S. Rept. 111-185 - 111th Congress (2009-2010)

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Senate Report 111-185 - SENATOR PAUL SIMON WATER FOR THE WORLD ACT OF 2009

[Senate Report 111-185]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]


                                                       Calendar No. 374
111th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session                                                     111-185

======================================================================



 
                     SENATOR PAUL SIMON WATER FOR 
                         THE WORLD ACT OF 2009

                                _______
                                

                  May 13, 2010.--Ordered to be printed

          Mr. Kerry, from the Committee on Foreign Relations,
                        submitted the following

                                 REPORT

                         [To accompany S. 624]

    The Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under 
consideration the bill (S. 624) to provide 100,000,000 people 
with first-time access to safe drinking water and sanitation on 
a sustainable basis by 2015 by improving the capacity of the 
United States Government to fully implement the Senator Paul 
Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005, reports favorably thereon 
with an amendment in the nature of a subsitute and recommends 
that the bill (as amended) do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page

  I. Purpose..........................................................1
 II. Committee Action.................................................1
III. Discussion.......................................................1
 IV. Cost Estimate....................................................4
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................8
 VI. Changes in Existing Law..........................................8

                               I. PURPOSE

    The purpose of S. 624 is to target underdeveloped countries 
with focused initiatives to improve access to clean water and 
sanitation.

                          II. COMMITTEE ACTION

    S. 624 was introduced by Senator Durbin on March 17, 2009. 
Senator Corker and Senator Murray are original cosponsors. On 
April 13, 2010, the committee considered S.624 and ordered it 
reported favorably with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute by voice vote.

                            III. DISCUSSION

    S. 624, the Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 
2009 (the ``Act''), builds on the progress achieved through the 
2005 Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act (P.L. 109-121) 
by seeking to provide 100 million people with first-time access 
to safe drinking water and sanitation on a sustainable basis 
within six years through direct funding, development 
activities, and partnerships, and authorizes such sums as 
necessary to meet this goal.
    It supports strengthening the human infrastructure at 
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and 
the State Department to ensure that water remains a development 
priority. It also fosters global cooperation on research and 
technology development, including regional partnerships among 
experts on clean water. Lastly, it provides technical 
assistance and capacity-building to develop expertise within 
countries facing water and sanitation challenges.
    Over the past four years, the 2005 Water for the Poor Act 
has achieved much success. For example in 2009, the Act helped 
the U.S. provide nearly 2 million people with first-time access 
to an improved source of drinking water and more than 1.5 
million people to improved sanitation. However, water will 
continue to be one of the world's most pressing problems over 
the next century.
    Nearly one billion people continue to lack access to clean, 
safe water and as many as three billion may face shortages by 
2025 due in part to the effects of global warming. And two 
people out of every five in the world do not have access to 
basic sanitation services. Inadequate water and sanitation 
contributes to nearly ten percent of the world's disease and 
more than two million deaths each year. Water scarcity has also 
contributed to political unrest in Sudan and other countries.
    The committee recognizes that the Water for the World Act 
will help strengthen global security by defusing tensions that 
are growing within and among nations as people react to the 
shortage of clean water and other emerging crises.
    The amendment in the nature of a substitute that was 
reported favorably out of the committee provided additional 
linkages between clean water and global food security efforts. 
It modified the proposed ``Office of Water'' at USAID to a 
``Senior Advisor for Water at USAID,'' to allow the Agency 
greater flexibility to implement clean water and sanitation 
programs. Finally, the amendment also modifies Section 10(b)--
use of funds--by striking a directive that would cap funding of 
water resource management activities at 20 percent of amounts 
appropriated. Instead, the amendment urges that funds 
appropriated ``shall be primarily allocated'' for activities 
related to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. The 
committee recognizes that the purpose and intent of the Act 
should focus on providing safe drinking water, sanitation and 
hygiene, but the committee also recognizes that broad benefits 
can derive from water resource management activities and 
believes it is important to allow country priorities and 
specific mission expertise guide the design of water related 
programs.
    The committee notes that in past years, efforts by USAID 
and other agencies to implement the Act have not always 
occurred in a comprehensive or integrated fashion. It is 
important that development efforts related to water are 
integrated within a broader country development framework and 
reflect needs and priorities identified by the country in 
question. Section 6 includes an important amendment to the 2005 
Water for the Poor Act to emphasize this point, directing the 
water coordinator to:


        [T]ake actions to ensure that the safe water and 
        sanitation strategy is integrated into any review or 
        development of a Federal strategy for global 
        development, global health, or global food security 
        that sets forth or establishes the United States 
        mission for global development, guidelines for 
        assistance programs, and how development policy will be 
        coordinated with policies governing trade, immigration, 
        and other relevant international issues.


    Water activities should not take place in isolation or in a 
vacuum but should be integrated in a broader development 
framework.
    The committee also notes that while the authorization of 
appropriations is primarily for activities related to safe 
drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene, this should not 
preclude general resource management activities. The committee 
believes there are many different ways to lead to improved 
access to safe drinking water, and that infrastructure 
investments and related management activities are important 
components to that equation. Finally, the committee observes 
that in a time of scarce development resources and significant 
development funds diverted to priorities in Afghanistan, 
Pakistan and Iraq, official U.S. development assistance towards 
water activities, by itself, may not lead to achievement of the 
Act's goal. However, direct funding is but one means to achieve 
the safe drinking water goal--the Act specifically notes that 
development activities and outside partnerships are other means 
by which 100 million people may be provide with safe drinking 
water within six years of enactment.
    The sections below detail several important improvements 
included in the legislation.

Developing United States Government Capacity.

    Section 5 amends section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act 
and requires the Administrator of USAID to designate a ``Senior 
Advisor for Water'' to coordinate and conduct the activities 
described in Section 5 and the 2005 Water for Poor Act. Duties 
include developing and overseeing implementation and 
coordination in high priority countries of country-specific 
water strategies and expertise. This section also requires the 
Secretary of State to establish within the State Department a 
``Special Coordinator for International Water'' to report to 
the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs. This 
official will be responsible for overseeing and coordinating 
the diplomatic policy of the United States with respect to 
global freshwater issues and ensure that these issues are 
represented both within the United States Government and in key 
international fora. The committee looks forward to a more 
streamlined, integrated, accountable and coordinated approach 
to addressing the challenges of increasing access to safe 
drinking water and sanitation in high priority countries, in 
the context of broader resource management activities.

Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy.

    Section 6 amends Section 6 of the 2005 Water for Poor Act 
to require that the safe water and sanitation strategy provided 
for in the Act include an assessment of all U.S. government 
foreign assistance allocated to the drinking water and 
sanitation sector during the previous 3 fiscal years and across 
all U.S. government agencies and programs. The committee 
recognizes the importance of achieving the 100 million people 
goal for enabling first-time access to safe water and 
sanitation. To this end, this section includes recommendations 
on what the United States would need to do to support this 
goal, and how the U.S. Government can leverage critical outside 
partnerships in support of this goal.

Water and Sanitation Institutional Capacity-building Program.

    Section 7 amends the 2005 Water for Poor Act to provide for 
the establishment of a water and sanitation institutional 
capacity-building program in high priority countries. This 
section mandates the creation a program for both the host 
country institutions and officials responsible for water and 
sanitation in countries that receive assistance to have access 
to training to provide affordable, equitable and sustainable 
access to safe drinking water and sanitation, education about 
the dangers of unsafe drinking water and sanitation, and 
encourage behavior change to reduce individuals' risk of 
disease due to these conditions. Given the benefit of this type 
of program, this section includes the ability for the Secretary 
of State and Administrator of USAID to expand this program to 
additional countries beyond those designated as high priority.

Monitoring and Evaluation.

    Section 9 states a Sense of the Congress regarding the 
importance for consistent and systematic evaluation of the 
impacts of foreign assistance and the importance of the design 
of assistance programs. This section also highlights the 
significance of high quality evaluation and lessons learned 
within agencies managing foreign assistance programs.

Update Report Regarding Water for Peace and Security.

    Section 10 amends Section 11(b) of the 2005 Water for Poor 
Act to add to the reporting requirement an assessment of 
current and likely future political tensions and the impacts of 
global climate change on water supplies and agricultural 
productivity. The committee has held several hearings during 
this Congress on global climate change and supports efforts to 
incorporate these impacts in development assistance. The 
committee also recognizes that helping other nations address 
the impacts of climate change is not only the humanitarian 
thing to do; it is in our national interest.

                            V. COST ESTIMATE

    In accordance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(a) of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee provides this 
estimate of the costs of this legislation prepared by the 
Congressional Budget Office.


                            United States Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                       Washington, DC, May 4, 2010.

Hon. John F. Kerry,
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 624, the Senator 
Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2009.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is John Chin.
          Sincerely,
                                      Douglas W. Elmendorf,
                                                          Director.

                                ------                                


               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                                       May 4, 2010.

                                 S. 624


           Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2009


  AS ORDERED REPORTED BY THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS ON 
                             APRIL 13, 2010

Summary

    S. 624 would authorize the appropriation of the necessary 
amounts over the next six years to fully implement the Senator 
Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-121), 
as amended. To that end, the bill would set a new target of 
enabling first-time access to improved water supply and 
sanitation for 100 million people in certain developing 
countries within six years of enactment. In addition, the bill 
would require the Secretary of State and the Administrator of 
the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to 
designate staff at USAID missions abroad and in Washington, 
D.C., that would develop, implement, and monitor new and 
expanded programs of water supply, sanitation, and technical 
assistance.
    CBO estimates that implementing S. 624 would cost about $8 
billion over the 2011-2015 period, assuming appropriation of 
the necessary amounts.
    Pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply to this legislation 
because it would not affect direct spending or revenues.
    S. 624 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal 
governments.

Estimated Cost to the Federal Government

    The estimated budgetary impact of S. 624 is shown in the 
following table. The costs of this legislation fall within 
budget function 150 (international affairs).

                           Changes in Spending Subject to Appropriation Due to S. 624
                                     By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2011      2012      2013      2014      2015    2011-2015
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Water Supply and Sanitation Assistance
    Estimated Authorization Level..................    2,500     2,525     2,553     2,585     2,623     12,786
    Estimated Outlays..............................      125     1,164     1,946     2,304     2,421      7,960
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
Overseas Personnel
    Estimated Authorization Level..................        8         8         8         8         8         40
    Estimated Outlays..............................        6         8         8         8         8         38
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
Washington, D.C., Personnel
    Estimated Authorization Level..................        2         2         2         2         2         10
    Estimated Outlays..............................        1         2         2         2         2          9
                                                    ============================================================
    Total Changes
      Estimated Authorization Level................    2,510     2,535     2,563     2,595     2,633     12,836
      Estimated Outlays............................      132     1,177     1,956     2,314     2,431      8,007
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Basis of Estimate

    For this estimate, CBO assumes that S. 624 will be enacted 
before the end of fiscal year 2010, that the necessary amounts 
will be appropriated each year over the 2011-2015 period, and 
that outlays will follow historical spending patterns for 
existing programs.

Current Funding for Water-Related Activities

    USAID currently provides assistance for various water-
related activities in as many as 75 developing countries, of 
which 31 are designated as high-priority countries under 
section 6(f) of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act 
of 2005. Such activities include programs to: provide 
vulnerable populations with access to water supply, sanitation, 
and hygiene (WSSH) facilities; promote sound water resources 
management; and improve the economic productivity of available 
water. In 2009, USAID obligated about $578 million for all 
water-related activities, of which about $466 million was 
obligated for WSSH activities. Preliminary data from USAID 
indicates that those WSSH activities will enable first-time 
access to improved water supply to almost four million people 
and first-time access to improved sanitation to almost two 
million people.
    In recent years, a portion of funding for water-related 
activities related to safe drinking water and sanitation supply 
projects has been earmarked from funds made available to the 
development assistance account, although funding for that 
account has not been reauthorized in many years. In 2010, the 
Congress earmarked $315 million for such projects in the 
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 (Public Law 111-117) 
enacted on December 16, 2009. S. 624 would not authorize any 
additional funding for such projects in 2010.

Water Supply and Sanitation Assistance

    Section 4 would set a target of enabling first-time access 
to improved water supply and sanitation, on a sustainable 
basis, for 100 million people in high-priority countries over 
six years. CBO assumes that each year over the 2011-2016 period 
the Congress would appropriate the amounts necessary for USAID 
to initiate WSSH projects that would enable such improved 
access to one-sixth of the target population (about 17 million 
people). However, CBO expects that many of those people would 
not actually receive access to improved water supply and 
sanitation until after 2016 because it would take time to 
obligate funds and execute the projects.
    Based on information from the State Department and USAID as 
well as the World Health Organization and other international 
and nongovernmental organizations, we estimate that on average 
it would cost $150 per person in 2011 to provide such access to 
improved water supply and sanitation. We therefore estimate 
that meeting the target specified in the bill would require the 
amount appropriated for WSSH activities to grow five-fold to 
$2.5 billion in 2011. We expect those amounts would increase 
with inflation in subsequent years. On that basis, CBO 
estimates that meeting those targets would cost about $8 
billion over the 2011-2015 period, assuming appropriation of 
the necessary amounts.

Overseas Personnel

    Section 7 would require the Administrator of USAID to 
designate staff at the USAID mission in each high-priority 
country to coordinate in-country implementation of USAID's 
water-sector assistance programs. Most USAID missions in high-
priority countries do not have any Foreign Service officers 
working on such activities full-time, although those missions 
do employ staff that work on them part-time as part of a 
broader portfolio. Based on information from USAID, CBO 
estimates that the agency would have to hire the equivalent of 
about 25 full-time employees to locally manage the expanded 
water-sector programs in high-priority countries at an annual 
cost per person of about $300,000. On that basis, and adjusting 
for expected inflation, CBO estimates that implementing section 
7 would cost $38 million over the 2011-2015 period, assuming 
appropriation of the necessary amounts.

Washington, D.C., Personnel

    Section 5 would require the Secretary of State and the 
Administrator of USAID to designate staff in Washington, D.C., 
to coordinate global water policy and to develop and oversee 
water strategies for each high-priority country. The Department 
of State and USAID currently have a total of four Civil Service 
employees or Foreign Service officers working on water-sector 
activities full-time, although those agencies do employ other 
staff and contractors that work on such activities. Based on 
information from the two agencies, we estimate that the 
Department of State and USAID would have to hire the equivalent 
of 15 full-time employees to centrally manage the expanded 
water-sector programs at an annual cost per person of over 
$100,000. On that basis, and adjusting for expected inflation, 
CBO estimates that implementing section 5 would cost $9 million 
over the 2011-2015 period, assuming appropriation of the 
necessary amounts.

Pay-As-You-Go Considerations

    None.

Intergovernmental And Private-Sector Impact

    S. 624 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in UMRA and would not affect the budgets of 
state, local, or tribal governments.

Estimate Prepared By

          Federal Costs: John Chin

          Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments Burke 
        Doherty

          Impact on the Private Sector Marin Randall

Estimate Approved By

          Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant Director for Budget 
        Analysis

                   V. EVALUATION OF REGULATORY IMPACT

    Pursuant to Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(b) of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, the committee has determined that there is 
no regulatory impact as a result of this legislation.

                      VI. CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW

    In compliance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 12 of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill, 
as reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be 
omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is printed in 
italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in 
roman).

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


              TITLE 22--FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE


                    Chapter 32.--Foreign Assistance


                Subchapter I--International Development


              PART I.--DECLARATION OF POLICY; DEVELOPMENT 
ASSISTANCE AUTHORIZATIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 135. ASSISTANCE TO PROVIDE SAFE WATER AND SANITATION

    (a) Purposes.--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (c) Activities Supported.--Assistance provided under 
subsection (b) shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be 
used to--
          (1) expand affordable and equitable access to safe 
        water and sanitation for underserved populations;
          (2) support the design, construction, maintenance, 
        upkeep, repair, and operation of water delivery and 
        sanitation systems;
          (3) improve the safety and reliability of water 
        supplies, including environmental management; and
          (4) improve the capacity of recipient governments and 
        local communities, including capacity-building programs 
        for improved water resource management.
          (5) foster global cooperation on research and 
        technology development, including regional partnerships 
        among water experts to address safe drinking water, 
        sanitation, water resource management, and other water-
        related issues;
          (6) establish regional and cross-border cooperative 
        activities between scientists and specialists thatwork 
        to share technologies and best practices, mitigate 
        shared water challenges, foster international 
        cooperation, and defuse cross-border tensions;
          (7) provide grants through the United States Agency 
        for International Development to foster the 
        development, dissemination, and increased and 
        consistent use of low cost and sustainable 
        technologies, such as household water treatment, hand 
        washing stations, and latrines, for providing safe 
        drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene that are 
        suitable for use in high priority countries, 
        particularly in places with limited resources and 
        infrastructure;
          (8) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease 
        Control and Prevention, Department of Agriculture, the 
        Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic 
        and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies, as 
        appropriate, conduct formative and operational research 
        and monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of programs 
        that provide safe drinking water and sanitation; and
          (9) integrate efforts to promote safe drinking 2 
        water, sanitation and hygiene with existing foreign3 
        assistance programs, as appropriate, including 
        activities focused on food security, HIV/AIDS, malaria, 
        tuberculosis, maternal and child health, food security, 
        and nutritional support.
    (d) Local Currency.--The President may use payments made in 
local currencies under an agreement made under title I of the 
Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to provide 
assistance under this section.
    (e) Senior Advisor for Water.--
          (1) In general.--To carry out the purposes of 
        subsection (a), the Administrator of the United States 
        Agency for International Development shall designate a 
        senior advisor to coordinate and conduct the activities 
        described in this section and the Senator Paul Simon 
        Water for the Poor Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-121). 
        The advisor shall report directly to the Administrator 
        and be known as the ``Senior Advisor for Water''.
          (2) Duties.--The Advisor shall--
                  (A) implement this section and the Senator 
                Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 
                (Public Law 109-121);
                  (B) develop and oversee implementation in 
                high priority countries of country-specific10 
                water strategies and expertise, in coordination 
                with appropriate United States Agency 
                forInternational Development Mission Directors, 
                to enable the goal of providing 100,000,000 
                additional people with sustainable access to 
                safe water and sanitation through direct 
                funding, development activities, and 
                partnerships within 6 years of the date of the 
                enactment of the Senator Paul Simon Water for 
                the World Act of 2009; and
                  (C) place primary emphasis on providing safe, 
                affordable, and sustainable drinking 
                water,sanitation, and hygiene in a manner 
                that--
                          (i) is consistent with sound water 
                        resource management principles; and
                          (ii) utilizes such approaches as 
                        direct service provision, capacity 
                        building, institutional strengthening, 
                        regulatory reform, and partnership 
                        collaboration; and
                  (D) integrate water strategies with country-
                specific or regional food security strategies.
          (3) Capacity.--The Advisor shall be designated 
        appropriate staff and may utilize interagency details 
        or partnerships with universities, civil society, and 
        the private sector, as needed, to strengthen 
        implementation capacity.
    (f) Special Coordinator for International Water.--
          (1) Establishment.--To increase the capacity of the 
        Department of State to address international issues 
        regarding safe water, sanitation, integrated river 
        basin management, and other international water 
        programs, the Secretary of State shall establish a 
        Special Coordinator for International Water (referred 
        to in this subsection as the ``Special Coordinator''), 
        who shall report to the Under Secretary for Democracy 
        and Global Affairs.
          (2) Duties.--The Special Coordinator shall--
                  (A) oversee and coordinate the diplomatic 
                policy of the United States Government with 
                respect to global freshwater issues, including 
                interagency coordination related to--
                          (i) sustainable access to safe 
                        drinking water, sanitation, and 
                        hygiene;
                          (ii) integrated river basin and 
                        watershed management;
                          (iii) global food security;
                          (iv) transboundary conflict;
                          (v) agricultural and urban 
                        productivity of water resources;
                          (vi) disaster recovery, response, and 
                        rebuilding,
                          (vii) pollution mitigation; and
                          (viii) adaptation to hydrologic 
                        change due to climate variability; and
                  (B) ensure that international freshwater 
                issues are represented--
                          (i) within the United States 
                        Government; and
                          (ii) in key diplomatic, development, 
                        and scientific efforts with other 
                        nations and multilateral organizations.
          (3) Support staff.--The Special Coordinator shall be 
        designated appropriate staff to support the duties 
        described in paragraph (2).

Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 6. SAFE WATER AND SANITATION STRATEGY.

    (a) Strategy.--The President, acting through the Secretary 
of State, shall develop a strategy to further the United States 
foreign assistance objective to provide affordable and 
equitable access to safe water and sanitation in developing 
countries, as described in section 135 of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961, as added by section 5(a) of this Act.
    (b) Consultation.--The strategy required by subsection (a) 
shall be developed in consultation with the Administrator of 
the United States Agency for International Development, the 
heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, 
international organizations, international financial 
institutions, recipient governments, United States and 
international nongovernmental organizations, indigenous civil 
society, and other appropriate entities. The Coordinator shall 
take actions to ensure that the safe water and sanitation 
strategy is integrated into any review or development of a 
Federal strategy for global development, global health, or 
global food security that sets forth or establishes the United 
States mission for global development, guidelines for 
assistance programs, and how development policy will be 
coordinated with policies governing trade, immigration, and 
other relevant international issues.
    (c) Implementation.--The Secretary of State, acting through 
the Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, shall implement the strategy required by 
subsection (a). The strategy may also be implemented in part by 
other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate. In 
developing the program activities needed to implement the 
strategy, the Secretary shall consider the results of the 
assessment described in subsection (e)(9).
      (d) Consistent With Safe Water and Sanitation Policy.--
    The strategy required by subsection (a) shall be consistent 
with the policy stated in section 3 of this Act.
    (e) Content.--The strategy required by subsection (a) shall 
include--
          (1) an assessment of the activities that have been 
        carried out, or that are planned to be carried out, by 
        all appropriate Federal departments and agencies to 
        improve affordable and equitable access to safe water 
        and sanitation in all countries that receive assistance 
        from the United States;
          (2) specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, and 
        timetables to achieve the objective described in 
        subsection (a);
          (3) an assessment of the level of funding and other 
        assistance for United States water and sanitation 
        programs needed each year to achieve the goals, 
        benchmarks, and timetables described in paragraph (2);
          (4) methods to coordinate and integrate United States 
        water and sanitation assistance programs with other 
        United States development assistance programs to 
        achieve the objective described in subsection (a);
          (5) methods to better coordinate United States water 
        and sanitation assistance programs with programs of 
        other donor countries and entities to achieve the 
        objective described in subsection (a); [and]
          (6) an assessment of the commitment of governments of 
        countries that receive assistance under section 135 of 
        the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by section 
        5(a) of this Act, to policies or policy reforms that 
        support affordable and equitable access by the people 
        of such countries to safe water and sanitation[.];
          (7) an assessment of all United States Government 
        foreign assistance allocated to the drinking 3 water 
        and sanitation sector during the 3 previous fiscal 
        years, across all United States Government agencies and 
        programs, including an assessment of the extent to 
        which the United States Government's efforts are 
        reaching and supporting the goal of enabling first-time 
        access to safe water and sanitation on a sustainable 
        basis for 100,000,000 people in high priority 
        countries;
          (8) recommendations on what the United States 
        Government would need to do to achieve and support the 
        goals referred to in paragraph (7), in support of the 
        United Nation's Millennium Development Goal on access 
        to safe drinking water; and
          (9) an assessment of best practices for mobilizing 
        and leveraging the financial and technical capacity of 
        business, governments, nongovernmental organizations, 
        and civil society in forming public-private 
        partnerships that measurably increase access to safe, 
        affordable, drinking water and sanitation.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 9. WATER AND SANITATION INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY-BUILDING PROGRAM.

    (a) Establishment.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary of State and the 
        Administrator of the United States Agency for 
        International Development (referred to in this section 
        as the ``Secretary'' and the ``Administrator'', 
        respectively), in consultation with host country 
        institutions, the Centers for Disease Control and 
        Prevention, the Department of Agriculture, and other 
        agencies, as appropriate, shall establish, in 
        coordination with mission directors in high priority 
        countries, a program to build the capacity of host 
        country institutions and officials responsible for 
        water and sanitation in countries that receive 
        assistance under section 135 of the Foreign Assistance 
        Act of 1961, including training at appropriate levels, 
        to--
                  (A) provide affordable, equitable, and 
                sustainable access to safe drinking water and 
                sanitation;
                  (B) educate the populations of such countries 
                about the dangers of unsafe drinking water and 
                lack of proper sanitation; and
                  (C) encourage behavior change to reduce 
                individuals' risk of disease from unsafe 
                drinking water and lack of proper sanitation 
                and hygiene.
          (2) Expansion.--The Secretary and the Administrator 
        may establish the program described in this section in 
        additional countries if the receipt of such capacity 
        building would be beneficial for promoting access to 
        safe drinking water and sanitation, with due 
        consideration given to good governance.I22  (3) 
        Capacity.--The Secretary and the Administrator--
                  (A) should designate appropriate staff with 
                relevant expertise to carry out the 
                strategydeveloped under section 6; and
                  (B) may utilize, as needed, interagency 20 
                details or partnerships with universities, 
                civilsociety, and the private sector to 
                strengthen implementation capacity.
    (b) Designation.--The United States Agency for 
International Development Mission Director for each country 
receiving a ``high priority'' designation under section 6(f) 
and for each region containing a country receiving such 
designation shall report annually to Congress on the status 
of--
          (1) designating safe drinking water and sanitation as 
        a strategic objective;
          (2) integrating the water strategy into a food 
        security strategy;
          (3) assigning an employee of the United States Agency 
        for International Development as in country water and 
        sanitation manager to coordinate the in-country 
        implementation of this Act and section 135 of the 
        Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2152h) with 
        host country officials at various levels of government 
        responsible for water and sanitation, the Department of 
        State, and other relevant United States Government 
        agencies; and
          (4) coordinating with the Development Credit 
        Authority and the Global Development Alliance to 
        further the purposes of this Act.

[SEC. 9.] SEC. 10. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING ADDITIONAL WATER AND 
                    SANITATION PROGRAMS.

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[SEC. 10.] SEC. 11. REPORT REGARDING WATER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
United States programs to support and encourage efforts around 
the world to develop river basin, aquifer, and other watershed-
wide mechanismsfor governance and cooperation are critical 
components of long-term United States national security and 
should be expanded.
    (b) Report.--The Secretary of State, in consultation with 
the Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, shall submit to the Committee on International 
Relations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on efforts that the 
United States is making to support and promote programs that 
develop river basin, aquifer, and other watershed-wide 
mechanisms for governance and cooperation. The report submitted 
under this subsection shall include an assessment of current 
and likely future political tensions over water sources and 
multidisciplinary assessment of the expected impacts of global 
climate change on water supplies and agricultural productivity 
in 10, 25, and 50 years.

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[SEC. 11.] SEC. 12. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

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