amendment. 
Of course, we are happy to continue to work with Ranking Member 
Hall and other Members, but going back to this larger point 
about the private sector and private industry, frankly, I am a 
little surprised to be hearing from the Minority the concerns 
about the involvement from the private sector. The Department 
of Energy is not going to be delivering this technology. The 
technology is delivered through the private sector, through 
these businesses. These are the folks are on the front lines 
that are making the installations and rolling the panels out. 
They are not being manufactured at the Department of Energy. So 
I think it is exciting that we will have industry 
representation and these folks are going to be at the table 
because again, we are not buying our panels from the Federal 
Government. We are not buying the concentrated solar power. We 
are not buying that. The organization that is going to deliver 
it is the private sector.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Will the gentlelady yield for a question?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I will yield.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. No, no, I am not a chairman anymore.
    Ms. Giffords. I know but----
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Thank you very much. Madam Chairman, let 
me just note that when you are talking about the industry 
having a say, if we are doing that, wouldn't it be better 
rather than having some big corporate interest that have their 
particular idea of what they are going to benefit for their 
company by the use of specific federal research direction, 
wouldn't it be better just to provide industry in general with 
a tax credit for that research and let them determine and other 
companies determine for themselves what the best way to use 
that research rather than having a central plan, et cetera, et 
cetera?
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Rohrabacher, you know, I respectfully 
disagree. I think by having the private sector, by having a 
research institution and the Department of Energy working 
collaboratively so that eventually 75 percent of federal R&D; 
funds will have to go through the roadmap, not all. Twenty-five 
percent will still not fall under the roadmap. I think it is 
exciting to have a plan rather than having a piecemeal approach 
to the R&D; funding.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Giffords follows:]
        Prepared Statement of Representative Gabrielle Giffords
    Thank you Mr. Chairman. As I mentioned in my opening remarks, we 
worked very closely with the Minority in crafting this amendment, and 
the vast majority of the text was suggested or provided by my 
colleagues and their staff on the other side of the aisle. Beyond 
technical changes, the amendment adds important language to address 
potential issues of conflicts of interest among the Roadmap Committee 
members, and it provides further guidance on establishing a 
photovoltaic materials database. I urge all my colleagues to support 
this bipartisan contribution to a better bill.

    Chairman Gordon. At approximately 12:15, I am being told we 
are going to have four amendments, so if there is no more 
discussion on the manager's amendment, then all in favor say 
``aye.'' All opposed, ``no.'' The ayes have it and the 
amendment is agreed to.
    The second amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentleman from Michigan, Mr. Peters. Are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Peters. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 018, 
offered by Mr. Peters of Michigan.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentleman for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Peters. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. H.R. 3585 is certainly 
an important piece of legislation that is going to strengthen 
our nation's solar energy industry and help us meet our 
domestic goals for renewable energy production. The bill will 
establish a roadmap and demonstration program to further 
advance solar technologies, and I commend the Committee for 
bringing this legislation forward.
    My home State of Michigan is currently a leader in 
manufacturing of solar cells. We are the home to great 
companies like United Solar Ovonic, which supports many 
manufacturing and high-tech jobs in my area through their two 
production facilities in Auburn Hills and a global R&D; 
headquarters in Troy. This company was also able to fill the 
void for workers in Greenville, Michigan, after a shutdown of 
an Electrolux plant and now operates and employs people there 
making solar panels. High-tech jobs like these are the source 
of hope in my state and provide workers an opportunity to apply 
their skills in a new industry and enter the workforce of the 
21st century. Federal partnership is critical to effectively 
develop new renewable industries and those efforts should, to 
the greatest extent possible, work towards the creation of new 
U.S. jobs. These investments are key to restoring jobs lost in 
recent years.
    For this reason, my amendment asks the Secretary to 
consider states that have been hit the hardest by the recession 
and which are experiencing high unemployment rates when 
providing awards under this program. There is a great potential 
to revitalize our domestic manufacturing base by strengthening 
the domestic solar industry. While states like Michigan and 
many others certainly have the existing infrastructure and 
workforce to manufacture more solar technologies, the United 
States continues to lag behind China, Japan and Europe in the 
manufacturing of photovoltaic modules. We must commit at the 
federal level to increase our domestic production of this 
technology if we are going to truly take advantage of the full 
economic benefits of a growing solar industry. My amendment 
states that the Secretary will strongly consider projects 
utilizing solar technologies manufactured in the United States 
in carrying out the demonstration program. The amendment also 
specifies that representatives from the domestic solar industry 
will be represented on the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee. 
Federal dollars should work to create American jobs, and this 
amendment seeks to ensure that this new program works towards 
that end.
    I applaud the Committee's commitment to bolstering the U.S. 
solar industry and the development of this roadmap. I would 
like to thank Chairman Gordon, Ranking Member Hall, Chairman 
Baird, Ranking Member Inglis and the Subcommittee and 
Representative Giffords, the bill's sponsor, for considering 
this amendment and for bringing this important legislation 
forward. I urge my colleagues to support the adoption of my 
amendment and to join me in reporting the final bill favorably 
on this committee. I yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Peters follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Gary Peters
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman,
    H.R. 3585 is an important piece of legislation that will strengthen 
our nation's solar energy industry and help us meet our domestic goals 
for renewable energy production. The bill will establish a roadmap and 
demonstration program to further advance solar technologies, and I 
commend the Committee for bringing this legislation forward.
    My home state of Michigan is currently a leader in the 
manufacturing of solar cells. We are home to great companies like 
United Solar Ovonic, which support many manufacturing and hi-tech jobs 
in my area through their two production facilities in Auburn Hills and 
global R&D; headquarters in Troy. This company was also able to help 
fill the void for workers in Greenville, Michigan after the shutdown of 
an Electrolux plant, and now operates and employs people there making 
solar panels. Hi-tech jobs like these are a source of hope in my State, 
and provide workers an opportunity to apply their skills in a new 
industry and enter the workforce of the 21st Century.
    Federal partnership is critical to effectively develop new 
renewable industries, and those efforts should, to the greatest extent 
possible, work towards the creation of new U.S. jobs. These investments 
are key to restoring jobs lost in recent years. For this reason, my 
amendment asks the Secretary to consider states that have been hit 
hardest by the recession and which are experiencing high unemployment 
rates when providing awards under this program.
    There is a great potential to revitalize our domestic manufacturing 
base by strengthening the domestic solar industry. While states like 
Michigan and many others certainly have the existing infrastructure and 
workforce to manufacture more solar technologies, the United States 
continues to lag behind China, Japan, and Europe in the manufacturing 
of photovoltaic modules. We must commit at the Federal level to 
increase our domestic production of this technology if we are going to 
truly take advantage of the full economic benefits of a growing solar 
industry. My amendment states that the Secretary will strongly consider 
projects utilizing solar technologies manufactured in the United States 
in carrying out the demonstration program. The amendment also specifies 
that representatives from the domestic solar industry will be 
represented on the Solar Technology Roadmap Committee. Federal dollars 
should work to create American jobs, and this amendment seeks to ensure 
that this new program works towards that end.
    I applaud the Committee's commitment to bolstering the US solar 
industry, and the development of this roadmap. I'd like to thank 
Chairman Gordon, ranking Member Hall, and Chairman Baird and Ranking 
Member Inglis of the subcommittee, and Representative Giffords--the 
bill sponsor--for considering this amendment and for bringing this 
important legislation forward. I urge my colleagues to support the 
adoption of my amendment and to join me in reporting the final bill 
favorably from this Committee.

    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion on the 
amendment? If no, all in favor, say ``aye.'' Opposed, ``no.'' 
The ayes have it. The amendment is agreed to.
    The third amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentleman from New Mexico, Mr. Lujan. Are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Lujan. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I do have an amendment 
at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 028, 
offered by Mr. Lujan of New Mexico.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentleman for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Lujan. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, and thank 
you, Congresswoman Giffords, for your work on this important 
bill.
    My amendment expands the long-distance transmission 
research and development provision of the solar technology 
roadmap to include the development of direct current and 
superconducting long-distance transmission technology that our 
country increasingly uses the power of solar technology. States 
like New Mexico are positioned to be leaders in solar energy 
production but we must invest in the development of technology 
that will make it easier to transmit power from region to 
region with advanced power lines that can carry power for 
hundreds of miles with minimum loss. The development of direct 
current and superconducting long-distance transmission 
technology can promote energy efficiency and reliability to any 
part of our country including remote locations and can access 
the solar resources that are abundant in the United States. 
Superconducting materials have almost no electrical resistance 
so they can carry large amounts of electricity with minimal 
electricity loss. However, today superconducting transmission 
technology is still very costly, and most superconducting 
electrical lines have only been used for short distances. 
Direct current transmission also reduces electricity loss from 
the line and takes large amounts of electricity from one point 
to another. Development and enhancement of these two 
technologies will benefit the long-distance transmission of 
electricity generated from the sun. I encourage my colleagues 
to support this amendment and the final bill, and I yield back 
my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion on the 
amendment? If no, the vote occurs on--oh, excuse me, Mr. 
Rohrabacher--Comrade Rohrabacher.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Comrade Rohrabacher, yes. Let me just note 
that Mr. Ehlers made some very significant points--he is a 
Ph.D., he is one of our great scientists along with Congressman 
Bartlett--about what he expects will be the most effective use 
of solar power. I happen to agree with his assessment, although 
my general approach to energy is that we should be going at it 
as many different directions as possible, again, not trying to 
focus but trying to go at a problem in many different 
directions. This amendment would permit us to utilize solar 
technology in yet another direction, meaning large-scale solar 
plants in the desert which I believe are something that we 
should at least move forward with to see if they are cost-
effective, and I believe at this point they are cost-effective. 
Again, Mr. Lujan, I support your amendment but also we need 
more than research. Even if we do it makes more efficient in 
transmitting solar energy that is produced by solar energy 
projects via the transmission lines that you are talking about, 
if the Bureau of Land Management will not give the companies 
that want to build these plants permission to do so, all of 
this research has been for nothing. It has been a total waste 
unless it is implemented.
    So I want to draw the attention of my colleagues again to 
my bill, H.R. 964, which would require the Bureau of Land 
Management to act upon the 150 applications they already have 
rather than refusing to let anybody move forward in order to 
protect the habitat of some lizard or insect in the middle of 
the desert. Roadmaps aren't going to help if all the roads are 
closed and the bureaucrats won't let anybody proceed. So I 
support your amendment and I hope that we do, and I yield to 
Mr. Bilbray the balance of my time.
    Mr. Bilbray. Thank you. I will speak in favor of the 
amendment because this transmission issue does not just apply 
to solar. It is across the board. The fact is, the loss of 
power is a big issue. At the same time, I want to commend the 
gentleman's State of New Mexico that they have led by more than 
just spending money and putting mandates out but that their 
regulatory oversight is to a point where our scientists in 
California who have major breakthroughs in green technology 
have to pack up out of California and bring that technology to 
New Mexico because your state has regulatory oversight that is 
encouraging the development of full green technology when 
California, who develops it--and this is really an analogy for 
the American people, that we can spend all the money on 
research, we can do all these breakthroughs but if the 
government doesn't get out of the road, the government doesn't 
stop being obstructionist, you are not going to have it. New 
Mexico has been great about that. And so I think we need to 
move forward but I also think we need to talk about this 
transmission issue of Federal Government and State governments 
mandating that people be on the grid no matter where they live 
rather than us going after, is anybody talking about getting 
people off the grid, make it legal to be off the grid, 
especially in rural areas like New Mexico where we have federal 
mandates that you have to hook people up rather than get them 
off the grid and go to this technology.
    So I will strongly support the amendment and think that we 
just have to look at this as one of those steps that need to be 
made. The other step with transmission is, the Federal 
Government is not above it all at siting the lines to be 
efficient like we do with our interstate highway system. We 
expect the private sector to do all that study and research 
rather than having a coordinated effort in that transmission 
issue. I yield back.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. I yield back the balance of my time. Thank 
you.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion on the 
amendment? If no, the vote occurs on the amendment. All in 
favor, say ``aye.'' All opposed, ``no.'' The ayes have it. The 
amendment is agreed upon.
    The fourth amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentlelady from Illinois, Ms. Biggert. Are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Ms. Biggert. I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 001, 
offered by Ms. Biggert of Illinois.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentlelady for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Ms. Biggert. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and let me just say 
that even though Illinois is not known as the Sunshine State, I 
do think that this is a good bill but I have some concerns with 
it.
    My amendment would sunset the Solar Roadmap Committee after 
five years. This would allow the Department to put out a 
roadmap and update but not dictate the focus of solar 
technology and research development and demonstration which 
would be for 15 years. Utilizing the expertise of industry, 
national labs, academia and other federal agencies to develop a 
roadmap for solar technology research is a good idea but I 
think that we may be creating more government with less 
oversight and ultimately do more harm than good.
    I support the development of advanced solar technologies 
and recognize the energy security it can provide to our 
country. I am concerned, though, that we would be creating a 
function that exists in perpetuity. I think this is a crucial 
point for all research established in a timeline with goals and 
dedicated resources. Unfortunately, the energy and water 
conference report we just voted on last week contains over 80 
earmarks with $76 million just in the Office of Science. In 
looking at that, there was an increase of $131 million over the 
2009 appropriations so that means taking $76 million just for 
earmarks, and I think that this could have a devastating effect 
on research goals and we really can't afford to have this 
happen again. This is $2 million that would be spent on this 
committee really in perpetuity. So sunsetting the Solar Roadmap 
Committee we will set a course for measurable results, and this 
is true of all of the acts is that there is a sunset clause in 
there and, you know, it would be great to say that this 
committee has done such a great job that we would want to put 
it back into existence but I think that we need to have 
additional insight and I think--but we would be free to 
reauthorize or extend the Committee when that time comes but I 
think we always use this, as President Reagan said, that the 
closest thing to eternal life is a program in the Federal 
Government, and we don't want that to happen, so with that I 
would urge my colleagues to support, and yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Biggert follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Judy Biggert
    Mr. Chairman, my amendment would sunset the Solar Roadmap Committee 
after five years.
    This will allow the Department to put out a roadmap and update--not 
dictate--the focus of solar technology research, development and 
demonstration.
    Utilizing the expertise of industry, national labs, academia and 
other federal agencies to develop a roadmap for solar technology 
research is a good idea, but I am concerned that we may be creating 
more government with less oversight--and ultimately doing more harm 
than good.
    I support the development of advanced solar technologies and 
recognize the energy security it can provide for our country. I am 
concerned, though, that we could be creating a funding stream that 
exists in perpetuity.
    This is a critical point for all research--establishing a timeline 
with goals and dedicated resources.
    Unfortunately, the Energy and Water conference report we just voted 
on last week contained over 80 earmarks worth $76 million dollars--just 
in the Office of Science. This can have devastating effects on research 
goals. Can we really afford to have this happen again?
    By sunsetting the Solar Roadmap Committee, we will set a course for 
measurable results.
    In the event we feel additional insight is needed, Mr. Chairman, we 
will be free to reauthorize or extend the Committee when that time 
comes.
    I urge my colleague support and yield back.
    Thank you.

    Chairman Gordon. Ms. Giffords is recognized.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Representative 
Biggert has two amendments today. I respectfully don't agree 
with the first one. The second one I do support, and let me 
tell you why. The purpose of this roadmap is to direct the DOE 
with the Committee, private sector, public sector researchers, 
a variety of members. That committee is controlled to look at 
short-term, which is defined by up to two years, mid-term, up 
to seven years, and long-term, up to 15 years, research, 
development and demonstration needs in solar technology. So the 
problem with sunsetting this Act by 2015, it really doesn't 
make sense for the Committee's continued existence, because 
this is really the point of this committee is to create that 
short-, medium- and long-term plan for solar energy. So I 
understand Representative Biggert's concerns but I really think 
it would really undercut the relevance of the Committee's work 
if we were to sunset it in 2015.
    Mr. Bilbray. Will the gentlelady yield?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes.
    Mr. Bilbray. Would there be a date that you think would be 
appropriate like 2020 to come back and take a look at it?
    Ms. Giffords. And let me just say that, you know, just like 
we are all lawmakers and we work with the public sector by 
recommendations from private industry from federal agencies, if 
it gets to the point where solar technology is so effective and 
we have been able to achieve some of these objectives, which I 
know that we can do if really we focus on solar technology, 
there may not be a need for it. But I don't think by putting a 
commission together to ask them, again not directing all 
funding or all research and technology, it is federal R&D; 75 
percent as it is ramped up. You know, I think that would be a 
mistake to put a time frame on it.
    Mr. Bilbray. I know the gentlelady doesn't believe in the, 
you know, thresholds to bring it back and reconstitute it 
basically in perpetuity. I think in all fairness, anybody that 
asks our constituents, sunsets are something that the public 
really, really feels strongly about. It is just where the 
sunset ought to be, and I strongly encourage the author of this 
bill to give a sunset so that you give that level of assurance 
that this is not just an institution for its sake but it is one 
with an outcome base, and that sunset I think is a very 
important selling product for a bill that I strongly would like 
to support.
    Ms. Biggert. Will the gentlelady yield?
    Chairman Gordon. Will the gentlelady yield?
    Ms. Biggert. I mean, I understand. I will certainly take 
your recommendations into consideration. At this point I don't 
think it is necessary. I mean, we have so far to go and we are 
so far behind but at this point I just don't--you know, I think 
we have more to gain by making sure that the private sector and 
the public understand that we are truly committed to solar 
energy.
    Ms. Biggert. Will the gentlelady yield?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes.
    Ms. Biggert. Thank you. You know, one-third to one-half of 
this committee is industry and I think it behooves us to, let 
us see with a review if they are doing their job because this 
isn't something that we usually do when we are putting this 
much money, and 75 percent of this money will be $1.2 billion 
and I think it is really necessary that we have a review, and 
that is all a sunset is, is just to make sure that they are 
doing their job.
    Ms. Giffords. And Representative Biggert, if you read the 
bill, the Committee must contain 11 members and these members 
will serve three-year terms. One-third of the industry must 
come from the solar industry. That is the base. But we also are 
going to have representatives from other areas as well, from 
DOE, from research institutions. So we put a ceiling on top 
just because of some of the concerns that were brought up by 
the Minority but I really don't think it is necessary at this 
point to put a sunset provision in place.
    Chairman Gordon. If the gentlelady would yield, I will 
point out that this committee obviously has jurisdiction of 
this bill and so has constant oversight, and should have the 
oversight and can at any point that it feels that it is not 
doing its job or its job has been done, just as we authorize 
it, we can deauthorize it.
    If there is no further----
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Hall is recognized.
    Mr. Hall. I just once again want to address the amount of 
the bill, the overall bill. That is not directed to this 
amendment. This amendment just requires a 15-year plan and is 
not any reason to fund the Committee indefinitely at taxpayers' 
expense but all this would be taken care of if they only left 
it under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and I don't 
understand why they take it out from under it because at least 
a third of this committee is made up of industry. They 
absolutely ought to be under here. It is a federal act. It is 
an advisory committee and it ought to be under the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act. That way it would take care of this 
amendment, it would take care of any amendment about it being 
open to the public. Nowhere in here does it say it is open to 
the public, and we know when the openings are going to be. 
Nowhere in here does it say they are going to be available for 
public inspection. Nowhere do they say the detailed minutes of 
anything. All that would be required by the Federal Advisory 
Act, even the disposition of any funds, it is very important 
here where they are telling the Department of Energy how to 
spend that money and how much money to spend and when to spend 
it. That is controlled by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 
compliance of the numbers. Any member of the staff of any 
advisory committee shall receive compensation in a rate as set 
by the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Those things are all 
taken care of. I will go a step forward on that other than the 
disposition of funds. All those things would be taken care of 
if they didn't put 15 percent of these people or a third of 
these people out of industry who have a direct interest in it.
There is no way in the world that you can control them, keep 
them from voting for something that could be contrary to the 
public good when it is to the good of the industry involved, 
and I think that gives rise to a lot of questions that are 
going to be brought up from this point forward.
    Mr. Bilbray. Parliamentary inquiry.
    Mr. Hall. I support the amendment.
    Mr. Bilbray. Parliamentary inquiry.
    Chairman Gordon. Yes, Mr. Bilbray.
    Mr. Bilbray. Mr. Chairman, would it be appropriate to amend 
the amendment before us, a second?
    Chairman Gordon. A secondary amendment would be in order.
    Mr. Bilbray. When you felt it was appropriate, I would like 
to do a secondary amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. To this amendment?
    Mr. Bilbray. Yes.
    Chairman Gordon. It would be appropriate now.
    Mr. Bilbray. I would move that we amend the amendment to 
move the date to 2020, and to speak to the amendment. First of 
all, I am really kind of taken back at some of the 
conversations going on from our side of the aisle. I know that 
Mr. Hall flashes back to his days when he was a member of 
another political affiliation that took a habit of attacking 
participation of industry, so I have to say that I think the 
participation of industry is very important here and I think 
the authors put together a good coalition on this.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Bilbray, I would suggest either Ms. 
Biggert needs to accept that or you need to put it in writing 
at the desk.
    Mr. Bilbray. Okay. That is why I was doing a parliamentary 
inquiry, Mr. Chairman.
    Ms. Biggert. If the gentleman would yield?
    Mr. Bilbray. Yes.
    Ms. Biggert. The problem is that the bill actually sunsets 
at 2015, so we would even be extending any review. The 
authorization is 2015 so we would be really extending the 
Committee to be reauthorized for another five years.
    Mr. Bilbray. Okay. Then the point of your motion was--
    Chairman Gordon. I will point out that Ms. Biggert is 
somewhat correct in that the authorization, it doesn't end. I 
mean, it is not sunsetted but the authorization would expire at 
which time like we sometimes do. We either reauthorize it or 
not reauthorize it.
    Ms. Biggert. Which is why 2015 was a good time to--
    Chairman Gordon. So that means you are not accepting--
    Mr. Bilbray. I withdraw my motion.
    Chairman Gordon. Okay. And--
    Mr. Hall. Would the gentleman yield to me one minute before 
he--
    Chairman Gordon. He just withdrew his amendment. Do you 
still want to speak to it?
    Mr. Hall. Yes, I would like to. Even when I was a Democrat, 
the gentleman from California, I supported industry and jobs 
and I support them as a Republican. I don't believe, though, 
that they ought to have control of funding and how the money is 
spent or any direction to Congress or to the Department of 
Energy and something that they could be personally involved in. 
I want to have their input but I don't want to have their 
dictating terms that benefit them for some of their failures.
    Mr. Bilbray. Would the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Hall. I sure do.
    Mr. Bilbray. That is the reason why I believe in at least 
having some sunsets down the line to where the burden of proof 
to be able to continue authorizations in there because then 
there is a level of comfort that if a mistake is made today, at 
least we will have within the next few years the ability to go 
over it again and correct these problems, so it gives more 
trust at trying new things and moving forward when you know 
that there is a break that you have got on there and there is a 
signoff that is in the future. So that level of confidence 
would be much higher for you that if there is a mistake the 
sunset allows you to correct it, and I yield back.
    Mr. Bartlett. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Dr. Bartlett is recognized.
    Mr. Bartlett. Let me ask a question. If in fact the 
authorization expires in 2015, if the Committee did not 
reauthorize it, have we not sunset the commission?
    Chairman Gordon. The commission would not be sunsetted but 
there would be no funds, money for it, so in effect--
    Mr. Bartlett. So in fact it is sunset?
    Chairman Gordon. It is the same effect, yes, sir.
    Mr. Bartlett. Okay. So then since the authorization expires 
in 2015, we have to look at that time at whether or not we want 
to continue this commission, do we not?
    Chairman Gordon. You are correct.
    Mr. Bartlett. Would that not meet the goal of the amendment 
and so the amendment then is a perfectly harmless amendment, 
why not accept it? It doesn't do anything.
    Ms. Biggert. Will the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Bartlett. I would be happy to.
    Ms. Biggert. I think that it is not clear because you are 
talking about going forward with the seven years, the three 
years, the seven years, et cetera, so it is not clear that you 
are ending that or sunsetting.
    Mr. Bartlett. Reclaiming my time, I can't understand why--
    Chairman Gordon. If I could, I need to, I think, correct my 
earlier statement. A sunset would make it go away. If the 
authorization expired, the appropriators could still 
appropriate money for it. So it is similar but not the same.
    Mr. Bartlett. But if we sunset it, they can appropriate 
money whether or not, can't they?
    Chairman Gordon. I would assume that at that time there 
would not be a commission.
    Mr. Bartlett. That hasn't stopped them in the past from 
funding things that we have discontinued. Thank you very much.
    Chairman Gordon. Good effort. Okay. Is there any further--
    Mr. Grayson. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Yes, sir. Mr. Grayson.
    Mr. Grayson. I just want to say that we would love to have 
Mr. Hall come back to our party and all is forgiven.
    Chairman Gordon. With eight and a half minutes to go, then 
if there is no further discussion, the vote occurs on the 
amendment. All in favor say ``aye.'' Opposed, ``no.'' The no's 
appear to have it. The amendment is not agreed to.
    We will--at this time I regret to have to ask you to come 
back. We have about eight minutes to go on the vote, well, 
eight official minutes to go on the vote. We have four votes--
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Mr. Chairman, could you give us about 10 
minutes extra time to get a sandwich or something?
    Chairman Gordon. Well, it was suggested 1:15 but I don't 
know if we can get those votes done by that time. What about 
1:30? And so we will--again, I thank the Committee for being 
here. We will adjourn until 1:30 at which time we will complete 
this bill and go into and complete following bill.
    [Recess.]
    Chairman Gordon. The Committee will come back to order, and 
Ms. Biggert is not here now, and so Dr. Bartlett has acquiesced 
to moving up. Oh. Okay. Here she is then. So, Dr. Bartlett, we 
will put you back in your normal order.
    The fifth amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentlelady from Illinois, Ms. Biggert. Are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Ms. Biggert. I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 003, 
offered by Ms. Biggert of Illinois.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    Ms. Biggert. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. I recognize the gentlelady for five 
minutes.
    Ms. Biggert. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Pardon me. Excuse me.
    Ms. Biggert. Thank you. Mr. Chairman, my amendment would 
require the Secretary when providing grants to fund 
demonstration projects for the solar technology to focus on 
those that provide the greatest potential to reduce energy 
costs for consumers. Recent reports show that a typical 
homeowner pays .04 cents to .07 per kilowatt hour for 
electricity. By contrast, existing solar technology would 
require a cost of .20 or .25 per kilowatt hour.
    So this results in a significant difference in cost for the 
average consumer. We can support solar technology demonstration 
and significant investment by including ways to reduce the cost 
for consumers in our initial research goals.
    So my amendment is a common sense one that requires the 
Secretary to keep the end-user, the consumer, in mind, and I 
would urge my colleagues to support it and yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Biggert follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Judy Biggert
    My amendment would require the Secretary, when providing grants to 
fund demonstration projects for solar technology, to focus on those 
that provide the greatest potential to reduce energy costs for 
consumers.
    Recent reports show that a typical homeowner, pays $0.04-.07 per 
kilowatt-hour for electricity.
    By contrast, existing solar technology would require a cost of 
$0.20-.25 per kilowatt-hour.
    This results in a significant difference in cost for the average 
consumer.
    We can support solar technology demonstration, and significant 
investment, by including ways to reduce the costs for consumers in our 
initial research goals.
    My amendment is a common sense one that requires the Secretary to 
keep the end-user--the consumer--in mind.
    I urge my colleagues to support it and yield back.

    Chairman Gordon. Does anyone else wish to discuss the 
amendment?
    If not, then Ms. Biggert, thank you for--we--for making us 
feel better, and we would accept this amendment. Thank you.
    Ms. Biggert. If the gentleman would yield?
    Chairman Gordon. Yes.
    Ms. Biggert. I would thank you and thank Chairman Giffords 
for supporting the amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. All in favor of the amendment say aye. 
Opposed, no. The ayes have it, and thank you, Ms. Biggert.
    The sixth amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentleman from Maryland, Dr. Bartlett. Are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Bartlett. I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 016, 
offered by Mr. Bartlett of Maryland.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentleman for five minutes to explain his 
amendment.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you, Chairman Gordon and Ranking Member 
Hall. I have worked very closely with Congresswoman Giffords 
and Committee staff to draft this amendment. It makes two 
changes in Section 105 concerning demonstration projects.
    First, it will strengthen the ability of U.S. companies to 
regain America's world leadership in solar technology by 
expanding from at least three to no more than five the number 
of large demonstration projects over 30 megawatts. It also 
clarifies that these large projects will be technology neutral.
    Second, it will maximize benefits to society and taxpayers 
from these demonstration projects by adding a requirement to, 
and I quote, ``promote overall electric infrastructure 
reliability and sustainability should grid functions be 
disrupted or damaged.''
    Our grid, while very efficient and cost effective, is also 
remarkably vulnerable to natural disaster or deliberate attack. 
Furthermore, the capability of operating independently of the 
grid to ensure uninterrupted electricity at critical sites and 
for vital emissions is not incorporated into the present 
requirements for demonstration projects in Section 105 of H.R. 
3585.
    This amendment ensures that solar energy technologies will 
contribute to strengthening our country's economy environment 
and national security. I appreciate very much the support that 
I have had for this. Thank you very much and yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Bartlett follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Representative Roscoe Bartlett
    Thank you Chairman Gordon & Ranking Member Hall.
    I have worked very closely with Congresswoman Giffords and 
Committee staff to draft this amendment. It makes two changes in 
Section 105 concerning demonstration projects.
    First, it will strengthen the ability of U.S. companies to regain 
America's world leadership in solar technology by expanding from at 
least three to no more than five the number of large demonstration 
projects over 30 megawatts. It also clarifies that these large projects 
will be technology neutral.
    Second, it will maximize benefits to society and taxpayers from 
these demonstration projects by adding a requirement to ``promote 
overall electric infrastructure reliability and sustainability should 
grid functions be disrupted or damaged.''
    Our grid while very efficient and cost effective is also remarkably 
vulnerable to natural disaster or deliberate attack. Furthermore, the 
capability of operating independently of the grid to ensure 
uninterrupted electricity at critical sites and for vital missions is 
not incorporated into the present requirements for demonstration 
projects in Section 105 of H.R. 3585.
    This amendment ensures that solar energy technologies will 
contribute to strengthening our country's economy, environment and 
national security.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Dr. Bartlett. We agree this is 
an excellent amendment, and again, one more way to make this go 
better.
    If there is no further discussion, all in favor, say aye. 
Opposed, nay. The ayes have it.
    The seventh amendment on the--let us see. Mr. Broun is not 
here. Let us see if--does anyone want to do his, or should we--
or Mr. Bilbray, are you prepared to come up to bat?
    Mr. Bilbray. Yes, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. The ninth amendment on the roster is an 
amendment offered by the gentleman from California, Mr. 
Bilbray. Are you ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Bilbray. Yes, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 005, 
offered by Mr. Bilbray of California.
    Mr. Bilbray. I ask for unanimous consent--
    Chairman Gordon. Okay. I ask unanimous consent to dispense 
with the reading.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes.
    Mr. Bilbray. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I don't plan on 
using the five minutes. I have used enough of your time already 
today, but as pointed out by the author of the underlying bill, 
the fact is is that the technology call of solar voltaics who 
were actually invented here in the United States and sadly the 
major production of it has gone overseas, a lot of Members may 
not know that even the basic technology of solar water heating 
was invented here in the 1880s by a company named Day and 
Night.
    The fact is our technology breakthroughs are so quickly 
adapted or stolen by other countries, and my amendment just 
basically tries to protect the proprietary information and 
trade secrets of the companies that participate in this 
program. It will just amend page 20, line 15, and specifically 
identifies the fact that it should include the protection for 
proprietary information, trade secrets, and other confidential 
business information.
    Very short, very precise but could be very important for 
our future to make sure that our future breakthroughs stay in 
the United States as much as possible. And with that I yield 
back, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Any further discussion?
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Mr. Chairman. Ranking Member Hall.
    Chairman Gordon. Well, I was going to say the temporary 
Ranking Member, Mr. Bilbray.
    Mr. Bilbray. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I appreciate that.
    Chairman Gordon. Rohrabacher. Excuse me.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Now we have got him right where we want 
him, totally confused.
    Chairman Gordon. They all look the same in California.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. When you got suntan, you just assume you 
do. Right?
    Mr. Chairman, what Mr. Bilbray is bringing up is what I 
think that--especially those people who are backing this 
legislation need to look at as an alternative to simply 
creating new authorities within the system or just simply 
spending more money as directed by those people within the 
governmental system.
    There are ways that we--and things we need to do that will 
facilitate the actual implementation and the development of 
solar energy in this country without great cost or without 
taking control of large amounts of revenue and directing them 
as this whatever elite group decides should be directed.
    One we mentioned earlier were tax credits, but another is 
to pay attention to the intellectual property rights of those 
people who own the research and have developed the products 
themselves. We have--there is a piece of legislation making its 
way through Congress which is supposedly a patent reform bill. 
Every one of the individual inventors around the country are 
scared to death of this bill because what it does is empower 
the big guys to basically take their inventions and thus take 
away the incentive for people to invest in this very, very 
solid initial research that comes up with these breakthrough 
technologies.
    So I would suggest that as we move forward in discussion of 
how to deal with solar energy, how to make sure this technology 
is brought to pay, that we look at these type of alternatives 
and think of them as alternatives to what is being proposed, 
and that is please consider the piece of legislation that is 
going to be called patent reform when in reality it is what I 
call steal American technologies act because it will open up 
theft of the little guys and really--by the way, I have talked 
to many people in the solar industry who have told me had those 
rules been in existence that they are trying to now put in 
place via this new patent bill, they would never have been able 
to invent the things and develop the solar technologies that 
they have because they would have been--they have been in 
production in China before these guys even got their patents.
    So with that said, I would--further, I agree with what Mr. 
Bilbray has been saying and add that to the debate today. Thank 
you.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Rohrabacher. You are very 
persuasive. I think this would be a good amendment.
    If there is no further discussion, then all in favor say 
aye. Opposed, nay. The ayes have it. The amendment passes.
    We will now go back to the seventh amendment with Mr. 
Broun. The seventh amendment on the roster is an amendment 
offered by the gentleman from California, Mr. Broun. Are you 
ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Broun. Everybody has--I have enjoyed you, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Oh, I am sorry. I know that.
    Mr. Broun. I don't sound like a Californian.
    Chairman Gordon. Southern California.
    Mr. Broun. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 140, 
offered by Mr. Broun of Georgia.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentleman for five minutes to explain his 
amendment.
    Mr. Broun. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I offer this amendment 
as a way to give the Secretary of Energy some discretion in 
choosing the best way to allocate funding for research, 
development, and demonstration of solid technology.
    I am concerned that the bill as drafted gives way too much 
power to the Solar Roadmap Committee that must be comprised of 
at least one-third of the energy--of the industry. I am not 
comfortable with requiring that 75 percent of the funding be 
required to go to activities chosen by such a committee.
    This leaves the Secretary with no choices if he feels such 
activities are inappropriate or if he determines or she 
determines another technology not considered by the Committee, 
for whatever reason, should receive more than 25 percent of the 
funding given to the Department.
    My amendment would require the Secretary to devote a 
percentage of the research chosen by the Committee but would 
not require it to be a set amount. I feel much more comfortable 
having the Secretary, who is confirmed by the Senate and has 
some accountability to the Congress, making the decisions on 
funding with input from the Roadmap committee, but not being 
dictated to by it.
    Thank you very much for the opportunity to submit this 
amendment for consideration, Mr. Chairman. I encourage everyone 
to vote for this common sense amendment to give the Secretary 
some flexibility and be able to make the choices that he or she 
needs, whoever that Secretary may be now and in the future, and 
I yield back the balance of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Broun follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Paul C. Broun
    Mr. Chairman, I offer this amendment as a way to give the Secretary 
of Energy some discretion in choosing the best way to allocate funding 
for research, development and demonstration of solar technology.
    I am concerned that the bill as drafted gives way too much power to 
the Solar Roadmap Committee that must be comprised of at least one-
third of the industry.
    I am not comfortable with requiring that 75 percent of the funding 
be required to go to activities chosen by such a committee.
    This leaves the Secretary with no choices if he feels such 
activities are inappropriate or if he determines another technology, 
not considered by the Committee for whatever reason, should receive 
more than 25 percent of the funding given to the Department.
    My amendment would require the Secretary to devote a percentage to 
the research chosen by the Committee, but would not require it to be a 
set amount.
    I feel much more comfortable having the Secretary, who is confirmed 
by the Senate and has some accountability to the Congress, making the 
decisions on funding with input from the Roadmap Committee but not 
being dictated to by it.
    Thank you very much for the opportunity to submit this amendment 
for consideration Mr. Chairman, and I yield back the balance of my 
time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Broun.
    Ms. Giffords is recognized.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Broun.
    I hear your concerns, but I want all the Members on the 
Committee to know that it is, in fact, the Secretary of the 
Department of Energy that will be making selection for the 
Committee Members, so he or she will really have a tremendous 
amount of discretion about who are going to be the members 
sitting on the 11-member commission.
    I have also heard earlier some concerns about the 75 
percent number. As we all know, looking at the bill, it ramps 
it up. It starts with 30 percent in fiscal year 2012, and 
culminating in 75 percent in fiscal year 2015, and I understand 
that 75 percent is a significant majority of the total funding 
for solar R&D;, but, again, looking at the purpose of the bill, 
what we would do is establish a multi-stakeholder process for 
creating a long-term plan to direct DOE's efforts for solar R&D; 
development. The resulting plan, or the roadmap, would also be 
published for everyone to see.
    So in terms of transparency and long-term thinking and 
integration of diverse use, this process would far exceed 
anything required of EERE today.
    What is more, the roadmap idea is not one that has been 
pulled out of the blue. As I said in my opening statements, 
this is based after a highly-successful semiconductor 
technology roadmap. The process has been widely hailed as 
contributing to a steady and rapid technological advancement in 
the semiconductor industry.
    In contrast, right now R&D; funding decisions at EERE are 
made by a program manager with the support of his or her staff 
according to whatever rationale he or she sees fit. There is no 
transparency currently. There is no long-term plan. There is no 
requirement for consultation with industry or any other 
stakeholders. It is just a small group of people in an office 
at the Department of Energy.
    I can't understand why Members would object to allocating 
more funding to the results of a roadmap process rather than 
the status quo. For anyone concerned with ensuring the wise use 
of taxpayer dollars, they should take at heart this roadmap 
process because it is designed to integrate the idea of a wide 
variety of solar experts from a wide range of perspectives in 
guiding R&D; funding.
    The gradual increase in the percentage of required 
allocation would provide for a smooth transition to the 
roadmap, and even at the end of the ramp up, fully 25 percent 
of the R&D; budget would still be free to be allocated to 
projects that fall outside the purview of this multi-
stakeholder effort.
    Mr. Broun. Would the gentlelady yield?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes, I will yield, Mr. Broun.
    Mr. Broun. While I understand that the Secretary of Energy 
could nominate whoever he wants to for this committee, and I 
understand also that a third--up to a half of the Committee 
members could be out of industry itself. My concern is not so 
much of--well, it is how this committee is made up but also who 
makes the decisions.
    When the Secretary puts forth the Committee, whatever it 
might be, there is no maximum number there, that committee 
could do whatever they want to with 75 percent, and I think it 
is just--I think everybody needs some accountability and 
responsibility. And the Energy Secretary is going to be the 
best way to do that and by reducing the amount and letting the 
Energy Secretary determine what kind of amount is needed, I 
think it just improves this bill and allows the flexibility to 
the Secretary that that Secretary needs to be able to make sure 
that the Roadmap Committee doesn't dictate exactly what is 
going on against what is best policy.
    So that is the reason I put forth this amendment, and I 
think it is a great amendment, and I think it gives the Energy 
Secretary the flexibility the Secretary needs, I think it is 
critical for us to not lock the Secretary of Energy into a 
formula, particularly when the Roadmap Committee is going to 
dictate 75 percent. So I think the Secretary of Energy should 
be able to make a whole lot of decisions and the Secretary of 
Energy could give up to 75 percent if they decided to do so.
    So it is not to try to change from the roadmap. My 
amendment is just to try to give the Secretary of Energy the 
flexibility that they need, and I yield back.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Broun, just for your assurance, and I 
appreciate your concerns, but we have worked extensively with 
the Department of Energy when crafting this legislation, and 
they are in support of it.
    Also, the--looking at what would be required, the solar 
roadmap is subject to a comprehensive revision every three 
years and may be updated annually as needed. So there is going 
to be a more transparent process with us and Members of 
Congress to understand again how these decisions are being made 
and where the funding is going.
    So I just would like to assure you. Obviously I don't 
support your amendment because I don't believe it is the best 
way to determine the best form of solar policy. I think this is 
a really integrated plan that will provide for a more focused 
and targeted approach but also a more comprehensive approach 
because, again, they can determine if they want to fund small 
projects, large projects, concentrated solar power, foldable 
tags, the next type of solar technology that may come. It is 
fast-changing, it has got some flexibility.
    But I think the Secretary of the Department of Energy will 
have a tremendous amount of say in the process.
    Chairman Gordon. The gentlelady's time has expired.
    Anyone else wish to make a comment?
    Mr. Smith of Nebraska. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Yes, sir. Mr. Smith is recognized for five 
minutes.
    Mr. Smith of Nebraska. Yield time to Mr. Broun.
    Mr. Broun. Thank you, Mr. Smith, for yielding time.
    There is nothing in this bill that requires transparency. 
There is nothing that--in this bill that requires open 
meetings, and so it can be done very secretly, it could be done 
with no transparency, and the Secretary of Energy, once it is 
put into place, is going to lose control over 75 percent. I 
think that is just untenable. It is just something that even 
though we are going to have the possibility of a revision on a 
yearly basis or--and it has a three-year period--I think we 
need to give the Secretary of Energy a whole lot more 
flexibility.
    And I appreciate Ms. Giffords' comments. I really do, and 
she makes a very good argument, but it is not strong enough to 
convince me that the Secretary of Energy doesn't need the 
flexibility that I think that that Secretary should have.
    And we don't know who the Secretary of Energy is going to 
be six months from now. It may be the same one we have today. 
It may be someone else, and so I think it is critical that we 
give the Secretary of Energy the flexibility that they need, 
and that is the reason I offered the amendment, and I encourage 
others to support it, and I yield back. Thank you, Mr. Smith.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Broun, you know, would you please yield 
me some time?
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Smith.
    Mr. Smith of Nebraska. Yes.
    Ms. Giffords. I am sorry. Mr. Smith.
    If you look at the bill, there actually is quite a bit of 
transparency. First of all, the bill requires the Department of 
Energy to study and publish the best practices to improve 
performance of photovoltaic installations. The study will also 
examine the effectiveness of federal, State, and local 
incentives to enhance system performance.
    Also, and this was, of course, improved upon by Mr. 
Bartlett, there are solar projects ranging from one to three 
megawatts in size, and also projects greater than 30 megawatts 
in size that are going to be funded, and of course, you know, 
we are all going to know about those projects and be interested 
to see where they end up.
    The interagency activities identified and recommended from 
the solar technology roadmap should be coordinated by the 
Director of OSTP, and again, because this is actually a really 
transparent process, we will all, unlike with what we currently 
have with EERE, be very much in the know of the decisions of 
the roadmap and the Committee members, what they come up with.
    This, you know, is precisely why this bill is being brought 
forward, because we don't have transparency right now, and this 
is an opportunity for the private sector and the public sector 
research institutions to all have an important voice in 
determining what our federal R&D; dollars go towards.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, and if there is no further 
discussion then----
    Mr. Hall. I would like----
    Chairman Gordon. Oh. Mr. Hall is recognized.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I will just very briefly--of 
course, I support Dr. Broun's amendment. I don't feel that the 
Secretary's hands to the roadmap ought to be tied, requiring 
him to use 75 percent of his appropriated funds. And you know, 
when they appoint this--into this committee from industry, what 
is it, 15 percent?
    Ms. Giffords. A third.
    Mr. Hall. A third. A third. That--is that thirty-three and 
one-third percent? I am remembering my mathematics background. 
But you want some, you want good people on that committee, and 
I want good industry people on the Committee like Rex Tillerson 
of Exxon or Herm Augustine has been on almost every known and 
led most of the real studies that have been made by different 
Presidents, and you want that type person on there.
    And if they are on there, it just seems to me that you 
would be afraid of having people on the Committee that have a 
self-promoting interest, and if something came up with 
Lockheed, why probably Augustine would be obligated to take 
their position and to report it, but still take that position. 
Or Rex Tillerson or whoever else is running Exxon at that time. 
Maybe the President might be running it, the government or 
somebody here. But they ought to have a self-promoting interest 
and could reward their own failure and then would probably be 
so required to vote to support whatever position they take.
    And I just think decisions about which research activities 
are funded ought to be left to the Secretary's discretion. 
These--that advice of industry where they have a financial 
decision to make, they ought to be watched by someone if the 
bill itself explicitly exempts them from the Federal Advisory 
Committee Act. I don't know of any major committee that hadn't 
been guided by that or relegated by that or if they are 
excluded from that, they had a very definite reason other than 
that it would slow them down, and that is all I have heard so 
far.
    So what if you have $2.5 billion involved they ought to go 
a little bit slow, but at this rate I think if you leave it to 
the Secretary's discretion, it would help some.
    Mr. Broun. Would the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Hall. I sure do. I would rather not. Who is asking me? 
Yeah. Dr. Broun, I do yield to you, sir. I didn't want Ms. 
Giffords to have to get after me anymore.
    Mr. Broun. Okay. Thank you, Mr. Hall, I appreciate that.
    Mr. Hall. I couldn't handle that.
    Mr. Broun. Ms. Giffords, since it is your bill, I am sure I 
don't have to remind you that the reporting, the dissemination 
of results that is part of section--of title two is not 
required under the roadmap part of the bill, so there is in the 
roadmap portion of the bill there is nothing that will 
guarantee any transparency or any openness.
    And so it is--the reporting is only required under title 
two of this bill, if I am not mistaken, and so it is--I just 
want to remind the Committee that there is--that under the 
roadmap portion there is not reporting necessary, required. 
There is no transparency required, thus, the only way that we 
are going to have the transparency, the only way we are going 
to have the ability to have at least a portion of it being 
transparent and required on the roadmap portion is by having 
the Secretary of Energy have the where with all to direct what 
the Secretary wants to do.
    And so it is--I think it is important to not handcuff the 
Secretary but to allow the Secretary to have some flexibility 
and give the Secretary the option of giving 75 percent or 100 
percent to the recommendations of the Roadmap Committee, but by 
locking it in with a set formula of 75 percent, then I think we 
are hamstringing the Secretary, we are hamstringing the 
American public to have the transparency that they deserve.
    And so I think it is important for us to give the Secretary 
the flexibility. I still hope that folks on your side will see 
fit to vote for my amendment, and I yield back.
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. McCaul is recognized.
    Mr. McCaul. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I just had a question 
of clarification to the author of the bill.
    Is this committee subject to the Freedom of Information 
Act?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes, it is.
    Mr. McCaul. Okay. In terms of the transparency, in terms of 
the meetings that would be subject to the FOI. Okay.
    Ms. Giffords. Yes.
    Mr. McCaul. I yield back. Thanks.
    Ms. Giffords. And, Mr. McCaul, if actually you can yield me 
some of your time and we can hear from staff specifically about 
the transparency.
    Mr. McCaul. Yeah. I would be happy to.
    Counsel. The roadmap needs to be submitted to both Congress 
and the Secretary of Energy, so it would be submitted publicly, 
and with that I yield back.
    Mr. Broun. Mr. McCaul, would you yield please?
    Mr. McCaul. Yes. I yield to Dr. Broun.
    Mr. Broun. Okay. There is no way to know how the decisions 
are made, what the process was, or anything else, just it is 
when we go through the Freedom of Information Act, which would 
be the only way to know, we still couldn't get the process 
revealed. We couldn't get decision-making thoughts revealed to 
the American public, and, again, we just lock it into 75 
percent with this bill the way it is, and so I don't think that 
is in the best interest of--and the Secretary could decide to 
give 100 percent of the funds to what the Roadmap Committee 
recommends. It is all with--if my amendment passes, everything 
will be at the discretion and only a percentage is required, 
but that percentage could be set by the Secretary of Energy.
    And I just think it makes sense to give the Secretary that 
kind of flexibility.
    Mr. McCaul. And I appreciate the gentleman's arguments.
    Mr. Broun. And I yield back.
    Mr. McCaul. I just wanted the clarification that this is 
subject to Congressional review and oversight and to the FOI as 
well, and I think that is the case.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. McCaul, I don't mean to beat a dead 
horse, but right now the decisions are being made by the EERE, 
by a program manager with their staff in an office at the DOE 
with absolutely no requirement for any consultation with the 
industry, with Congress, with researchers. Right now none of 
that is happening. It is just a small group of people stuck 
away at the DOE. I mean, this is a process, a public process, 
where we are going to have the best and the brightest in the 
industry, private sector, public sector, universities, and 
actually have a plan.
    So, Mr. Broun, I mean, I understand your concerns, and 
obviously precisely because we have the same concerns, this is 
why the roadmap is being created.
    Mr. Broun. Will the gentlelady yield?
    Ms. Giffords. It is not my time to yield.
    Mr. Broun. If I could just reclaim my time.
    Chairman Gordon. If Mr. McCaul will yield to you.
    Mr. McCaul. I reclaim my time, and I yield to Dr. Broun.
    Mr. Broun. Thank you, Mr. McCaul.
    Mr. McCaul. Sure.
    Mr. Broun. I don't think anything should be decided in the 
dark, and I agree with the gentlelady that we need to make some 
changes of the process, but--and it is--the process today is 
flawed, and I congratulate the gentlelady for bringing that 
forward.
    The biggest objection I have is that we don't have a 
flexibility for the Secretary to be able to look at valid 
awards that are outside that 25 percent that they will have, 
and so there may be other things that the Secretary would like 
to look at but the Roadmap Committee had not recommended. And 
that is not going to be available under this current bill 
without my amendment.
    My amendment would just give the flexibility to the 
Secretary, and I think it is critical that the Secretary have 
that flexibility, and I yield back.
    Mr. McCaul. Reclaiming my time----
    Mr. Hall. Would the gentleman yield to me?
    Mr. McCaul. I would be happy to yield.
    Mr. Hall. That is just like a general indictment of the 
lack of oversight by Republicans or Democrats. That is the key 
to it. They are subject to an advisory committee unless they 
are oversight.
    Mr. McCaul. Uh-huh. And reclaiming my time, and I know I am 
out of step with my party on this particular piece of 
legislation, but I like the idea of the private industry, 
academia, national labs collaborating together, making these 
decisions rather than some bureaucrats behind closed doors, you 
know, in Washington. And I think that is part of this bill that 
I think is a good feature to it, and with that, Mr. Chairman, I 
yield back.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. McCaul.
    If there is no further discussion on the amendment, the 
vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor, say aye. Opposed, 
no. The no's have it. The amendment is not agreed to.
    The eighth amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
by the gentleman from Georgia. Mr. Broun, are you ready to 
proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Broun. Yes, I am, Mr. Chairman. I am glad you moved me 
to my proper place.
    Chairman Gordon. I thought you would feel more----
    Mr. Broun. And I know my place around here, too. I have an 
amendment at the desk, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 3585, amendment number 141, 
offered by Mr. Broun of Georgia.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading.
    Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentleman for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Broun. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Again, I would like to 
thank you for allowing me to submit my amendment for 
consideration here today.
    As my colleagues have already stated, our country is in 
dire need of a strong and stable domestic energy supply. I have 
authored and co-sponsored many pieces of legislation designed 
to do just that. In tearing down the barriers that exist today 
on new nuclear power sources to allowing for safe and 
environmental-friendly oil and gas exploration, to do wind and 
hydroelectricity projects. We have it in our power to allow our 
own private industries to solve the problems set before us 
today.
    Mr. Chairman, I believe we should be passing legislation 
which will encourage innovation and expansion in all of these 
arenas. The energy solution we are focusing on today is on 
solar energy and with good reason. As our fellow Committee 
Members, Ms. Giffords and Mr. Rohrabacher, have often stated, 
the technological advances in this specific field are almost 
endless and are growing more numerous by the day.
    And they are not only the ones among us who know firsthand 
about the great potential available in this field. We should be 
doing all that we can to foster that potential and to scale 
back the regulatory burdens that exist in our markets to allow 
easier pathways for private industry to help make that goal a 
reality.
    But we must also recognize one plain and simple fact. We do 
not currently have enough money to do all of the things that we 
all would like to do. The goal of energy independence is 
rightfully centered around getting our country away from its 
dependence on specific foreign countries who at best have very 
shaky internal leadership and at worst are outright hostile 
toward America.
    But realizing this noble and vital goal cannot come at the 
expense of shifting our monetary needs onto still other 
countries that have proven to be unpredictable towards us in 
even the most stable of economic times. I think that we can all 
agree that our current economic situation is far from stable.
    So with an eye towards balancing the notable self-interest 
of energy independence and sustaining a stable monetary system, 
the amendment I have offered today would freeze the amount 
authorized in this legislation for the next five years at $200 
million each year.
    Mr. Chairman, while I am still not certain that there 
should be a federal role in the expansion of solar energy other 
than to make it easier for the private sector to do so, I am 
quite certain that we simply do not have the monetary resources 
to spend well over $2 billion over the next five years out of 
the federal treasury, and our children and our grandchildren 
certainly cannot afford that bill.
    I ask my colleagues to understand that our financial 
resources are not unlimited. We must be responsible with our 
spending. We must also be aware that the debt we force upon our 
children and grandchildren, even in the pursuit of noble and 
Earth-while projects, is still debt.
    So I ask my colleagues to support my amendment, which I 
hope will start us down the co-equal paths of fiscal and energy 
independence. The amendment reduces it to $200 million in each 
of the next three years, and I yield back the balance of my 
time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Broun follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Paul C. Broun
    Mr. Chairman, again I would like to thank you for allowing me to 
submit my amendment for consideration here today.
    As my colleagues have already stated, our country is in dire need 
of a strong and stable domestic energy supply.
    I have authored and co-sponsored many pieces of legislation 
designed to do just that.
    From tearing down the barriers that exist today on new nuclear 
power sources, to allowing for safer and environmentally friendly oil 
and gas exploration, to new wind and hydro-electricity projects, we 
have it in our power to allow our own private industries to solve the 
problem set before us.
    And Mr. Chairman I believe we should be passing legislation which 
will encourage innovation and expansion in all of these arenas.
    The energy solution we are focusing on today on is Solar Energy, 
and with good reason.
    As our fellow Committee Members, Mrs. Giffords and Mr. Rohrbacher, 
have often stated, the technological advances in this specific field 
are almost endless and are growing more numerous by the day.
    And they are not the only ones among us who know first hand about 
the great potential available in this field.
    We should be doing all that we can to foster that potential and to 
scale back the regulatory burdens that exist in our markets to allow 
easier pathways for private industry to help make that goal a reality.
    But we must also recognize one plain and simple fact: we do not 
currently have enough money to do all of the things that we would like 
to do.
    The goal of energy independence is rightfully centered around 
getting our country away from its dependence on specific foreign 
countries who, at best, have very shaky internal leadership and at 
worst, are outright hostile toward America.
    But realizing this noble and vital goal cannot come at the expense 
of shifting our monetary needs onto still other countries that have 
proven to be unpredictable towards us in even the most stable of 
economic times.
    I think we can all agree that our current economic situation is far 
from stable.
    So with an eye toward balancing the notable self-interest of energy 
independence and sustaining a stable monetary system, the amendment I 
have offered today would freeze the amount authorized in this 
legislation for the next five years at $200 million each year.
    Mr. Chairman, while I am still not certain that there should be a 
federal role in the expansion of solar energy other than to make it 
easier for the private sector to do so, I am quite certain that we 
simply do not have the monetary resources to spend well over $2 billion 
over the next five years out of the federal treasury.
    I ask my colleagues to understand that our financial resources are 
not unlimited.
    We must be responsible with our spending.
    We must also be aware that the debt we force upon our children and 
grandchildren, even in the pursuit of noble and erstwhile projects, is 
still debt.
    So I ask my colleagues to support my amendment, which I hope will 
start us down the co-equal paths of energy and fiscal independence.
    And I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr.--Dr. Broun.
    Ms. Giffords is recognized.
    Ms. Giffords. Thank you. Dr. Broun, I hear your concerns, 
but I would just like to remind the Members of the Committee 
that your amendment would cap the authorization for solar R&D; 
at $200 million per year, which is $50 million less than was 
authorized in fiscal year 2009, in the Energy Policy Act of 
2005. Thats bill was, of course, passed by the Republican-led 
Congress.
    I believe the best justification for the proposed 
authorization levels for this bill comes from taking a 
historical look at the investment that we have made in energy 
R&D.; Between 1978, and 2005, the United States Government spent 
$30 billion on R&D; for nuclear energy alone. We spent another 
$24 billion on fossil fuels research. During the same time 
period we spent less than half--excuse me. We spent less than 
$6.5 billion on solar energy. More than half of that research 
was actually performed prior to 1985, which was 25 years ago.
    Now, maybe some people think these disperities are 
appropriate, maybe they think solar does not merit the same 
level of investment because it is not able to provide as much 
energy as other technologies, but today that is simply false. 
Our solar resources are vast in scale, and they are capable of 
making a significant contribution to our energy needs.
    Using today's technology, solar power could meet the 
electricity demands of the United States on a square piece of 
land only 100 by 100 miles, or 10,000 square miles. That is 
just one-fourth of the land area currently covered by 
artificial lakes behind hydroelectric dams, which provide less 
than 10 percent of our nation's electricity.
    Scott Stephens, an engineer with the Solar Energy 
Technology Program at the Department of Energy, recently stated 
publicly that with the right incentives solar power has the 
potential to provide 20 percent, again, 20 percent of America's 
electricity needs by the year 2030. That is equal to the amount 
of power currently provided by nuclear power plants.
    Yet to date we have spent just one-tenth the resources 
developing solar technologies than we have spent developing 
nuclear. In the last 30 years we have spent four times more 
money developing coal technology than solar, and burning coal 
is a technology that is over 150 years old.
    At the end of the term covered in my bill it would 
authorize $550 million to solar R&D.; At the peak of the energy 
crisis in the 1970s, we spent $3 billion a year on nuclear 
power development and $1.8 billion on fossil fuels in 2007, 
dollars.
    So as I said before, solar is not a fringe energy. Solar 
and solar today specifically is really serious. I have spoken 
many times in this committee about the benefits of solar power: 
economic growth, good jobs, increased security, and reduced 
environmental impacts. It is time for our investment in this 
resource to match the scale of the opportunity before us.
    In fiscal year 2011, the solar technology roadmap would 
authorize $350 million, which is only about 10 percent of 
today's energy R&D; budget. As the solar technology roadmap 
ramps up, it will allow solar to fulfill its full potential by 
giving it the funding it needs to become a mature energy 
technology.
    With that I yield back my time.
    Mr. Broun. Would the gentlelady yield?
    Ms. Giffords. Yes, Mr. Broun.
    Mr. Broun. Thank you, ma'am. I appreciate, Ms. Giffords.
    I am all in favor of solar energy. I really am, and we have 
seen tremendous strides in that field just through the private 
sector, and I don't think the Federal Government is the sole 
arbiter of solar energy or any energy sources. I think the 
marketplace is going to be the best way to do that, and I want 
to facilitate the development of all these technologies.
    You talk about 100 miles, about 100-mile grid that can 
provide all the electrical energy, I don't think you want to 
put that in Arizona, but the--and take up that kind of space 
there, and I don't think your constituents would either, but 
the last time that we did an authorization under Republican 
leadership we were in different economic times than we are 
today. We are borrowing from our grandchildren's future, and in 
fact, they are going to live at a lower standard of living 
today if we don't stop the outrageous spending here in 
Congress.
    I am all for solar energy.
    Ms. Giffords. And Mr. Broun----
    Mr. Broun. And when families have economic hard times, they 
tighten their belts, and they stop spending money. Now----
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Broun----
    Mr. Broun. --my amendment wouldn't----
    Ms. Giffords. --I am reclaiming my time
    Mr. Broun. Yes, ma'am. Thank you.
    Ms. Giffords. You know, we import over 60 percent of our 
energy here in the United States right now. About $400 billion. 
This is the largest transference of wealth. Weaning our 
dependence off of foreign energy is a national security 
priority. It is a priority because we are--our growth will 
continue, our needs for energy will continue, yet without 
aggressive, smart steps like this solar technology roadmap, we 
won't get there.
    Other countries get it. They are moving forward. We are 
falling behind. This is a plan to put us on the right path. I 
am concerned about debt and deficient just like you are, but 
unless we take some aggressive steps, like actually planning 
for this new type of energy, we will continue to be left in the 
dust.
    Chairman Gordon. The gentlelady's time has expired, and we 
have enjoyed the conversation between the gentlelady and Dr. 
Broun, but if there is no further discussion----
    Mr. Hall. I would like to----
    Chairman Gordon. Mr. Hall is recognized.
    Mr. Hall. I don't even know what I want to say.
    Chairman Gordon. Do you want to think about it while we 
vote here?
    Mr. Hall. I would like to brag on the author a little more 
if I could but--and I want to, and I will.
    And we are on a bill here today, all of us are in kind of a 
bind on this, because we are all pro-solar. We all know we need 
solar. We know solar could be the answer to every problem we 
have power wise, and I think I would feel bad if I left here 
and had voted against the bill, the solar bill. But with this 
amendment, Mr. Broun, he has given us a little bit of cover 
there because we can always say, yeah, we voted to knock it 
down to $600 million.
    But that brings me to talking about money, you know. Even 
in the bailout, you know, the $800 billion, if they had just 
waited a little bit there and when the President, the new 
President came in and asked for it and the old President joined 
him, when Bush and Obama got together, that passed that $800 
billion bailout bill. It wouldn't have passed, but they had--
they were there then, Mr. Chairman, with $450 billion in FDIC 
that they could have used, and I happen to know that was their 
fallback position. They could have used that instead, and they 
wouldn't have thrown away that $369 billion they threw at AIG.
    So you can throw too much money at anything, but we are not 
without money here, and yes, Madam Author, they did authorize 
that much money, but they didn't appropriate it. It is just--I 
don't believe that happened. If it did, somebody--and correct 
me on it, I am pretty sure it didn't, and that is kind of the 
way it would happen here, and here we are also getting for 
this, for solar, they get $200 million for two years from the 
Stimulus Bill. That is added onto this. The annual current 
budget gives them a couple hundred million or $250 million per 
year.
    It seems like, you know, it looks like $2.5 billion is just 
really--and maybe if we are just appropriating and not 
authorizing it, maybe that is okay. And, you know, I have the 
problem of asking for a vote on it when we could just vote it 
out, voice vote it, and everybody can always claim they voted 
either way, but I am really, I really have a hard time voting 
against a solar bill, and this is a good solar bill. The only 
problem I really have with it is the amount, and the amount 
overshadows so much the fact that I wanted the coverage of the 
national--of that--what is the name of that? The federal 
committee to use their regulations, normal regulations you use 
on something like this.
    That is about all I have to say. At least--well, I am not 
really ready to quit talking. I would hope that we can pass 
this bill and then we can have some talks with you on down the 
line on what we are going to do with all this money and how 
they are going to allocate it and how they are going to report 
it and maybe get a little more strength in your bill as to the 
requirements for notice and requirements for hearings and 
requirements for the public other than just for those folks to 
be in it.
    And to get with my group over here, Leslie Gilbert, 
Margaret, and these other ladies here that work and advise us, 
get with them and see if we can't have some--another second 
look at it before we hit the Floor with it and go to Rules 
Committee.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Hall, to your point, obviously 
authorization is a different process than appropriations. What 
we are--we are setting the optimal level for the spending, but, 
of course, the appropriators will then have to step in and make 
the decisions that they make in their committee.
    You know, relative to historical times, and that is why I 
took the time to lay out how much our investment has been 
throughout the course of the last 25 years in this country to 
coal and to nuclear, it is big compared to what we have done 
historically. But compared to the amount of opportunity for 
solar energy with today's technology, this amount is actually 
relatively small.
    So, of course, I am always interested in working with you 
and Members of the Committee to make this bill better. The 
manager's amendment, as I said earlier, the majority of the 
changes came from the Minority Members. The Minority Members 
brought some great amendments today, and we will continue to 
look forward with you, but I don't want to lose sight of this 
opportunity, and I want this committee to think big. The 
opportunities are great for our country, and putting this 
roadmap in place will be an excellent tool for us to be able to 
focus our efforts.
    Chairman Gordon. The gentleman's time has expired.
    Mr. Hall. I yield back. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion on the bill? 
If--Mr. Inglis.
    Mr. Inglis. Just briefly. I want to associate myself with 
the comments of the Ranking Member. I think that he speaks for 
many of us in saying that this is a good bill, we liked it 
before. It is just the money is beyond a level that is probably 
going to be appropriated.
    In fact, not probably, it is beyond the level that is going 
to be appropriated. In fact, substantially beyond what is going 
to be appropriated. And so it just--it calls into question why 
we authorize such a large number and then appropriations is 
going to come way below that, but meanwhile we went way out 
there on a very large number, especially with the money in the 
Stimulus Bill and with the other expenditures.
    I think it does make sense to spend that money, a lot of 
money on solar. It is--and I would disagree with Mr. Broun's 
comments. Even when the government is in deficit, you would 
spend money if you were going to make money, and if you got a 
company that is in financial trouble, you can go borrow money 
even though you are in big trouble if they think you have got a 
great idea. You can find lenders who will lend you money to 
power your way out of your trouble, and that is the situation 
that the country is in, I think, as to energy.
    It makes sense to spend money on energy. The question is 
whether it makes sense to spend this much money and--or to 
authorize this much money. And then, of course, as the Ranking 
Member said, we could just all take solace in the fact that, 
well, it is not going to be appropriated, so just vote for the 
thing and then just wait for how much the appropriators knock 
it down to.
    But that gives us a little bit of a feeling of having 
authorized a huge number when it is not going to be 
appropriated.
    Ms. Giffords. Mr. Inglis, if I may. I just want to again 
remind everyone that in fiscal year 2011, the solar roadmap 
calls for $350 million, which is only 10 percent of today's 
energy R&D; budget. So it is a number, but in the big picture it 
is only 10 percent, and look at the potential that solar energy 
has for the Nation.
    So I want to make sure that you keep that number in 
perspective. Thank you.
    Mr. Broun. Will the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Inglis. Yes.
    Mr. Broun. I would like to throw in a couple of things.
    It goes up about $50 million a year, first thing. Secondly, 
I don't think that solar research is--has to be necessarily 
funded by the Federal Government, particularly when the Federal 
Government is in such great debt. It is important for us to be 
fiscally responsible and just continue to spend money and spend 
money and spend money that we do not have even to authorize 
some money at these huge levels that we do not have.
    I for one believe that if we are not energy independent as 
a Nation, we are not a secure nation. So I agree with Ms. 
Giffords on that, and I would like to see us energy 
independent. I would like to see us develop wind and solar and 
all these alternative energy sources. I would like to see us 
have greater development and easier permeating for nuclear 
power, and I have been a very strong advocate for doing so. I 
would like to see new energy sources developed, and I am a 
strong advocate for all of those things. It is just that I 
think authorizing a much less amount of money than what we are 
authorizing in the bill as it currently is written is being 
more fiscally responsible and doesn't preclude the private 
sector from spending whatever they want to spend, and I think 
we have seen breakthroughs in many areas of science and 
technology across the spectrum. They have come from the private 
sector.
    Certainly in my business of healthcare and medicine we have 
seen the private sector develop lots of things. For instance, 
lasik surgery was never funded by the Federal Government, and 
the price has been lower because of the marketplace, just as a 
good example.
    So just because we do or don't authorize the amount of 
money, doesn't make the appropriators appropriate it. They 
appropriate more than we authorize, and we have seen that in 
numerous cases, too.
    But I think it is just incumbent upon us as 
Representatives, not rules of the people that are in our 
District but Representatives of the people in our District and 
Representatives of our children and grandchildren's future that 
we need to cut down the amount of money that is being 
authorized in this bill, and I yield back.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Broun. If there is no 
further----
    Mr. Bartlett. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Oh, Dr. Bartlett is recognized.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you very much. You know, if oil was 
still $150 a barrel, we wouldn't be here today talking about 
funding in this bill, because when oil was $150 a barrel, 
industry was spending plenty of money on alternatives. The 
problem is that the government did not do the responsible 
thing, and that is to put a floor under oil. We needed to have 
told industry that oil will never be less than say $80 a 
barrel, which I think is a reasonable figure where industry 
will now invest in alternatives.
    We didn't do that, and so now that oil has plummeted down 
to $60, now $70 a barrel, there just isn't a lot of private 
capitol out there. I wish we had done the other rather than 
fund each of these individual bills, because we need to put no 
public money in this if oil was $150 a barrel. Now, there was 
plenty incentive for the private sector to invest money, but 
the government, we in Congress did not do the responsible 
thing, and that is putting a floor, in effect a floor under 
oil. Tell industry if it ever drops below a certain value, I am 
not sure what that value is, but if it ever drops below a 
certain value, we will make up the difference so you can 
continue to invest in alternatives because there is going to be 
a future in alternatives. We didn't do that, and now we are 
stuck, so here we are.
    And I am not sure this is too much money to spend. We face 
a huge, huge crisis in energy. You don't see it now because the 
world is in recession, but the sad fact is that never, ever 
again can the world have sustained good times unless we do 
something about alternative energy. Because as soon as the 
economy comes back worldwide, the demand for oil will go up, it 
will be $150, $200, $250 a barrel, and that will squelch the 
economy.
    So because we didn't do the right thing, now we have to do 
something which many Members on my side think is the wrong 
thing to do. But, you know, here we are. We are kind of stuck, 
and we really do need this alternative energy.
    Thank you, and I yield back.
    Mr. Tonko. Just quickly.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Dr. Bartlett, and Mr. Tonko is 
recognized.
    Mr. Tonko. Yeah. Just quickly, Mr. Chair. I want to commend 
the sponsor for her legislation. You know, we are challenging 
each other on this--on the Committee and rightfully so, and our 
choices that we are acknowledging need to be made. The real 
choice is are we going to commit our nation to compete with 
other emerging energy powers in the world?
    That is so obvious right now. If we do not commit to 
winning this green energy race like we did 40 years ago with 
the space race, we are going to fall behind. We can talk about 
a safe, secure, sustainable future for our children. But that 
doesn't happen unless we provide the sort of green energy 
outcomes that are, you know, fueling the innovation economy in 
this Nation.
    We must emerge from this race as the go-to Nation that will 
be the exporter of energy intellect, energy innovation. The 
government has a role to play in that. We have to shave the 
priciness off of some of the renewables. We have to commit to 
the most efficient use of dollars in these sciences and 
technologies that are developed for renewable opportunities.
    And so I commend the sponsor, and I think it deserves a 
supportive vote here.
    Chairman Gordon. If there is no further discussion on the 
bill, the vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor, say aye. 
Those opposed, no. The no's have it. The amendment is not 
agreed to.
    The Clerk will record, will call the role, please. Record 
the vote.
    The Clerk. Chairman Gordon.
    Chairman Gordon. No.
    The Clerk. Chairman Gordon votes no. Mr. Costello.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Ms. Johnson.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Ms. Woolsey.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Wu.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Baird.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Miller.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Lipinski.
    Mr. Lipinski. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Lipinski votes no. Ms. Giffords.
    Ms. Giffords. No.
    The Clerk. Ms. Giffords votes no. Ms. Edwards.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Ms. Fudge.
    Ms. Fudge. No.
    The Clerk. Ms. Fudge votes no. Mr. Lujan.
    Mr. Lujan. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Lujan votes no. Mr. Tonko.
    Mr. Tonko. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Tonko votes no. Mr. Griffith.
    Mr. Griffith. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Griffith votes no. Mr. Rothman.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Matheson.
    Mr. Matheson. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Matheson votes no. Mr. Davis.
    Mr. Davis. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Davis votes no. Mr. Chandler.
    Mr. Chandler. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Chandler votes no. Mr. Carnahan.
    Mr. Carnahan. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Carnahan votes no. Mr. Hill.
    Mr. Hill. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Hill votes no. Mr. Mitchell.
    Mr. Mitchell. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Mitchell votes no. Mr. Wilson.
    Mr. Wilson. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Wilson votes no. Ms. Dahlkemper.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Grayson.
    Mr. Grayson. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Grayson votes no. Ms. Kosmas.
    Ms. Kosmas. No.
    The Clerk. Ms. Kosmas votes no. Mr. Peters.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Hall.
    Mr. Hall. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Hall votes aye. Mr. Sensenbrenner.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Lamar Smith.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Rohrabacher.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Yes.
    The Clerk. Mr. Rohrabacher votes aye. Mr. Bartlett.
    Mr. Bartlett. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Bartlett votes present. Mr. Ehlers.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Lucas.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Ms. Biggert.
    Ms. Biggert. Aye.
    The Clerk. Ms. Biggert votes aye. Mr. Akin.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Neugebauer.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Inglis.
    Mr. Inglis. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Inglis votes aye. Mr. McCaul.
    Mr. McCaul. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. McCaul votes no. Mr. Diaz-Balart.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Bilbray.
    [No response.]
    The Clerk. Mr. Adrian Smith.
    Mr. Smith of Nebraska. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Adrian Smith votes aye. Mr. Broun.
    Mr. Broun. Aye.
    The Clerk. Mr. Broun votes aye. Mr. Olson.
    [No response.]
    Chairman Gordon. How is Mr. Baird recorded?
    The Clerk. Mr. Baird is not recorded.
    Mr. Baird. Mr. Baird votes no.
    Chairman Gordon. And how is Mr. Costello recorded?
    The Clerk. Mr. Costello is not recorded.
    Mr. Costello. No.
    The Clerk. Mr. Costello votes no.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there anyone else that has not been 
recorded?
    If not, when the tally is made, please report.
    The Clerk. Mr. Chairman, six Members vote aye, 19 Members 
vote no, and one Member votes present.



    Chairman Gordon. The no's have it. The amendment is not 
agreed to.
    Are there other amendments?
    If no, then the vote is on the bill. H.R. 3585 as amended. 
All those in favor will say, aye. All those opposed, no. In the 
opinion of the Chair the ayes have it.
    I now recognize--well, I recognize Mr. Tonko for a motion.
    Mr. Tonko. Mr. Chair, I move that the Committee favorably 
report H.R. 3585 as amended to the House with the 
recommendation that the bill do pass. Furthermore, I move that 
the staff be instructed to prepare the legislative report and 
make necessary technical and conforming changes and that the 
Chair take all necessary steps to bring the bill before the 
House for consideration.
    Chairman Gordon. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying, aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The bill is 
favorably reported.
    Without objection, the motion to--okay. Without objection, 
the motion is reconsidered. It is laid upon the table. Members 
will have two subsequent calendar days in which to submit 
supplemental, Minority, or additional views on the measure.
    I want to thank the Members for their attendance and the 
staff on both sides for their good work. This concludes our 
Committee markup.
    [Whereupon, at 3:55 p.m., the Committee was adjourned.]

                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


                 H.R. 3585 as amended, Amendment Roster







                         XIII. Additional Views

                                ------                                


                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS

    As a conference, we are supportive of solar energy and have 
so voted. We certainly see the great potential it has to be a 
contributor of energy to our constituents. However we do have 
some concerns with the large authorization in this bill and the 
requirement of funds to be directed to the roadmap 
recommendations.
    First, the bill authorizes $2.25 billion over five years. 
This is not an insignificant amount--especially in our current 
financial climate. The question was raised whether or not 
investment tax credits for solar energy, long-term incentives 
to develop renewable energy in general, or an easing of 
burdensome regulations would be a better way to encourage the 
development and use of solar energy. Solar energy has been ``on 
the forefront'' for over thirty years and it still only makes 
up 1% of the 7% of the renewable energy consumed in the U.S. 
according to the Energy Information Administration. This 
authorization, coupled with the requirement that the Secretary 
of Energy (Secretary) allocate at least 75% of funding to those 
solar research, development, and demonstration projects 
directed under the Roadmap, leaves little flexibility for 
innovations that may be viable and yet not included as part of 
the Roadmap.
    Second, the bill directs the Secretary to spend a minimum 
increasing amount (starting with at least 30% in 2012 and 
culminating with at least 75% in 2015) with no maximum limit of 
the authorization on the research, development and 
demonstration (RD&D;) set forth by the Roadmap Committee. At 
least one third of the Committee is made up of industry 
officials who are explicitly exempted from the Federal Advisory 
Committee Act, which is intended to provide an open and 
transparent process. While we support the Department of Energy, 
university, and industry collaboration in the area of solar 
research, development and demonstration, the optics of this 
exemption are that you now have a Committee, half of whose 
membership could be industry, telling the Department of Energy 
(DOE) where to direct taxpayer money into RD&D; that could 
benefit their companies while not having to answer to anyone or 
defend their recommendations. We do appreciate the inclusion, 
at our suggestion, of language dealing with potential conflicts 
of interest in regard to Roadmap Committee membership, as well 
as the other suggestions we made that were included in the 
Manager's Amendment.
    During the markup, we attempted to address our concerns 
through amendments that would have reduced the authorization, 
given the Secretary of DOE discretion as to how much funding 
should go to the Roadmap recommendations, and sunset the 
Roadmap Committee in 2015. These amendments were all voted 
down.
    We are hopeful that these concerns can be addressed should 
we move to a conference with the Senate.
                                   Ralph Hall.
                                   James Sensenbrenner.
                                   Brian Bilbray.
                                   Dana Rohrabacher.
                                   Vernon Ehlers.
                                   Frank D. Lucas.
                                   Judy Biggert.
                                   Bob Inglis.
                                   Mario Diaz-Balart.
                                   Paul Broun.
                                   Pete Olson.
                                   Adrian Smith.
                                   Lamar Smith.