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112th Congress                                            Rept. 112-295
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     Part 1

======================================================================



 
                   SYNTHETIC DRUG CONTROL ACT OF 2011

                                _______
                                

 November 22, 2011.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

         Mr. Upton, from the Committee on Energy and Commerce, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1254]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Energy and Commerce, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 1254) to amend the Controlled Substances Act to 
place synthetic drugs in Schedule I, having considered the 
same, report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend 
that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Purpose and Summary..............................................     3
Background and Need for Legislation..............................     3
Hearings.........................................................     3
Committee Consideration..........................................     4
Committee Votes..................................................     4
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................     4
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............     4
New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditures     5
Earmarks.........................................................     5
Committee Cost Estimate..........................................     5
Congressional Budget Office Estimate.............................     5
Federal Mandates Statement.......................................     6
Advisory Committee Statement.....................................     7
Applicability to Legislative Branch..............................     7
Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation...................     7
Changes in Existing Law, Made by the Bill........................     7

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011''.

SEC. 2. ADDITION OF SYNTHETIC DRUGS TO SCHEDULE I OF THE CONTROLLED 
                    SUBSTANCES ACT.

  (a) Cannabimimetic Agents.--Schedule I, as set forth in section 
202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812(c)) is amended 
by adding at the end the following:
  ``(d)(1) Unless specifically exempted or unless listed in another 
schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which 
contains any quantity of cannabimimetic agents, or which contains their 
salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such 
salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific 
chemical designation.
  ``(2) In paragraph (1):
          ``(A) The term `cannabimimetic agents' means any substance 
        that is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) agonist as 
        demonstrated by binding studies and functional assays within 
        any of the following structural classes:
                  ``(i) 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution 
                at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl or 
                alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl 
                ring to any extent.
                  ``(ii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 3-(1-
                naphthylmethane)indole by substitution at the nitrogen 
                atom of the indole ring, whether or not further 
                substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether 
                or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to 
                any extent.
                  ``(iii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the 
                nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, whether or not 
                further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, 
                whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any 
                extent.
                  ``(iv) 1-(1-naphthylmethylene)indene by substitution 
                of the 3-position of the indene ring, whether or not 
                further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, 
                whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any 
                extent.
                  ``(v) 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole by 
                substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, 
                whether or not further substituted in the indole ring 
                to any extent, whether or not substituted on the phenyl 
                ring to any extent.
          ``(B) Such term includes--
                  ``(i) 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-
                hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP-47,497);
                  ``(ii) 5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-
                hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol or CP-
                47,497 C8-homolog);
                  ``(iii) 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018 and 
                AM678);
                  ``(iv) 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-073);
                  ``(v) 1-hexyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-019);
                  ``(vi) 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-
                naphthoyl)indole (JWH-200);
                  ``(vii) 1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole 
                (JWH-250);
                  ``(viii) 1-pentyl-3-[1-(4-methoxynaphthoyl)]indole 
                (JWH-081);
                  ``(ix) 1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-
                122);
                  ``(x) 1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-
                398);
                  ``(xi) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole 
                (AM2201);
                  ``(xii) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole 
                (AM694);
                  ``(xiii) 1-pentyl-3-[(4-methoxy)-benzoyl]indole (SR-
                19 and RCS-4);
                  ``(xiv) 1-cyclohexylethyl-3-(2-
                methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (SR-18 and RCS-8); and
                  ``(xv) 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (JWH-
                203).''.
  (b) Other Drugs.--Schedule I of section 202(c) of the Controlled 
Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812(c)) is amended in subsection (c) by 
adding at the end the following:
          ``(18) 4-methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone).
          ``(19) 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).
          ``(20) 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone).
          ``(21) Naphthylpyrovalerone (naphyrone).
          ``(22) 4-fluoromethcathinone (flephedrone).
          ``(23) 4-methoxymethcathinone (methedrone; Bk-PMMA).
          ``(24) Ethcathinone (N-Ethylcathinone).
          ``(25) 3,4-methylenedioxyethcathinone (ethylone).
          ``(26) Beta-keto-N-methyl-3,4-benzodioxyolybutanamine 
        (butylone).
          ``(27) N,N-dimethylcathinone (metamfepramone).
          ``(28) Alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (alpha-PPP).
          ``(29) 4-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MOPPP).
          ``(30) 3,4-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone 
        (MDPPP).
          ``(31) Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP).
          ``(32) 6,7-dihydro-5H-indeno-(5,6-d)-1,3-dioxol-6-amine) 
        (MDAI).
          ``(33) 3-fluoromethcathinone.
          ``(34) 4'-Methyl-a-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (MPBP).''.

SEC. 3. TEMPORARY SCHEDULING TO AVOID IMMINENT HAZARDS TO PUBLIC SAFETY 
                    EXPANSION.

  Section 201(h)(2) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 
811(h)(2)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``one year'' and inserting ``2 years''; and
          (2) by striking ``six months'' and inserting ``1 year''.

                          Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 1254, the ``Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011,'' was 
introduced on March 30, 2011, by Rep. Charlie Dent (R-PA), and 
referred to the Committee on Energy and Commerce.
    The legislation would prohibit harmful synthetic drugs that 
imitate the hallucinogenic or stimulant properties of drugs 
like marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamines. Additionally, H.R. 
1254 would enhance the authority of the Drug Enforcement 
Administration (DEA), to temporarily schedule new substances.

                  Background and Need for Legislation

    Synthetic drugs imitate the hallucinogenic or stimulant 
properties of illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine or 
methamphetamines. Although synthetic drugs can affect the brain 
in a manner that is similar to Schedule I drugs and may be more 
harmful than the scheduled substances they simulate, these 
synthetic drugs are not prohibited under federal law.
    Synthetic drugs are a serious public health problem, and, 
unfortunately, the use of these substances is increasing 
dramatically. In a concerted effort to circumvent the 
Controlled Substances Act, manufacturers manipulate the 
chemical structure of compounds used in synthetic drugs, while 
largely maintaining the pharmacological activity of the illegal 
substances they imitate. Subsequently, these synthetic drugs 
are sold to consumers as harmless alternatives to marijuana, 
cocaine, or methamphetamines.
    Families across the country have witnessed firsthand that 
these designer drugs are anything but harmless. There are 
numerous instances where the use of these drugs has resulted in 
agitation, anxiety, vomiting, nausea, elevated blood pressure, 
seizures, tremors, hallucinations, paranoia, non-
responsiveness, and death.
    The Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011 is designed to 
ensure that the manufacture and sale of these dangerous 
synthetic substances are prohibited in the United States.

                                Hearings

    On July 21, 2011, the Subcommittee on Health held a hearing 
entitled ``Legislative Hearing to Address Bioterrorism, 
Controlled Substances and Public Health Issues.'' The Synthetic 
Drug Control Act of 2011 was one of three bills considered at 
this hearing. The Subcommittee received testimony from: Charlie 
Dent, United States Representative for the 15th District of 
Pennsylvania; Nicole Lurie, M.D., M.S.P.H, Assistant Secretary 
for Preparedness and Response, U.S. Department of Health and 
Human Services; and Howard K. Koh, M.D., M.P.H, Assistant 
Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services. At the hearing, the Subcommittee unanimously agreed 
to include in the record the written statement of Joseph T. 
Rannazzisi, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Diversion 
Control, Drug Enforcement Administration.

                        Committee Consideration

    H.R. 1254, the ``Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011,'' was 
introduced by Mr. Dent of Pennsylvania on March 30, 2011, and 
referred to the Committee on Energy and Commerce. The bill was 
referred to the Subcommittee on Health on April 7, 2011.
    The Subcommittee on Health held a legislative hearing on 
July 21, 2011, entitled ``Legislative Hearing to Address 
Bioterrorism, Controlled Substances and Public Health Issues,'' 
during which it considered H.R. 1254. On July 26, 2011, the 
Subcommittee met in open markup session to consider H.R. 1254 
and favorably reported an Amendment in the Nature of a 
Substitute to the bill, which contained technical changes 
recommended by the Administration, including the addition of 
four compounds to be listed as controlled substances. 
Thereafter, the Subcommittee ordered that H.R. 1254 be 
favorably forwarded to the full Committee for consideration.
    On July 28, 2011, the Committee on Energy and Commerce met 
in open markup session to consider H.R. 1254, as approved by 
the Subcommittee on Health. The Committee approved an amendment 
to the Subcommittee-approved bill by voice vote. This amendment 
contained technical changes recommended by the Administration. 
Subsequently, the Committee ordered that H.R. 1254 be favorably 
reported to the House by voice vote.

                            Committee Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee to list the recorded 
votes on the motion to report legislation and amendments 
thereto. There were no recorded votes taken in connection with 
ordering H.R. 1254 reported. A motion to order H.R. 1254 
reported to the House, as amended, was agreed to by voice vote.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the oversight findings and 
recommendations of the Committee are reflected in the 
descriptive portions of this report, including the finding that 
synthetic drugs that imitate the hallucinogenic or stimulant 
properties of drugs like marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamines 
should be prohibited.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the performance goals and 
objectives of the Committee are reflected in the descriptive 
portions of this report, including the goal that synthetic 
drugs that imitate the hallucinogenic or stimulant properties 
of drugs like marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamines be 
prohibited.

           New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and 
                            Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee finds that H.R. 
1254, the ``Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011,'' would result 
in no new or increased budget authority, entitlement authority, 
or tax expenditures or revenues.

                                Earmarks

    In compliance with clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of rule XXI, 
the Committee finds that H.R. 1254, the ``Synthetic Drug 
Control Act of 2011,'' contains no earmarks, limited tax 
benefits, or limited tariff benefits.

                        Committee Cost Estimate

    The Committee adopts as its own the cost estimate prepared 
by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to 
section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

                  Congressional Budget Office Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the following is the cost estimate 
provided by the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974:

H.R. 1254--Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011

    CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 1254 would have no 
significant cost to the federal government. Enacting the bill 
could affect direct spending and revenues; therefore, pay-as-
you-go procedures apply. However, CBO estimates that any 
effects would be insignificant for each year.
    H.R. 1254 would expand the list of substances regulated 
under the Controlled Substances Act (title II of Public Law 91-
513, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 
1970) to include cannabimimetic agents, chemicals that are 
commonly known as synthetic drugs. As a result, the government 
might be able to pursue cases involving drug use that it 
otherwise would not be able to prosecute. CBO expects that H.R. 
1254 would apply to a relatively small number of additional 
offenders, however, so any increase in costs for law 
enforcement, court proceedings, or prison operations would not 
be significant. Any such costs would be subject to the 
availability of appropriated funds.
    Because those prosecuted and convicted under H.R. 1254 
could be subject to criminal fines, the federal government 
might collect additional fines if the legislation is enacted. 
Criminal fines are recorded as revenues, deposited in the Crime 
Victims Fund, and later spent. CBO expects that any additional 
revenues and direct spending would not be significant because 
of the small number of cases likely to be affected.
    H.R. 1254 contains no intergovernmental mandates as defined 
in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would impose no 
costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    H.R. 1254 would impose private-sector mandates, as defined 
in UMRA, on manufacturers, sellers, and consumers of certain 
synthetic chemicals. CBO estimates that the cost of complying 
with those mandates would probably exceed the annual threshold 
established in UMRA for private-sector mandates in the first 
year after enactment ($142 million in 2011, adjusted annually 
for inflation).
    By adding selected chemical compounds to Schedule I of the 
Controlled Substances Act, the bill would prohibit the sale, 
distribution, or use of those chemicals without a permit issued 
by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The cost of that 
prohibition would be the forgone income from lost sales and the 
value of the inventory of the banned products. Because of the 
nature of the market being regulated, the scope of sales 
affected is difficult to determine. Some industry experts 
estimate that the profits generated by the sale of products 
containing such synthetic chemicals amount to billions of 
dollars annually.
    However, based on information from industry and law 
enforcement experts, CBO expects that, by the date of the 
legislation's enactment, most vendors will have largely 
replaced the banned substances with new products because many 
states have already passed legislation banning some or all of 
the compounds listed in the bill; because the DEA has already 
issued emergency rules temporarily banning five cannabimimetic 
agents and three synthetic stimulants; and because vendors are 
already anticipating passage of federal legislation. Thus, the 
cost of the mandate would be much smaller than the profits 
currently being earned in the industry. Given the estimated 
magnitude of industry profits, however, it would only require 
about a 5 percent to 10 percent decrease in profits for the 
costs to exceed the annual threshold for private-sector 
mandates. Consequently, CBO estimates that the cost of the 
mandate would probably exceed the annual threshold in the first 
year following enactment. Thereafter, costs would be minimal, 
CBO estimates.
    The bill also would impose a mandate by prohibiting the 
unregistered possession of the banned compounds, requiring 
individuals and facilities that wish to use or handle the 
chemicals to register with the DEA. Individuals who are unable 
to obtain DEA approval would have to dispose of the banned 
chemicals in their possession. CBO expects that the cost to 
those individuals would be small. Because some of those 
compounds have been temporarily placed under Schedule I of the 
Controlled Substances Act by two emergency rules issued by the 
DEA in 2011, most researchers investigating those synthetic 
compounds have already registered with the DEA. The legislation 
would not require them to register again with the DEA; 
therefore, CBO expects the cost of the mandate to private 
research facilities to be small.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Mark Grabowicz 
(for federal costs) and Michael Levine (for the impact on the 
private sector). The estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                       Federal Mandates Statement

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of Federal 
mandates prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act.

                      Advisory Committee Statement

    No advisory committees within the meaning of section 5(b) 
of the Federal Advisory Committee Act were created by this 
legislation.

                  Applicability to Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act.

             Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation


Section 1. Short title

    This Act may be cited as the ``Synthetic Drug Control Act 
of 2011.''

Section 2. Addition of synthetic drugs to Schedule I of the Controlled 
        Substances Act

    Section 2 amends section 202(c) of the Controlled 
Substances Act (CSA) to schedule designated synthetic drugs 
that imitate marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamines as Schedule 
I under the CSA.

Section 3. Temporary scheduling to avoid imminent hazards to public 
        safety expansion

    Section 3 amends section 201(h)(2) of the CSA to allow the 
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), to temporarily schedule 
a new substance for up to three years. Under current law, the 
DEA may only temporarily schedule a substance for 18 months.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

                       CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT

TITLE II--CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


         Part B--Authority To Control; Standards and Schedules

        AUTHORITY AND CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES

  Sec. 201. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (h)(1) * * *
  (2) The scheduling of a substance under this subsection shall 
expire at the end of [one year] 2 years from the date of the 
issuance of the order scheduling such substance, except that 
the Attorney General may, during the pendency of proceedings 
under subsection (a)(1) with respect to the substance, extend 
the temporary scheduling for up to [six months] 1 year.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES

  Sec. 202. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until 
amended pursuant to section 201, consist of the following drugs 
or other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual 
name, chemical name, or brand name designated:

                               Schedule I

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another 
schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, 
which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic 
substances, or which contains any of their salts, isomers, and 
salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, 
and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical 
designation:
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (18) 4-methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone).
          (19) 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).
          (20) 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone).
          (21) Naphthylpyrovalerone (naphyrone).
          (22) 4-fluoromethcathinone (flephedrone).
          (23) 4-methoxymethcathinone (methedrone; Bk-PMMA).
          (24) Ethcathinone (N-Ethylcathinone).
          (25) 3,4-methylenedioxyethcathinone (ethylone).
          (26) Beta-keto-N-methyl-3,4-benzodioxyolybutanamine 
        (butylone).
          (27) N,N-dimethylcathinone (metamfepramone).
          (28) Alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (alpha-PPP).
          (29) 4-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone 
        (MOPPP).
          (30) 3,4-methylenedioxy-alpha-
        pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP).
          (31) Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP).
          (32) 6,7-dihydro-5H-indeno-(5,6-d)-1,3-dioxol-6-
        amine) (MDAI).
          (33) 3-fluoromethcathinone.
          (34) 4'-Methyl-a-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (MPBP).
  (d)(1) Unless specifically exempted or unless listed in 
another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or 
preparation which contains any quantity of cannabimimetic 
agents, or which contains their salts, isomers, and salts of 
isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and 
salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical 
designation.
  (2) In paragraph (1):
          (A) The term ``cannabimimetic agents'' means any 
        substance that is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 
        receptor) agonist as demonstrated by binding studies 
        and functional assays within any of the following 
        structural classes:
                  (i) 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with 
                substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic 
                ring by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not 
                substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any 
                extent.
                  (ii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 3-(1-
                naphthylmethane)indole by substitution at the 
                nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or 
                not further substituted on the indole ring to 
                any extent, whether or not substituted on the 
                naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent.
                  (iii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution 
                at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, 
                whether or not further substituted in the 
                pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not 
                substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any 
                extent.
                  (iv) 1-(1-naphthylmethylene)indene by 
                substitution of the 3-position of the indene 
                ring, whether or not further substituted in the 
                indene ring to any extent, whether or not 
                substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent.
                  (v) 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole 
                by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the 
                indole ring, whether or not further substituted 
                in the indole ring to any extent, whether or 
                not substituted on the phenyl ring to any 
                extent.
          (B) Such term includes--
                  (i) 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-
                hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP-47,497);
                  (ii) 5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-
                hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol 
                or CP-47,497 C8-homolog);
                  (iii) 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018 
                and AM678);
                  (iv) 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-073);
                  (v) 1-hexyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-019);
                  (vi) 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-
                naphthoyl)indole (JWH-200);
                  (vii) 1-pentyl-3-(2-
                methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (JWH-250);
                  (viii) 1-pentyl-3-[1-(4-
                methoxynaphthoyl)]indole (JWH-081);
                  (ix) 1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole 
                (JWH-122);
                  (x) 1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole 
                (JWH-398);
                  (xi) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole 
                (AM2201);
                  (xii) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-
                iodobenzoyl)indole (AM694);
                  (xiii) 1-pentyl-3-[(4-methoxy)-benzoyl]indole 
                (SR-19 and RCS-4);
                  (xiv) 1-cyclohexylethyl-3-(2-
                methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (SR-18 and RCS-8); 
                and
                  (xv) 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole 
                (JWH-203).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *