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111th Congress                                            Rept. 111-679
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                      Part 1

======================================================================



 
                      WARTIME TREATMENT STUDY ACT

                                _______
                                

               December 13, 2010.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Conyers, from the Committee on the Judiciary, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                            DISSENTING VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 1425]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on the Judiciary, to whom was referred the bill 
(H.R. 1425) to establish commissions to review the facts and 
circumstances surrounding injustices suffered by European 
Americans, European Latin Americans, and Jewish refugees during 
World War II, having considered the same, report favorably 
thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill as 
amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
The Amendment....................................................     2
Purpose and Summary..............................................     7
Background and Need for the Legislation..........................     7
Hearings.........................................................     8
Committee Consideration..........................................     8
Committee Votes..................................................     9
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................    10
New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures........................    10
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................    11
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................    12
Constitutional Authority Statement...............................    12
Advisory on Earmarks.............................................    12
Section-by-Section Analysis......................................    12
Dissenting Views.................................................    15
Appendix.........................................................    17

                             The Amendment

  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Wartime Treatment Study Act''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) During World War II, the United States Government 
        deemed as ``enemy aliens'' more than 600,000 Italian-born and 
        300,000 German-born United States resident aliens and their 
        families, requiring them to carry Certificates of 
        Identification and limiting their travel and personal property 
        rights. At that time, these groups were the two largest 
        foreign-born groups in the United States.
            (2) During World War II, the United States Government 
        arrested, interned, or otherwise detained thousands of European 
        Americans, some remaining in custody for years after cessation 
        of World War II hostilities, and repatriated, exchanged, or 
        deported European Americans, including American-born children, 
        to European Axis nations, many to be exchanged for Americans 
        held in those nations.
            (3) Pursuant to a policy coordinated by the United States 
        with Latin American nations, thousands of European Latin 
        Americans, including German and Austrian Jews, were arrested, 
        relocated to the United States, and interned. Many were later 
        repatriated or deported to European Axis nations during World 
        War II and exchanged for Americans and Latin Americans held in 
        those nations.
            (4) Millions of European Americans served in the armed 
        forces and thousands sacrificed their lives in defense of the 
        United States.
            (5) The wartime policies of the United States Government 
        were devastating to the German American and Italian American 
        communities, individuals, and families. The detrimental effects 
        are still being experienced.
            (6) Prior to and during World War II, the United States 
        restricted the entry of Jewish refugees who were fleeing 
        persecution or genocide and sought safety in the United States. 
        During the 1930s and 1940s, the quota system, immigration 
        regulations, visa requirements, and the time required to 
        process visa applications affected the number of Jewish 
        refugees, particularly those from Germany and Austria, who 
        could gain admittance to the United States.
            (7) The United States Government should conduct an 
        independent review to fully assess and acknowledge these 
        actions. Congress has previously reviewed the United States 
        Government's wartime treatment of Japanese Americans through 
        the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of 
        Civilians. An independent review of the treatment of German 
        Americans and Italian Americans and of Jewish refugees fleeing 
        persecution and genocide has not yet been undertaken.
            (8) Time is of the essence for the establishment of 
        commissions, because of the increasing danger of destruction 
        and loss of relevant documents, the advanced age of potential 
        witnesses and, most importantly, the advanced age of those 
        affected by the United States Government's policies. Many who 
        suffered have already passed away and will never know of this 
        effort.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) During world war ii.--The term ``during World War II'' 
        refers to the period beginning September 1, 1939, and ending 
        December 31, 1948.
            (2) European americans.--
                    (A) In general.--The term ``European Americans'' 
                refers to United States citizens and resident aliens of 
                European ancestry, including Italian Americans, German 
                Americans, Hungarian Americans, Romanian Americans, and 
                Bulgarian Americans.
                    (B) German americans.--The term ``German 
                Americans'' refers to United States citizens and 
                resident aliens of German ancestry.
                    (C) Italian americans.--The term ``Italian 
                Americans'' refers to United States citizens and 
                resident aliens of Italian ancestry.
            (3) European latin americans.--The term ``European Latin 
        Americans'' refers to persons of European ancestry, including 
        German or Italian ancestry, residing in a Latin American nation 
        during World War II.
            (4) Latin american nation.--The term ``Latin American 
        nation'' refers to any nation in Central America, South 
        America, or the Caribbean.

     TITLE I--COMMISSION ON WARTIME TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN AMERICANS

SEC. 101. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSION ON WARTIME TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN 
                    AMERICANS.

    (a) In General.--There is established the Commission on Wartime 
Treatment of European Americans (referred to in this title as the 
``European American Commission'').
    (b) Membership.--The European American Commission shall be composed 
of 7 members, who shall be appointed not later than 90 days after the 
date of the enactment of this Act as follows:
            (1) 3 members shall be appointed by the President.
            (2) 2 members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the 
        House of Representatives, in consultation with the minority 
        leader.
            (3) 2 members shall be appointed by the majority leader of 
        the Senate, in consultation with the minority leader.
The selections of the members of the European American Commission shall 
be done to ensure that all of the members are fully able to adequately 
and fairly review the facts and discharge the duties of the commission 
without bias.
    (c) Terms.--The term of office for members shall be for the life of 
the European American Commission. A vacancy in the European American 
Commission shall not affect its powers, and shall be filled in the same 
manner in which the original appointment was made.
    (d) Representation.--The European American Commission shall include 
two members with professional expertise relating to the treatment of 
Italian Americans and two members with professional expertise relating 
to the treatment of German Americans.
    (e) First Meeting.--The President shall call the first meeting of 
the European American Commission not later than 120 days after the date 
of the enactment of this Act.
    (f) Quorum.--Four members of the European American Commission shall 
constitute a quorum, but a lesser number may hold hearings.
    (g) Chairs.--The European American Commission shall elect a 
Chairperson and Vice Chairperson from among its members. The term of 
office of each shall be for the life of the European American 
Commission.
    (h) Compensation.--
            (1) In general.--Members of the European American 
        Commission shall serve without pay.
            (2) Reimbursement of expenses.--All members of the European 
        American Commission shall be reimbursed for reasonable travel 
        and subsistence, and other reasonable and necessary expenses 
        incurred by them in the performance of their duties.

SEC. 102. DUTIES OF THE EUROPEAN AMERICAN COMMISSION.

    (a) In General.--The European American Commission shall review the 
United States Government's wartime treatment of European Americans and 
European Latin Americans, as provided in subsection (b).
    (b) Scope of Review.--The European American Commission's review 
shall include the following:
            (1) A comprehensive review of the facts and circumstances 
        surrounding action by the United States Government during World 
        War II with respect to European Americans and European Latin 
        Americans pursuant to United States laws and directives, 
        including the Alien Enemies Acts (50 U.S.C. 21 et seq.), 
        Presidential Proclamations 2526, 2527, 2655, 2662, and 2685, 
        Executive Orders 9066 and 9095, and any directive of the United 
        States Government pursuant to these and other pertinent laws, 
        proclamations, or executive orders, including registration 
        requirements, travel and property restrictions, establishment 
        of restricted areas, raids, arrests, internment, exclusion, 
        policies relating to the families and property that excludees 
        and internees were forced to abandon, internee employment by 
        American companies (including a list of such companies and the 
        terms and type of employment), exchange, repatriation, and 
        deportation, and the immediate and long-term effect of such 
        actions, particularly internment, on the lives of those 
        affected. This review shall also include a list of--
                    (A) all temporary detention and long-term 
                internment facilities in the United States and Latin 
                American nations that were used to detain or intern 
                European Americans and European Latin Americans during 
                World War II (in this paragraph referred to as ``World 
                War II detention facilities'');
                    (B) the names of European Americans and European 
                Latin Americans who died while in World War II 
                detention facilities and where they were buried;
                    (C) the names of children of European Americans and 
                European Latin Americans who were born in World War II 
                detention facilities and where they were born; and
                    (D) the nations from which European Latin Americans 
                were brought to the United States, the ships that 
                transported them to the United States and their 
                departure and disembarkation ports, the locations where 
                European Americans and European Latin Americans were 
                exchanged for persons held in European Axis nations, 
                and the ships that transported them to Europe and their 
                departure and disembarkation ports.
            (2) An assessment of the underlying rationale of the 
        decision of the United States Government to develop the 
        programs and policies described in paragraph (1), the 
        information the United States Government received or acquired 
        suggesting these programs and policies were necessary, the 
        perceived benefit of implementing such programs and policies, 
        and the immediate and long-term impact of such programs and 
        policies on European Americans and European Latin Americans and 
        their communities.
            (3) A brief review of the participation by European 
        Americans in the United States Armed Forces, including the 
        participation of European Americans whose families were 
        excluded, interned, repatriated, or exchanged.
            (4) A recommendation of appropriate remedies, including 
        public education programs and the creation of a comprehensive 
        online database by the National Archives and Records 
        Administration of documents related to the United States 
        Government's wartime treatment of European Americans and 
        European Latin Americans during World War II.
    (c) Field Hearings.--The European American Commission shall hold 
public hearings in such cities in the United States as it considers 
appropriate.
    (d) Report.--The European American Commission shall submit a 
written report of its findings and recommendations to the Congress not 
later than 18 months after the date of the first meeting called 
pursuant to section 101(e).

SEC. 103. POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN AMERICAN COMMISSION.

    (a) In General.--The European American Commission or, on the 
authorization of the Commission, any subcommittee or member thereof, 
may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this title, hold 
such hearings and sit and act at such times and places, and request the 
attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such 
books, records, correspondence, memorandum, papers, and documents as 
the Commission or such subcommittee or member considers advisable. The 
European American Commission may request the Attorney General to invoke 
the aid of an appropriate United States district court to require, by 
subpoena or otherwise, such attendance, testimony, or production.
    (b) Government Information and Cooperation.--The European American 
Commission may acquire directly from the head of any department, 
agency, independent instrumentality, or other authority of the 
executive branch of the Government, available information that the 
European American Commission considers useful in the discharge of its 
duties. All departments, agencies, and independent instrumentalities, 
or other authorities of the executive branch of the Government shall 
cooperate with the European American Commission and furnish all 
information requested by the European American Commission to the extent 
permitted by law, including information collected under the Commission 
on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians Act (Public Law 96-
317; 50 U.S.C. App. 1981 note) and the Wartime Violation of Italian 
Americans Civil Liberties Act (Public Law 106-451; 50 U.S.C. App. 1981 
note). For purposes of section 552a(b)(9) of title 5, United States 
Code (commonly known as the ``Privacy Act of 1974''), the European 
American Commission shall be deemed to be a committee of jurisdiction.

SEC. 104. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

    The European American Commission may--
            (1) appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as 
        may be necessary, without regard to the provisions of title 5, 
        United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive 
        service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and 
        subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to 
        classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that the 
        compensation of any employee of the Commission may not exceed a 
        rate equivalent to the rate payable under GS-15 of the General 
        Schedule under section 5332 of such title;
            (2) obtain the services of experts and consultants in 
        accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of such title;
            (3) obtain the detail of any Federal Government employee, 
        and such detail shall be without reimbursement or interruption 
        or loss of civil service status or privilege;
            (4) enter into agreements with the Administrator of General 
        Services for the procurement of necessary financial and 
        administrative services, for which payment shall be made by 
        reimbursement from funds of the Commission in such amounts as 
        may be agreed upon by the Chairperson of the Commission and the 
        Administrator;
            (5) procure supplies, services, and property by contract in 
        accordance with applicable laws and regulations and to the 
        extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation 
        Acts; and
            (6) enter into contracts with Federal or State agencies, 
        private firms, institutions, and agencies for the conduct of 
        research or surveys, the preparation of reports, and other 
        activities necessary to the discharge of the duties of the 
        Commission, to the extent or in such amounts as are provided in 
        appropriation Acts.

SEC. 105. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There is authorized to be appropriated $600,000 to carry out this 
title.

SEC. 106. SUNSET.

    The European American Commission shall terminate 60 days after it 
submits its report to the Congress under section 102(d).

      TITLE II--COMMISSION ON WARTIME TREATMENT OF JEWISH REFUGEES

SEC. 201. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSION ON WARTIME TREATMENT OF JEWISH 
                    REFUGEES.

    (a) In General.--There is established the Commission on Wartime 
Treatment of Jewish Refugees (referred to in this title as the ``Jewish 
Refugee Commission'').
    (b) Membership.--The Jewish Refugee Commission shall be composed of 
7 members, who shall be appointed not later than 90 days after the date 
of the enactment of this Act as follows:
            (1) 3 members shall be appointed by the President.
            (2) 2 members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the 
        House of Representatives, in consultation with the minority 
        leader.
            (3) 2 members shall be appointed by the majority leader of 
        the Senate, in consultation with the minority leader.
The selections of the members of the Jewish Refugee Commission shall be 
done to ensure that all of the members are fully able to adequately and 
fairly review the facts and discharge the duties of the commission 
without bias.
    (c) Terms.--The term of office for members shall be for the life of 
the Jewish Refugee Commission. A vacancy in the Jewish Refugee 
Commission shall not affect its powers, and shall be filled in the same 
manner in which the original appointment was made.
    (d) Representation.--The Jewish Refugee Commission shall include 
two members with professional expertise relating to the treatment of 
Jewish refugees.
    (e) First Meeting.--The President shall call the first meeting of 
the Jewish Refugee Commission not later than 120 days after the date of 
the enactment of this Act.
    (f) Quorum.--Four members of the Jewish Refugee Commission shall 
constitute a quorum, but a lesser number may hold hearings.
    (g) Chairs.--The Jewish Refugee Commission shall elect a 
Chairperson and Vice Chairperson from among its members. The term of 
office of each shall be for the life of the Jewish Refugee Commission.
    (h) Compensation.--
            (1) In general.--Members of the Jewish Refugee Commission 
        shall serve without pay.
            (2) Reimbursement of expenses.--All members of the Jewish 
        Refugee Commission shall be reimbursed for reasonable travel 
        and subsistence, and other reasonable and necessary expenses 
        incurred by them in the performance of their duties.

SEC. 202. DUTIES OF THE JEWISH REFUGEE COMMISSION.

    (a) In General.--The Jewish Refugee Commission shall review the 
United States Government's refusal to allow Jewish and other refugees 
fleeing persecution or genocide in Europe entry to the United States, 
as provided in subsection (b).
    (b) Scope of Review.--The Jewish Refugee Commission's review shall 
cover the period beginning January 1, 1933, and ending December 31, 
1945, and shall include, to the greatest extent practicable, the 
following:
            (1) A review of the United States Government's decision to 
        deny Jewish and other refugees fleeing persecution or genocide 
        in Europe entry to the United States, including a review of the 
        underlying rationale of the United States Government's decision 
        to refuse the Jewish and other refugees entry, the information 
        the United States Government received or acquired suggesting 
        such refusal was necessary, the perceived benefit of such 
        refusal, and the impact of such refusal on the refugees.
            (2) A review of Federal refugee law and policy relating to 
        those fleeing persecution or genocide, including 
        recommendations for making it easier in the future for victims 
        of persecution or genocide to obtain refuge in the United 
        States.
    (c) Field Hearings.--The Jewish Refugee Commission shall hold 
public hearings in such cities in the United States as it considers 
appropriate.
    (d) Report.--The Jewish Refugee Commission shall submit a written 
report of its findings and recommendations to the Congress not later 
than 18 months after the date of the first meeting called pursuant to 
section 201(e).

SEC. 203. POWERS OF THE JEWISH REFUGEE COMMISSION.

    (a) In General.--The Jewish Refugee Commission or, on the 
authorization of the Commission, any subcommittee or member thereof, 
may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this title, hold 
such hearings and sit and act at such times and places, and request the 
attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such 
books, records, correspondence, memorandum, papers, and documents as 
the Commission or such subcommittee or member considers advisable. The 
Jewish Refugee Commission may request the Attorney General to invoke 
the aid of an appropriate United States district court to require, by 
subpoena or otherwise, such attendance, testimony, or production.
    (b) Government Information and Cooperation.--The Jewish Refugee 
Commission may acquire directly from the head of any department, 
agency, independent instrumentality, or other authority of the 
executive branch of the Government, available information that the 
Jewish Refugee Commission considers useful in the discharge of its 
duties. All departments, agencies, and independent instrumentalities, 
or other authorities of the executive branch of the Government shall 
cooperate with the Jewish Refugee Commission and furnish all 
information requested by the Jewish Refugee Commission to the extent 
permitted by law. For purposes of section 552a(b)(9) of title 5, United 
States Code (commonly known as the ``Privacy Act of 1974''), the Jewish 
Refugee Commission shall be deemed to be a committee of jurisdiction.

SEC. 204. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

    The Jewish Refugee Commission may--
            (1) appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as 
        may be necessary, without regard to the provisions of title 5, 
        United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive 
        service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and 
        subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to 
        classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that the 
        compensation of any employee of the Commission may not exceed a 
        rate equivalent to the rate payable under GS-15 of the General 
        Schedule under section 5332 of such title;
            (2) obtain the services of experts and consultants in 
        accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of such title;
            (3) obtain the detail of any Federal Government employee, 
        and such detail shall be without reimbursement or interruption 
        or loss of civil service status or privilege;
            (4) enter into agreements with the Administrator of General 
        Services for the procurement of necessary financial and 
        administrative services, for which payment shall be made by 
        reimbursement from funds of the Commission in such amounts as 
        may be agreed upon by the Chairman of the Commission and the 
        Administrator;
            (5) procure supplies, services, and property by contract in 
        accordance with applicable laws and regulations and to the 
        extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation 
        Acts; and
            (6) enter into contracts with Federal or State agencies, 
        private firms, institutions, and agencies for the conduct of 
        research or surveys, the preparation of reports, and other 
        activities necessary to the discharge of the duties of the 
        Commission, to the extent or in such amounts as are provided in 
        appropriation Acts.

SEC. 205. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There is authorized to be appropriated $600,000 to carry out this 
title.

SEC. 206. SUNSET.

    The Jewish Refugee Commission shall terminate 60 days after it 
submits its report to the Congress under section 202(d).

                          Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 1425, the ``Wartime Treatment Study Act,'' creates one 
commission to review the United States Government's treatment 
of European Americans and European Latin Americans during World 
War II, and a second commission to review the United States 
Government's refusal to allow refugees fleeing persecution or 
genocide in Europe entry to the United States during that same 
period.

                Background and Need for the Legislation

    The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of 
Civilians Act established a commission to review the history of 
the internment and relocation of Japanese Americans and legal 
permanent residents and to recommend appropriate remedies.\1\ 
In 1983, the Commission produced an extensive report of its 
findings, and made a series of recommendations ranging from a 
formal apology to restitution payments.\2\ While the 
Commission's report consisted of a thorough examination of the 
World War II internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans, the 
treatment of other populations during the same time period was 
either insufficiently examined, or not addressed at all.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Pub. L. No. 96-317, 94 Stat. 964 (1980).
    \2\The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of 
Civilians, Personal Justice Denied (U.S. Government Printing Office 
1983).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    European Latin Americans, European Americans, and Jewish 
refugees were among the populations that were not thoroughly 
addressed by the Commission's report. Although the Commission 
detailed the treatment of German and Italian Latin Americans 
during World War II, it did so only in the appendix of its 
report.\3\ The report observes that ``approximately 3,000 
residents of Latin America were deported to the United States 
for internment to secure the Western Hemisphere from internal 
threats and to supply exchanges for American citizens held by 
the Axis. Most of these deportees were citizens, or their 
families, of Japan, Germany and Italy.''\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Id. at 305-14.
    \4\Id. at 305.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The appendix states that:

        [n]ormal legal proceedings were ignored. . . . On 
        entering the United States, officials of Axis nations 
        were placed in State Department custody and private 
        citizens were sent to INS internment camps in Texas. In 
        most cases passports had been confiscated before 
        landing, and the State Department ordered American 
        consuls . . . to issue no visas prior to departure. 
        Despite their involuntary arrival, deportees were 
        treated by INS as having illegally entered this 
        country. Thus the deportees became illegal aliens in 
        U.S. custody who were subject to deportation 
        proceedings, i.e., repatriation.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\Id. at 308

    In addition to the appendix on European Latin Americans, 
the Commission included one chapter detailing the treatment of 
German and Italian Americans in the U.S. In this single chapter 
on German and Italian Americans, the Commission noted that 
``[b]y February 16, 1942, the Justice Department had interned 
2,192 Japanese; 1,393 Germans and 264 Italians.''\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\Id. at 284.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The German and Italian American and Latin American 
communities have long advocated for a study similar to the one 
completed by the Commission in 1983. These communities argue 
that their experiences were never given a proper and thorough 
review by the Federal Government.
    The treatment of the Italian American community during WWII 
was the subject of the Italian American Civil Liberties Act in 
2000 and a subsequent report by the Department of Justice. 
However, many Italian Americans believe they received less with 
an Act requiring a Department of Justice report--but no 
recommendations for follow up action--than the Japanese 
American community received through an Act that established a 
Federal commission and resulted in the production of a report 
and recommendations.
    Additionally, the Commission did not report on the 
treatment of Jewish refugees seeking safe haven in the U.S. 
from genocide and persecution in Europe during World War II. 
The Jewish community has advocated for a Federal commission to 
study this history and report to Congress with findings and 
recommendations.

                                Hearings

    The Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, 
Refugees, Border Security, and International Law held 1 day of 
hearings on ``The Treatment of Latin Americans of Japanese 
Descent, European Americans, and Jewish Refugees During World 
War II'' on March 19, 2009. Testimony was received from Daniel 
M. Masterson, Professor of Latin American History, U.S. Naval 
Academy; Grace Shimizu, Director, Japanese Peruvian Oral 
History Project; Libia Yamamoto, former Japanese of Latin 
American Descent Internee; John Christgau, author of Enemies: 
World War II Alien Internment; Karen E. Ebel, President, German 
American Internee Coalition; Heidi Gurcke Donald, Board and 
Founding Member, German American Internee Coalition; John 
Fonte, Director, Center for American Common Culture and Senior 
Fellow, Hudson Institute; David A. Harris, Executive Director, 
American Jewish Committee; Leo Bretholz, author of Leap Into 
Darkness; Valery Bazarov, Director, Location and Family History 
Service, Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society; and Michael Horowitz, 
Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute. Additional materials were 
submitted for the hearing and may be found in the Appendix to 
the Committee's report.

                        Committee Consideration

    On July 23, 2009, the Subcommittee on Immigration, 
Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law 
met in open session and ordered the bill H.R. 1425 favorably 
reported with an amendment by a vote of 9 to 1, a quorum being 
present. On October 21, 2009, the Committee met in open session 
and ordered the bill H.R. 1425 favorably reported with an 
amendment by a rollcall vote of 19 to 7, a quorum being 
present.

                            Committee Votes

    In compliance with clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
following rollcall votes occurred during the Committee's 
consideration of H.R. 1425:
    1. An amendment by Mr. King to limit the ability of 
commissioners to consider all appropriate remedies by barring 
them from recommending monetary compensation. Defeated 10 to 
17.

                                                 ROLLCALL NO. 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Ayes            Nays           Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mr. Conyers, Jr., Chairman......................................                              X
Mr. Berman......................................................
Mr. Boucher.....................................................
Mr. Nadler......................................................                              X
Mr. Scott.......................................................                              X
Mr. Watt........................................................                              X
Ms. Lofgren.....................................................
Ms. Jackson Lee.................................................
Ms. Waters......................................................                              X
Mr. Delahunt....................................................                              X
Mr. Wexler......................................................                              X
Mr. Cohen.......................................................                              X
Mr. Johnson.....................................................                              X
Mr. Pierluisi...................................................                              X
Mr. Quigley.....................................................                              X
Ms. Chu.........................................................                              X
Mr. Gutierrez...................................................
Ms. Baldwin.....................................................                              X
Mr. Gonzalez....................................................
Mr. Weiner......................................................                              X
Mr. Schiff......................................................                              X
Ms. Sanchez.....................................................                              X
Ms. Wasserman Schultz...........................................
Mr. Maffei......................................................                              X
Mr. Smith, Ranking Member.......................................              X
Mr. Sensenbrenner, Jr...........................................
Mr. Coble.......................................................              X
Mr. Gallegly....................................................
Mr. Goodlatte...................................................              X
Mr. Lungren.....................................................
Mr. Issa........................................................              X
Mr. Forbes......................................................              X
Mr. King........................................................              X
Mr. Franks......................................................
Mr. Gohmert.....................................................              X
Mr. Jordan......................................................
Mr. Poe.........................................................              X
Mr. Chaffetz....................................................
Mr. Rooney......................................................              X
Mr. Harper......................................................              X
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................             10              17
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. Motion to report H.R. 1425 favorably, as amended. Passed 
19 to 7.

                                                 ROLLCALL NO. 2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Ayes            Nays           Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mr. Conyers, Jr., Chairman......................................              X
Mr. Berman......................................................
Mr. Boucher.....................................................              X
Mr. Nadler......................................................              X
Mr. Scott.......................................................              X
Mr. Watt........................................................              X
Ms. Lofgren.....................................................
Ms. Jackson Lee.................................................
Ms. Waters......................................................              X
Mr. Delahunt....................................................
Mr. Wexler......................................................              X
Mr. Cohen.......................................................              X
Mr. Johnson.....................................................              X
Mr. Pierluisi...................................................              X
Mr. Quigley.....................................................              X
Ms. Chu.........................................................              X
Mr. Gutierrez...................................................
Ms. Baldwin.....................................................              X
Mr. Gonzalez....................................................
Mr. Weiner......................................................              X
Mr. Schiff......................................................              X
Ms. Sanchez.....................................................              X
Ms. Wasserman Schultz...........................................
Mr. Maffei......................................................              X
Mr. Smith, Ranking Member.......................................                              X
Mr. Sensenbrenner, Jr...........................................
Mr. Coble.......................................................                              X
Mr. Gallegly....................................................
Mr. Goodlatte...................................................                              X
Mr. Lungren.....................................................
Mr. Issa........................................................              X
Mr. Forbes......................................................                              X
Mr. King........................................................                              X
Mr. Franks......................................................
Mr. Gohmert.....................................................
Mr. Jordan......................................................
Mr. Poe.........................................................                              X
Mr. Chaffetz....................................................
Mr. Rooney......................................................              X
Mr. Harper......................................................                              X
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................             19               7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the 
descriptive portions of this report.

               New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures

    Clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives is inapplicable because this legislation does 
not provide new budgetary authority or increased tax 
expenditures.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee sets forth, with 
respect to the bill, H.R. 1425, the following estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                 Washington, DC, November 18, 2009.
Hon. John Conyers, Jr., Chairman,
Committee on the Judiciary,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1425, the 
``Wartime Treatment Study Act.''
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Matthew 
Pickford, who can be reached at 226-2860.
            Sincerely,
                                      Douglas W. Elmendorf,
                                                  Director.

Enclosure

cc:
        Honorable Lamar S. Smith.
        Ranking Member
H.R. 1425--Wartime Treatment Study Act.
    H.R. 1425 would establish the Commission on Wartime 
Treatment of European Americans and the Commission on Wartime 
Treatment of Jewish Refugees. The first commission would review 
the conduct of the United States government during World War II 
towards European Americans and European Latin Americans. The 
second commission would focus on the government's treatment of 
Jewish refugees during World War II.
    Each commission, consisting of seven members, would have 18 
months to report on its findings and recommendations. Members 
would serve without pay, but would be reimbursed for travel 
expenses. In addition, the commissions could hire staff or use 
personnel from other agencies. Each commission would terminate 
60 days after submitting its final report. To fund the costs of 
the commissions, the bill would authorize the appropriation of 
$1.2 million ($600,000 per commission).
    Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing H.R. 1425 would cost about $1 
million over the 2010-2012 period. Enacting the bill would not 
affect direct spending or revenues. The legislation does not 
authorize any payment of restitution; such authority would 
require a separate act of Congress.
    H.R. 1425 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would not affect the budgets of State, local, or tribal 
governments.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Matthew 
Pickford, who can be reached at 226-2860. This estimate was 
approved by Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant Director for Budget 
Analysis.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    The Committee states that pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, H.R. 
1425 will establish a Commission to review the United States 
Government's treatment of European Americans and European Latin 
Americans during World War II, and a second Commission to 
review the United States Government's refusal to allow Jewish 
and other refugees fleeing persecution or genocide in Europe 
entry to the United States during that same period. Each 
commission shall submit a written report of its findings and 
recommendations to Congress not later than 18 months after the 
date of its first meeting.

                   Constitutional Authority Statement

    Pursuant to clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee finds the authority for 
this legislation in article I, section 8 of the Constitution.

                          Advisory on Earmarks

    In accordance with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, H.R. 1425 does not contain any 
congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff 
benefits as defined in clause 9 of rule XXI.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis

    The following discussion describes the bill as reported by 
the Committee.
    Sec. 1. Short title. Section 1 sets forth the short title 
of the bill as the ``Wartime Treatment Study Act.''
    Sec. 2. Findings. Section 2 sets forth several findings of 
Congress. Congress finds that during WWII, more than 600,000 
Italian-born and 300,000 German-born United States resident 
aliens and their families were deemed ``enemy aliens.'' 
Thousands of these European Americans were detained in the 
United States--sometimes for years--and some were returned to 
European Axis countries for the purpose of prisoner exchanges. 
Congress also finds that thousands of European Latin Americans, 
including German and Austrian Jews, were brought to the United 
States, detained or interned, and later repatriated or deported 
to European Axis countries in exchange for Americans and Latin 
Americans held in those countries. Congress also finds that 
prior to and during WWII, Jewish refugees fleeing persecution 
and genocide--particularly from Germany and Austria--were 
unable to gain entry to the United States.
    Sec. 3. Definitions. Section 3 provides basic definitions.

              TITLE I--COMMISSION ON WARTIME TREATMENT OF 
                           EUROPEAN AMERICANS

    Sec. 101. Establishment of Commission on Wartime Treatment 
of European Americans. Establishes a European American 
Commission composed of seven members, who shall be appointed 
not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Act 
as follows: (1) three members shall be appointed by the 
President; (2) two members shall be appointed by the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, in consultation with the minority 
leader; and (3) two members shall be appointed by the majority 
leader of the Senate, in consultation with the minority leader. 
The European American Commission shall include two members with 
professional expertise relating to the treatment of Italian 
Americans and two members with professional expertise relating 
to the treatment of German Americans. Members shall be selected 
so that they may adequately and fairly review the facts and 
discharge the duties of the commission without bias. Four 
members shall constitute a quorum, but fewer members may hold 
hearings. Members of the European American Commission shall 
serve without pay.
    Sec. 102. Duties of the European American Commission. 
Directs the European American Commission to review the United 
States Government's wartime treatment of European Americans and 
European Latin Americans during World War II. The Commission 
shall assemble a list of temporary detention and long-term 
internment facilities, a list of European Americans and 
European Latin Americans who were born in, or who died in, such 
camps, and a complete accounting of how European Latin 
Americans were brought to the United States and how European 
Americans and European Latin Americans were transported to 
European Axis countries. The review shall include a 
consideration of the United States Government's underlying 
rationale for this treatment, and make appropriate 
recommendations, including public education programs and the 
creation of a comprehensive online database by the National 
Archives and Records Administration of relevant documents. The 
European American Commission shall hold public hearings in such 
cities of the United States as it deems appropriate. The 
European American Commission shall submit a written report of 
its findings and recommendations to Congress not later than 18 
months after the date of the first meeting.
    Sec. 103. Powers of the European American Commission. 
Authorizes the European American Commission to hold hearings 
and to require attendance or testimony by subpoena or 
otherwise. Authorizes the European American Commission to 
acquire relevant information directly from the executive 
branch.
    Sec. 104. Administrative Provisions. Authorizes the 
European American Commission to take certain administrative 
actions, including setting pay rates for Commission employees, 
obtain the services of experts and Federal Government 
detailees, and enter into agreements to obtain necessary 
services and supplies.
    Sec. 105. Authorization of Appropriations. Authorizes 
$600,000 to be appropriated to carry out Title I.
    Sec. 106. Sunset. The European American Commission shall 
terminate 60 days after it submits its report to Congress.

             TITLE II--COMMISSION ON WARTIME TREATMENT OF 
                            JEWISH REFUGEES

    Sec. 201. Establishment of Commission on Wartime Treatment 
of Jewish Refugees. Establishes a Jewish Refugee Commission 
composed of seven members, who shall be appointed not later 
than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Act as follows: 
(1) three members shall be appointed by the President; (2) two 
members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, in consultation with the minority leader; and 
(3) two members shall be appointed by the majority leader of 
the Senate, in consultation with the minority leader. The 
Jewish Refugee Commission shall include two members with 
professional expertise relating to the treatment of Jewish 
refugees. Members shall be selected so that they may adequately 
and fairly review the facts and discharge the duties of the 
commission without bias. Four members shall constitute a 
quorum, but fewer members may hold hearings. Members of the 
Jewish Refugee Commission shall serve without pay.
    Sec. 202. Duties of the Jewish Refugee Commission. Directs 
the Jewish Refugee Commission to review the United States 
Government's refusal to allow Jewish and other refugees fleeing 
persecution or genocide in Europe entry to the United States 
between January 1, 1933, through December 31, 1945. The review 
shall include, to the greatest extent possible, consideration 
of the rationale underlying the decision to refuse entry to 
Jewish and other refugees and all relevant Federal laws and 
policies relating to persons fleeing persecution or genocide. 
The Jewish Refugee Commission shall hold public hearings in 
such cities of the United States as it deems appropriate. The 
Jewish Refugee Commission shall submit a written report of its 
findings and recommendations to Congress not later than 18 
months after the date of the first meeting.
    Sec. 203. Powers of the Jewish Refugee Commission. 
Authorizes the Jewish Refugee Commission to hold hearings and 
receive testimony and evidence. The Commission is also 
authorized to request the Attorney General to invoke judicial 
intervention to require, by subpoenas or otherwise, attendance, 
testimony, or production of records. The Jewish Refugee 
Commission may acquire relevant information directly from the 
Executive Branch.
    Sec. 204. Administrative Provisions. Authorizes the Jewish 
Refugee Commission to take certain administrative actions, 
including setting pay rates for Commission employees, obtaining 
the services of experts and Federal Government detailees, and 
entering into agreements to obtain necessary services and 
supplies.
    Sec. 205. Authorization of Appropriations. Authorizes 
$600,000 to be appropriated to carry out Title II.
    Sec. 206. Sunset. The Jewish Refugee Commission shall 
terminate 60 days after it submits its report to Congress.

                            Dissenting Views

    We oppose H.R. 1425, which creates a seven-member 
Commission to ``review the United States Government's wartime 
treatment of European Americans and European Latin Americans . 
. .'' and of Jewish refugees, during World War II.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\H.R. 1425, Wartime Treatment Study Act.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Section 102(b)(4) requires the Commission, as one of its 
duties, to recommend ``appropriate remedies'' based on the 
Commission's review of facts and circumstances surrounding the 
U.S. government's actions during WWII.\2\ Because there is no 
specific definition of ``remedies,'' such remedies can include 
reparations. During both Subcommittee and Full Committee markup 
of the bill, Subcommittee Ranking Member King offered an 
amendment to prevent ``remedies'' from including ``monetary 
compensation.'' The amendment was defeated both times despite 
assurances from many Members of the Majority, including the 
bill's author, that the bill was not intended as a conduit for 
monetary compensation for those affected.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\H.R. 1425, Wartime Treatment Study Act, Sec. 102(b).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Our concern is well warranted. The ``Commission on Wartime 
Relocation and Internment of Civilians Act''\3\ enacted in 
1980, established a commission to review the history of the 
internment and relocation of 120,000 Japanese Americans and 
legal permanent residents during World War II and to recommend 
appropriate remedies.\4\ One of the Commission's recommended 
remedies was for Congress to establish a fund which would 
provide a one-time per capita compensatory payment of $20,000 
to each of the approximately 60,000 surviving persons 
interned.\5\ Congress did so with the Civil Liberties Act of 
1988.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Pub. L. No. 96-317, 94 Stat. 964 (1980).
    \4\Id.
    \5\U.S. Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of 
Civilians: Personal Justice Denied 462-63 (University of Washington 
Press 1997) (1983).
    \6\Pub. L. No. 100-383, 102 Stat. 903 (1988).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    As noted by Rep. Dan Lungren, current Member of this 
Committee, and a member of the original Commission on Wartime 
Relocation and Internment of Civilians, concerns were raised 
during debate on the bill to create the Commission on Wartime 
Relocation and Internment of Civilians that the Commission 
would recommend reparations. During a March 19, 2009, 
Immigration Subcommittee hearing, Rep. Lungren stated, ``I do 
recall at the very first meeting that we had of the commission, 
one of the commissioners turned to us assembled and said, 
`Okay, how much money are we talking about?' which, frankly, 
put off alarm bells in my head because I had promised Members 
[of Congress] that was not the purpose of it. Rather, I had 
thought it was important for us to investigate that period of 
time, since it was fairly well unknown about the treatment of 
fellow citizens and people who were here legally at that 
time.''\7\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\Statement of Congressman Daniel Lungren, Hearing before the 
Subcommittee on Immigration. Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security and 
International Law, ``Treatment of Latin Americans of Japanese Descent, 
European Americans, and Jewish Refugees During World War II,'' 111th 
Congress, Mar. 19, 2009.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Our concerns about future reparations are justified. It is 
one thing to require a Commission to investigate and report on 
U.S. government activities, and quite another to expect U.S. 
taxpayers to hand over perhaps millions of dollars to the 
people who felt that they were victims of injustice.
    Proponents of the bill claim they simply want to be 
recognized, and for the government to acknowledge its actions. 
However, much of this issue has been previously studied by a 
commission, Congress and the U.S. Department of Justice.
    In its report, the Commission on Wartime Relocation and 
Internment of Civilians included one chapter, of thirteen, on 
mistreatment of German and Italian Americans in the U.S.
    The House Judiciary Committee held hearings in 1999 and 
2000, to study the issue as it relates to Italian Americans.\8\ 
As a result, the Wartime Violation of Italian-American Civil 
Liberties Act was enacted.\9\ The Italian-American Civil 
Liberties Act required the Attorney General,
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\145 Cong. Rec. H11904 (1999); 146 Cong. Rec. H10627 (2000).
    \9\Wartime Violation of Italian-American Civil Liberties Act, 50 
U.S.C. app. 1981 note, Pub. L. No. 106-451, 114 Stat. 1947 (2000).

        ``to conduct a comprehensive review of the treatment by 
        the United States Government of Italian Americans 
        during World War II (between September 1, 1939, and 
        December 31, 1945) and to submit to Congress a report 
        that documents the findings of such review.''\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\Wartime Violation of Italian-American Civil Liberties Act, 50 
U.S.C. app. 1981 note, Pub. L. No. 106-451, Sec. 3, 114 Stat. 1947, 
1947 (2000).

    The Attorney General issued its Report on November 7, 2001. 
No further action was taken by the Administration or the 
Congress.
    So the story has been told and the actions of the U.S. 
government have been acknowledged. We should not rehash the 
issue--especially when it makes the possibility of reparations 
more likely. In addition to the basic belief that we should not 
have to re-evaluate decisions made by Administrations nearly 
sixty years ago for national security reasons during a period 
of grave peril to our country, we oppose this bill because it 
may very well lead to reparations.

                                   Steve King.
                                   Gregg Harper.

                                Appendix

    The Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, 
Border Security, and International Law received the following 
additional materials in conjunction with the March 19, 2009, 
hearing entitled: ``The Treatment of Latin Americans of 
Japanese Descent, European Americans, and Jewish Refugees 
During World War II.''
    Signatories to Scholars' Letter of Support: Lane 
Hirabayashi, University of California, Los Angeles; Jerry Kang, 
University of California, Los Angeles; Tetsuden Kashima, 
University of Washington; Daniel Masterson, Naval Academy; 
Valerie Matsumoto, University of California, Los Angeles; Don 
T. Nakanishi, University of California, Los Angeles; Natsu 
Taylor Saito, Georgia State University; Robert L. Tsai, 
American University; Greg Robinson, Universite du Quebec A 
Montreal; Frank H. Wu, University of Maryland; Sumi Cho, DePaul 
University; Louis Fiset, University of Washington; Cynthia Lee, 
George Washington University; Judy Yung (Professor Emerita), 
University of California, Santa Cruz; Hiroshi Motomura, 
University of California, Los Angeles; Robert S. Chang, Seattle 
University School of Law; Lisa C. Ikemoto, University of 
California, Davis; Gerald P. Lopez, University of California, 
Los Angeles; Carol Izumi, George Washington University; Jeffrey 
A. Ow, Arizona State University; Roger Daniels (Professor 
Emeritus), University of Cincinnati; Craig D. Uchida, George 
Mason University; Rita Takahashi, San Francisco State 
University; Stephen Mastrofski, George Mason University; Tazuko 
Shibusawa, New York University; Jere Takahashi, University of 
California, Berkeley; Eric Yamamoto, University of Hawaii; 
Karen J. Leong, Arizona State University; Wayne H. Maeda, 
California State University, Sacramento; Roshni Rustomji-Kerns 
(Professor Emerita), Sonoma State University; R. Benedito 
Ferrao, Birkbeck College, University of London; Hatem Bazian, 
University of California, Berkeley; Satsuki Ina (Professor 
Emeritus), California State University, Sacramento; Roger B. 
Parks, Indiana University; Emily S. Ihara, George Mason 
University; Max Paul Friedman, American University; John E. 
Eck, University of Cincinnati; Bill Ong Hing, University of 
California, Davis; Jonathan Y. Okamura, University of Hawaii; 
David K. Yoo, Claremont McKenna College; Paul G. Clark, George 
Mason University; Stephen S. Fugita, Santa Clara University; 
Felix F. Gutierrez, University of Southern California; Sudarat 
Musikawong, Willamette University; Brad Yamauchi, Golden Gate 
University School of Law; Nelson Nagai, San Joaquin Delta 
College; C. Keith Wingate, University of California, Hastings 
College of the Law; Naomi Roht-Arriaza, University of 
California, Hastings College of the Law; Josephine Lee, 
University of Minnesota; Priscilla Wegars, University of Idaho; 
Joanne Doi, Franciscan School of Theology; Viet Thanh Nguyen, 
University of Southern California; Thomas Kim, Scripps College; 
Jane H. Yamashiro, Sophia University; Sue Chan, University of 
California, San Francisco; Janelle Wong, University of Southern 
California; Wayne H. Cole, Cape Breton University, Sierra 
Nevada College; Alan Nishio, California State University, Long 
Beach; Akemi Matsumoto, Bellevue Community College; Takeyuki 
(Gaku) Tsuda, Arizona State University; Bill Carpenter, City 
College of San Francisco; Sabrina Alimahomed, University of 
California, Riverside; Rebecca Alvarez, University of 
California, Riverside; Meghan Andrew, University of California, 
Riverside; Suzel Bozada-Deas, University of Southern 
California; Scott Brooks, University of California, Riverside; 
Amalia Cabezas, University of California, Riverside; Toi 
Carter, East Los Angeles College; Piya Chatterjee, University 
of California, Riverside; Mike Chavez, California State 
University, Los Angeles; Brianne Davila, University of 
California, Santa Barbara; Daniel Diaz, University of 
California, Riverside; Jesse Diaz, University of California, 
Riverside; Glenda Flores, University of Southern California; 
Linda Kim, University of California, Riverside; Zack Knorr, 
East Los Angeles College; Patrick Linder, University of 
California, Riverside; Alfredo Mirande, University of 
California, Riverside; Robert Perez, University of California, 
Riverside; Christine Petit, University of California, 
Riverside; Ellen Reese, University of California, Riverside; 
James Thing, University of Southern California; Shigueru Tsuha, 
University of California, Riverside; Jake Wilson, California 
State University, Long Beach; James McKeever, University of 
Southern California; Shinji Sakai-Egi, University of 
California, Riverside; Ming Tu, California State University, 
Fullerton; Dolores Ortiz, University of California, Riverside; 
Juan Pitones, University of California, Riverside; Jose Lopez, 
University of California, Riverside; Erika Gutierrez, 
University of California, Riverside; Roy Kwon, University of 
California, Riverside; Dennis Egi, Norte De Namur University; 
Henry Neiderneier, Colorado University, Boulder; Ruth Sison, 
San Jose State University; Vu Pham, University of California, 
Los Angeles; Paul Von Blum, University of California, Los 
Angeles; Steve On, University of California, Los Angeles; 
Pamela Hobbs, University of California, Los Angeles; Susumu 
Ito, Harvard University; Erin Hashimoto-Martell, Boston 
College; Christopher Martell, Boston University; Rick Bonus, 
University of Washington; Ben Kobashigawa, San Francisco State 
University; Wesley Ueunten, San Francisco State University; 
Linda Vo, University of California, Irvine; Claire Jean Kim, 
University of California, Irvine; Glen Mimura, University of 
California, Irvine; Sarah Park, College of St. Catherine; Ruben 
Rumbaut, University of California, Irvine; Russell Jeung, San 
Francisco State University; Eiichiro Azuma, University of 
Pennsylvania; Dana Nakano, University of California, Irvine; 
Dean Adachi, Claremont Graduate School; Diana Pan, University 
of California, Irvine; Kathy Rim, University of California, 
Irvine; Rose Cuison Villazor, Southern Methodist University 
Dedman School of Law; Donna H. Lee, City University of New York 
School of Law; Thomas W. Joo, University of California, Davis 
School of Law; Keith H. Hirokawa, Texas Wesleyan School of Law; 
Wendy Ho, University of California, Davis; Andrew Chin, 
University of North Carolina School of Law; Isao Fujimoto, 
University of California, Davis; Taunya Lovell Banks, 
University of Maryland School of Law; Carwina Weng, Indiana 
University Maurer (Bloomington) School of Law; Cecilia M. Tsu, 
University of California, Davis; Roy Yoshio Myose, Wichita 
State University; Song Richardson, DePaul University; Gabriel 
``Jack'' Chin, University of Arizona; James E. Rogers College 
of Law; Jan Ting, Temple University Beasley School of Law; Mark 
A. Chinen, Seattle University School of Law; Margaret Chon, 
University of Michigan Law School.
    Signatories to Organizational Letters of Support: American 
Friends Service Committee; American Jewish Committee; American-
Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee; Anti-Defamation League; 
Asian American Bar Association of the Greater Bay Area; Asian 
American Justice Center; German American National Congress; 
Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund; Asian Law 
Alliance; Asian Pacific American Bar Association of Los Angeles 
County; Asian Pacific American Bar Association of South 
Florida; Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance; AFL-CIO; 
Association of Humanitarian Lawyers; Berkeley Fellowship of 
Unitarian Universalist; Campaign For Justice: Redress Now For 
Japanese Latin Americans!; Congressional Asian Pacific American 
Caucus; Council on American-Islamic Relations; Friends 
Committee on National Legislation; Global Rights; Human Rights 
First; International Association of Official Human Rights 
Agencies; Japanese American Bar Association; Japanese American 
Citizens League--Berkeley Chapter; Japanese American Citizens 
League--Honolulu Chapter; Japanese American Citizens League--
National; Japanese American Citizens League--Pacific Southwest 
District; Japanese American Citizens League--San Diego Chapter; 
Japanese American Citizens League--Seattle Chapter; Japanese 
American Citizens League--SELANOCO Chapter; Japanese American 
Citizens League--Ventura County Chapter; Japanese American 
Living Legacy; Japanese Peruvian Oral History Project; Korean 
American Bar Association of Southern California; Korean 
American Coalition--DC Chapter; Korean American Resource & 
Cultural Center; Korean Resource Center; Leadership Conference 
on Civil Rights; League of United Latin American Citizens; 
Manzanar Committee; Mennonite Central Committee Washington 
Office; Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund; 
National Advocacy Center of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd; 
National Asian Pacific American Bar Association; National Asian 
Pacific American Women's Forum; National Association of 
Japanese Canadians; National Coalition for Redress/
Reparations--San Francisco; National Council of La Raza; 
National Korean American Service & Education Consortium; 
NETWORK: A National Catholic Social Justice Lobby; Nihonmachi 
Outreach Committee; Nikkei for Civil Rights & Redress; Orange 
County Korean American Bar Association; Organization of Chinese 
Americans; Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Washington Office; Sikh 
American Legal Defense and Education Fund; South Asian 
Americans Leading Together; Southern California Chinese Lawyers 
Association; The Episcopal Church; The United Church of Christ; 
Justice and Witness Ministries; Union for Reform Judaism; 
Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations; United 
Methodist Church; General Board of Church and Society; 
Washington Office on Latin America; Young Korean American 
Service and Education Center; Asian Pacific Islander Justice 
Coalition; Asian American Recovery Services; Asian American 
Women's Alliance; Asian Law Alliance; Asian Pacific American 
Leadership Institute; Asian Pacific Bar Association; Cambodian 
American Resource Agency; Contemporary Asian Theatre Scene; 
Filipino National History Society; Santa Clara Chapter; 
Filipino Youth Coalition; Japanese American Citizens League of 
San Jose; Japantown Community Congress of San Jose; Korean 
American Bar Association of Northern California; Korean 
American Community Services, Inc.; Maitri; MALAYA; Organization 
of Chinese Americans; Silicon Valley; South Bay First 
Thursdays; Southeast Asia Community Center; Vision New America; 
Vietnamese Voluntary Foundation; Yu-Ai-Kai; International 
Children Assistance Network; Akbayan; Vietnamese American Bar 
Association of Northern California; NETWORK: A National 
Catholic Social Justice Lobby; Unitarian Universalist 
Association of Congregations; The United Church of Christ; 
Justice and Witness Ministries; Union for Reform Judaism; 
United Methodist Church; General Board of Church and Society; 
National Advocacy Center of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd; 
Mennonite Central Committee Washington Office; The Episcopal 
Church; Friends Committee on National Legislation; Presbyterian 
Church (U.S.A.) Washington Office.
    Stories: Ursula V. Potter, Searching for Erich Braemer--
Interned Father of Fred Braemer, Jimmy Doolittle's Navigator; 
Paul Grayber, The Grayber Family Story; Guther Graber with 
assistance from Karen Ebel, The Graber Family Story; Arthur D. 
Jacobs, Major, USAF Retired, The Prison Called Hohenasperg: An 
American Boy Betrayed By His Government During World War II; 
Max Paul Friedman, Department of History, American University, 
The Deportation and Internment of Germans, Japanese, and 
Italians from Latin America During World War II; John Heitmann, 
Ph.D., World War II German Enemy Alien Case Study: Alfred and 
Caroline Heitmann; Deborah McCarty Smith, Internment: German 
Americans; John Eric Schmitz, Enemies Among Us: The Relocation, 
Internment, and Repatriation of German, Italian, and Japanese 
Americans During the Second World War; John Schmitz, The 
Schmitz Family Story; Kimberly Contag, Ph.D., The Relocation of 
a German-Ecuadorian Family in World War II: The Americans Clean 
House; Rudy A. Dimmling; The Reseneder Family Internment Story; 
Lawrence DiStasi, Project Director, Una Storia Segreta: When 
Italian Americans Were ``Enemy Aliens;'' Gertrude Anna 
Schneider and Paul Schneider, as told to Vilma Schneider 
Ralston, A Mother Interned, A Family Left Behind; Jo Anna 
Wartemann, The Internment of Wilhelm and Anna Wartemann and 
Family; Bob Wilbanks, Last Man Out: Glenn McDole, USMC, 
Survivor of the Palawan Massacre in World War II; Heidi Gurcke 
Donald, author of We Were Not the Enemy: Remembering the United 
States' Latin-American Civilian Internment Program of World War 
II; Anneliese ``Lee'' Krauter, From the Heart's Closet: A Young 
Girl's World War II Story; David D. Lowman, Magic: The Untold 
Story of U.S. Intelligence and the Evacuation of Japanese 
Residents from the West Coast during WWII; John Christgau, 
Enemies: World War II Alien Internment.
    Testimonies: Josef Baumgartner; Hildegard Maria Mantel 
Gordon; Theodore A. Eckardt; Frieda Ahrens; Shirley A. Weiss; 
Eileen P. Kelly; Lothar Eiserloh; Helga (Renner) Emde; Jose 
Antonio Gomez Iturralde; Pietro Tosi.
    Editorials and Op-Eds: Hon. Xavier Becerra and Hon. Dan 
Lungren, Justice for the Forgotten, Washington Post, Feb. 19, 
2007 at A19; Japanese Latinos: The Forgotten Internees, Los 
Angeles Times, Mar. 18, 2007.