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113th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     113-33

======================================================================



 
                 CYBERSECURITY ENHANCEMENT ACT OF 2013

                                _______
                                

 April 11, 2013.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 756]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 756) to advance cybersecurity 
research, development, and technical standards, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do 
pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose and Summary............................................10
 III.  Background and Need for the Legislation.......................10
  IV. Hearing Summary................................................12
   V. Committee Consideration........................................13
  VI. Committee Votes................................................13
 VII. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill........................15
VIII. Committee Views................................................16
  IX. Committee Oversight Findings...................................18
   X. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........18
  XI. New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditur18
 XII. Advisory on Earmarks...........................................18
XIII. Committee Cost Estimate........................................18
 XIV. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................19
  XV. Federal Mandates Statement.....................................21
 XVI. Compliance with House Resolution 5.............................21
XVII. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................21
XVIII.Applicability to Legislative Branch............................21

 XIX. Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation.................21
  XX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, As Reported..........24
 XXI. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................31

                              I. Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 
2013''.

                   TITLE I--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

SEC. 101. DEFINITIONS.

  In this title:
          (1) National coordination office.--The term National 
        Coordination Office means the National Coordination Office for 
        the Networking and Information Technology Research and 
        Development program.
          (2) Program.--The term Program means the Networking and 
        Information Technology Research and Development program which 
        has been established under section 101 of the High-Performance 
        Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511).

SEC. 102. FINDINGS.

  Section 2 of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 
U.S.C. 7401) is amended--
          (1) by amending paragraph (1) to read as follows:
          ``(1) Advancements in information and communications 
        technology have resulted in a globally interconnected network 
        of government, commercial, scientific, and education 
        infrastructures, including critical infrastructures for 
        electric power, natural gas and petroleum production and 
        distribution, telecommunications, transportation, water supply, 
        banking and finance, and emergency and government services.'';
          (2) in paragraph (2), by striking ``Exponential increases in 
        interconnectivity have facilitated enhanced communications, 
        economic growth,'' and inserting ``These advancements have 
        significantly contributed to the growth of the United States 
        economy,'';
          (3) by amending paragraph (3) to read as follows:
          ``(3) The Cyberspace Policy Review published by the President 
        in May, 2009, concluded that our information technology and 
        communications infrastructure is vulnerable and has `suffered 
        intrusions that have allowed criminals to steal hundreds of 
        millions of dollars and nation-states and other entities to 
        steal intellectual property and sensitive military 
        information'.''; and
          (4) by amending paragraph (6) to read as follows:
          ``(6) While African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native 
        Americans constitute 33 percent of the college-age population, 
        members of these minorities comprise less than 20 percent of 
        bachelor degree recipients in the field of computer 
        sciences.''.

SEC. 103. CYBERSECURITY STRATEGIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the agencies identified in subsection 101(a)(3)(B)(i) 
through (x) of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 
5511(a)(3)(B)(i) through (x)) or designated under section 
101(a)(3)(B)(xi) of such Act, working through the National Science and 
Technology Council and with the assistance of the National Coordination 
Office, shall transmit to Congress a strategic plan based on an 
assessment of cybersecurity risk to guide the overall direction of 
Federal cybersecurity and information assurance research and 
development for information technology and networking systems. Once 
every 3 years after the initial strategic plan is transmitted to 
Congress under this section, such agencies shall prepare and transmit 
to Congress an update of such plan.
  (b) Contents of Plan.--The strategic plan required under subsection 
(a) shall--
          (1) specify and prioritize near-term, mid-term and long-term 
        research objectives, including objectives associated with the 
        research areas identified in section 4(a)(1) of the Cyber 
        Security Research and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 7403(a)(1)) 
        and how the near-term objectives complement research and 
        development areas in which the private sector is actively 
        engaged;
          (2) describe how the Program will focus on innovative, 
        transformational technologies with the potential to enhance the 
        security, reliability, resilience, and trustworthiness of the 
        digital infrastructure, and to protect consumer privacy;
          (3) describe how the Program will foster the rapid transfer 
        of research and development results into new cybersecurity 
        technologies and applications for the timely benefit of society 
        and the national interest, including through the dissemination 
        of best practices and other outreach activities;
          (4) describe how the Program will establish and maintain a 
        national research infrastructure for creating, testing, and 
        evaluating the next generation of secure networking and 
        information technology systems;
          (5) describe how the Program will facilitate access by 
        academic researchers to the infrastructure described in 
        paragraph (4), as well as to relevant data, including event 
        data;
          (6) describe how the Program will engage females and 
        individuals identified in section 33 or 34 of the Science and 
        Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b) 
        to foster a more diverse workforce in this area; and
          (7) describe how the Program will help to recruit and prepare 
        veterans for the Federal cybersecurity workforce.
  (c) Development of Roadmap.--The agencies described in subsection (a) 
shall develop and annually update an implementation roadmap for the 
strategic plan required in this section. Such roadmap shall--
          (1) specify the role of each Federal agency in carrying out 
        or sponsoring research and development to meet the research 
        objectives of the strategic plan, including a description of 
        how progress toward the research objectives will be evaluated;
          (2) specify the funding allocated to each major research 
        objective of the strategic plan and the source of funding by 
        agency for the current fiscal year; and
          (3) estimate the funding required for each major research 
        objective of the strategic plan for the following 3 fiscal 
        years.
  (d) Recommendations.--In developing and updating the strategic plan 
under subsection (a), the agencies involved shall solicit 
recommendations and advice from--
          (1) the advisory committee established under section 
        101(b)(1) of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 
        U.S.C. 5511(b)(1)); and
          (2) a wide range of stakeholders, including industry, 
        academia, including representatives of minority serving 
        institutions and community colleges, National Laboratories, and 
        other relevant organizations and institutions.
  (e) Appending to Report.--The implementation roadmap required under 
subsection (c), and its annual updates, shall be appended to the report 
required under section 101(a)(2)(D) of the High-Performance Computing 
Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511(a)(2)(D)).
  (f) Cybersecurity Research Database.--The agencies involved in 
developing and updating the strategic plan under subsection (a) shall 
establish, in coordination with the Office of Management and Budget, a 
mechanism to track ongoing and completed Federal cybersecurity research 
and development projects and associated funding, and shall make such 
information publically available.

SEC. 104. SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH IN CYBERSECURITY.

  Section 4(a)(1) of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act 
(15 U.S.C. 7403(a)(1)) is amended--
          (1) by inserting ``and usability'' after ``to the 
        structure'';
          (2) in subparagraph (H), by striking ``and'' after the 
        semicolon;
          (3) in subparagraph (I), by striking the period at the end 
        and inserting ``; and''; and
          (4) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(J) social and behavioral factors, including human-
                computer interactions, usability, and user 
                motivations.''.

SEC. 105. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CYBERSECURITY RESEARCH AND 
                    DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.

  (a) Computer and Network Security Research Areas.--Section 4(a)(1) of 
the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 7403(a)(1)) 
is amended--
          (1) in subparagraph (A) by inserting ``identity management,'' 
        after ``cryptography,''; and
          (2) in subparagraph (I), by inserting ``, crimes against 
        children, and organized crime'' after ``intellectual 
        property''.
  (b) Computer and Network Security Research Grants.--Section 4(a)(3) 
of such Act (15 U.S.C. 7403(a)(3)) is amended by striking subparagraphs 
(A) through (E) and inserting the following new subparagraphs:
                  ``(A) $119,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  ``(B) $119,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  ``(C) $119,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.''.
  (c) Computer and Network Security Research Centers.--Section 4(b) of 
such Act (15 U.S.C. 7403(b)) is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (4)--
                  (A) in subparagraph (C), by striking ``and'' after 
                the semicolon;
                  (B) in subparagraph (D), by striking the period and 
                inserting ``; and''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following new 
                subparagraph:
                  ``(E) how the center will partner with government 
                laboratories, for-profit entities, other institutions 
                of higher education, or nonprofit research 
                institutions.''; and
          (2) in paragraph (7) by striking subparagraphs (A) through 
        (E) and inserting the following new subparagraphs:
                  ``(A) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  ``(B) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  ``(C) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.''.
  (d) Computer and Network Security Capacity Building Grants.--Section 
5(a)(6) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 7404(a)(6)) is amended by striking 
subparagraphs (A) through (E) and inserting the following new 
subparagraphs:
                  ``(A) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  ``(B) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  ``(C) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.''.
  (e) Scientific and Advanced Technology Act Grants.--Section 5(b)(2) 
of such Act (15 U.S.C. 7404(b)(2)) is amended by striking subparagraphs 
(A) through (E) and inserting the following new subparagraphs:
                  ``(A) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  ``(B) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  ``(C) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.''.
  (f) Graduate Traineeships in Computer and Network Security.--Section 
5(c)(7) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 7404(c)(7)) is amended by striking 
subparagraphs (A) through (E) and inserting the following new 
subparagraphs:
                  ``(A) $32,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  ``(B) $32,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  ``(C) $32,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.''.
  (g) Cyber Security Faculty Development Traineeship Program.--Section 
5(e) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 7404(e)) is repealed.

SEC. 106. FEDERAL CYBER SCHOLARSHIP FOR SERVICE PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall continue a Scholarship for Service program under section 5(a) of 
the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 7404(a)) to 
recruit and train the next generation of Federal cybersecurity 
professionals and to increase the capacity of the higher education 
system to produce an information technology workforce with the skills 
necessary to enhance the security of the Nation's communications and 
information infrastructure.
  (b) Characteristics of Program.--The program under this section 
shall--
          (1) provide, through qualified institutions of higher 
        education, including community colleges, scholarships that 
        provide tuition, fees, and a competitive stipend for up to 2 
        years to students pursing a bachelor's or master's degree and 
        up to 3 years to students pursuing a doctoral degree in a 
        cybersecurity field;
          (2) provide the scholarship recipients with summer internship 
        opportunities or other meaningful temporary appointments in the 
        Federal information technology workforce; and
          (3) increase the capacity of institutions of higher education 
        throughout all regions of the United States to produce highly 
        qualified cybersecurity professionals, through the award of 
        competitive, merit-reviewed grants that support such activities 
        as--
                  (A) faculty professional development, including 
                technical, hands-on experiences in the private sector 
                or government, workshops, seminars, conferences, and 
                other professional development opportunities that will 
                result in improved instructional capabilities;
                  (B) institutional partnerships, including minority 
                serving institutions and community colleges;
                  (C) development and evaluation of cybersecurity-
                related courses and curricula; and
                  (D) public-private partnerships that will integrate 
                research experiences and hands-on learning into 
                cybersecurity degree programs.
  (c) Scholarship Requirements.--
          (1) Eligibility.--Scholarships under this section shall be 
        available only to students who--
                  (A) are citizens or permanent residents of the United 
                States;
                  (B) are full-time students in an eligible degree 
                program, as determined by the Director, that is focused 
                on computer security or information assurance at an 
                awardee institution; and
                  (C) accept the terms of a scholarship pursuant to 
                this section.
          (2) Selection.--Individuals shall be selected to receive 
        scholarships primarily on the basis of academic merit, with 
        consideration given to financial need, to the goal of promoting 
        the participation of females and individuals identified in 
        section 33 or 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal 
        Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b), and to veterans. 
        For purposes of this paragraph, the term ``veteran'' means a 
        person who--
                  (A) served on active duty (other than active duty for 
                training) in the Armed Forces of the United States for 
                a period of more than 180 consecutive days, and who was 
                discharged or released therefrom under conditions other 
                than dishonorable; or
                  (B) served on active duty (other than active duty for 
                training) in the Armed Forces of the United States and 
                was discharged or released from such service for a 
                service-connected disability before serving 180 
                consecutive days.
        For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term ``service-
        connected'' has the meaning given such term under section 101 
        of title 38, United States Code.
          (3) Service obligation.--If an individual receives a 
        scholarship under this section, as a condition of receiving 
        such scholarship, the individual upon completion of their 
        degree must serve as a cybersecurity professional within the 
        Federal workforce for a period of time as provided in paragraph 
        (5). If a scholarship recipient is not offered employment by a 
        Federal agency or a federally funded research and development 
        center, the service requirement can be satisfied at the 
        Director's discretion by--
                  (A) serving as a cybersecurity professional in a 
                State, local, or tribal government agency; or
                  (B) teaching cybersecurity courses at an institution 
                of higher education.
          (4) Conditions of support.--As a condition of acceptance of a 
        scholarship under this section, a recipient shall agree to 
        provide the awardee institution with annual verifiable 
        documentation of employment and up-to-date contact information.
          (5) Length of service.--The length of service required in 
        exchange for a scholarship under this subsection shall be 1 
        year more than the number of years for which the scholarship 
        was received.
  (d) Failure To Complete Service Obligation.--
          (1) General rule.--If an individual who has received a 
        scholarship under this section--
                  (A) fails to maintain an acceptable level of academic 
                standing in the educational institution in which the 
                individual is enrolled, as determined by the Director;
                  (B) is dismissed from such educational institution 
                for disciplinary reasons;
                  (C) withdraws from the program for which the award 
                was made before the completion of such program;
                  (D) declares that the individual does not intend to 
                fulfill the service obligation under this section; or
                  (E) fails to fulfill the service obligation of the 
                individual under this section,
        such individual shall be liable to the United States as 
        provided in paragraph (3).
          (2) Monitoring compliance.--As a condition of participating 
        in the program, a qualified institution of higher education 
        receiving a grant under this section shall--
                  (A) enter into an agreement with the Director of the 
                National Science Foundation to monitor the compliance 
                of scholarship recipients with respect to their service 
                obligation; and
                  (B) provide to the Director, on an annual basis, 
                post-award employment information required under 
                subsection (c)(4) for scholarship recipients through 
                the completion of their service obligation.
          (3) Amount of repayment.--
                  (A) Less than one year of service.--If a circumstance 
                described in paragraph (1) occurs before the completion 
                of 1 year of a service obligation under this section, 
                the total amount of awards received by the individual 
                under this section shall be repaid or such amount shall 
                be treated as a loan to be repaid in accordance with 
                subparagraph (C).
                  (B) More than one year of service.--If a circumstance 
                described in subparagraph (D) or (E) of paragraph (1) 
                occurs after the completion of 1 year of a service 
                obligation under this section, the total amount of 
                scholarship awards received by the individual under 
                this section, reduced by the ratio of the number of 
                years of service completed divided by the number of 
                years of service required, shall be repaid or such 
                amount shall be treated as a loan to be repaid in 
                accordance with subparagraph (C).
                  (C) Repayments.--A loan described in subparagraph (A) 
                or (B) shall be treated as a Federal Direct 
                Unsubsidized Stafford Loan under part D of title IV of 
                the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087a and 
                following), and shall be subject to repayment, together 
                with interest thereon accruing from the date of the 
                scholarship award, in accordance with terms and 
                conditions specified by the Director (in consultation 
                with the Secretary of Education) in regulations 
                promulgated to carry out this paragraph.
          (4) Collection of repayment.--
                  (A) In general.--In the event that a scholarship 
                recipient is required to repay the scholarship under 
                this subsection, the institution providing the 
                scholarship shall--
                          (i) be responsible for determining the 
                        repayment amounts and for notifying the 
                        recipient and the Director of the amount owed; 
                        and
                          (ii) collect such repayment amount within a 
                        period of time as determined under the 
                        agreement described in paragraph (2), or the 
                        repayment amount shall be treated as a loan in 
                        accordance with paragraph (3)(C).
                  (B) Returned to treasury.--Except as provided in 
                subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, any such repayment 
                shall be returned to the Treasury of the United States.
                  (C) Retain percentage.--An institution of higher 
                education may retain a percentage of any repayment the 
                institution collects under this paragraph to defray 
                administrative costs associated with the collection. 
                The Director shall establish a single, fixed percentage 
                that will apply to all eligible entities.
          (5) Exceptions.--The Director may provide for the partial or 
        total waiver or suspension of any service or payment obligation 
        by an individual under this section whenever compliance by the 
        individual with the obligation is impossible or would involve 
        extreme hardship to the individual, or if enforcement of such 
        obligation with respect to the individual would be 
        unconscionable.
  (e) Hiring Authority.--
          (1) Appointment in excepted service.--Notwithstanding any 
        provision of chapter 33 of title 5, United States Code, 
        governing appointments in the competitive service, an agency 
        shall appoint in the excepted service an individual who has 
        completed the academic program for which a scholarship was 
        awarded.
          (2) Noncompetitive conversion.--Except as provided in 
        paragraph (4), upon fulfillment of the service term, an 
        employee appointed under paragraph (1) may be converted 
        noncompetitively to term, career-conditional or career 
        appointment.
          (3) Timing of conversion.--An agency may noncompetitively 
        convert a term employee appointed under paragraph (2) to a 
        career-conditional or career appointment before the term 
        appointment expires.
          (4) Authority to decline conversion.--An agency may decline 
        to make the noncompetitive conversion or appointment under 
        paragraph (2) for cause.

SEC. 107. CYBERSECURITY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT.

  Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act the 
President shall transmit to the Congress a report addressing the 
cybersecurity workforce needs of the Federal Government. The report 
shall include--
          (1) an examination of the current state of and the projected 
        needs of the Federal cybersecurity workforce, including a 
        comparison of the different agencies and departments, and an 
        analysis of the capacity of such agencies and departments to 
        meet those needs;
          (2) an analysis of the sources and availability of 
        cybersecurity talent, a comparison of the skills and expertise 
        sought by the Federal Government and the private sector, an 
        examination of the current and future capacity of United States 
        institutions of higher education, including community colleges, 
        to provide current and future cybersecurity professionals, 
        through education and training activities, with those skills 
        sought by the Federal Government, State and local entities, and 
        the private sector, and a description of how successful 
        programs are engaging the talents of females and individuals 
        identified in section 33 or 34 of the Science and Engineering 
        Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b);
          (3) an examination of the effectiveness of the National 
        Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance 
        Education, the Centers of Academic Excellence in Research, and 
        the Federal Cyber Scholarship for Service programs in promoting 
        higher education and research in cybersecurity and information 
        assurance and in producing a growing number of professionals 
        with the necessary cybersecurity and information assurance 
        expertise, including individuals from States or regions in 
        which the unemployment rate exceeds the national average;
          (4) an analysis of any barriers to the Federal Government 
        recruiting and hiring cybersecurity talent, including barriers 
        relating to compensation, the hiring process, job 
        classification, and hiring flexibilities; and
          (5) recommendations for Federal policies to ensure an 
        adequate, well-trained Federal cybersecurity workforce.

SEC. 108. CYBERSECURITY UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY TASK FORCE.

  (a) Establishment of University-Industry Task Force.--Not later than 
180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy shall convene a task force to 
explore mechanisms for carrying out collaborative research, 
development, education, and training activities for cybersecurity 
through a consortium or other appropriate entity with participants from 
institutions of higher education and industry.
  (b) Functions.--The task force shall--
          (1) develop options for a collaborative model and an 
        organizational structure for such entity under which the joint 
        research and development activities could be planned, managed, 
        and conducted effectively, including mechanisms for the 
        allocation of resources among the participants in such entity 
        for support of such activities;
          (2) identify and prioritize at least three cybersecurity 
        grand challenges, focused on nationally significant problems 
        requiring collaborative and interdisciplinary solutions;
          (3) propose a process for developing a research and 
        development agenda for such entity to address the grand 
        challenges identified under paragraph (2);
          (4) define the roles and responsibilities for the 
        participants from institutions of higher education and industry 
        in such entity;
          (5) propose guidelines for assigning intellectual property 
        rights and for the transfer of research and development results 
        to the private sector; and
          (6) make recommendations for how such entity could be funded 
        from Federal, State, and nongovernmental sources.
  (c) Composition.--In establishing the task force under subsection 
(a), the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
appoint an equal number of individuals from institutions of higher 
education, including minority-serving institutions and community 
colleges, and from industry with knowledge and expertise in 
cybersecurity.
  (d) Report.--Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy 
shall transmit to the Congress a report describing the findings and 
recommendations of the task force.
  (e) Termination.--The task force shall terminate upon transmittal of 
the report required under subsection (d).
  (f) Compensation and Expenses.--Members of the task force shall serve 
without compensation.

SEC. 109. CYBERSECURITY AUTOMATION AND CHECKLISTS FOR GOVERNMENT 
                    SYSTEMS.

  Section 8(c) of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 
U.S.C. 7406(c)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(c) Security Automation and Checklists for Government Systems.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Director of the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology shall develop, and revise as 
        necessary, security automation standards, associated reference 
        materials (including protocols), and checklists providing 
        settings and option selections that minimize the security risks 
        associated with each information technology hardware or 
        software system and security tool that is, or is likely to 
        become, widely used within the Federal Government in order to 
        enable standardized and interoperable technologies, 
        architectures, and frameworks for continuous monitoring of 
        information security within the Federal Government.
          ``(2) Priorities for development.--The Director of the 
        National Institute of Standards and Technology shall establish 
        priorities for the development of standards, reference 
        materials, and checklists under this subsection on the basis 
        of--
                  ``(A) the security risks associated with the use of 
                the system;
                  ``(B) the number of agencies that use a particular 
                system or security tool;
                  ``(C) the usefulness of the standards, reference 
                materials, or checklists to Federal agencies that are 
                users or potential users of the system;
                  ``(D) the effectiveness of the associated standard, 
                reference material, or checklist in creating or 
                enabling continuous monitoring of information security; 
                or
                  ``(E) such other factors as the Director of the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                determines to be appropriate.
          ``(3) Excluded systems.--The Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology may exclude from the 
        application of paragraph (1) any information technology 
        hardware or software system or security tool for which such 
        Director determines that the development of a standard, 
        reference material, or checklist is inappropriate because of 
        the infrequency of use of the system, the obsolescence of the 
        system, or the inutility or impracticability of developing a 
        standard, reference material, or checklist for the system.
          ``(4) Dissemination of standards and related materials.--The 
        Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        shall ensure that Federal agencies are informed of the 
        availability of any standard, reference material, checklist, or 
        other item developed under this subsection.
          ``(5) Agency use requirements.--The development of standards, 
        reference materials, and checklists under paragraph (1) for an 
        information technology hardware or software system or tool does 
        not--
                  ``(A) require any Federal agency to select the 
                specific settings or options recommended by the 
                standard, reference material, or checklist for the 
                system;
                  ``(B) establish conditions or prerequisites for 
                Federal agency procurement or deployment of any such 
                system;
                  ``(C) imply an endorsement of any such system by the 
                Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology; or
                  ``(D) preclude any Federal agency from procuring or 
                deploying other information technology hardware or 
                software systems for which no such standard, reference 
                material, or checklist has been developed or identified 
                under paragraph (1).''.

SEC. 110. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY CYBERSECURITY 
                    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

  Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act 
(15 U.S.C. 278g-3) is amended by redesignating subsection (e) as 
subsection (f), and by inserting after subsection (d) the following:
  ``(e) Intramural Security Research.--As part of the research 
activities conducted in accordance with subsection (d)(3), the 
Institute shall--
          ``(1) conduct a research program to develop a unifying and 
        standardized identity, privilege, and access control management 
        framework for the execution of a wide variety of resource 
        protection policies and that is amenable to implementation 
        within a wide variety of existing and emerging computing 
        environments;
          ``(2) carry out research associated with improving the 
        security of information systems and networks;
          ``(3) carry out research associated with improving the 
        testing, measurement, usability, and assurance of information 
        systems and networks;
          ``(4) carry out research associated with improving security 
        of industrial control systems; and
          ``(5) carry out research associated with improving the 
        security and integrity of the information technology supply 
        chain.''.

SEC. 111. RESEARCH ON THE SCIENCE OF CYBERSECURITY.

   The Director of the National Science Foundation and the Director of 
the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall, through 
existing programs and activities, support research that will lead to 
the development of a scientific foundation for the field of 
cybersecurity, including research that increases understanding of the 
underlying principles of securing complex networked systems, enables 
repeatable experimentation, and creates quantifiable security metrics.

       TITLE II--ADVANCEMENT OF CYBERSECURITY TECHNICAL STANDARDS

SEC. 201. DEFINITIONS.

  In this title:
          (1) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
          (2) Institute.--The term ``Institute'' means the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology.

SEC. 202. INTERNATIONAL CYBERSECURITY TECHNICAL STANDARDS.

  (a) In General.--The Director, in coordination with appropriate 
Federal authorities, shall--
          (1) as appropriate, ensure coordination of Federal agencies 
        engaged in the development of international technical standards 
        related to information system security; and
          (2) not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
        Act, develop and transmit to the Congress a plan for ensuring 
        such Federal agency coordination.
  (b) Consultation With the Private Sector.--In carrying out the 
activities specified in subsection (a)(1), the Director shall ensure 
consultation with appropriate private sector stakeholders.

SEC. 203. CLOUD COMPUTING STRATEGY.

  (a) In General.--The Director, in collaboration with the Federal CIO 
Council, and in consultation with other relevant Federal agencies and 
stakeholders from the private sector, shall continue to develop and 
encourage the implementation of a comprehensive strategy for the use 
and adoption of cloud computing services by the Federal Government.
  (b) Activities.--In carrying out the strategy developed under 
subsection (a), the Director shall give consideration to activities 
that--
          (1) accelerate the development, in collaboration with the 
        private sector, of standards that address interoperability and 
        portability of cloud computing services;
          (2) advance the development of conformance testing performed 
        by the private sector in support of cloud computing 
        standardization; and
          (3) support, in consultation with the private sector, the 
        development of appropriate security frameworks and reference 
        materials, and the identification of best practices, for use by 
        Federal agencies to address security and privacy requirements 
        to enable the use and adoption of cloud computing services, 
        including activities--
                  (A) to ensure the physical security of cloud 
                computing data centers and the data stored in such 
                centers;
                  (B) to ensure secure access to the data stored in 
                cloud computing data centers;
                  (C) to develop security standards as required under 
                section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3); and
                  (D) to support the development of the automation of 
                continuous monitoring systems.

SEC. 204. PROMOTING CYBERSECURITY AWARENESS AND EDUCATION.

  (a) Program.--The Director, in collaboration with relevant Federal 
agencies, industry, educational institutions, National Laboratories, 
the National Coordination Office of the Networking and Information 
Technology Research and Development program, and other organizations, 
shall continue to coordinate a cybersecurity awareness and education 
program to increase knowledge, skills, and awareness of cybersecurity 
risks, consequences, and best practices through--
          (1) the widespread dissemination of cybersecurity technical 
        standards and best practices identified by the Institute;
          (2) efforts to make cybersecurity best practices usable by 
        individuals, small to medium-sized businesses, State, local, 
        and tribal governments, and educational institutions;
          (3) improving the state of cybersecurity education at all 
        educational levels;
          (4) efforts to attract, recruit, and retain qualified 
        professionals to the Federal cybersecurity workforce; and
          (5) improving the skills, training, and professional 
        development of the Federal cybersecurity workforce.
  (b) Strategic Plan.--The Director shall, in cooperation with relevant 
Federal agencies and other stakeholders, develop and implement a 
strategic plan to guide Federal programs and activities in support of a 
comprehensive cybersecurity awareness and education program as 
described under subsection (a).
  (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this Act and every 5 years thereafter, the Director shall 
transmit the strategic plan required under subsection (b) to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 205. IDENTITY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

  The Director shall continue a program to support the development of 
technical standards, metrology, testbeds, and conformance criteria, 
taking into account appropriate user concerns, to--
          (1) improve interoperability among identity management 
        technologies;
          (2) strengthen authentication methods of identity management 
        systems;
          (3) improve privacy protection in identity management 
        systems, including health information technology systems, 
        through authentication and security protocols; and
          (4) improve the usability of identity management systems.

SEC. 206. AUTHORIZATIONS.

  No additional funds are authorized to carry out this Act, and the 
amendments made by this Act. This Act, and the amendments made by this 
Act, shall be carried out using amounts otherwise authorized or 
appropriated.

                        II. Purpose and Summary

    The purpose of H.R. 756 is to improve cybersecurity in the 
Federal, private, and public sectors through: coordination and 
prioritization of federal cybersecurity research and 
development activities; strengthening of the cybersecurity 
workforce; coordination of Federal agency engagement in 
international cybersecurity technical standards development; 
and the reauthorization of cybersecurity related programs at 
the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    Information technology (IT) has evolved rapidly over the 
last decade, leading to markedly increased connectivity and 
productivity. The benefits provided by these advancements have 
led to the widespread use and incorporation of information 
technologies across major sectors of the economy. This level of 
connectivity and the dependence of our critical infrastructures 
on IT have also increased the vulnerability of these systems. 
Recent reports of cyber criminals and nation-states accessing 
sensitive information and disrupting services in both the 
public and private domains have risen steadily, heightening 
concerns over the adequacy of our cybersecurity measures. GAO 
found that the number of incidents reported by federal agencies 
has increased 782 percent from 2006 to 2012.\1\ This dramatic 
increase is attributed in part to the proliferation and 
increased sophistication of hacking and cyber attack 
technology.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\GAO-13-187, Cybersecurity, National Strategy, Roles, and 
Responsibilities Need to Be Better Defined and More Effectively 
Implemented; http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/652170.pdf, February 2013.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    According to the Office of Management and Budget, Federal 
agencies spent $8.6 billion in fiscal year 2010 on 
cybersecurity and the Federal government has spent more than 
$600 billion on information technology in the last decade. In 
addition, the Federal government funds more than $400 million 
in cybersecurity research and development each year.
    In January 2008, the Bush Administration established, 
through a series of classified executive directives, the 
Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI). The 
Obama Administration has continued this initiative, with the 
goal of securing Federal systems and fostering public-private 
cooperation.
    On May 29, 2009, the Obama Administration released its 
Cyberspace Policy Review. The Review recommended an increased 
level of interagency cooperation among all departments and 
agencies, highlighted the need for information sharing 
concerning attacks and vulnerabilities, and highlighted the 
need for an exchange of research and security strategies 
essential to the efficient and effective defense of Federal 
computer systems. Furthermore, it stressed the importance of 
advancing cybersecurity research and development, and the need 
for the Federal Government to partner with the private sector 
to guarantee a secure and reliable infrastructure. The Review 
also called for increased public awareness, improved education 
and expansion of the number of information technology 
professionals.
    In June 2009, GAO found that the Federal agencies 
responsible for protecting the U.S. information technology (IT) 
infrastructure were not satisfying their responsibilities, 
leaving the Nation's IT infrastructure vulnerable to attack. In 
an effort to strengthen the work of those Federal agencies, the 
U.S. House of Representatives passed the Cybersecurity 
Enhancement Act of 2010 (H.R. 4061) in the 111th Congress by a 
vote of 422-5. H.R. 4061 required increased coordination and 
prioritization of Federal cybersecurity research and 
development activities, and the development and advancement of 
cybersecurity technical standards. It also strengthened 
cybersecurity education and talent development and industry 
partnership initiatives. Similar legislation (H.R. 2096) was 
considered by the House in the 112th Congress and passed by a 
vote of 395-10. The Senate did not act on the legislation in 
the 111th or 112th Congress.
    The task of coordinating unclassified cybersecurity 
research and development (R&D;) lies with the Networking and 
Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) 
program, which was originally authorized in statute by the 
High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194). The 
NITRD program, which consists of 15 Federal agencies, 
coordinates a broad spectrum of R&D; activities related to 
information technology. It also includes an interagency working 
group and program component area focused specifically on 
cybersecurity and information R&D.; However, many expert panels, 
including the President's Council of Advisors on Science and 
Technology, have argued that the portfolio of Federal 
investments in cybersecurity R&D; is not properly balanced and 
is focused on short-term reactive technologies at the expense 
of long-term, fundamental R&D.;
    NSF is the principal agency supporting unclassified 
cybersecurity R&D; and education. NSF's cybersecurity research 
activities are primarily funded through the Directorate for 
Computer & Information Science & Engineering (CISE), although 
the effort is increasingly interdisciplinary. CISE supports 
cybersecurity R&D; through a targeted program, Secure and 
Trustworthy Cyberspace, as well as through a number of its core 
activities in Computer Systems Research, Computing Research 
Infrastructure, and Network and Science Engineering. In 
addition to its basic research activities, NSF's Directorate 
for Education & Human Resources (EHR) manages the Scholarship 
for Service program which provides funding to colleges and 
universities for the award of scholarships in information 
assurance and computer security fields.
    NIST is tasked with protecting the federal information 
technology network by developing and promulgating cybersecurity 
standards for Federal non-classified network systems (Federal 
Information Processing Standards [FIPS]), identifying methods 
for assessing effectiveness of security requirements, 
conducting tests to validate security in information systems, 
and conducting outreach exercises. NIST's technical standards 
and best practices are sometimes too highly technical for 
general public use, and making this information more usable to 
average computer users with less technical expertise will help 
raise the base level of cybersecurity knowledge among 
individuals, business, education, and government.
    Currently, the United States is represented on 
international bodies dealing with cybersecurity by an array of 
organizations, including the Department of State, Department of 
Commerce, Federal Communications Commission, and the United 
States Trade Representative without a coordinated and 
comprehensive strategy or plan. The Cyberspace Policy Review 
called for a comprehensive international cybersecurity strategy 
that defines what cybersecurity standards we need, where they 
are being developed, and ensures that the United States federal 
government has agency representation for each. Recognizing that 
private sector standards development organizations also are 
engaged in international standards work, in some scenarios a 
nonfederal entity may be best equipped to represent United 
States interests, and coordination is necessary.
    Experts have also noted that the identification of grand 
challenges for cybersecurity R&D; could help prioritize 
activities across the federal government.
    In the 107th Congress, the Science and Technology Committee 
developed the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (P.L. 
107-305). The bill created new programs and expanded existing 
programs at NSF and NIST for computer and network security. The 
authorizations established under the Cyber Security Research 
and Development Act expired in fiscal year 2007.

                          IV. Hearing Summary

    In the 111th Congress, the House Committee on Science and 
Technology held four subcommittee hearings to explore the state 
of Federal cybersecurity research and development, education, 
and workforce training programs; to review the findings and 
recommendations included in the Administration's Cyberspace 
Policy Review; to examine ways Federal cybersecurity efforts 
could enhance privately-owned critical infrastructure, better 
monitor Federal networks, and more clearly define performance 
metrics and success criteria; and to review the findings and 
recommendations of a report from the Government Accountability 
Office (GAO).\2\ Both the review and the report called for an 
increase in effective public/private partnerships, and for 
clarification of agency roles and responsibilities. As a result 
of information gathered from the hearings, H.R. 4061, the 
Cybersecurity Enhancement Act, was introduced on a bipartisan 
basis on November 7, 2009. The Science and Technology Committee 
favorably reported the bill on January 27, 2010, and the House 
passed the measure on February 4, 2010 by a vote of 422-5. The 
Senate did not act on this measure prior to the adjournment of 
the 111th Congress.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\National Cybersecurity Strategy: Key Improvements Are Needed to 
Strengthen the Nation's Posture, Government Accountability Office, 
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09432t.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In the 112th Congress, the Subcommittee on Technology and 
Innovation and the Subcommittee on Research and Science 
Education held a joint hearing on May 25, 2011, to examine 
Federal agency efforts to improve our national cybersecurity 
and prepare the future cybersecurity talent needed for national 
security. The hearing included updates from the agencies on how 
they are responding to and addressing objectives of the 2009 
Cyberspace Policy Review, their efforts to educate and develop 
the necessary cybersecurity personnel, and how standards 
development is coordinated with other relevant agencies.
    In the 113th Congress, the Subcommittee on Technology and 
the Subcommittee on Research held a joint hearing on February 
26, 2013, to hear from industry and academic stakeholders about 
the R&D; needs for cybersecurity and to receive comments on H.R. 
756, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013.

                       V. Committee Consideration

    On February 15, 2013, Representative Mike McCaul (R-TX), 
for himself, and Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL), 
introduced H.R. 756, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013, 
a bill to advance cybersecurity research, development, and 
technical standards, and for other purposes. H.R. 756 was 
referred to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology.
    On March 14, 2013, the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology met in open markup session and ordered H.R. 756 
favorably reported to the House, as amended, by voice vote.

                          VI. Committee Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee to list the record votes 
on the motion to report legislation and amendments thereto. A 
motion to order H.R. 756 favorably reported to the House, as 
amended, was agreed to by voice vote.
    During Full Committee consideration of H.R. 756, the 
following amendments were considered:


              VII. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    H.R. 756, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013, 
coordinates research and related activities conducted across 
the Federal agencies to better address evolving cyber threats. 
By strengthening agency coordination and cooperation on 
cybersecurity research and development efforts, the legislation 
addresses certain critical aspects of our nation's overall 
cybersecurity needs.
    In addition to providing coordination of cybersecurity 
research across the federal government, the bill strengthens 
the efforts of the NSF and the NIST in the areas of 
cybersecurity technical standards and cybersecurity awareness, 
education, and workforce development.
    The bill is identical to legislation in the 112th Congress, 
H.R. 2096, which passed the House by a vote of 395-10.
    The bill requires that the agencies participating in the 
National Information Technology Research and Development 
(NITRD) program develop a strategic plan to guide the overall 
direction of Federal cybersecurity and information assurance 
R&D.; It requires the agencies to solicit recommendations and 
advice from the advisory committee and a wide range of 
stakeholders and that they develop an implementation roadmap 
for the strategic plan.
    The bill reauthorizes cybersecurity workforce and 
traineeship programs at NSF, including through the Advanced 
Technological Education program, the Integrative Graduate 
Education and Research traineeship program and the Graduate 
Research Fellowship program. It also requires the President to 
conduct an assessment of cybersecurity workforce needs across 
the Federal government and formally codifies NSF to carry out 
the Scholarship for Service program.
    Additionally, the bill reauthorizes cybersecurity research 
at NSF and it requires that the Director of the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy convene a university-industry 
task force to identify grand challenges and explore mechanisms 
for carrying out collaborative R&D.;
    The bill tasks both NSF and NIST with conducting research 
to improve the scientific foundations of cybersecurity.
    The bill amends section 8(c) of the Cybersecurity R&D; Act 
(15 U.S.C. 7406(c)) by requiring the Director of NIST to 
develop and revise as necessary, security automation standards, 
checklists, configuration profiles, and deployment 
recommendations for products and protocols that minimize the 
security risks associated with each information technology 
hardware or software system used by the Federal government. The 
bill also amends section 20 of the NIST Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3), 
by directing NIST to conduct a research program aimed at 
creating a standardized identity, privilege, and access control 
management framework that can be used to enforce a wide variety 
of resource protection policies. The framework should be usable 
in a wide variety of existing and emerging computing 
environments. The bill also directs NIST to conduct research on 
how to improve the security of information systems, networks, 
supply chains, and industrial control systems.
    The bill directs NIST to coordinate with other Federal 
agencies and private sector stakeholders involved in 
international cybersecurity technical standards development and 
to report to Congress on a plan to conduct this coordination 
within one year of enactment.
    NIST is also required to deliver a plan to Congress, within 
one year of enactment, describing how it will continue to 
coordinate a cybersecurity awareness and education program. 
NIST is to collaborate with relevant Federal agencies, National 
Laboratories, industry and educational institutions in 
developing this program. The purpose of the program is to 
disseminate cybersecurity best practices and standards and 
improve cybersecurity education and federal workforce 
recruitment and retention. NIST is also directed to develop a 
strategic plan to implement the program.
    The bill directs NIST to engage in research and development 
programs to improve identity management systems. The programs 
have the goals of improving interoperability among identity 
management technologies, strengthening authentication methods, 
and improving privacy protection.
    The bill clarifies that no additional funds are authorized 
for programs in the bill.

                         VIII. Committee Views


Cybersecurity strategic R&D; plan and implementation roadmap

    The Committee expects the strategic plan to be a useful 
guide for setting program priorities and estimating time scales 
for reaching program objectives. The strategic plan should not 
be limited to time scales of 2-3 years, but should include mid-
term and long-term research objectives based on known research 
gaps and an assessment of cybersecurity risks to ensure that 
R&D; objectives are informed and prioritized by the Nation's 
needs. Furthermore, the Committee intends for the development 
of the plan to be informed by the research needs of industry 
and academia and expects the National Coordination Office to 
actively solicit stakeholder input through meetings, requests 
for information and other appropriate means.
    The Committee believes the development of an implementation 
roadmap is essential to the furtherance of cybersecurity and 
information assurance R&D.; The roadmap should be aligned with 
the program's strategic plan and overall objectives, and should 
be detailed enough to clearly define the roles and 
responsibilities of individual Federal agencies in the 
achievement of the overall R&D; objectives. While each Federal 
agency has its own mission and objectives in the area of 
cybersecurity and information assurance, the Committee 
considers the development of an implementation roadmap 
essential to comprehensively addressing our cybersecurity 
challenges.

Cybersecurity education and workforce

    Over the next several years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
estimates that the number of jobs requiring a background in 
computer science or mathematics will average approximately 
150,000 annually. However, the number of computer science 
undergraduate degrees granted dropped 35 percent from 2004 to 
2008. Additionally, according to the report entitled, ``Cyber 
In-Security: Strengthening the Federal Cybersecurity 
Workforce,'' there is a shortfall of between 500 and 1000 
cybersecurity professionals each year across the Federal 
government. The Committee believes that the required assessment 
of Federal cybersecurity workforce needs, necessary skills, and 
the capacity of our colleges and universities, including 
community colleges, to produce cybersecurity professionals is 
an essential first step in ensuring an adequate, well-trained 
workforce.
    As part of the Workforce Training Assessment, the Committee 
expects that any assessment of education and training 
activities also include activities considered to be outside the 
scope of a classroom such as simulations and competitions. When 
promoting cybersecurity awareness and education for the public, 
NIST should fully utilize existing resources within the Federal 
government, private industry, academia, and independent 
organizations to minimize duplicative effort.

Cybersecurity University--Industry task force

    In considering options for a collaborative model for 
carrying out cybersecurity research and development, it is the 
Committee's intention that the objective of such a potential 
entity would be to supplement, not supplant, the traditional 
functions and activities of the individual participating 
entities. Therefore, in developing guidelines in accordance 
with subsection (b)(3) of this section, it is the Committee's 
expectation that the task force work to identify activities 
that (1) would address nationally significant challenges that 
advance common objectives; and (2) require collaboration that 
could not otherwise be reasonably addressed by individual 
entities acting independently.
    The Committee recognizes that in order for the United 
States to adequately protect itself from cybersecurity threats 
a strong partnership between the Federal government and the 
private sector must be built and maintained. In particular, the 
Committee believes active and lasting engagement between the 
federal science agencies, academia, and the private sector will 
ensure that cybersecurity research and development, education, 
and training activities are relevant not only for the current 
cybersecurity landscape, but will ultimately result in a more 
secure future environment. The Committee expects that the 
university-industry taskforce will develop a model that that 
will allow for such long-term collaboration.

NIST's security automation and checklist development and dissemination

    The Committee believes that advancements of technology have 
presented an opportunity to evolve security checklists into 
automated auditing programs capable of verifying information 
security policy compliance, as well as the measurement and 
management of vulnerabilities. NIST's Security Content 
Automation Protocol program is an excellent example of a 
public-private partnership developing interoperable security 
specifications to automate the assessment, documentation, and 
reporting of information security requirements. The Committee 
also believes that NIST should be more proactive in 
disseminating checklists to other Federal agencies.

International cybersecurity technical standards

    The Committee intends for NIST to coordinate Federal agency 
engagement in international cybersecurity technical standards 
development, in partnership with relevant Federal agencies. 
This provision is meant to recognize that coordinating 
cybersecurity standards efforts across different Federal 
agencies will ensure appropriate governmental representation at 
international standard dialogues. Furthermore, in some 
instances it may not be appropriate for Federal agencies to be 
directly involved in the development of international 
cybersecurity technical standards. Therefore, consultation with 
private stakeholders is also required to determine the 
appropriate level of engagement, if any, by Federal agencies in 
specific international cybersecurity technical standards 
matters. Given the global nature of networked systems, it is 
imperative that the Federal government has a coordinated, 
comprehensive strategy to address international cybersecurity 
technical standards needs.

Cloud computing strategy

    The Committee recognizes the economic potential of the 
public and private sector's utilization of cloud computing. 
However, stakeholders must be certain their information will be 
secure in the cloud. NIST, working in close conjunction with 
industry, is well-positioned to provide standards and protocols 
to ensure that the cloud is a safe system for the Federal 
government to utilize.

                    IX. Committee Oversight Findings

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee held an oversight 
hearing and made findings that are reflected in the descriptive 
portions of this report.

        X. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the performance goals and 
objectives of the Committee are reflected in the descriptive 
portions of this report, including the goal to improve 
cybersecurity in the Federal, private, and public sectors and 
to protect the Nation's critical infrastructure.

 XI. New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee adopts as its 
own the estimate of new budget authority, entitlement 
authority, or tax expenditures or revenues contained in the 
cost estimate prepared by the Director of the Congressional 
Budget Office pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974.

                       XII. Advisory on Earmarks

    In compliance with clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of rule XXI, 
the Committee finds that H.R. 756, the Cybersecurity 
Enhancement Act of 2013, contains no earmarks.

                     XIII. Committee Cost Estimate

    The Committee adopts as its own the cost estimate prepared 
by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to 
section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

             XIV. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the following is the cost estimate 
provided by the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, April 1, 2013.
Hon. Lamar Smith,
Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 756, the 
Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Martin von 
Gnechten.
            Sincerely,
                                              Douglas W. Elmendorf.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 756--Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013

    Summary: H.R. 756 would reauthorize several National 
Science Foundation (NSF) programs that aim to enhance 
cybersecurity (the protection of computers and computer 
networks from unauthorized access). The bill also would require 
the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to 
continue a cybersecurity awareness program and to develop 
standards for managing personal identifying information stored 
on computer systems. Finally, the bill would establish a task 
force to recommend actions to the Congress for improving 
research and development activities related to cybersecurity.
    Based on information from NSF and NIST and assuming 
appropriation of the necessary amounts, CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 756 would cost $504 million over the 2014-
2018 period and $52 million after 2018. Enacting the 
legislation would not affect direct spending or revenues; 
therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    H.R. 756 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 756 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 250 
(general science, space, and technology).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                            2014     2015     2016     2017     2018   2014-2018
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

NSF Cybersecurity Research Grants:
    Authorization Level.................................      119      119      119        0        0       357
    Estimated Outlays...................................       15       63       94       96       55       324
NSF Cybersecurity Research Centers:
    Authorization Level.................................        5        5        5        0        0        15
    Estimated Outlays...................................        1        3        4        4        2        14
NSF Cybersecurity Capacity Building Grants:
    Authorization Level.................................       25       25       25        0        0        75
    Estimated Outlays...................................        3       13       20       20       12        68
NSF Science and Advanced Technology Grants:
    Authorization Level.................................        4        4        4        0        0        12
    Estimated Outlays...................................        1        2        3        3        2        11
NSF Cybersecurity Graduate Traineeships:
    Authorization Level.................................       32       32       32        0        0        96
    Estimated Outlays...................................        4       17       25       26       15        87
Cybersecurity Task Force:
    Estimated Authorization Level.......................        1        0        0        0        0         I
    Estimated Outlays...................................        1        0        0        0        0         1
Total Changes under H.R. 756:
    Estimated Authorization Level.......................      186      185      185        0        0       556
    Estimated Outlays...................................       25       98      146      150       85       504
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes: NSF = National Science Foundation.
        Amounts may not sum to totals because of rounding.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
756 will be enacted in fiscal year 2013 and that the authorized 
and necessary amounts will be appropriated each fiscal year 
beginning in 2014. Estimated outlays are based on historical 
spending patterns for NSF programs.
    H.R. 756 would authorize appropriations for several NSF 
grant programs aimed at enhancing cybersecurity. The bill would 
authorize appropriations totaling $357 million over the 2014-
2016 period to improve research on cybersecurity. In addition, 
H.R. 756 would authorize the appropriation of:
           $15 million for grants to establish centers 
        of cybersecurity research;
           $75 million for grants to universities to 
        improve cybersecurity programs and increase the number 
        of students in fields related to cybersecurity. This 
        includes a program to offer scholarships to students 
        who pursue higher education related to cybersecurity 
        and commit to public service after graduating;
           $12 million for grants to institutions that 
        grant associate degrees to develop cybersecurity 
        programs and establish centers of excellence; and
           $96 million for grants to higher education 
        institutions to establish cybersecurity traineeship 
        programs for graduate students.
    H.R. 756 would establish a task force of academic and 
industry experts to advise the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy on issues related to cybersecurity. Based on information 
regarding the cost of similar activities, CBO estimates that 
carrying out this provision would cost $1 million in 2014.
    H.R. 756 also would direct NIST to establish standards and 
protocols to enhance cybersecurity, develop a strategy for the 
government to adopt cloud computing services (the use of 
servers and network storage to provide remote, on-demand access 
to shared computer applications and services), and promote 
cybersecurity awareness and education. Based on information 
from NIST, CBO estimates that these activities would have no 
significant impact on the federal budget because NIST currently 
performs similar activities under its existing authority.
    Pay-As-You-Go consideration: None.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 756 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would impose no costs on state, local, or 
tribal governments. Institutions of higher education, including 
those that are publicly owned, may benefit from grants that 
help expand the professional development of faculty in 
cybersecurity-related courses and curricula.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Martin von Gnechten; 
Impact on state, local, and tribal governments: J'nell Blanco; 
Impact on the private sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                     XV. Federal Mandates Statement

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of Federal 
mandates prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act.

                     XVI. Compliance with H. Res. 5

    A. Directed Rule Making. The Committee does not believe 
that this bill directs any executive branch official to conduct 
any specific rule-making proceedings.
    B. Duplication of Existing Programs. The Committee is not 
aware of another established or authorized program of the 
Federal government which duplicates the program in the bill. 
H.R. 756 coordinates cyber security programs and eliminates 
duplications as recommended by the Government Accountability 
Office (GAO) in its report to Congress pursuant to section 21 
of Public Law 111-139. Because of the interdisciplinary nature 
of NSF, the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance identifies 
all programs at NSF at the directorate level and views such 
programs as related; however, specific activities at NSF, such 
as those included in H.R. 756, are not identified in the CFDA. 
H.R. 756 directs certain organizational units of NSF listed in 
the CFDA to make grants for specific purposes, but does not 
create new units or duplicate the activities.

               XVII. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    No advisory committees within the meaning of section 5(b) 
of the Federal Advisory Committee Act were created by this 
legislation.

               XVIII. Applicability to Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act.

                    XIX. Section-by-Section Analysis


                   TITLE I--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Sec. 101. Definitions

    Defines the terms National Coordination Office and Program 
in the title.

Sec. 102. Findings

    Describes the findings of this title.

Sec. 103. Cybersecurity strategic R&D; plan

    Requires the agencies to develop, update and implement a 
strategic plan for cybersecurity research and development 
(R&D;). Requires that the strategic plan be based on an 
assessment of cybersecurity risk, that it specify and 
prioritize near-term, mid-term and long-term research 
objectives and that it describe how the near-term objectives 
complement R&D; occurring in the private sector.
    Requires the agencies to solicit input from an advisory 
committee and outside stakeholders in the development of the 
strategic plan. Additionally, requires the agencies to describe 
how they will promote innovation, foster technology transfer, 
and maintain a national infrastructure for the development of 
secure, reliable, and resilient networking and information 
technology systems.
    Requires the development of an implementation roadmap that 
specifies the role of each agency and the level of funding 
needed to meet each of the research objectives outlined in the 
strategic plan.
    Also requires agencies involved in the strategic plan to 
establish a mechanism to track ongoing and completed R&D; 
projects and make that information available to the public.

Sec. 104. Social and behavioral research in cybersecurity

    Adds research on the social and behavioral aspects of 
cybersecurity to the list of cybersecurity research areas that 
the National Science Foundation may support as part of its 
total cybersecurity research portfolio.

Sec. 105. NSF cybersecurity R&D; programs

    Reauthorizes the cybersecurity research program at the NSF 
and includes identity management as one of the research areas 
supported.
    Reauthorizes programs at NSF that provide funding for 
capacity building grants, graduate student fellowships, 
graduate student traineeships and research centers in 
cybersecurity.
    Repeals NSF cybersecurity faculty development traineeship 
program.

Sec. 106. Federal cybersecurity scholarship for service program

    Authorizes the cybersecurity scholarship for service 
program at NSF. The program provides grants to institutions of 
higher education for the award of scholarships to students 
pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees in cybersecurity 
fields and requires an additional year of service over the 
number of years for which the scholarship was received.
    The program also provides capacity building grants to 
institutions of higher education, supporting such activities as 
faculty professional development, the development and 
evaluation of cybersecurity-related curricula and courses, and 
public-private partnerships.

Sec. 107. Cybersecurity workforce assessment

    Requires the President to issue a report assessing the 
current and future cybersecurity workforce needs of the federal 
government, including a comparison of the skills sought by 
Federal agencies and the private sector; an examination of the 
supply of cybersecurity talent and the capacity of institutions 
of higher education to produce cybersecruity professionals; and 
the identification of any barriers to the recruitment and 
hiring of cybersecurity professionals.

Sec. 108. Cybersecurity university-industry task force

    Establishes a university-industry task force to explore 
mechanisms and models for carrying out public-private research 
partnerships focused on grand challenges for cybersecurity.

Sec. 109. Cybersecurity checklist and dissemination

    Updates NIST's authority for the National Checklist Program 
(NCP) which provides detailed guidance on setting the security 
configuration of operating systems and applications for the 
federal government, and requires NIST to develop automated 
security specifications with respect to checklist content.

Sec. 110. NIST cybersecurity R&D;

    Amends the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act to codify NIST cybersecurity research and development 
activities; NIST is authorized to conduct research on the 
development of a unifying and standardized identity, privilege, 
and access control management framework and to conduct research 
related to improving the security of information and networked 
systems, including the security of industrial control systems.

Sec. 111. Research on the science of cybersecurity

    Requires NSF and NIST to support research to develop 
scientific foundations for cybersecurity leading to better 
metrics and definitions.

       TITLE II--ADVANCEMENT OF CYBERSECURITY TECHNICAL STANDARDS

Sec. 201. Definitions

    Defines the terms Director and Institute in the title.

Sec. 202. International cybersecurity technical standards

    Requires NIST to consult with the private sector and others 
to develop and implement a plan to ensure a coordinated United 
States Government representation in international cybersecurity 
technical standards development. This plan is due to Congress 
no later than one year after enactment.

Sec. 203. Cloud computing strategy

    Directs NIST, in collaboration with Federal agencies and 
other stakeholders, to continue to develop and implement a 
comprehensive strategy for the use and adoption of cloud 
computing services by the Federal government. The strategy 
should consider activities that accelerate standards 
development, the development of processes to test standards 
conformance, and the security of data stored in the cloud.

Sec. 204. Promoting cybersecurity awareness and education

    Requires NIST to continue a cybersecurity awareness and 
education program and to deliver a strategic plan to Congress 
within 1 year describing the implementation of this program. 
Requires the program to be aimed at disseminating cybersecurity 
best practices and standards and improving cybersecurity 
education and federal workforce recruitment and retention.

Sec. 205. Identity management research and development

    Requires NIST to continue research and development programs 
to improve identity management systems.

Sec. 206. Authorizations

    States that no additional funds are authorized for the 
activities in the bill.

       XX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

CYBER SECURITY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

  The Congress finds the following:
          [(1) Revolutionary advancements in computing and 
        communications technology have interconnected 
        government, commercial, scientific, and educational 
        infrastructures--including critical infrastructures for 
        electric power, natural gas and petroleum production 
        and distribution, telecommunications, transportation, 
        water supply, banking and finance, and emergency and 
        government services--in a vast, interdependent physical 
        and electronic network.]
          (1) Advancements in information and communications 
        technology have resulted in a globally interconnected 
        network of government, commercial, scientific, and 
        education infrastructures, including critical 
        infrastructures for electric power, natural gas and 
        petroleum production and distribution, 
        telecommunications, transportation, water supply, 
        banking and finance, and emergency and government 
        services.
          (2) [Exponential increases in interconnectivity have 
        facilitated enhanced communications, economic growth,] 
        These advancements have significantly contributed to 
        the growth of the United States economy, and the 
        delivery of services critical to the public welfare, 
        but have also increased the consequences of temporary 
        or prolonged failure.
          [(3) A Department of Defense Joint Task Force 
        concluded after a 1997 United States information 
        warfare exercise that the results ``clearly 
        demonstrated our lack of preparation for a coordinated 
        cyber and physical attack on our critical military and 
        civilian infrastructure''.]
          (3) The Cyberspace Policy Review published by the 
        President in May, 2009, concluded that our information 
        technology and communications infrastructure is 
        vulnerable and has ``suffered intrusions that have 
        allowed criminals to steal hundreds of millions of 
        dollars and nation-states and other entities to steal 
        intellectual property and sensitive military 
        information''.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(6) While African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native 
        Americans constitute 25 percent of the total United 
        States workforce and 30 percent of the college-age 
        population, members of these minorities comprise less 
        than 7 percent of the United States computer and 
        information science workforce.]
          (6) While African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native 
        Americans constitute 33 percent of the college-age 
        population, members of these minorities comprise less 
        than 20 percent of bachelor degree recipients in the 
        field of computer sciences.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 4. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH.

  (a) Computer and Network Security Research Grants.--
          (1) In general.--The Director shall award grants for 
        basic research on innovative approaches to the 
        structure and usability of computer and network 
        hardware and software that are aimed at enhancing 
        computer security. Research areas may include--
                  (A) authentication, cryptography, identity 
                management, and other secure data 
                communications technology;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  (H) remote access and wireless security; 
                [and]
                  (I) enhancement of law enforcement ability to 
                detect, investigate, and prosecute cyber-
                crimes, including those that involve piracy of 
                intellectual property, crimes against children, 
                and organized crime[.]; and
                  (J) social and behavioral factors, including 
                human-computer interactions, usability, and 
                user motivations.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (3) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this subsection--
                  [(A) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;
                  [(B) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2004;
                  [(C) $46,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
                  [(D) $52,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
                  [(E) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.]
                  (A) $119,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  (B) $119,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  (C) $119,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.
  (b) Computer and Network Security Research Centers.--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (4) Applications.--An institution of higher 
        education, nonprofit research institution, or consortia 
        thereof seeking funding under this subsection shall 
        submit an application to the Director at such time, in 
        such manner, and containing such information as the 
        Director may require. The application shall include, at 
        a minimum, a description of--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  (C) how the Center will contribute to 
                increasing the number and quality of computer 
                and network security researchers and other 
                professionals, including individuals from 
                groups historically underrepresented in these 
                fields; [and]
                  (D) how the center will disseminate research 
                results quickly and widely to improve cyber 
                security in information technology networks, 
                products, and services[.]; and
                  (E) how the center will partner with 
                government laboratories, for-profit entities, 
                other institutions of higher education, or 
                nonprofit research institutions.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (7) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated for the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this subsection--
                  [(A) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;
                  [(B) $24,000,000 for fiscal year 2004;
                  [(C) $36,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
                  [(D) $36,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
                  [(E) $36,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.]
                  (A) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  (B) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  (C) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.

SEC. 5. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPUTER AND NETWORK SECURITY 
                    PROGRAMS.

  (a) Computer and Network Security Capacity Building Grants.--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (6) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this subsection--
                  [(A) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;
                  [(B) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2004;
                  [(C) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
                  [(D) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
                  [(E) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.]
                  (A) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  (B) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  (C) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.
  (b) Scientific and Advanced Technology Act of 1992.--
          (1) * * *
          (2) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this subsection--
                  [(A) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;
                  [(B) $1,250,000 for fiscal year 2004;
                  [(C) $1,250,000 for fiscal year 2005;
                  [(D) $1,250,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
                  [(E) $1,250,000 for fiscal year 2007.]
                  (A) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  (B) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  (C) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.
  (c) Graduate Traineeships in Computer and Network Security 
Research.--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (7) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this subsection--
                  [(A) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;
                  [(B) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2004;
                  [(C) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
                  [(D) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
                  [(E) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.]
                  (A) $32,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;
                  (B) $32,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and
                  (C) $32,000,000 for fiscal year 2016.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(e) Cyber Security Faculty Development Traineeship 
Program.--
          [(1) In general.--The Director shall establish a 
        program to award grants to institutions of higher 
        education to establish traineeship programs to enable 
        graduate students to pursue academic careers in cyber 
        security upon completion of doctoral degrees.
          [(2) Merit review; competition.--Grants shall be 
        awarded under this section on a merit-reviewed 
        competitive basis.
          [(3) Application.--Each institution of higher 
        education desiring to receive a grant under this 
        subsection shall submit an application to the Director 
        at such time, in such manner, and containing such 
        information as the Director shall require.
          [(4) Use of funds.--Funds received by an institution 
        of higher education under this paragraph shall--
                  [(A) be made available to individuals on a 
                merit-reviewed competitive basis and in 
                accordance with the requirements established in 
                paragraph (7);
                  [(B) be in an amount that is sufficient to 
                cover annual tuition and fees for doctoral 
                study at an institution of higher education for 
                the duration of the graduate traineeship, and 
                shall include, in addition, an annual living 
                stipend of $25,000; and
                  [(C) be provided to individuals for a 
                duration of no more than 5 years, the specific 
                duration of each graduate traineeship to be 
                determined by the institution of higher 
                education, on a case-by-case basis.
          [(5) Repayment.--Each graduate traineeship shall--
                  [(A) subject to paragraph (5)(B), be subject 
                to full repayment upon completion of the 
                doctoral degree according to a repayment 
                schedule established and administered by the 
                institution of higher education;
                  [(B) be forgiven at the rate of 20 percent of 
                the total amount of the graduate traineeship 
                assistance received under this section for each 
                academic year that a recipient is employed as a 
                full-time faculty member at an institution of 
                higher education for a period not to exceed 5 
                years; and
                  [(C) be monitored by the institution of 
                higher education receiving a grant under this 
                subsection to ensure compliance with this 
                subsection.
          [(6) Exceptions.--The Director may provide for the 
        partial or total waiver or suspension of any service 
        obligation or payment by an individual under this 
        section whenever compliance by the individual is 
        impossible or would involve extreme hardship to the 
        individual, or if enforcement of such obligation with 
        respect to the individual would be unconscionable.
          [(7) Eligibility.--To be eligible to receive a 
        graduate traineeship under this section, an individual 
        shall--
                  [(A) be a citizen, national, or lawfully 
                admitted permanent resident alien of the United 
                States; and
                  [(B) demonstrate a commitment to a career in 
                higher education.
          [(8) Consideration.--In making selections for 
        graduate traineeships under this paragraph, an 
        institution receiving a grant under this subsection 
        shall consider, to the extent possible, a diverse pool 
        of applicants whose interests are of an 
        interdisciplinary nature, encompassing the social 
        scientific as well as the technical dimensions of cyber 
        security.
          [(9) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this paragraph $5,000,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2003 through 2007.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 8. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS.

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(c) Checklists for Government Systems.--
          [(1) In general.--The Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology shall develop, 
        and revise as necessary, a checklist setting forth 
        settings and option selections that minimize the 
        security risks associated with each computer hardware 
        or software system that is, or is likely to become, 
        widely used within the Federal Government.
          [(2) Priorities for development; excluded systems.--
        The Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology may establish priorities for the development 
        of checklists under this paragraph on the basis of the 
        security risks associated with the use of the system, 
        the number of agencies that use a particular system, 
        the usefulness of the checklist to Federal agencies 
        that are users or potential users of the system, or 
        such other factors as the Director determines to be 
        appropriate. The Director of the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology may exclude from the 
        application of paragraph (1) any computer hardware or 
        software system for which the Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology determines that 
        the development of a checklist is inappropriate because 
        of the infrequency of use of the system, the 
        obsolescence of the system, or the inutility or 
        impracticability of developing a checklist for the 
        system.
          [(3) Dissemination of checklists.--The Director of 
        the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        shall make any checklist developed under this paragraph 
        for any computer hardware or software system available 
        to each Federal agency that is a user or potential user 
        of the system.
          [(4) Agency use requirements.--The development of a 
        checklist under paragraph (1) for a computer hardware 
        or software system does not--
                  [(A) require any Federal agency to select the 
                specific settings or options recommended by the 
                checklist for the system;
                  [(B) establish conditions or prerequisites 
                for Federal agency procurement or deployment of 
                any such system;
                  [(C) represent an endorsement of any such 
                system by the Director of the National 
                Institute of Standards and Technology; nor
                  [(D) preclude any Federal agency from 
                procuring or deploying other computer hardware 
                or software systems for which no such checklist 
                has been developed.]
  (c) Security Automation and Checklists for Government 
Systems.--
          (1) In general.--The Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology shall develop, 
        and revise as necessary, security automation standards, 
        associated reference materials (including protocols), 
        and checklists providing settings and option selections 
        that minimize the security risks associated with each 
        information technology hardware or software system and 
        security tool that is, or is likely to become, widely 
        used within the Federal Government in order to enable 
        standardized and interoperable technologies, 
        architectures, and frameworks for continuous monitoring 
        of information security within the Federal Government.
          (2) Priorities for development.--The Director of the 
        National Institute of Standards and Technology shall 
        establish priorities for the development of standards, 
        reference materials, and checklists under this 
        subsection on the basis of--
                  (A) the security risks associated with the 
                use of the system;
                  (B) the number of agencies that use a 
                particular system or security tool;
                  (C) the usefulness of the standards, 
                reference materials, or checklists to Federal 
                agencies that are users or potential users of 
                the system;
                  (D) the effectiveness of the associated 
                standard, reference material, or checklist in 
                creating or enabling continuous monitoring of 
                information security; or
                  (E) such other factors as the Director of the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                determines to be appropriate.
          (3) Excluded systems.--The Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology may exclude from 
        the application of paragraph (1) any information 
        technology hardware or software system or security tool 
        for which such Director determines that the development 
        of a standard, reference material, or checklist is 
        inappropriate because of the infrequency of use of the 
        system, the obsolescence of the system, or the 
        inutility or impracticability of developing a standard, 
        reference material, or checklist for the system.
          (4) Dissemination of standards and related 
        materials.--The Director of the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology shall ensure that Federal 
        agencies are informed of the availability of any 
        standard, reference material, checklist, or other item 
        developed under this subsection.
          (5) Agency use requirements.--The development of 
        standards, reference materials, and checklists under 
        paragraph (1) for an information technology hardware or 
        software system or tool does not--
                  (A) require any Federal agency to select the 
                specific settings or options recommended by the 
                standard, reference material, or checklist for 
                the system;
                  (B) establish conditions or prerequisites for 
                Federal agency procurement or deployment of any 
                such system;
                  (C) imply an endorsement of any such system 
                by the Director of the National Institute of 
                Standards and Technology; or
                  (D) preclude any Federal agency from 
                procuring or deploying other information 
                technology hardware or software systems for 
                which no such standard, reference material, or 
                checklist has been developed or identified 
                under paragraph (1).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ACT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  Sec. 20. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (e) Intramural Security Research.--As part of the research 
activities conducted in accordance with subsection (d)(3), the 
Institute shall--
          (1) conduct a research program to develop a unifying 
        and standardized identity, privilege, and access 
        control management framework for the execution of a 
        wide variety of resource protection policies and that 
        is amenable to implementation within a wide variety of 
        existing and emerging computing environments;
          (2) carry out research associated with improving the 
        security of information systems and networks;
          (3) carry out research associated with improving the 
        testing, measurement, usability, and assurance of 
        information systems and networks;
          (4) carry out research associated with improving 
        security of industrial control systems; and
          (5) carry out research associated with improving the 
        security and integrity of the information technology 
        supply chain.
  [(e)] (f) As used in this section--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



       XXI. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 756,
                 CYBERSECURITY ENHANCEMENT ACT OF 2013

                              ----------                              


                        THURSDAY, MARCH 14, 2012

                  House of Representatives,
               Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
                                                   Washington, D.C.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:01 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Lamar Smith 
[Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Smith. The Science, Space, and Technology 
Committee will come to order. Without objection, the Chair is 
authorized to declare recesses of the Committee at any time.
    Before we start today, I would like to recognize our Clerk, 
Deborah Samantar. After 30 years of service in the House of 
Representatives, Deborah will retire at the end of this month. 
She has been a valuable member--and she is sitting in front of 
us in pink if you needed to be reminded. She has been a 
valuable member of the Science Committee staff for many years 
and has clerked under three different Science Committee 
chairmen beginning with Representative Bart Gordon in 2007. 
Deborah started her career in the House working for her home 
Representative from Pennsylvania, Congressman Joe Kolter. After 
a few years, she became an intern and fellowship coordinator 
for the Committee on Education and the Workforce. I think that 
was under John Boehner, wasn't it? She held many positions 
during her 20 years with the Education and Workforce Committee 
and worked under five different chairmen. This is an impressive 
record by anyone's standards, and not many people can claim 
such an achievement. Deborah's ability to communicate, her 
attention to detail and dedication to the Science Committee and 
the House of Representatives will be missed. We thank her for 
her contributions to this Committee and to our country. 
Deborah, we will miss you, and we wish you the best on your 
well-deserved retirement.
    I will now recognize the Ranking Member, Ms. Johnson, for 
her comments.
    I am glad this is a bipartisan effort, and look forward to 
this bill becoming law.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I would 
like also to wholeheartedly congratulate Deborah for her 30 
years of service in the House. I first met her seven years ago 
when she became the Clerk of the Committee under Chairman 
Gordon. I have always known her to be a consummate professional 
and dedicated staff person to the Committee. Thirty years is 
quite some time. I would point out that Deborah has been 
working in the House longer than both myself or Chairman Smith 
have been here, and I hope that in retirement Deborah will be 
able to spend more time with her mother in Pennsylvania and 
traveling to her favorite vacation spots in the Bahamas. After 
30 years of service to the House, I think you deserve a little 
fun in the sun. Thank you for all that you have done for the 
Committee and for the Nation.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Johnson.
    We will now move on to the Committee's official business of 
the day, and the Clerk, Deborah, will call the roll to 
establish a quorum.
    The Clerk. Good morning. Thank you all very much.
    Chairman Smith?
    Chairman Smith. Present.
    The Clerk. Chairman Smith is present.
    Mr. Sensenbrenner?
    Mr. Hall? Mr. Hall?
    Mr. Hall. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Hall is present.
    Mr. Rohrabacher?
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Rohrabacher is present.
    Mr. Lucas?
    Mr. Neugebauer?
    Mr. McCaul?
    Mr. McCaul. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. McCaul is present.
    Mr. Broun?
    Mr. Broun. Here.
    The Clerk. Mr. Broun is present.
    Mr. Palazzo?
    Mr. Brooks?
    Mr. Brooks. Here.
    The Clerk. Mr. Brooks is present.
    Mr. Hultgren?
    Mr. Bucshon?
    Mr. Bucshon. Here.
    The Clerk. Mr. Bucshon is present.
    Mr. Stockman?
    Mr. Stockman. Here.
    The Clerk. Mr. Stockman is present.
    Mr. Posey?
    Mr. Posey. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Posey is present.
    Ms. Lummis?
    Mr. Schweikert?
    Mr. Massie?
    Mr. Massie. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Massie is present.
    Mr. Cramer?
    Mr. Bridenstine?
    Mr. Bridenstine. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Bridenstine is present.
    Mr. Weber?
    Mr. Stewart?
    Ms. Johnson?
    Ms. Johnson. Present.
    The Clerk. Ms. Johnson is present.
    Ms. Lofgren?
    Ms. Lofgren. Here.
    The Clerk. Ms. Lofgren is present.
    Mr. Lipinski?
    Mr. Lipinski. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Lipinski is present.
    Ms. Edwards?
    Ms. Edwards. Present.
    The Clerk. Ms. Edwards is present.
    Ms. Wilson?
    Ms. Wilson. Present.
    The Clerk. Ms. Wilson is present.
    Ms. Bonamici?
    Ms. Bonamici. Present.
    The Clerk. Ms. Bonamici is present.
    Mr. Swalwell?
    Mr. Swalwell. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Swalwell is present.
    Mr. Maffei?
    Mr. Maffei. Here, present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Maffei is present.
    Mr. Grayson?
    Mr. Grayson. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Grayson is present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Kennedy?
    Mr. Kennedy. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Kennedy is present.
    Mr. Peters?
    Mr. Peters. Here.
    The Clerk. Mr. Peters is present.
    Mr. Kilmer?
    Mr. Kilmer. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Kilmer is present.
    Mr. Bera?
    Mr. Bera. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Bera is present.
    Ms. Esty?
    Ms. Esty. Present.
    The Clerk. Ms. Esty is present.
    Mr. Veasey?
    Mr. Veasey. Present.
    The Clerk. Mr. Veasey is present.
    Ms. Brownley?
    Ms. Brownley. Present.
    The Clerk. Ms. Brownley is present.
    Mr. Takano?
    Chairman Smith. Are there any other Members who wish to 
record their presence? If not, the Clerk will report. The 
gentleman from Mississippi is----
    The Clerk. Mr. Palazzo?
    Mr. Palazzo. Here.
    The Clerk. Mr. Palazzo is present.
    Mr. Chairman, there is 28 Members present.

    
    
    Chairman Smith. A working quorum is more than present, and 
pursuant to Committee Rule 2(f) and House Rule 11284, the Chair 
announces that he may postpone roll call votes on matters in 
which the yeas and nays are ordered until the end of the 
markup.
    Pursuant to notice, I now call up H.R. 756, the 
Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013 for markup, and the Clerk 
will report the bill.
    The Clerk. H.R. 756, a bill to advance cybersecurity 
research, development and technical standards, and for other 
purposes.
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the bill will be 
considered as read.
    Chairman Smith. I will recognize myself for an opening 
statement and then the Ranking Member.
    The first bill for today's markup is H.R. 756, the 
Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013. I thank Representatives 
McCaul and Lipinski for introducing this bill, and I am pleased 
to be a cosponsor.
    As our reliance on information technology expands, so do 
our vulnerabilities. Cyber attacks against U.S. government and 
private sector networks are on the rise. Protecting America's 
cyber systems is critical to our economic and national 
security. Keeping our cyber infrastructure secure is a 
responsibility shared by different federal agencies, including 
the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology.
    The Cybersecurity Enhancement Act coordinates research and 
development activities to better address evolving cyber 
threats. The legislation promotes much-needed research and 
development to help create new technologies and standards that 
better protect America's information technology systems.
    To improve America's cybersecurity abilities, this bill 
strengthens activities in four areas: one, strategic planning 
for cybersecurity research and development needs across the 
federal government; two, basic research at NSF, which we know 
is important to increasing security over the long-term; three, 
NSF scholarships to improve the quality of the cybersecurity 
workforce; and four, improved research, development and public 
outreach organized by NIST related to cybersecurity.
    These are modest but important changes that will help us 
better protect our cyber networks. Cyber attacks threaten our 
national and economic security. To solve this problem, America 
needs a solution that involves the cooperation of many public 
and private sector entities. This legislation helps foster such 
an effort, which will make our computer systems more secure.
    Many industry partners and stakeholders have written 
letters in support of this bill. They include the U.S. Chamber 
of Commerce, National Association of Manufacturers, 
TechAmerica, Computing Research Association, Institute of 
Electrical and Electronic Engineers-USA, Society for Industrial 
and Applied Mathematics; Financial Services Roundtable, and the 
U.S. Public Policy Council of the Association for Computing 
Machinery.
    I am glad this is a bipartisan effort, and look forward to 
this bill becoming law.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Smith follows:]
               Prepared Statement of Chairman Lamar Smith
    The first bill for today's markup is H.R. 756, the ``Cybersecurity 
Enhancement Act of 2013.'' I thank Representatives McCaul and Lipinski 
for introducing this bill. And I am pleased to be a cosponsor.
    As our reliance on information technology expands, so do our 
vulnerabilities. Cyber attacks against U.S. government and private 
sector networks are on the rise. Protecting America's cyber systems is 
critical to our economic and national security.
    Keeping our cyber infrastructure secure is a responsibility shared 
by different Federal agencies, including the National Science 
Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
(NIST).
    The ``Cybersecurity Enhancement Act,'' coordinates research and 
development activities to better address evolving cyber threats. The 
legislation promotes much-needed research and development to help 
create new technologies and standards that better protect America's 
information technology systems.
    To improve America's cybersecurity abilities, this bill strengthens 
activities in four areas:

      (1) strategic planning for cybersecurity research and development 
needs across the federal government;

      (2) basic research at NSF, which we know is important to 
increasing security over the long-term;

      (3) NSF scholarships to improve the quality of the cybersecurity 
workforce; and

      (5) improved research, development and public outreach organized 
by NIST related to cybersecurity.

    These are modest but important changes that will help us better 
protect our cyber networks.Cyber attacks threaten our national and 
economic security. To solve this problem, America needs a solution that 
involves the cooperation of many public and private sector entities. 
This legislation helps foster such an effort, which will make our 
computer systems more secure.
    Many industry partners and stakeholders have written letters in 
support of this bill. They include: The U.S. Chamber of Commerce; 
National Association of Manufacturers; TechAmerica; Computing Research 
Association; Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers-USA; 
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics; Financial Services 
Roundtable; and the U.S. Public Policy Council of the Association for 
Computing Machinery.

    Chairman Smith. I will yield the remainder of my time to 
the gentleman from Texas, Mr. McCaul, the author of the bill 
along with Mr. Lipinski.
    Mr. McCaul. I thank the Chairman and Ranking Member for 
allowing me to proceed with this bill one more time. Mr. 
Lipinski, I believe this is the third time we have introduced 
this legislation. I hope the third time is the charm.
    But I do think it is important, and I appreciate how 
seriously the Committee is taking this issue. It is of 
paramount importance for our country and our Congress right 
now.
    Earlier this week, our country's top intelligence official 
told a Senate panel that the United States is vulnerable to 
espionage, cyber crime and outright destruction of computer 
networks both from sophisticated and state-sponsored attacks as 
well as criminal hacker groups and cyber terrorists. Many of 
these attacks emanate out of China, Russia, and Iran. Yesterday 
in the Homeland Security Committee, which I chair, the DHS 
Deputy Secretary, Jane Lute, again affirmed the need for 
Congress to develop legislation to address this critical issue.
    We know that foreign nations are conducting reconnaissance 
on our critical infrastructures and utilities including our gas 
lines and water systems and energy grids, and if the ability to 
send silent attacks through our digital networks falls into our 
enemies' hands, this country could be the victim of a 
devastating attack.
    Last December, Iranians attacked the state-owned Saudi 
Aramco with the goal of stopping Saudi Arabia's oil production. 
Additionally this year, Iran conducted multiple denial-of-
service attacks on major U.S. banks in the United States. 
Hackers have also attacked the servers of our air traffic 
control system. And just last year, an al-Qaeda operative 
issued a call for an electronic jihad against the United 
States, comparing our technological vulnerabilities to that of 
our security before 9/11.
    Yet while threats are imminent, no major cybersecurity 
legislation that would help protect us has been enacted since 
2002. Simply put, we are not prepared to meet the threats of 
the 21st century. Last month, the President issued an Executive 
Order with the intention of bolstering our cyber defenses 
because Congress has failed to take action. That is why 
Congressman Lipinski and I introduced the Cybersecurity 
Enhancement Act of 2013 before this Committee today.
    This Act improves coordination in the government, providing 
for a strategic plan to assess the cybersecurity risk and guide 
the overall direction of federal cyber research and 
development. Our federal networks are under cyber attack every 
day. This bill updates the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology's responsibilities to develop security and 
procurement standards for the .gov computer systems to harden 
these federal networks against attack. Our bill also 
establishes a federal university-private sector task force to 
coordinate research and development. It improves the training 
of cyber professionals and continues much-needed cybersecurity 
research and development programs at the National Science 
Foundation and the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology.
    Additionally, this bill promotes cybersecurity awareness 
and education throughout the country, and when you talk to 
agencies like the NSA, they tell you that perhaps 80 percent of 
this could be prevented by proper computer hygiene.
    Through a bipartisan effort, this bill passed last Congress 
395 to 10. Most importantly, H.R. 756 is fiscally responsible. 
It is not being paid with any new money since it is intended to 
work within the boundaries of funds authorized and appropriated 
to NSF and NIST. This bill has been endorsed by leading 
industry groups including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the 
Computing Research Association.
    We have also been working closely with NSF and NIST to 
ensure this bill suits their needs. I am confident this 
legislation will advance the work these agencies are doing to 
bolster our domestic cybersecurity, and I urge my colleagues to 
support the legislation. And with that, Mr. Chairman, I yield 
back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. McCaul. The gentlewoman from 
Texas, Ms. Johnson, the Ranking Member, is recognized for her 
opening statement.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you very much, Chairman Smith.
    Today we are marking up two bipartisan pieces of 
legislation, H.R. 756, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 
2013, and H.R. 967, Advancing America's Networking and 
Information Technology R&D; Act.
    Advances in network and information technology, or NIT, are 
a key driver of our economy, increasing productivity and 
existing industries and opening the door for the formation of 
new ones. Small businesses use NIT to connect a wider consumer 
base, allowing them to grow. The military uses NIT to improve 
intelligence gathering and sharing as well to support many of 
its worldwide operations. NIT is improving health care by 
creating better treatment options through electronic health 
record keeping, advanced surgical tools, and the facilitation 
of medical research. And of course, Internet companies such as 
Google and Facebook are now worth billions of dollars and show 
how quickly NIT R&D; can translate into real-world products.
    NIT has truly revolutionized our modern way of life. 
However, our growing reliance on NIT to fuel our society leaves 
us vulnerable to cyber attacks. As the stakes have grown 
higher, individual hackers have given way to organized criminal 
groups and even foreign governments. It is not an overstatement 
to say that the increasing threat of cyber attack puts both our 
NIT-based economy and our national security at risk.
    Today we consider bills to address both those good and bad 
aspects of our high-tech society's growing reliance on 
information technology. The first bill, H.R. 756, addresses the 
growing threat of cyber attack. I want to commend Mr. Lipinski 
and Mr. McCaul for their longstanding bipartisan leadership on 
this critical topic of cybersecurity research and development.
    The bill they have reintroduced is identical to the 
legislation we moved through this Committee and passed 
overwhelmingly on the House Floor last Congress. This 
bipartisan bill is overall a very good bill that contributes in 
essential ways to any comprehensive effort to keep our Nation, 
our businesses and our citizens safe from malicious cyber 
attacks.
    While H.R. 756 is a good bill, I think it is important that 
we consider the fact that the research accounts of both NSF and 
NIST would be flat-funded under this proposal and were cut 
under sequestration. The Federal Government is already 
suffering from a lack of adequately trained cybersecurity 
professionals, and the impact of sequestration on these key 
agencies will further erode the human capital we need to build 
up our cybersecurity capabilities. It will also slow down much-
needed advances in research and development on potentially 
game-changing technologies.
    Next, we will consider H.R. 967, which is another good 
bipartisan bill. It continues to strengthen and build upon the 
interagency initiative launched more than 20 years ago with the 
High Performance Computing Act of 1991. H.R. 967 is an updated 
version of a bipartisan bill that former Chairman Bart Gordon 
first introduced and the House passed in 2009. The bill was 
developed by Chairman Gordon to ensure that the Federal 
Government creates a coherent vision and strategy for federal 
investments in NIT R&D; including all of the applications made 
possible by NIT. The bill also contains provisions that would 
help facilitate and strengthen public-private partnerships for 
the benefit of our economy, national security and overall 
quality of life.
    I am proud to work closely with Chairman Hall--I was proud 
to work closely with Chairman Hall last year to update that 
legislation to appropriately reflect changes both to the NITRD 
program and to the network and information technology landscape 
since 2009. While it was not possible to get the NITRD 
legislation enacted into law in the 112th Congress, I want to 
thank Ms. Lummis for reintroducing our bipartisan bill once 
again in this new Congress, and I am happy again to be an 
original cosponsor for this measure.
    With that, I will close by saying that I am looking forward 
to a productive markup today, and I yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]
       Prepared Statement of Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson
    Thank you Chairman Smith.
    Today, we are marking up two bipartisan pieces of legislation:

      H.R. 756, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013, and

      H.R. 967, Advancing America's Networking and Information 
Technology R&D; Act.

    Advances in networking and information technology, or NIT, are a 
key driver of our economy, increasing productivity in existing 
industries and opening the door for the formation of new ones. Small 
businesses use NIT to connect to a wider consumer base, allowing them 
to grow. The military uses NIT to improve intelligence gathering and 
sharing as well as well as to support many of its worldwide operations. 
NIT is improving health care by creating better treatment options 
through electronic health recordkeeping, advanced surgical tools, and 
the facilitation of medical research.
    And of course, internet companies such as Google and Facebook are 
now worth billions of dollars and show how quickly NIT R&D; can 
translate into real world products. NIT has truly revolutionized our 
modern way of life.
    However, our growing reliance on NIT to fuel our society leaves us 
vulnerable to cyber attacks. As the stakes have grown higher, 
individual hackers have given way to organized criminal groups and even 
foreign governments.
    It is not an overstatement to say that the increasing threat of 
cyber attack puts both our NIT-based economy and our national security 
at risk.
    Today we consider bills to address both the good and bad aspects of 
our hi-tech society's growing reliance on information technology.
    The first bill, H.R. 756, addresses the growing threat of cyber 
attack. I want to commend Mr. Lipinski and Mr. McCaul for their 
longstanding, bipartisan leadership on this critical topic of 
cybersecurity research and development.
    The bill they have reintroduced is identical to legislation we 
moved through this Committee and passed overwhelmingly on the House 
floor last Congress.
    This bipartisan bill is overall a very good bill that contributes 
in essential ways to any comprehensive effort to keep our nation, our 
businesses, and our citizens safe from malicious cyber attacks.
    While H.R. 756 is a good bill, I think it is important that we 
consider the fact that the research accounts of both NSF and NIST would 
be flat-funded under this proposal, and were cut under sequestration. 
The federal government is already suffering from a lack of adequately 
trained cybersecurity professionals and the impact of sequestration on 
these key agencies will further erode the human capital we need to 
build up our cybersecurity capabilities.It will also slow down much 
needed advances in research and development on potentially game-
changing technologies.
    Next we will consider H.R. 967, which is another good bipartisan 
bill. It continues to strengthen and build upon the interagency 
initiative launched more than 20 years ago with the High Performance 
Computing Act of 1991.
    H.R. 967 is an updated version of a bipartisan bill that former 
Chairman Bart Gordon first introduced and the House passed in 2009.
    The bill was developed by Chairman Gordon to ensure that the 
federal government creates a coherent vision and strategy for federal 
investments in NIT R&D;, including all of the applications made possible 
by NIT. The bill also contained provisions that would help facilitate 
and strengthen public-private partnerships for the benefit of our 
economy, national security, and overall quality of life.
    I was proud to work closely with Chairman Hall last year to update 
that legislation to appropriately reflect changes both to the NITR-D 
program and to the networking and information technology landscape 
since 2009.
    While it was not possible to get the NITR-D legislation enacted 
into law in the 112th Congress, I want to thank Mrs. Lummis for re-
introducing our bipartisan bill once again in the new Congress, and I'm 
happy to again be an original cosponsor of this measure. With that, I 
will close by saying that I'm looking forward to a productive markup 
today, and I yield back.

    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Johnson.
    If there is no further discussion on the bill, I will 
recognize myself to offer a Manager's Amendment, and the Clerk 
will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 009, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Smith of Texas.
    [The amendment of Mr. Smith appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and I will recognize myself and then the 
Ranking Member.
    This Manager's Amendment makes a number of modest changes 
to the programs authorized in H.R. 756. First, the amendment 
supports coordination of cybersecurity research and 
development. It assigns the university-industry task force the 
responsibility of identifying and prioritizing grand challenges 
for cybersecurity R&D.; This will help the public sector become 
more aware of long-term industry needs and give more focus to 
public-private R&D; efforts.
    The amendment also requires the cybersecurity R&D; agencies 
to track ongoing and completed federal cybersecurity R&D; 
projects and make that information publicly available. For the 
last several years, the Government Accountability Office has 
recommended this requirement in order to make federal cyber R&D; 
more transparent and ensure we do not duplicate efforts. The 
amendment also improves NIST's Cybersecurity Awareness and 
Education program. It directs NIST to include cybersecurity 
educational programs and federal workforce professional 
development in its activities, and I thank Ranking Member 
Johnson for her ideas that were included in this section.
    In addition, the amendment helps graduates with the 
Scholarship for Service program. It modifies the federal hiring 
authority available to these graduates to allow for expedited 
hiring and improved retention of these individuals in the 
federal workforce.
    Finally, the Manager's Amendment updates the authorization 
levels providing to the National Science Foundation 
cybersecurity research and education grants. These programs 
have not been authorized since 2007. Since that time, the NSF 
has increased its activities to address cybersecurity. The 
authorizations proposed in this amendment are approximately 
equal to what NSF currently spends on these activities and sets 
that level for the next three years. The amendment also 
clarifies that this funding does not increase the total 
authorization for NSF research activities. These authorizations 
demonstrate strong Congressional support for prioritizing 
cybersecurity R&D; activities that are important for America's 
security and competitiveness. This amendment improves an 
already strong bill, and I urge my colleagues to support it, 
and the Ranking Member, Ms. Johnson, is recognized for her 
comments.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and thanks to Mr. 
McCaul for working with me to update and improve Section 204 to 
better reflect the goals and status of federal cybersecurity 
education and dissemination activities. The federal science 
agencies support important education and training efforts such 
as the Scholarship for Service program at NSF that are helping 
to create a cadre of skilled cybersecurity professionals for 
both federal workforce needs and critical sectors of our 
economy including energy and financial systems. The agencies 
also have a role to play in increasing the public's awareness 
of risk they may face in their everyday online activities and 
to help disseminate best practices for managing these risks.
    The language in the Manager's Amendment appropriately 
reflects the full scope of these critical activities, and once 
again, I thank my colleagues for working with me on this 
language.
    I do want to take a moment to express one concern that I 
have. Almost everyone in this room supports these programs. For 
the reasons that I outlined in my opening statement, I strongly 
support these programs. I think these programs are absolutely 
vital for our Nation's future prosperity, and I think many, if 
not most, of my colleagues on both sides of the aisle would 
agree with that. But I am very concerned that we are moving 
forward on this bill without recognizing the funding situation 
facing the agencies we are tasking to address this issue. NSF 
and NIST and all the agencies tasked with responsibilities in 
this bill were hit with sequester, and those cuts will affect 
the ability of these agencies to implement the very 
responsibilities we are assigning them in this legislation. 
Cybersecurity is a critical issue, and it becomes more 
important by the day. Addressing this issue will not be easy 
and it will not be cheap, but it is absolutely necessary. We 
need to recognize that and work towards finding resources to 
fix this problem.
    Chairman Smith and Chairman McCaul have both worked with us 
in an amicable way on this bill, and I will not offer any 
amendments to address this. But I do think we need to 
acknowledge that we can't continually tell our agencies to do 
important work like this on the one hand and deprive them of 
the resources they need to do the job with the other hand.
    I yield back. Thank you very much.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Johnson.
    Is there any further discussion on this amendment?
    Mr. Lipinski. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Smith. The gentleman from Illinois, Mr. Lipinski, 
is recognized.
    Mr. Lipinski. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to express my 
appreciation to you and to Mr. McCaul for your willingness to 
work with me on this legislation. I thank Ranking Member 
Johnson for working to bring this up. I think this Manager's 
Amendment incorporates a lot of feedback from both sides of the 
aisle, and I wholeheartedly support the amendment. I think this 
is the way that we should be working. I know that the House 
passed the legislation twice, once in the Democrat majority 
111th Congress and once in the Republican majority 112th 
Congress, both times with broad bipartisan support. When we had 
a Democratic majority, this was the Lipinski-McCaul bill and it 
is now the McCaul-Lipinski bill, and I think that is the way 
this incredibly vital issue of cybersecurity should be handled, 
and I hope that this continues here today in the markup.
    As Mr. McCaul stated, he did a good job of going through 
what this bill does. I think we should all take note, and it 
certainly bears repeating that the Director of National 
Intelligence this week said the danger of cyber attacks and 
cyber espionage on crucial infrastructure tops the list of 
global threats, and I believe that we face the possibility of a 
cyber Pearl Harbor that could destroy America's military and 
economic security. I mean, we have already seen the loss of 
countless jobs in this country through cyber espionage, and we 
have thankfully so far repelled much worse attacks that are 
happening every day. So I think it is now more important than 
ever that we get this legislation across the finish line and on 
to the President's desk.
    I just want to echo one of the points that Ranking Member 
Johnson mentioned. I would like to see higher authorization 
levels and recognition of the consequences if we fail in 
protecting our critical infrastructure. I understand what we 
have before us now is what we can do today but I think it is 
important that we make sure we keep our eyes on that and we do 
have enough support given to what is needed to protect our 
country.
    Of course, cybersecurity research standards and education 
are only part of the solution. I look forward to working with 
my colleagues to make sure this bill is included in any 
comprehensive cybersecurity legislation passed by Congress.
    So again, I want to thank Chairman Smith and Chairman 
McCaul for working with me on this legislation. I urge the 
adoption of the Manager's Amendment and adoption of the bill.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Lipinski, and appreciate 
your work on this bill, this being the third Congress you have 
done so.
    Are there any other Members who wish to be recognized? The 
gentleman from California, Mr. Swalwell--I am sorry. The 
gentleman from New York, Mr. Maffei, then.
    Mr. Maffei. Mr. Chairman, shouldn't it be done by 
seniority? That is the only question. Okay. All right.
    Mr. Chairman, I move to strike the last word. I just--I 
totally agree and want to associate myself with the comments of 
Mr. Lipinski and the Ranking Member, and I also want to thank 
the Chairman, the Chairman Emeritus and Mr. McCaul, the 
Chairman of the Subcommittee.
    As a new member of this Committee, this is one of the most 
important things that we can work on at all, and in both my 
Committee work here and on the Armed Services Committee, I will 
be trying to do that. There is broad bipartisan support. In 
fact, it was in October 2011 that then-presidential candidate 
Mitt Romney underlined the importance of cybersecurity when he 
made it one of the top eight actions that he would have dealt 
with in the first 100 days, and his plan was ``a full 
interagency initiative to form a unified national strategy to 
deter and defend against the growing threats of these various 
cyber attacks.''
    Mr. Lipinski mentioned the testimony of the intelligence--
our top intelligence personnel in saying that the cyber attacks 
pose a greater risk potential to the United States national 
security than al-Qaeda or other militants that we have focused 
on since 9/11, and of course, the President made news the other 
day when he mentioned that we have seen a steady ramping up of 
cybersecurity threats. Some are state sponsored and some are 
just sponsored by criminals.
    I do also, though, believe that we might be being pennywise 
but pound foolish not to invest more in our cybersecurity. 
Normally, I would be the first person to say that this needs to 
be a very fiscally responsible bill, and of course, I do 
support it for being fiscally responsible, but there are some 
areas, and this is one of them, this poses extreme threats to 
our national security and our economy, and the threat, as 
Ranking Member Johnson said, to our future prosperity. So we 
should not be pennywise and pound foolish.
    That said, I will not offer an amendment today and will 
fully support the bill and the Manager's Amendment because the 
most important thing is that we do move forward, and I am 
hoping that Mr. Swalwell, myself and the other new Members who 
certainly support this legislation will work to try to get 
through the logjams that you faced in the past couple of 
Congresses, because this is just so vital to everything that we 
do.
    So again, I just want to thank the Chairman and the Ranking 
Member for working in a bipartisan way on this. This is the way 
we should be doing all these issues, and I appreciate the time.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Maffei, and thanks for 
reminding us about the President's and Governor Romney's 
support for this concept as well.
    The gentleman from California, Mr. Rohrabacher, is 
recognized.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Mr. Chairman, number one, I want to thank 
you for your leadership in this issue as well as the leadership 
that has been provided by several of the former chairmen, 
Chairman Hall and others in this room that are joining us 
today.
    I have been trying to figure out what is being said here in 
the opening statements because we all seem to agree that this 
is vital--this is an issue that is vital to our national 
security and we all seem to agree on that, but what we don't 
seem to agree on, it seems this is quite often, is whether we 
need to--how much money we need to spend or whether we need to 
spend more money on it, and it sort of dawned on me that what 
we are really talking about now is whether or not we need to 
borrow more money from China in order to protect us from China, 
because every cent more than we spend now in increasing our 
deficit means we are going to have to borrow it from someone 
and the people who are out giving us those loans happen to be 
the Chinese government.
    I would suggest that the threat that is posed to us by 
China will not be enhanced by us becoming even more indebted to 
China and that we should also, when we are looking at trying to 
find solutions, we should go beyond trying to give scholarships 
to our people to defend ourselves against the Chinese students 
that we are educating in our universities and providing them 
insights into our most secret information, which then they go 
back to China and utilize to develop these cyber attack 
threats. I would think that maybe that plus maybe the fact that 
we have permitted tech transfer and trade policies and 
investment policies that have built this enemy. So while I am 
totally supportive of this bill, I think we should start 
thinking about the fundamentals of how we get ourselves out of 
a predicament where we are actually in great debt now to a 
threat that we have created through our own policies in dealing 
with the world's worst human rights abuser, and that is the 
government of China.
    Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Rohrabacher.
    The gentlewoman from Maryland, Ms. Edwards, is recognized.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and thank you to my 
good friends, Mr. McCaul and Mr. Lipinski, for bringing this 
forward. I do believe that this is one of the single-most 
important things that we will do during this Congress. Although 
I support our Ranking Member's concerns about the authorization 
levels because I do think that the security threat is just that 
great. But nonetheless, I plan to support the bill but I wanted 
to take a moment to acknowledge the efforts, Mr. McCaul and Mr. 
Lipinski, that you are doing to encourage cybersecurity 
education at all levels. It is vitally important that our 
universities and community colleges have the resources and 
expertise, and it is critical that we engage students at an 
earlier age to create the pipeline that we will need to develop 
a competent cybersecurity workforce in the decades to come, 
particularly as Mr. Rohrabacher has just expressed. The 
National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education plays an 
instrumental role in this, and I am glad that the Committee 
will be supporting NIST in its efforts to coordinate this 
cybersecurity education.
    I also want to highlight the Maryland Cybersecurity Center, 
MC2, for a unique approach to educating the future generation 
of cybersecurity workforce to serve industry and government 
needs in Maryland and in the Washington metropolitan area. MC2 
offers innovative, hands-on educational programs to pre-college 
students, undergraduates and graduate students. And I believe 
that by targeting as early as middle school and high school and 
not just waiting until the university level, that we can 
stimulate early interest in the field of cybersecurity and 
provide students with a knowledge base in preparation to be 
successful in their future post-secondary studies and eventual 
career, and I look forward to continuing to work with our 
Chairman and our Ranking Member on those issues. Thank you.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Edwards.
    The gentleman from California, Mr. Swalwell, is recognized.
    Mr. Swalwell. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I appreciate you 
holding this markup and I am also pleased that on the agenda of 
my first markup as a Member of Congress, as a startup Member of 
Congress, is a bill to address the critical issue of 
cybersecurity. I am proud and feel fortunate to represent 
northern Silicon Valley in California, the heart of innovation, 
technology, computers and the Internet for the Nation and the 
world.
    Needless to say, protecting the integrity of computer 
systems and securing the information they contain is absolutely 
critical for our area. If we were to sneeze, the rest of the 
country could catch a cold. That is why it is so important to 
protect the infrastructure in Silicon Valley.
    An attack against companies in Silicon Valley will ripple 
across the country and the globe. As we know, this threat is 
very real. Networks are being attacked constantly by a variety 
of different actors and for different reasons. For example, 
there is evidence that Iran has targeted our financial 
institutions, and China is out to steal one of the best drivers 
we have of economic growth, our intellectual property, and I 
would dispute that this is just one country acting. I believe 
the evidence is clear, there are a number of countries, there 
are a number of nation-states and there are a number of 
individual criminal organizations from all over the globe who 
are seeking to attack our networks.
    Yesterday in the other committee on which I sit, the 
Committee on Homeland Security, we discussed these and other 
issues at a hearing with Department of Homeland Security Deputy 
Secretary Janet Lute and other interested stakeholders. DHS 
acknowledges the need for federal legislation to enhance 
cybersecurity capabilities while still protecting privacy, and 
I am looking forward to passing legislation to do that out of 
the Homeland Security Committee.
    Today, we are considering a piece of the cybersecurity 
puzzle, H.R. 756, the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013. 
This bill would help develop our capabilities for cyber defense 
by among other elements developing security standards and 
improving the collaboration among federal agencies for relevant 
research and development. I support this bill, and I encourage 
my colleagues to do so as well.
    I want to make two quick points. First, Section 107 
requires a report from the President relating to the needs of 
our federal cybersecurity workforce. Among other items, the 
bill requires that the report include an analysis of any 
barriers to the Federal Government recruiting and hiring 
cybersecurity talent including barriers relating to the 
compensation, hiring process, job classification and hiring 
flexibilities. I want to be clear that any such discussion 
should encompass and explain the effects of the ongoing federal 
pay freeze and the sequester. Federal employee pay has been 
frozen since 2011, and that freeze is expected to continue this 
year.
    This sequester, as has been alluded to by the Ranking 
Member and others, threatens to hurt our capabilities in 
fighting cybersecurity. I believe the problem with the 
sequester is that when it is so indiscriminate and across the 
board, you target and cut--you do not target but rather you cut 
some services that are very critical and in many cases there 
are services that should be cut more than what we are cutting 
them, for example, agricultural subsidies. If I had to weigh 
agricultural subsidies against protecting our cyber networks, I 
think it is clear based on what the national security threat is 
where we should be putting our money.
    Second, I strongly believe that our best solutions come 
from collaboration between all interested stakeholders--
government, industry, academia and so on. I ran for Congress 
with a deep desire to encourage public-private partnerships and 
collaboration, and I hope that we can do that with this bill. 
Section 103 requires a plan on how the networking and 
information technology research and development programs should 
best guide federal cybersecurity research and development. The 
plan already must include a variety of items like goals for 
federal research and a description of how the program will 
establish a research infrastructure. As part of this process, 
the agencies involved should also be required to consider and 
include in the report how the program will foster the 
establishment of public-private partnerships that will result 
in research, technologies and applications that will help us 
improve our cybersecurity defense. With such an important issue 
and in an era of tight budgets, we need to make the best and 
most effective use of our taxpayer dollars. This can be 
accomplished in part by combining the talents of the private 
sector like the many technology companies in my district and 
the government.
    Mr. Chairman, I hope you and the Ranking Member will 
consider adding such a provision to the bill when it passes the 
Committee today. I look forward to working with you both on 
strengthening this bill before it makes its way to the House 
Floor, and thank you again for holding this markup.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Swalwell.
    Is there any further discussion? The gentleman from 
Georgia, Mr. Broun, is recognized.
    Mr. Broun. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I keep hearing my 
Democratic colleagues talking about the sequester and how 
devastating it is going to be, and I had a question for any one 
of you all, well, actually two questions. Number one is, who 
gave us the sequester, and number two is why? Can any of my 
colleagues--I will be glad to yield a moment to answer that 
question. Ms. Johnson? She is sitting there not paying any 
attention. You talked about the sequester. Who gave us that 
sequester? I will be glad to----
    Ms. Johnson. You were one of them that gave it.
    Mr. Broun. No, ma'am, I did not vote for it. The sequester 
was given to us by our President, President Obama. He is the 
one who suggested it. He is the one who promoted it. And I 
keeping hearing from my Democratic colleagues blame placed on 
the Republican side, but the long and short of it is that we 
are spending money that we cannot afford. As Mr. Rohrabacher 
said, I keep hearing about wanting to plus up spending on many 
areas, and cybersecurity has been a big concern of mine for a 
long period of time, both in this Committee as well as in the 
Homeland Security Committee, where I serve under the able 
Chairmanship of my good friend, Mr. McCaul from Texas. And we 
need to be spending money on national defense. I agree with 
that. But to continue to harp about the sequester that you 
all's President that gave us the----
    Ms. Edwards. Will the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Broun. Let me finish my point. To continue to hear my 
colleagues harp about the sequester when it was proposed by the 
President, it was promoted by the President. Nobody in the 
press seems to ask the President why he wanted to give us the 
sequester, and I think it was all about trying to raise taxes 
and it wasn't to solve the economic problems that we face. We 
have got to spend money on what it is important, and that is 
national security and things that the Constitution gives us 
authority to spend money on instead of spending money on things 
that we shouldn't be.
    Cybersecurity is certainly something that we should be 
spending money on just because it is a national defense, 
national security issue. But I am just getting tired of hearing 
colleagues on the other side of the aisle continue to squawk 
about the sequester when it was our President, President Obama, 
who gave us the sequester and for whatever reason he has 
promoted that, for whatever reason that he suggested that, but 
it was his suggestion. Congress voted on approving the 
sequester. I did not. I voted against it because I thought it 
was terrible policy, and we have the sequester, so let us just 
put our big boy pants on and go forward and do what we can to 
try to keep this country economically safe as well as 
militarily safe. Mr. Chairman, I yield back.
    Ms. Edwards. Would the gentleman yield?
    Mr. Broun. Certainly.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you. I just want to just clarify, 
because in the interest of bipartisanship, and I think that the 
Chairman has really conducted this Committee and this markup in 
that way and I know the gentleman from Georgia, and I know that 
he actually did not mean to refer in that kind of disparaging 
way to the gentlewoman from Texas, the Ranking Member, and it 
would be great if you would on the record, you know, just make 
sure that we continue to express our points but not do it in a 
way that disparages our Committee leadership, either the 
Chairman or the Ranking Member, and I would appreciate it if 
you could just put that on the record.
    Mr. Broun. Well, I was not disparaging Ms. Johnson by any 
means. I asked her a question and she didn't answer it, and I 
just was trying to get her to pay attention. I know she was 
deep in thought, and if I offended her, I apologize, but the 
point is, continuing to harp about a sequester that is in 
place, it was given to us by the President, we have got to stop 
spending money we don't have, we have got to be financially 
responsible as a Congress, and we are not being, and I just 
wanted to make my point.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I yield back.
    Ms. Johnson. Could the gentleman yield?
    Chairman Smith. Would the gentleman yield to the Ranking 
Member?
    Mr. Broun. Certainly. I would be glad to yield.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I think that due to a 
personal relationship, I just really didn't pay Mr. Broun much 
attention. However, regardless of how we got here, we are here 
and I think we have to keep it before us. At the same time, I 
think that we should put our Nation's security ahead of that 
and continue to fund the areas that we need to fund for 
security and to make sure that the agencies we are giving this 
responsibility to have some way to carry out the 
responsibility.
    Thank you, and I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Broun. Thank you, Ms. 
Johnson.
    If there is no further discussion, the vote is on the 
Manager's Amendment.
    All in favor, say aye.
    All opposed, no.
    The ayes have it and the Manager's Amendment is agreed to.
    We will now go to other amendments, and does the gentleman 
from California, Mr. Bera, seek recognition?
    Mr. Bera. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 003, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Bera of California.
    [The amendment of Mr. Bera appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentleman from California is 
recognized to explain his amendment.
    Mr. Bera. My amendment today is simple. It asks that we 
maximize the talent of our military veterans to continue to 
serve our country by recruiting and prepping veterans for the 
cybersecurity workforce.
    Our military men and women are heroes at home and abroad, 
bravely defending our country overseas and in our backyard. We 
trust our veterans with our lives every day, and I applaud and 
thank them for their service and duty to America. When they 
retire or leave the service, some of our best network 
specialists can help us continue to keep our Nation secure. Who 
better than these men and women to protect our cyber and 
networking infrastructure? By finding ways to recruit and 
prepare veterans for the cybersecurity workforce, we can both 
protect ourselves and help our returning heroes.
    I urge my colleagues to adopt my amendment, which adds 
preparing veterans for the cybersecurity workforce to the 
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development 
program. I yield back my time.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Bera. I will recognize 
myself in support of the amendment, and thank the gentleman for 
his addition to the Strategic Plan for the NITRD program. I do 
support this amendment.
    Is there anyone else who wants to be recognized?
    If not, all in favor of the amendment, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to.
    Does the gentleman from Florida, Mr. Grayson, seek 
recognition?
    Mr. Grayson. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 057, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Grayson of Florida.
    [The amendment of Mr. Grayson appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentleman from Florida, Mr. 
Grayson, is recognized to explain his amendment.
    Mr. Grayson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    This amendment explicitly adds community colleges to the 
list of qualified institutions for the cyber scholarship 
program. There are two other parts of the bill that explicitly 
mention community colleges as part of academia and institutions 
of higher education. This is a conforming amendment to make 
this other section conform. I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Grayson.
    I will recognize myself in support of the amendment, and I 
do want to thank the gentleman for the inclusion of community 
colleges in the Scholarship for Service program. As I say, I 
support the amendment.
    Is there anyone else who seeks recognition?
    If not, all in favor of the amendment, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to.
    Does the gentleman from Washington, Mr. Kilmer, have an 
amendment?
    Mr. Kilmer. Yes. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have an 
amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 002, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Kilmer of Washington.
    [The amendment of Mr. Kilmer appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentleman from Washington is 
recognized to explain his amendment.
    Mr. Kilmer. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    To recruit and train the next generation of federal and 
private sector cybersecurity professionals, we need to leverage 
capabilities within higher education and create a pipeline that 
will produce the IT workforce that can help and enhance our 
Nation's communications and information infrastructure. We need 
to ensure that the cybersecurity courses and degree programs 
being developed are effective and that they are producing 
individuals with the skills necessary for employment as 
cybersecurity professionals.
    To make sure that this is happening, my amendment calls for 
the NSF to support activities that evaluate the effectiveness 
of cybersecurity courses and degree programs. Additionally, it 
calls on NSF to support the establishment of public-private 
partnerships that will allow students to gain critical research 
experience on real-world problems as a component of their 
degree programs. Collaboration between academia, industry and 
our students will help ensure our future workforce has the 
qualifications and skills necessary to strengthen America's 
national security and economic prosperity. I believe this 
amendment would further encourage students to seek a 
cybersecurity education and will strengthen the ability of the 
institutions to produce highly effective cyber professionals to 
join America's future workforce.
    Thank you for consideration of this amendment, and I yield 
back. Thank you.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Kilmer.
    I will recognize myself in support of the amendment, and I 
thank the gentleman for offering it. It improves the ability of 
universities to produce cybersecurity professionals so I think 
it is a good amendment. Are there any others who wish to be 
recognized?
    If not, all in favor of the amendment, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it. The amendment is agreed to.
    The gentleman from Florida, Mr. Grayson, is recognized.
    Mr. Grayson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have an amendment 
at the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number----
    Chairman Smith. Is this amendment number 56 or----
    Mr. Grayson. Yeah.
    Chairman Smith. --54.
    The Clerk. It should be 056.
    Chairman Smith. Okay.
    The Clerk. Is that correct?
    Chairman Smith. Correct.
    Mr. Grayson. Yes.
    The Clerk. Okay. Amendment 056, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Grayson of Florida.
    [The amendment of Mr. Grayson appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentleman is recognized to explain 
his amendment.
    Mr. Grayson. Mr. Chairman, this amendment like the earlier 
amendment is meant to harmonize different sections of the bill. 
This amendment clarifies language in the bill to ensure that 
the participation of women is encouraged in the Federal Cyber 
Scholarship for Service portion of the bill. Women are called 
out specifically on page 5 of the bill and on page 20 of the 
bill, but not on page 12 of the bill. This corrects that 
dilemma. I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Kilmer--I mean Mr. Grayson. 
Sorry. I am one behind here.
    I recognize myself in support of the amendment. I too would 
like to see more women pursue cybersecurity degrees so I 
support the gentleman's amendment.
    Are there any other Members who wish to be recognized?
    If not, all in favor of the amendment, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to.
    Does the gentleman have another amendment?
    Mr. Grayson. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I have another amendment at 
the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment. And 
what number is this, Mr. Grayson?
    Mr. Grayson. I believe this is 58 or 54. There appears to 
be a discrepancy. On the list of amendments that I see, Mr. 
Chairman, I see the next one being 058. That is an amendment--
well, in any event, not the amendment that you and I discussed 
but a different one.
    Chairman Smith. Okay. The Clerk will report amendment 54. 
Is that correct, Mr. Grayson?
    Mr. Grayson. If we are talking about amendment 54, Mr. 
Chairman, I am going to withdraw that amendment. No, sorry. It 
is the other way around. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment 
at the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment, and it 
is number 54.
    Mr. Grayson. Thank you. This amendment adds language to 
require--sorry.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 054, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Grayson of Florida.
    [The amendment of Mr. Grayson appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentleman from Florida is 
recognized to explain the amendment.
    Mr. Grayson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. Sorry for 
the confusion on my part.
    What this amendment does is to add language to require NIST 
to carry out research associated with improving the security 
and integrity of the information technology supply chain as 
part of its intramural security research program on 
cybersecurity.
    Just by way of background, former U.S. counterterrorism 
Chief Richard Clark has said that all electronics made in China 
may have built-in trapdoors allowing Chinese malware to infect 
American systems on demand. The Fukushima experience has 
demonstrated to us the fragility of our supply chains, both 
technological and otherwise. It is an obvious potential target 
for cyber terrorism. Therefore, I respectfully ask that NIST be 
engaged in this regard and charged with the responsibility to 
carry out research to improve the security and integrity of the 
information technology supply chain. I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Grayson.
    I will recognize myself in support of the amendment, and I 
appreciate the gentleman's addition of supply chain security 
and integrity management to NIST research activities.
    Is there anyone else who seeks recognition on this 
amendment?
    If not, all in favor, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes have it and the 
amendment is agreed to.
    We will now go to the gentlewoman from Florida, Ms. Wilson, 
for her amendment.
    Ms. Wilson. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 002, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Ms. Wilson of Florida.
    [The amendment of Ms. Wilson appears in the Appendix]
    Chairman Smith. And without objection, the amendment will 
be considered as read, and the gentlewoman from Florida is 
recognized to explain her amendment.
    Ms. Wilson. Mr. Chairman, this amendment will do exactly 
what the bipartisan witnesses at our recent cybersecurity 
hearing argued is necessary for our Nation's cyber defense. It 
will advance scientific understanding of emerging threats to 
ensure that American businesses, government agencies and 
citizens can take action for their own protection.
    As Dr. Frederick Chang argued before the Subcommittees on 
Technology and Research, the discipline of cybersecurity today 
is too reactive and after the fact. To detect new attacks and 
vulnerabilities and develop solutions to defend against the 
identified risk, we need to develop what Dr. Chang and the 
other esteemed witness, Ms. Terry Benzel, have termed ``the 
science of technology.''
    The amendment at the desk calls on the Director of the 
National Science Foundation and the Director of the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology to support research that 
will lead to the development of a scientific foundation for the 
field of cybersecurity. This includes research to increase 
understanding of the underlying principles of securing complex 
network systems, to enable repeatable experimentation and to 
create quantifiable security metrics. This research, which will 
draw on existing programs and activities, will go a long way 
toward developing a science of cybersecurity. This in turn will 
do a great deal to keep our businesses profitable and our 
citizens safe.
    I yield back the balance of my time.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Wilson. I will recognize 
myself in support of the amendment.
    The gentlewoman's amendment supports research at NSF and 
NIST that establishes a stronger scientific foundation for 
cybersecurity. A firm science and engineering foundation 
providing metrics and repeatable testing methods, for example, 
will improve confidence in cybersecurity technologies and 
promote innovation. I support the amendment and encourage my 
colleagues to do the same.
    Is there any other member who seeks recognition?
    If not, all in favor of the amendment, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to.
    I believe now we will go to our last amendment, and that is 
being offered by the gentleman from California, Mr. Peters.
    Mr. Peters. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I have an 
amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Smith. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 003, amendment to H.R. 756, 
offered by Mr. Peters of California.
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentleman from California is 
recognized to explain his amendment.
    Mr. Peters. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
    The economic and national security of the United States 
depend on the reliable functioning of our critical 
infrastructure in the face of ever-changing cybersecurity 
threats. I am offering an amendment today that takes steps to 
protect this infrastructure by creating a critical 
infrastructure cybersecurity framework, and I thank the 
Chairman for bringing this bill and my colleagues from Texas 
and Illinois for leading this legislation.
    It is important that we work to enhance the Nation's 
cybersecurity and improve our critical infrastructure. If our 
communications systems or power grid were to be hijacked and 
controlled by an enemy, it would be debilitating to our 
national security, our government and the people we serve.
    This amendment directs the Director of NIST to collaborate 
with the private sector to develop a voluntary framework that 
includes standards, guidelines and best practices for reducing 
cybersecurity risk to critical infrastructure. The Director 
would solicit input from not only the private sector but also 
the federal agencies, state, local and tribal governments and 
the Director of NIST would publish the framework 18 months 
after the enactment of the legislation.
    I want to emphasize that this framework is non-binding and 
not prescriptive. In fact, it is an opportunity not only to 
highlight and learn from the best practices of the private 
sector but also for government information to augment the 
ability of private sector to defend its own networks. 
Cybersecurity and protecting our infrastructure is not a 
Democratic or Republican issue, it is a national one, so I am 
approaching this need for such a framework with viewpoints from 
both sides of the aisle.
    In October 2011, the House Republican Cybersecurity Task 
Force put forth recommendations, which I have here, one of 
which was to create this voluntary critical infrastructure 
cybersecurity network framework led by NIST. The President's 
recent Executive Order on Cybersecurity also directs the 
development of a cybersecurity framework. The framework is 
something therefore that both sides agree on and both sides 
agree needs to be done, and I want to emphasize that it needs 
to be done here in Congress too so that we have oversight 
through this committee, particularly through the Oversight 
Committee chaired by Mr. Broun from Georgia.
    There is an urgency to seek such a framework, to see such a 
framework is accomplished, and I agree with the majority task 
force that NIST is the ideal federal agency to carry out such 
an important task. It is a non-regulatory agency and it is well 
respected in the private sector. We can't make progress on 
cybersecurity without the vital input of the private sector, 
which is integral to our critical infrastructure.
    Mr. Chairman, I urge my colleagues to adopt this amendment 
to improve our cybersecurity and protect our assets, and I 
yield back my remaining time.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Peters.
    The gentleman from Texas, Mr. McCaul, is recognized in 
opposition to the amendment.
    Mr. McCaul. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    While I am sure Mr. Peters' intentions are good, this 
amendment directs NIST to seek input from the private sector 
when developing the critical infrastructure framework without 
ensuring that the director will use this input wisely. This has 
been a bipartisan process over the last several Congresses, but 
I am concerned this amendment lacks specificity, which is why 
the U.S. Chamber of Commerce opposes this amendment, and they 
represent the private sector. Inclusion of this amendment would 
hurt the progress that has already been made and reduce the 
likelihood of finally getting this bill through the Senate and 
signed into law by the President. I think the private sector is 
dealing with this issue every day and has a great stake in the 
development of any guidelines or framework. Its role must be 
clearly defined so we do not risk losing the knowledge that 
these experts would bring to the table. We are currently 
exploring this also in the Homeland Security Committee in terms 
of voluntary standards being produced by the private sector 
with respect to critical infrastructures, and with that, Mr. 
Chairman, I stand in opposition and I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Okay. Thank you, Mr. McCaul.
    Are there any other Members who wish to be heard on this 
amendment? The gentlewoman from Maryland, Ms. Edwards, is 
recognized.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    I just want to express my support for the amendment. It 
requires NIST to develop, in collaboration with the private 
sector, including the owners and operators of our critical 
infrastructure, a framework that will promote the adoption of 
voluntary standards and best practices to lower cybersecurity 
risks across all sectors and industries. The amendment 
implements Section 7 of the President's Executive Order on 
Cybersecurity. I know there are concerns that have been 
expressed that the framework will open the door for regulatory 
action by sector-specific agencies but I want to reiterate that 
NIST does not intend to do so. Rather, this amendment would 
allow NIST to continue promoting the wide adoption of practices 
to increase cybersecurity across all sectors and industry 
types. The framework will seek to provide owners and operators 
a flexible, repeatable and cost-effective risk-based approach 
to implementing security practices while allowing organizations 
to express requirements to multiple authorities and regulators.
    And with that, I yield and express support for the 
amendment.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Edwards.
    Does anyone else seek recognition? The Ranking Member, the 
gentlewoman from Texas, Ms. Johnson, is recognized.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, and I want 
to thank the gentleman from California for this amendment.
    The national and economic security of the United States 
depends on a reliably functioning critical infrastructure. 
Tasking NIST with accelerating development of voluntary 
consensus-based standards through a public-private partnership 
is a common sense approach to increasing the security and 
reliability of our critical infrastructure. In fact, the 
Republican Cybersecurity Task Force Report stated that Congress 
should encourage participation in the development of voluntary 
cybersecurity standards and guidance through non-regulatory 
agencies such as the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology to help the private sector improve security.
    The common sense amendment implements the task force 
recommendation by requiring NIST to establish a public-private 
partnership that will bring all of the stakeholders together in 
the development of best practices and standards. This amendment 
will accelerate the adoption of voluntary cybersecurity 
practices, and I urge its adoption.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Johnson.
    The question is on the Peters--the gentleman from Florida, 
Mr. Grayson, is recognized.
    Mr. Grayson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    I am reading the amendment, and I heard what the gentleman 
from Texas said, and I just don't see anything in this 
amendment that seems to require anybody to do anything or to 
impose any burden on the private sector. I don't mean to impose 
on the gentleman from Texas, but if the gentleman would be so 
kind, I will yield the time to you. Can you point to anything 
in the amendment that actually does what was described?
    Mr. McCaul. I believe that--I would be happy to take that. 
I believe that it lacks specificity in terms of what 
collaboration is supposed to take place, how the Director is to 
use this input, and again, I think this poses a problem for the 
private sector. They do view this as a slope down the road to 
regulatory standards, which is why the U.S. Chamber of Commerce 
opposes this amendment.
    Having said that, I would be happy to work with the 
gentleman, Mr. Peters, on language if he would be willing to 
withdraw the amendment.
    Mr. Grayson. I yield to Mr. Peters.
    Mr. Peters. You know, I had not intended to do that, but I 
am going to accept the gentleman's offer in the interest of 
bipartisanship. Mr. Chairman, if I might just add----
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
withdrawn. Thank you, Mr. Peters, and I know you and Mr. McCaul 
will be able to try to work something out in that regard.
    Mr. Grayson. Mr. Chairman, I am so happy that I could bring 
the two parties together. It is something I am famous for.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Grayson.
    Mr. McCaul. That could be a first.
    Chairman Smith. But we hope not the last, Mr. Grayson. 
Thank you.
    Let us see. Are there any other amendments? The gentleman 
from California, Mr. Rohrabacher.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. I just would like to announce that I will 
be offering the following amendment to the Rules Committee to 
see if we can offer this on the Floor, mainly because I did not 
offer this amendment 24 hours in advance of this hearing, which 
I think is par for the course and I would need unanimous 
consent, and I doubt if I would get unanimous consent, so I 
will be offering this at the Rules Committee, the following 
amendment: No money provided by this legislation shall be used 
to finance scholarships to be used in education programs that 
are open to foreign students who are citizens of a country that 
is recognized as a base of cyber attacks on targets within the 
United States. That will be an amendment that I will offer to 
the Rules Committee for their consideration, and I thank you 
very much for allowing me to suggest that today.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Rohrabacher.
    If there are no further amendments, a reporting quorum 
being present, the question is on reporting the bill as amended 
favorably to the House.
    Those in favor, say aye.
    Opposed, no.
    The ayes have it, and the bill is amended is ordered 
reported favorably.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid on the 
table, and we will now go to our second bill of the day--H.R. 
967
    Chairman Smith. Pursuant to notice, I now call up H.R. 
756--I am sorry--967, the Advancing America's Networking and 
Information Technology Research and Development Act of 2013, 
and the Clerk will report the bill.
    The Clerk. H.R. 967, a bill to amend the High Performance 
Computing Act of 1991 to authorize activities for support of 
networking and information technology research, and for other 
purposes.
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the bill is considered 
as read.
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


            H.R. 756, CYBERSECURITY ENHANCEMENT ACT OF 2013,

                Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendments,

                            Amendment Roster






                     Section-by-Section Analysis of

            H.R. 756, CYBERSECURITY ENHANCEMENT ACT OF 2013

                   TITLE I - RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

SECTION101. DEFINITIONS

    Defines the terms National Coordination Office and Program in the 
title.

SECTION102. FINDINGS

    Describes the findings of this title.

SECTION 103. CYBERSECURITY STRATEGIC R&D; PLAN

    Requires the agencies to develop, update and implement a strategic 
plan for cybersecurity research and development (R&D;). Requires that 
the strategic plan be based on an assessment of cybersecurity risk, 
that it specify and prioritize near-term, mid-term and long-term 
research objectives and that it describe how the near-term objectives 
complement R&D; occurring in the private sector.
    Requires the agencies to solicit input from an advisory committee 
and outside stakeholders in the development of the strategic plan. 
Additionally, requires the agencies to describe how they will promote 
innovation, foster technology transfer, and maintain a national 
infrastructure for the development of secure, reliable, and resilient 
networking and information technology systems.
    Requires the development of an implementation roadmap that 
specifies the role of each agency and the level of funding needed to 
meet each of the research objectives outlined in the strategic plan.

SECTION 104. SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH IN

CYBERSECURITY

    Adds research on the social and behavioral aspects of cybersecurity 
to the list of cybersecurity research areas that the National Science 
Foundation may support as part of its total cybersecurity research 
portfolio.

SECTION 105. NSF CYBERSECURITY R&D; PROGRAMS

    Reauthorizes the cybersecurity research program at the NSF and 
includes identity management as one of the research areas supported.
    Reauthorizes programs at NSF that provide funding for capacity 
building grants, graduate student fellowships, graduate student 
traineeships and research centers in cybersecurity.
    Repeals NSF cybersecurity faculty development traineeship program.

SECTION 106. FEDERAL CYBER SCHOLARSHIP FOR

SERVICE PROGRAM

    Authorizes the cybersecurity scholarship for service program at 
NSF. The program provides grants to institutions of higher education 
for the award of scholarships to students pursuing undergraduate and 
graduate degrees in cybersecurity fields and requires an additional 
year of service over the number of years for which the scholarship was 
received.
    The program also provides capacity building grants to institutions 
of higher education, supporting such activities as faculty professional 
development and the development of cybersecurity-related curricula and 
courses.

SECTION 107. CYBERSCURITY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT

    Requires the President to issue a report assessing the current and 
future cybersecurity workforce needs of the federal government, 
including a comparison of the skills sought by Federal agencies and the 
private sector; an examination of the supply of cybersecurity talent 
and the capacity of institutions of higher education to produce 
cybersecruity professionals; and the identification of any barriers to 
the recruitment and hiring of cybersecurity professionals.

SECTION 108. CYBERSECURITY UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY TASK FORCE

    Establishes a university-industry task force to explore mechanisms 
and models for carrying out public-private research partnerships in the 
area of cybersecurity.

SECTION 109. CYBERSECURITY CHECKLIST AND DISSEMINATION

    Updates NIST's authority for the National Checklist Program (NCP) 
which provides detailed guidance on setting the security configuration 
of operating systems and applications for the federal government, and 
requires NIST to develop automated security specifications with respect 
to checklist content.

SECTION 110. NIST CYBERSECURITY R&D;

    Amends the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act to 
codify NIST cybersecurity research and development activities; NIST is 
authorized to conduct research on the development of a unifying and 
standardized identity, privilege, and access control management 
framework and to conduct research related to improving the security of 
information and networked systems, including the security of industrial 
control systems.

      TITLE II ? ADVANCEMENT OF CYBERSECURITY TECHNICAL STANDARDS

SECTION 201. DEFINITIONS

    Defines the terms Director and Institute in the title.

SECTION 202. INTERNATIONAL CYBERSECURITY TECHNICAL

STANDARDS

    Requires NIST to consult with the private sector and others to 
develop and implement a plan to ensure a coordinated United States 
Government representation in international cybersecurity technical 
standards development. This plan is due to Congress no later than one 
year after enactment.

SECTION 203. CLOUD COMPUTING STRATEGY

    Directs NIST, in collaboration with Federal agencies and other 
stakeholders, to continue to develop and implement a comprehensive 
strategy for the use and adoption of cloud computing services by the 
Federal government. The strategy should consider activities that 
accelerate standards development, the development of processes to test 
standards conformance, and the security of data stored in the cloud.

SECTION 204. PROMOTING CYBERSECURITY AWARENESS

AND EDUCATION

    Requires NIST to maintain a cybersecurity awareness and education 
program and to deliver a strategic plan to Congress within 1 year 
describing the implementation of this program. Requires the program to 
be aimed at disseminating cybersecurity best practices and standards 
and include how NIST will make these usable by individuals, small 
business, state and local governments, and educational institutions.

SECTION 205. IDENTITY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

AND DEVELOPMENT

    Requires NIST to continue research and development programs to 
improve identity management systems.

SECTION 206.

    States that no additional funds are authorized for the NIST 
activities in the bill.

                               Amendments



                            Amendment Roster