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113th Congress                                            Rept. 113-382
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                      Part 1
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     


                   H.R. 1869, BIENNIAL BUDGETING AND
                     ENHANCED OVERSIGHT ACT OF 2014

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                        COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET

                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                              to accompany

                               H.R. 1869

                             together with

                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS




                 March 21, 2014.--Ordered to be printed


                        COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET

                     PAUL RYAN, Wisconsin, Chairman
TOM PRICE, Georgia                   CHRIS VAN HOLLEN, Maryland,
SCOTT GARRETT, New Jersey              Ranking Minority Member
JOHN CAMPBELL, California            ALLYSON Y. SCHWARTZ, Pennsylvania
KEN CALVERT, California              JOHN A. YARMUTH, Kentucky
TOM COLE, Oklahoma                   BILL PASCRELL, Jr., New Jersey
TOM McCLINTOCK, California           TIM RYAN, Ohio
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             GWEN MOORE, Wisconsin
DIANE BLACK, Tennessee               KATHY CASTOR, Florida
REID J. RIBBLE, Wisconsin            JIM McDERMOTT, Washington
BILL FLORES, Texas                   BARBARA LEE, California
TODD ROKITA, Indiana                 HAKEEM S. JEFFRIES, New York
ROB WOODALL, Georgia                 MARK POCAN, Wisconsin
MARSHA BLACKBURN, Tennessee          MICHELLE LUJAN GRISHAM, New Mexico
ALAN NUNNELEE, Mississippi           JARED HUFFMAN, California
E. SCOTT RIGELL, Virginia            TONY CARDENAS, California
VICKY HARTZLER, Missouri             EARL BLUMENAUER, Oregon
JACKIE WALORSKI, Indiana             KURT SCHRADER, Oregon
LUKE MESSER, Indiana                 [Vacant]
TOM RICE, South Carolina
ROGER WILLIAMS, Texas
SEAN P. DUFFY, Wisconsin

                           Professional Staff

                     Austin Smythe, Staff Director
                Thomas S. Kahn, Minority Staff Director


                            C O N T E N T S

                                                                   Page
H.R. 1869, Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014.     1
Introduction.....................................................     2
Purpose and Need.................................................     3
Summary of Proposed Changes......................................     9
Legislative History..............................................     9
Hearings.........................................................    14
Section by Section...............................................    14
Votes of the Committee...........................................    17
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................    19
Budget Act Compliance............................................    19
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................    20
Constitutional Authority Statement...............................    20
Committee Cost Estimate..........................................    20
Advisory Committee Statement.....................................    20
Applicability to the Legislative Branch..........................    20
Federal Mandates Statement.......................................    20
Advisory on Earmarks.............................................    20
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    20
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    21
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............    21
Views of Committee Members.......................................    42


113th Congress                                            Rept. 113-382
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                      Part 1

======================================================================



 
                    BIENNIAL BUDGETING AND ENHANCED
                         OVERSIGHT ACT OF 2014
                                _______
                                

                 March 21, 2014.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Ryan of Wisconsin, from the Committee on the Budget, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 1869]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on the Budget, to whom was referred the bill 
(H.R. 1869) to establish biennial budgets for the United States 
Government, having considered the same, reports favorably 
thereon with amendments and recommends that the bill as amended 
do pass.
    The amendments (stated in terms of the page and line 
numbers of the introduced bill) are as follows:

  Page 1, line 5, strike ``2013'' and insert ``2014''.

  Page 2, line 13, insert ``and Impoundment Control'' after ``Budget''.

  Page 3, line 4, strike ``Fourteenth'' and insert ``Fifteenth''.

  Page 4, line 12, strike ``four'' and insert ``4''.

  Page 5, line 14, strike ``and'' after the semicolon.

  Page 5, line 22, strike the first period and the second period and 
insert a semicolon and ``; and'', respectively.

  Page 5, after line 22, insert the following:
          (5) in paragraph (4), as redesignated, by striking the 
        semicolon and inserting a period.

  Page 8, line 21, insert ``as redesignated,'' after ``subparagraph 
(B),''.

  Page 9, line 24, insert ``and Impoundment Control'' after ``Budget''.

  Page 10, line 20, insert ``the'' before ```first fiscal year'''.

  Page 12, beginning on line 19, strike ``is amended'' and insert ``, 
as amended, is further amended''.

  Page 12, lines 21 and 23, strike ``(12)'' and ``(13)'' and insert 
``(14)'' and ``(15)'', respectively.

  Page 13, line 1, strike ``(14)'' and insert ``(16)''.

  Page 17, beginning on line 4, strike ``, THE BALANCED BUDGET AND 
EMERGENCY DEFICIT CONTROL ACT OF 1985,''.

  Page 20, strike lines 12 thorugh 15 and redesignate subsequent 
subsections accordingly.

  Page 22, line 17, strike ``Fourteenth'' and insert ``Fifteenth''.

  Page 24, line 23, strike the comma.

  Page 25, line 7, strike ``2016'' and insert ``2017''.

  Page 28, line 21, insert ``before'' before ``March 1''.

  Page 30, line 21, strike ``2016'' and insert ``2017''.

  Page 31, lines 13 and 22, strike ``2014'' and insert ``2016''.

  Page 32, lines 2 and 9, strike ``2014'' and insert ``2016''.

  Page 33, line 8, strike ``2015'' and insert ``2017''.

  Page 33, line 10, strike ``2014'' and insert ``2016''.

                              Introduction

    H.R. 1869, the ``Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight 
Act of 2014,'' was introduced by Representative Reid Ribble of 
Wisconsin on May 8, 2013. This bill amends the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974, the rules of the House of Representatives, 
and the laws governing the contents of the President's budget 
submission and appropriations bills to establish a biennial 
budgeting cycle for the United States government. In the first 
session of Congress (i.e., odd-numbered years), Congress would 
adopt a budget resolution and appropriations bills. Congress 
would then consider authorization legislation in the second 
session (i.e., even-numbered years). Under a biennial budget, 
Congress could still provide supplemental funding where 
additional funding is needed or could rescind funding where it 
is not needed, including in even-numbered years.
    The Congressional Budget Act of 1974 requires Congress to 
complete action on a budget resolution by April 15 (before 
1986, May 15 was the deadline). This statutory deadline for a 
concurrent resolution on the budget has been met only six times 
and was most recently met in 2003 for fiscal year 2004. 
Congress has not completed all of the individual appropriations 
bills by the beginning of the fiscal year (October 1) since 
1994 for fiscal year 1995, making it 20 years. Since 2010, the 
House of Representatives passed only six of the regular 
appropriations bills in 2011, seven in 2012, and only four in 
2013. The Senate did not complete any of the regular 
appropriations bills last year. By relying on continuing 
resolutions or large omnibus appropriations measures, enacted 
well after the beginning of the fiscal year, Congress does not 
effectively deliberate over appropriations legislation, and as 
a result, makes it more difficult for agencies to plan and 
manage federal programs. Under a two-year process, Congress 
would have one year in every two devoted solely to program 
oversight and reauthorization.
    Building on the recent experience of the Bipartisan Budget 
Act of 2013 (P.L. 113-67), which provided a budget framework 
for two fiscal years, the Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced 
Oversight Act of 2014 establishes a biennial budgeting cycle 
that provides greater opportunities for review of government 
spending, establishes more certainty in the budget and 
appropriations process, and allows agencies to plan and manage 
their programs more effectively.

                            Purpose and Need

    The annual budget process is broken. Congress is constantly 
budgeting and appropriating, but not in a deliberative or 
sensible way. Instead, Congress ``deems'' budgets and 
appropriates by supplemental or huge omnibus measures that are 
completed well after the fiscal year has begun for programs 
that frequently are unauthorized. Washington should spend less 
time spending taxpayer dollars and more time making government 
more efficient and more effective. A biennial budget would 
allow Congress to prioritize its work by completing the budget 
resolution and appropriations bills in odd-numbered years and 
conducting oversight and enacting multi-year authorization 
bills in even-numbered years.
    Congress and the Executive Branch are preoccupied by an 
annual budget process that routinely produces missed deadlines, 
uncertainty, and a last-minute scramble to complete action on 
appropriations measures either through stopgap or omnibus 
appropriations measures. President Obama has not met the 
deadline to submit his budget request on time since 2010. 
Congress has not completed a budget resolution since 2009 and 
has not enacted all of the regular appropriations bills on time 
since 1994. There has never been a year in which the President 
submitted his budget on time, Congress completed the budget 
resolution by the statutory deadline, and all of the 
appropriations bills were enacted by the beginning of the 
fiscal year.

                       DATES OF FINAL ADOPTION OF THE BUDGET-RESOLUTION CONFERENCE REPORT
                                                 [FY1976-FY2014]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Fiscal year                 Date adopted                 Fiscal year                 Date adopted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               1976                      05-14-1975                     1996                     06-29-1995
               1977                      05-13-1976                     1997                     06-13-1996
               1978                      05-17-1977                     1998                     06-05-1997
               1979                      05-17-1978                     1999                         [none]
               1980                      05-24-1979                     2000                     04-15-1999
               1981                      06-12-1980                     2001                     04-13-2000
               1982                      05-21-1981                     2002                     05-10-2001
               1983                      06-23-1982                     2003                         [none]
               1984                      06-23-1983                     2004                     04-11-2003
               1985                      10-01-1984                     2005                         [none]
               1986                      08-01-1985                     2006                     04-28-2005
               1987                      06-27-1986                     2007                         [none]
               1988                      06-24-1987                     2008                     05-17-2007
               1989                      06-06-1988                     2009                     06-05-2008
               1990                      05-18-1989                     2010                     04-29-2009
               1991                      10-09-1990                     2011                         [none]
               1992                      05-22-1991                     2012                         [none]
               1993                      05-21-1992                     2013                         [none]
               1994                      04-01-1993                     2014                         [none]
               1995                      05-12-1994
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Bill Heniff, Jr., ``Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information,'' CRS Report (RL30297).

    Federal spending can be broken into two categories. In the 
first, Congress provides ``discretionary'' funding on an annual 
basis through the appropriations process. For discretionary 
spending, Congress must take action each year to enact a new 
law before agencies can spend discretionary funds.
    The remainder of federal spending, known as ``mandatory'' 
spending, is generally provided through permanent law, and 
there is no requirement that Congress review or approve this 
spending on an annual basis. In fact, Congress must enact a new 
law to limit the growth or reduce this funding. In addition, 
most mandatory spending operates under formulas where the 
spending grows each year, frequently faster than inflation, 
faster than the growth in the population, and faster than the 
growth in the economy. As a result, mandatory spending is 
increasingly dominating the federal budget. Fifty years ago, 
mandatory spending was just under one-third of total federal 
spending.\1\ CBO estimates that it will amount to nearly two-
thirds of the budget this year, growing to over three-fourths 
of total spending by 2024.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\In 1964, total outlays amounted to $118.5 billion, with 
discretionary spending of $79.1 billion (66.8 percent) and mandatory 
spending and net interest totaling $39.4 billion (33.2 percent). 
Source: Office of Management and Budget, ``Historical Tables,'' tables 
8.1 and 8.3, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/historicals.
    \2\For fiscal year 2014, CBO estimates total outlays will amount to 
$3.454 trillion, with discretionary spending of $1.201 trillion (34.8 
percent) and mandatory spending and net interest totaling $2.253 
trillion (65.2 percent). CBO projects that total spending will rise to 
$6 trillion by 2024, with discretionary spending of $1.383 trillion (23 
percent) and mandatory spending and net interest totaling $4.617 
trillion (77%). Source: Congressional Budget Office, ``The Budget and 
Economic Outlook: 2014 to 2024,'' February 2014, Table 1-2, p. 12, 
http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/45010-
Outlook2014.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    There is no requirement that Congress review mandatory 
spending. The budget resolution can include reconciliation 
instructions to authorizing committees to produce 
reconciliation legislation making changes to mandatory spending 
or revenue. However, this process is used on an intermittent 
basis and is frequently used to achieve a specific policy 
outcome rather than as a comprehensive review of mandatory 
spending or revenues. The last time Congress used 
reconciliation was in 2009 and 2010 to generate the Health Care 
and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, one of two bills that 
put in place the health-care law in 2010.
    In addition to mandatory spending, over time Congress has 
added new credits, deductions, exclusions, and other 
preferences to the tax code. While these provisions in the tax 
code are characterized as ``tax expenditures,'' they are 
different from federal spending. A tax expenditure arises when 
an individual's tax liability is reduced from what it would 
otherwise be under federal law. Many tax expenditures are 
fundamentally different from federal spending because they lead 
to a reduction in collections to Treasury and not an increase 
in spending from the Treasury. Still, there has been a huge 
growth in these tax expenditures, amounting to an estimated 8.2 
percent of gross domestic product, or $1.4 trillion in 2014.\3\ 
As is the case with mandatory spending, most tax expenditures 
are permanent law, there is no requirement to review tax 
expenditures and they, like mandatory spending in the case of 
spending, have grown to dominate the tax code.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Congressional Budget Office, ``The Budget and Economic Outlook: 
2014-2024,'' February 2014, p. 90, http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/
files/cbofiles/attachments/45010-Outlook2014.pdf.

                   ENACTMENT OF REGULAR APPROPRIATIONS BILLS AND USE OF CONTINUING RESOLUTIONS
                                                 [FY1977-FY2014]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Regular appropriations bills
      Fiscal year          Total number of regular    enacted on or before October     Continuing resolutions
                           appropriations bills\a\                  1                        enacted\b\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              1977                            13                            13                        (2)\c\
              1978                            13                             9                             3
              1979                            13                             5                             1
              1980                            13                             3                             2
              1981                            13                             1                             3
              1982                            13                             0                             4
              1983                            13                             1                             2
              1984                            13                             4                             2
              1985                            13                             4                             5
              1986                            13                             0                             5
              1987                            13                             0                             6
              1988                            13                             0                             5
              1989                            13                            13                             0
              1990                            13                             1                             3
              1991                            13                             0                             5
              1992                            13                             4                             4
              1993                            13                             1                             1
              1994                            13                             2                             3
              1995                            13                            13                             0
              1996                            13                             0                            13
              1997                            13                       (13)\d\                             0
              1998                            13                             1                             6
              1999                            13                             1                             6
              2000                            13                             4                             7
              2001                            13                             2                            21
              2002                            13                             0                             8
              2003                            13                             0                             8
              2004                            13                             3                             5
              2005                            13                             1                             3
              2006                            11                             2                             3
              2007                            11                             1                             4
              2008                            12                             0                             4
              2009                            12                        (3)\e\                             2
              2010                            12                             1                             2
              2011                            12                             0                             8
              2012                            12                             0                             5
              2013                            12                             0                             2
              2014                            12                             0                             4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Between the 95th and 108th Congresses, there were 13 House and Senate Appropriations subcommittees
  responsible for one regular appropriations bill each. During the 109th Congress, due to subcommittee
  realignment, the total number of regular appropriations bills was effectively reduced to 11 during each year
  of this Congress. Beginning in the 110th Congress, subcommittee jurisdictions were again realigned for a total
  of 12 subcommittees, each of which is currently responsible for a single regular appropriations bill. For
  further information on subcommittee realignment during this period, see CRS Report RL31572, ``Appropriations
  Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2013,'' by Jessica Tollestrup.
b. For further information on each of these continuing resolutions, see Table 4.
c. Although all 13 FY1977 regular appropriations bills became law on or before the start of the fiscal year, two
  CRs were enacted. These CRs generally provided funding for certain activities that had not been included in
  the regular appropriations acts.
d. This number reflects six regular acts being combined to form an omnibus appropriations act, and enacting the
  other seven bills individually.
e. Three regular appropriations bills were packaged into a single act that also included the initial FY2010 CR
  (P.L. 110-329).

Source: Jessica Tollestrup, ``Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices,'' CRS Report
  (R42647).

    The Executive Branch and Congress must address 
discretionary spending each year and frequently do so in a 
chaotic fashion, confronting government shutdowns, enacting 
stop-gap measures known as continuing resolutions to avoid 
shutdowns, and usually finalizing the process with a huge 
omnibus appropriations measure done at the last minute without 
the deliberation or scrutiny that comes from enacting all 12 
appropriations bills separately. This leads to a perverse 
result, in which the federal budget is increasingly dominated 
by mandatory spending, while Congress and the Executive 
Branch's attention is increasingly focused on discretionary 
spending, which is shrinking as a share of total spending.
    By shifting to a two-year cycle, this legislation will 
ensure that Congress is not constantly racing to meet the next 
budget deadline. Giving Congress more time to focus on 
appropriations through a biennial budget cycle in odd-numbered 
years will increase the probability of enacting more bills on 
time. In addition, the chaos in the appropriations process 
makes it more difficult for agencies to plan and manage federal 
programs. The Department of Defense provides one example. In 
testimony before the House Budget Committee, Chuck Hagel, the 
Secretary of the Department of Defense, stated, ``Today, the 
Department of Defense faces the significant challenge of 
conducting long-term planning and budgeting at a time of 
considerable uncertainty both in terms of the security 
challenges we face around the world and the levels of defense 
spending we can expect here at home.''\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\Testimony of the Honorable Chuck Hagel, Secretary, U.S. 
Department of Defense, House Budget Committee hearing, ``The Department 
of Defense and the Fiscal Year 2014 Budget,'' June 12, 2013, p. 8.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A biennial budget would give agencies more certainty. In 
fiscal year 2013, agencies operated under a temporary-funding 
resolution until enactment on March 26 of a full-year funding 
resolution. It is nearly impossible for an agency to plan and 
effectively manage programs when it does not know what its 
funding levels are. A biennial budget would give agencies more 
time to plan, particularly for multi-year programs and 
projects, and give managers some certainty about their budget 
levels as they execute budgets. It would also allow Congress to 
devote one year in every two to nothing but program oversight 
and reauthorization.
    A biennial budget enjoys strong bipartisan support. This 
legislation has 142 bipartisan co-sponsors, including 21 
members of the House Budget Committee and 7 members of the 
House Appropriations Committee. In 1993, the final report of 
the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress recommended 
a biennial budget and appropriations process.\5\ The report 
stated, ``With biennial budgeting, the budget process should be 
less complicated, less repetitious, and instead be more 
understandable and meaningful.''\6\ Additionally, the report 
stated that ``[t]wo-year cycles will also permit executive 
branch agencies to plan for the longer term, a failure of the 
current system.''\7\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\Senate Report 103-215, Vol. I--Organization of the Congress, 
Final Report of the Senate Members of the Joint Committee on the 
Organization of Congress, December 1993, p. 13.
    \6\Ibid.
    \7\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A biennial budget was supported by the Reagan, George H.W. 
Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush administrations.\8\ In 
particular, the 1993 National Performance Review found that 
``[c]onsiderable time could be saved--and used more 
effectively--in both the executive and legislative branches of 
government if budgets and appropriations were moved to a 
biennial cycle.''\9\ President Clinton's fiscal year 2001 
budget and President George W. Bush's fiscal year 2004 budget 
each provided support for a biennial budget.\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\Jessica Tollestrup, ``Biennial Budgeting: Options, Issues, and 
Previous Congressional Action,'' March 28, 2013, p. 9, CRS Report 
(R41764).
    \9\Ibid.
    \10\Ibid.; See also U.S. Office of Management and Budget, ``Budget 
of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001, Analytical 
Perspectives,'' p. 287 and U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 
``Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2004, Analytical 
Perspectives,'' p. 318.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Biennial budgeting draws support from Democratic budget 
experts such as former Senate Budget Committee Chairman, Kent 
Conrad; former House Budget Committee Chairman and Secretary of 
Defense, Leon Panetta; and former Office of Management and 
Budget Directors Alice Rivlin, Jack Lew, and Franklin Raines. 
Former OMB and CBO Director Alice Rivlin, when asked about a 
biennial budget process at a House Budget Committee hearing, 
stated, ``I think the main benefit is that it saves everybody 
time.''\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \11\Testimony of Alice Rivlin, House Committee on the Budget 
hearing, ``The Broken Budget Process: Perspectives from Former CBO 
Directors,'' September 21, 2011, p. 22, available at http://
congressional.proquest.com/congressional/result/
pqpresultpage.gispdfhitspanel.pdflink/
http%3A$2f$2fprod.cosmos.dc4.bowker-dmz.com$2fapp-bin$2fgis-
hearing$2f3$2f5$2fa$2ff$2fhrg-2011-bgh-0015-signed.pdf/
entitlementkeys=1234.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Jack Lew has testified in support of a biennial budget on 
two occasions. In 1998, Lew testified at his nomination hearing 
before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, ``A 
biennial budget would be really a very good change. The budget 
season used to be part of the year. It has become all of the 
year and there is virtually no space between beginning and 
ending the process, which makes it very difficult to focus on 
the kinds of long-term management issues, the kinds of long-
term program design issues that many of the questions you are 
asking today are really all about. We think it would be a much 
more constructive use of both the legislative and the Executive 
Branch's time if we had a cycle that was every 2 years, not 
every year, on the appropriations side.''\12\ In 2000, before 
the House Rules Committee, Lew testified, ``[T]he 
Administration continues to believe that biennial budgeting 
offers a management tool with potential to contribute to the 
enhanced performance of the Federal Government.''\13\ Lew 
further testified, ``[T]he primary potential benefit from 
biennial budgeting is that, by concentrating budget decisions 
in the first year of each two-year period, time would be freed 
up in the second year that could be redirected to management, 
long-range planning, and oversight.''\14\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \12\Testimony of Jacob J. Lew, Senate Committee on Governmental 
Affairs hearing, ``Nomination of Jacob J. Lew to Be Director of the 
Office of Management and Budget,'' June 22, 1998, p. 16.
    \13\Testimony of Jacob J. Lew, Director, Office of Management and 
Budget, House Committee on Rules hearing, ``Budget Reform,'' March 10, 
2000, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative_testimony_20000310/.
    \14\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In 1997, then OMB Director Franklin Raines testified in 
support of a biennial budget before the Senate Committee on 
Governmental Affairs. He stated, ``Biennial budgeting also 
offers the potential to make government work better in 
important ways, and that is why the administration has 
expressed strong support for the concept on numerous 
occasions.''\15\ Raines also stated, ``For biennial budgeting 
to work, it must cover each phase of the budget process--the 
President's budget, the Congressional budget resolution, and 
appropriations.''\16\ Raines further stated, ``One of the more 
compelling advantages of biennial appropriations is that it 
could provide greater stability and predictability for those 
served and involved in Federal Government programs--such as 
individuals receiving Federal benefits or States and non-
profits receiving Federal grants.''\17\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \15\Testimony of Franklin Raines, Senate Committee on Governmental 
Affairs hearing, ``S. 261--Biennial Budgeting and Appropriations Act,'' 
April 23, 1997, p. 7.
    \16\Ibid.
    \17\Ibid. at p. 8
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Leon Panetta was the author of one of the first biennial 
reform bills in 1977. In 2012, then Secretary of Defense Leon 
Panetta testified before the House Budget Committee that he 
supported a biennial budget.\18\ He stated, ``[W]e would have 
been better off establishing a two year process; it would give 
us some planning for the future. * * * [I]t would have provided 
a little more stability, I think, within the Congress.''\19\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \18\Testimony of Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, House Committee 
on the Budget hearing, ``The Department of Defense and the Fiscal Year 
2013 Budget,'' February 29, 2012, p. 40.
    \19\Ibid., p. 39-40
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    According to G. William Hoagland, a senior vice president 
of the Bipartisan Policy Center, a biennial budget ``would 
offer a saner, more rational and efficient approach.''\20\ 
Hoagland further stated, ``If you're spending all your time 
appropriating and budgeting, you're not able to free up 
members' time and attention to deal with the underlying 
authorization and appropriations process. It's good 
governance.''\21\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \20\Eric Pianin, The Fiscal Times, ``End Beltway Brawls? Try 
Biennial Budgeting,'' January 31, 2014, http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/
Articles/2014/01/31/End-Beltway-Brawls-Try-Biennial-Budgeting.
    \21\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A recent Brookings Institution article entitled, 
``Reforming the Budget: Four Steps to Restore Fiscal 
Discipline,'' also provides support for a biennial budget. 
Implementing a biennial budget is one of these four steps.\22\ 
The article states, ``One of the simplest ways to do budgeting 
better is simply to do it less often.''\23\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \22\Linda Blimes, Brookings Institution, ``Reforming the Budget: 
Four Steps to Restore Fiscal Discipline,'' February 5, 2014, http://
www.brookings.edu/blogs/fixgov/posts/2014/02/04-budget-reform-
accounting-system-overhead-bilmes.
    \23\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Independent organizations across the political spectrum 
also support a biennial budget. These include The Committee for 
a Responsible Federal Budget, Third Way, Concord Coalition, 
National Taxpayers Union, Council for Citizens Against 
Government Waste, and No Labels.\24\ The Committee for a 
Responsible Federal Budget wrote a letter in support of this 
legislation which stated, ``The primary benefit of a biennial 
budget cycle is the extra time it permits Congress and the 
White House to take a more careful look at our budget and 
federal programs, particularly those currently on auto-pilot. 
In order to fix our pressing fiscal problems, we must go 
through our spending and tax policies with a fine-toothed comb 
and determine what works, what needs fixing, and what doesn't 
work.''\25\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \24\Congressman Reid Ribble, ``Biennial Budgeting Will Help Fix 
Washington's Broken Budget System'' http://ribble.house.gov/biennial-
budgeting-will-help-fix-washingtons-broken-budget-system.
    \25\Ibid.; See also http://edit-ribble.house.gov/sites/
ribble.house.gov/files/01132014%20CRFB%20Biennial%20Letter.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Over the past few decades, many states have used a biennial 
budget process.\26\ As of 2011, 19 states operate on a biennial 
budget.\27\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \26\Ronald K. Snell, National Conference of State Legislatures, 
``State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting,'' April 2011, 
p. 1, available at http://www.ncsl.org/documents/fiscal/
BiennialBudgeting_May2011.pdf.
    \27\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In sum, a biennial budget is a widely supported bipartisan 
reform that would allow Congress to prioritize its work by 
completing the budget resolution and appropriations bills in 
odd-numbered years and devote more time to program oversight 
and reauthorization in even-numbered years.

                      Summary of Proposed Changes

    The bill amends the Congressional Budget Act, the rules of 
the House of Representatives, the laws regarding the contents 
of the President's budget submission and appropriations bills 
to provide for a two-year budget, appropriations, and 
authorizations process.
    In odd-numbered years, Congress would adopt a budget 
resolution that would provide annual levels for at least a 
five-year period. The resolution would include an allocation to 
the House and Senate Appropriations Committees for each of the 
years in the two-year period (biennium). The Appropriations 
Committees would then complete appropriations bills in odd-
numbered years that would contain appropriations for each of 
the years in the biennium.
    Even-numbered years would be reserved for Congressional 
oversight and Congressional consideration of authorization 
legislation. The bill requires authorization bills to have a 
term of at least two years. The bill does not prohibit the 
consideration of supplemental appropriations or rescissions to 
appropriations in the second year of the biennium.

                          Legislative History

    Since the 93d Congress, several bills making amendments to 
the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 to establish a biennial 
budget process have been introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. The following is a summary of 
these bills and related Congressional action.

Legislation in the 93d Congress

    Under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the 
Congressional Budget Office (CBO) was required to examine and 
publish a report on the ``feasibility and advisability'' of 
biennial budgeting.

Legislation in the 95th Congress

    In February 1977, as required by the Congressional Budget 
Act of 1974, CBO published a report, ``Advance Budgeting: A 
Report to Congress,'' which found that ``if the committees did 
not have to spend so much time each year on routine budgetary 
[issues], they would in fact have more time for their oversight 
work, leading to more rather than less oversight.''\28\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \28\Congressional Budget Office, ``Advance Budgeting: A Report to 
the Congress,'' February 24, 1977, p. 16, available at http://cbo.gov/
sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/111xx/doc11107/77doc716.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Office of Management and Budget issued a report, 
entitled ``A Study of the Advisability of Submitting the 
President's Budget and Enacting Budget Authority in Advance of 
the Current Timetable,'' which also supported a biennial budget 
process because ``Both the President and Congress will reap 
significantly greater benefits from multi-year budgeting * * 
*''\29\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \29\Office of Management and Budget, ``A Study of the Advisability 
of Submitting the President's Budget and Enacting Budget Authority in 
Advance of the Current Timetable,'' p. 6; See also Senate Report 106-
12--Biennial Budgeting and Appropriations Act, p. 12; House Report 107-
200--Part 2--Budget Responsibility and Efficiency Act of 2001, p. 10.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Representative Leon Panetta (D-CA) introduced the Biennial 
Budget Act, the first bill introduced in Congress establishing 
a biennial budget process.

Legislation in the 96th Congress

    Representative Leon Panetta (D-CA) reintroduced the 
Biennial Budget Act, H.R. 2000. A resolution, S. Res. 197, 
which required a study on the feasibility of biennial 
budgeting, was introduced by Senator Dale Bumpers (D-AR).

Legislation in the 97th Congress

    Representative Leon Panetta (D-CA) reintroduced his 
biennial budget bill in the House of Representatives.
    In the 97th Congress, four biennial budgeting bills were 
introduced in the Senate. These included: S. 1683 introduced by 
Senator Wendell H. Ford (D-KY), S. 2008 introduced by Senator 
Dan Quayle (R-IN), S. 2629 introduced by Senator William V. 
Roth, Jr. (R-DE), and S. 2848 introduced by Senator Thad 
Cochran (R-MS). The Senate Governmental Affairs Committee held 
hearings on the topic of biennial budgeting.

Legislation in the 98th Congress

    In the 98th Congress, several biennial budgeting bills were 
introduced in the House of Representatives and the Senate. 
These included: H.R. 750 introduced by Representative Leon 
Panetta (D-CA), S. 12 introduced by Senator Wendell H. Ford (D-
KY), S. 20 introduced by Senator William V. Roth, Jr. (R-DE), 
S. 95 introduced by Senator Dan Quayle (R-IN), and S. 922 
introduced by Senator Thad Cochran (R-MS). Senator Roth (R-DE) 
offered an amendment, S. Amdt. 3056, to H.R. 2163 to implement 
a biennial budget process. Hearings on Senator Roth's bill were 
held by the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee.

Legislation in the 99th Congress

    In the 99th Congress, several biennial budgeting bills were 
introduced in the House of Representatives and the Senate. 
These included: H.R. 382 introduced by Representative Leon 
Panetta (D-CA), H.R. 748 introduced by Representative Earl 
Hutto (D-FL), H.R. 2845 introduced by Representative Ike 
Skelton (D-MO), H.R. 3461 introduced by Representative Robert 
W. Edgar (D-PA), S. 20 introduced by Senator William V. Roth, 
Jr. (R-DE), and S. 1556 introduced by Senator Wendell H. Ford 
(D-KY). Two resolutions, S. Res. 157 and S. Res. 159, requiring 
the establishment of a temporary select committee to examine 
the budget process, including recommendations for a biennial 
budget, were also introduced in the Senate.
    Senator Sam Nunn (D-GA) offered an amendment to the Fiscal 
Year 1986 Defense Authorization bill, which required the 
President to provide biennial budget proposals for the 
Department of Defense. This amendment was preserved through 
conference and the conferees expressed support for a biennial 
budget because it would ``substantially improve DOD management 
and congressional oversight.''\30\ The conferees also expressed 
a desire for all Federal spending to be through a biennial 
budget.\31\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \30\Ibid.
    \31\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Legislation in the 100th Congress

    In the 100th Congress, several bills implementing a 
biennial budget were introduced in the House of Representatives 
and the Senate. These included: H.R. 22 introduced by 
Representative Leon Panetta (D-CA), H.R. 33 introduced by 
Representative Hal Daub (R-NE), H.R. 777 introduced by 
Representative Marilyn Lloyd (D-TN), H.R. 805 introduced by 
Representative Timothy J. Penny (D-MN), H.R. 1558 introduced by 
Representative Earl Hutto (D-FL), H.R. 2733 introduced by 
Representative Bill Schuette (R-MI), H.R. 5205 introduced by 
Representative Leon Panetta (D-CA), S. 416 introduced by 
Senator William V. Roth, Jr. (R-DE), S. 832 introduced by 
Senator Pete V. Domenici (R-NM), S. 1362 introduced by Senator 
Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R-KS), and S. 2478 introduced by 
Senator Wendell H. Ford (D-KY). The Senate Committee on 
Governmental Affairs reported, with amendments, S. 2478.
    On May 6, 1987, during consideration of the Senate's fiscal 
year 1988 budget resolution, S. Con. Res. 49, Senator William 
V. Roth, Jr. offered an amendment (S. Amdt. 186) expressing the 
sense of the Congress that biennial budget process should be 
enacted into law that year. The amendment was tabled in the 
Senate by a 53-45 vote.

Legislation in the 101st Congress

    In the 101st Congress, several biennial budgeting bills 
were introduced in the House of Representatives and the Senate. 
These included: H.R. 1401 introduced by Representative Ralph 
Regula (R-OH), H.R. 2142 introduced by Representative Thomas J. 
(Jerry) Huckaby (D-LA), and S. 29 introduced by Senator Wendell 
H. Ford (D-KY). Senator John Glenn (D-OH), Chairman of the 
Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, held hearings on and 
ordered reported favorably S. 29.

Legislation in the 102d Congress

    In the 102d Congress, several biennial budgeting bills were 
introduced in the House of Representatives and the Senate. 
These included: H.R. 1676 introduced by Representative James 
Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-WI), H.R. 1889 introduced by 
Representative Elizabeth Patterson (D-SC), H.R. 5387 introduced 
by Representative Ralph Regula (R-OH), H.R. 6089 introduced by 
Representative Bill Orton (D-UT), and S. 1667 introduced by 
Senator Wendell H. Ford (D-KY).

Legislation in the 103d Congress

    In the 103d Congress, several biennial budgeting bills were 
introduced in the House of Representatives and the Senate. 
These included: H.R. 565 introduced by Representative Jim Kolbe 
(R-AZ), H.R. 1383 introduced by Representative Ralph Regula (R-
OH), H.R. 2221 introduced by Representative Earl Hutto (D-FL), 
S. 1287 introduced by Senator Robert F. Bennett (R-UT), and S. 
1477 introduced by Senator John McCain (R-AZ).
    On February 3, 1994, H.R. 3801, the Legislative 
Reorganization Act of 1994, was introduced in the House of 
Representatives by Representative Lee H. Hamilton (D-IN), which 
included provisions implementing a biennial budget. Hearings on 
this bill were held by the Committee on House Administration 
and the Committee on Rules' Rules of the House and Legislative 
Process Subcommittees.
    On February 3, 1994, S. 1824, the Legislative 
Reorganization Act of 1994, was introduced in the Senate by 
Senators David L. Boren (D-OK) and Pete V. Domenici (R-NM). 
This bill required executing the Joint Committee on the 
Organization of Congress' recommendation to establish a 
biennial budget process. The bill was reported by the Senate 
Committee on Rules. Senator Domenici offered these 
recommendations as an amendment to the District of Columbia 
Appropriations bill, but the amendment failed in the Senate.

Legislation in the 104th Congress

    In the 104th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 252, the 
Legislative Reorganization Act of 1995, introduced by 
Representative Lee H. Hamilton (D-IN), which included 
provisions to implement a biennial budget process; H.R. 766 
introduced by Representative Sonny Callahan (R-AL); S. 1434 
introduced by Senator Craig Thomas (R-WY); and S. 2049 
introduced by Senator Fred Thompson (R-TN). In July 1996, the 
Senate Governmental Affairs Committee's Financial Management 
and Accountability Subcommittee held a hearing on the topic of 
biennial budgeting.

Legislation in the 105th Congress

    In the 105th Congress, a biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bill were each introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 2956 
introduced by Representative Bill Luther (D-MN) and S. 261 
introduced by Senator Pete V. Domenici (R-NM). The Senate 
Budget and Governmental Affairs Committees held hearings on S. 
261. The Senate Governmental Affairs Committee ordered 
reported, with an amendment in the nature of a substitute, S. 
261, the Biennial Budgeting and Appropriations Act.

Legislation in the 106th Congress

    In the 106th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 232 
introduced by Representative Ralph Regula (R-OH), H.R. 493 
introduced by Representative Cliff Stearns (R-FL), H.R. 2985 
introduced by Representative Charles F. Bass (R-NH), H.R. 3586 
introduced by Representative Sonny Callahan (R-AL), and S. 92 
and S. 93 introduced by Senator Pete V. Domenici (R-NM).

Legislation in the 107th Congress

    In the 107th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 129 
introduced by Representative Bill Luther (D-MN), H.R. 981 
introduced by Representative Charles F. Bass (R-NH), H.R. 5259 
introduced by Representative Paul Ryan (R-WI), and S. 3131 
introduced by Senator George V. Voinovich (R-OH). The House 
Budget Committee reported, with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute, H.R. 981, the Commission on Federal Budget Concepts 
Act of 2001, which included provisions requiring an examination 
of the feasibility of implementing a biennial budget.\32\ The 
House Rules Committee also reported, with amendments, H.R. 981, 
the Budget Responsibility and Efficiency Act of 2001.\33\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \32\See House Report 107-200--Part 1, Commission on Federal Budget 
Concepts Act of 2001, p. 8.
    \33\See House Report 107-200--Part 2, Budget Responsibility and 
Efficiency Act of 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Legislation in the 108th Congress

    In the 108th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 180 
introduced by Representative Paul Ryan (R-WI), H.R. 3358 and 
H.R. 3800 introduced by Representative Jeb Hensarling (R-TX), 
S. 689 introduced by Senator George V. Voinovich (R-OH), and S. 
2752 introduced by Senator Orrin G. Hatch (R-UT).

Legislation in the 109th Congress

    In the 109th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 2664 
introduced by Representative David Dreier (R-CA), H.R. 6024 
introduced by Representative Ed Whitfield (R-KY), H.R. 6201 
introduced by Representative Brian P. Bilbray (R-CA), S. 568 
introduced by Senator George V. Voinovich (R-OH), S. 877 
introduced by Senator Pete V. Domenici (R-NM), and S. 3521 
introduced by Senator Judd Gregg (R-NH).

Legislation in the 110th Congress

    In the 110th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 2469 
introduced by Representative Ed Whitfield (R-KY), S. 1279 
introduced by Senator George V. Voinovich (R-OH), and S. 2627 
introduced by Senator Pete V. Domenici (R-NM).

Legislation in the 111th Congress

    In the 111th Congress, a biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bill were each introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 6401 
introduced by Representative David Dreier (R-CA) and S. 169 
introduced by Senator Johnny Isakson (R-GA).

Legislation in the 112th Congress

    In the 112th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills were introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These included: H.R. 114 
introduced by Representative David Dreier (R-CA), H.R. 3082 
introduced by Representative Timothy V. Johnson (R-IL), S. 211 
introduced by Senator Johnny Isakson (R-GA), and S. 1274, the 
Biennial Appropriations Act, introduced by Senator Michael B. 
Enzi (R-WY).
    Representative James Renacci (R-OH) introduced H.R. 3669, 
the Budget Process Improvement Act of 2011, on December 14, 
2011, which included implementing a biennial budget among other 
budget process reforms.
    On December 7, 2011, Members of the House Budget Committee 
introduced a comprehensive package of ten legislative budget 
process reform bills designed to fundamentally reform the 
budget process. Included in this package was H.R. 3577, the 
``Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2011,'' 
introduced by Representative Reid Ribble of Wisconsin.

Legislation in the 113th Congress

    In the 113th Congress, several biennial budgeting and 
appropriations bills have been introduced in the House of 
Representatives and the Senate. These include: H.R. 879 
introduced by Representative Joe Wilson (R-SC), H.R. 1762 
introduced by Representative Mac Thornberry (R-TX), H.R. 3059 
introduced by Representative Ed Whitfield (R-KY), S. 554 
introduced by Senator Johnny Isakson (R-GA), and S. 625, the 
Biennial Appropriations Act, introduced by Senator Michael B. 
Enzi (R-WY).
    Representative James Renacci (R-OH) re-introduced H.R. 
1654, the Budget Process Improvement Act of 2013, on April 18, 
2013.
    The Senate's fiscal year 2014 concurrent resolution on the 
budget, S. Con. Res. 8, included a bipartisan amendment 
establishing a deficit-neutral reserve fund to implement a 
biennial budget and appropriations process. This amendment was 
agreed to in the Senate by a 68-31 vote (Record Vote Number: 
65).
    On May 8, 2013, Members of the House Budget Committee 
introduced a comprehensive package of seven legislative budget 
process reform bills designed to fundamentally reform the 
budget process. Included in this package was H.R. 1869, the 
``Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014,'' 
introduced by Representative Reid Ribble of Wisconsin.

                                Hearings

    In 2011, the House Budget Committee held two hearings to 
examine ways to improve the federal budget process.
    The first budget process hearing, ``The Broken Budget 
Process: Perspectives From Former CBO Directors,'' was held on 
September 21, 2011, with former CBO Directors Rudolph Penner 
and Alice Rivlin testifying.
    The second budget process hearing, ``The Broken Budget 
Process: Perspectives From Budget Experts,'' was held on 
September 22, 2011, with Philip Joyce (University of Maryland), 
the Honorable Jim Nussle (Chairman of the Committee on the 
Budget, 2001 through 2007, United States House of 
Representatives) and the Honorable Phil Gramm (former United 
States Senator, 1985-2002) testifying.
    In 2012, the House Committee on Rules held a subcommittee 
hearing on H.R. 114, the Biennial Budgeting and Appropriations 
Act of 2011.

                           Section by Section


Section 1. Short Title.

    Section 1 provides that the short title of this Act is the 
``Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014.''

                 Title I--Congressional Budget Process


Section 101. Purposes.

    Section 101 makes technical and conforming changes to 
section 2 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (CBA) to 
assure effective control over the budgetary process and to 
effectuate biennial budgeting.

Section 102. Definitions.

    Section 102 amends section 3 of the CBA by defining the 
terms ``direct spending'' and ``biennium''.

Section 103. Revision of Timetable.

    Section 103 amends section 300 of the CBA to effectuate 
biennial budgeting. Beginning with the One Hundred Fifteenth 
Congress, this section requires Congress to adopt a biennial 
budget resolution and appropriations bills in the first session 
of Congress. The deadlines for the congressional budget process 
are the same as currently under the CBA. Congress is then 
required to consider authorization legislation in the second 
session.

Section 104. Biennial Concurrent Resolutions on the Budget.

    Subsections (a) and (b) make technical and conforming 
changes to Section 301(a) and (b) of the CBA necessary to 
effectuate biennial budgeting. Additionally, subsection (a) 
requires the inclusion in the resolution of subtotals of new 
budget authority and outlays for nondefense discretionary 
spending, defense discretionary spending, Medicare, Medicaid 
and other health-related spending, other direct spending 
(excluding interest), and net interest in each concurrent 
resolution.
    Subsection (c) requires each Senate and House Committee to 
review the strategic plans, performance plans, and performance 
reports of all agencies under the jurisdiction of the 
committee. Subsection (c) also permits each committee to 
provide its views on such plans or reports to the Committee on 
the Budget of the applicable House.
    Subsection (d) makes additional technical and conforming 
changes to Section 301(e) of the CBA to effectuate biennial 
budgeting, including the required contents of the report. The 
required contents of the report are amended to include total 
outlays, total Federal revenues, the surplus or deficit, and 
new budget authority and outlays for non-defense discretionary 
spending, defense discretionary spending, Medicare, Medicaid 
and other health-related spending, other direct spending 
(excluding interest), social security, and other major 
functional categories as appropriate, and net interest as set 
forth in such resolution as a percentage of the gross domestic 
product of the United States. Subsection (d) also requires that 
if the budget resolution provides an allocation to any 
committee other than the Appropriations Committee in excess of 
current law levels, that the report include a justification of 
why any program, project, or activity (for which the allocation 
is made) should not be made subject to annual discretionary 
appropriations.
    Subsections (e), (f), (g), and (h) make additional 
technical and conforming changes to the CBA to effectuate 
biennial budgeting.

Section 105. Committee Allocations.

    Section 105 makes technical and conforming changes to 
section 302 of the CBA necessary to effectuate biennial 
budgeting.

Section 106. Multiyear Authorizations of Appropriations.

    Section 106(a) amends title III of the CBA by providing for 
multiyear authorizations of appropriations and requiring such 
authorizations to include an authorization for at least each 
fiscal year in one or more bienniums.
    It also provides an exception for an authorization of 
appropriations for a single fiscal year for any program, 
project, or activity if the measure containing such 
authorization includes a provision stating that Congress finds 
that no authorization of appropriation is required for the 
applicable program, project, or activity for any subsequent 
fiscal year.
    Subsection 106(b) makes technical and conforming changes to 
the CBA.

Section 107. Additional Amendments to the Congressional Budget Act of 
        1974 to Effectuate Biennial Budgeting.

    Subsection (a) amends section 3 of the CBA to include the 
following terms: ``Medicare'' means programs within budget 
function 570; ``Medicaid and other health-related spending'' 
means programs within budget function 550; ``other direct 
spending'' means programs other than those within budget 
functions 550 and 570, excluding Social Security and net 
interest.
    Subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) make additional 
technical and conforming changes to the CBA to effectuate 
biennial budgeting.

     Title II--Conforming Amendments to the Rules of the House of 
      Representatives and to the Congressional Budget Act of 1974


Section 201. Amendments to the Rules of the House of Representatives to 
        Effectuate Biennial Budgeting.

    Section 201 makes technical and conforming amendments to 
Rules X, XIII, XXI, and XXII of the House of Representatives to 
effectuate biennial budgeting.

Section 202. Conforming Amendments to the Congressional Budget Act of 
        1974.

    Section 202 makes technical and conforming amendments to 
sections 202, 302, and 308 of the CBA to effectuate biennial 
budgeting.

  Title III--Conforming Amendments to Titles 1, 5, 31, and 39, United 
                              States Code


Section 301. Two-Year Appropriations; Title and Style of Appropriation 
        Acts.

    Section 301 amends section 105 of title 1, United States 
Code, by specifying the title and style of appropriation acts 
to be enacted on a biennial basis. It also provides that the 
term ``biennium'' is to have the same meaning as section 3(13) 
of the CBA.

Section 302. Amendments to Title 31, United States Code.

    Section 302 makes technical and conforming changes to title 
31, United States Code, to reflect biennial budgeting.

Section 303. Government Strategic and Performance Plans on a Biennial 
        Basis.

    Section 303 makes technical and conforming changes to title 
5 (strategic plans) and title 39 (performance plans), United 
States Code, to reflect biennial budgeting. This will enable 
Congress to devote one year in every two solely to program 
oversight and reauthorization.

                        Title IV--Effective Date


Section 401. Effective Date.

    Subsection (a) provides that the amendments made by this 
Act shall take effect immediately before noon January 3, 2017. 
Subsection (b) includes an exception for the amendments made by 
section 303, which shall take effect on September 30, 2016.

                         Votes of the Committee

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each committee report to accompany any 
bill or resolution of a public character to include the total 
number of votes cast for and against each roll-call vote, on a 
motion to report and any amendments offered to the measure or 
matter, together with the names of those voting for and 
against.
    Listed below are the actions taken by the Committee on the 
Budget of the House of Representatives on the Biennial 
Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014.
    On February 11, 2014, the committee met in open session, a 
quorum being present.
    Chairman Ryan asked unanimous consent to be authorized, 
consistent with clause 4 of rule XVI of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives, to declare a recess at any time during the 
committee meeting.
    There was no objection to the unanimous consent request.
    Chairman Ryan asked unanimous consent to dispense with the 
first reading of the bill and the bill be considered as read 
and open to amendment at any point.
    There was no objection to the unanimous consent request.
    The committee adopted and ordered reported the Biennial 
Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014. The Committee on 
the Budget took the following votes:

               MANAGER'S AMENDMENT OFFERED BY MR. RIBBLE

    1. A manager's amendment was offered by Representative 
Ribble, changing the effective date of the bill from fiscal 
year 2015 to fiscal year 2017 in order to provide sufficient 
time to implement a biennial budget process. The amendment was 
agreed to by a voice vote.
    An amendment was offered by Representative Cole proposing 
to withhold Members' pay if a budget resolution is not agreed 
to by May 15th. Dr. Price reserved a point of order against the 
amendment. Representative Cole asked unanimous consent to 
withdraw his amendment. This unanimous consent request was 
agreed to without objection and the amendment was withdrawn.

                             FINAL PASSAGE

    2. Dr. Price made a motion that the Committee report the 
bill as amended and that the bill do pass.
    The motion was agreed to by a roll call vote of 22 ayes and 
10 noes.


------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Name &                     Answer     Name &                   Answer
  State      Aye     No     Present     State      Aye     No    Present
------------------------------------------------------------------------
RYAN,         X                       VAN                  X
 PAUL                                  HOLLEN
 (WI)                                  (MD)
 (Chairma                              (Ranking
 n)                                    )
------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRICE         X                       SCHWARTZ
 (GA)                                  (PA)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
GARRETT       X                       YARMUTH       X
 (NJ)                                  (KY)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
CAMPBELL                              PASCRELL             X
 (CA)                                  (NJ)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
CALVERT               X               RYAN, TIM            X
 (CA)                                  (OH)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
COLE (OK)             X               MOORE                X
                                       (WI)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
McCLINTOC             X               CASTOR
 K (CA)                                (FL)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
LANKFORD      X                       McDERMOTT            X
 (OK)                                  (WA)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
BLACK         X                       LEE (CA)             X
 (TN)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
RIBBLE        X                       CICILLINE
 (WI)                                  (RI)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
FLORES        X                       JEFFRIES
 (TX)                                  (NY)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
ROKITA        X                       POCAN         X
 (IN)                                  (WI)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
WOODALL       X                       LUJAN         X
 (GA)                                  GRISHAM
                                       (NM)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
BLACKBURN     X                       HUFFMAN       X
 (TN)                                  (CA)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
NUNNELEE              X               CARDENAS
 (MS)                                  (CA)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
RIGELL        X                       BLUMENAUE
 (VA)                                  R (OR)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
HARTZLER      X                       SCHRADER      X
 (M0)                                  (OR)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
WALORSKI      X                       .........
 (IN)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
MESSER        X            .........
 (IN)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
RICE (SC)     X            .........
------------------------------------------------------------------------
WILLIAMS      X            .........
 (TX)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
DUFFY         X
 (WI)
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Dr. Price made a motion that, pursuant to clause 1 of rule 
XXII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the staff be 
authorized to make any necessary technical and conforming 
changes to the bill.
    The motion was agreed to without objection.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee on the Budget's 
oversight findings and recommendations are reflected in the 
body of this report.

                         Budget Act Compliance

    The provisions of clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 308(a)(1) of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (relating to estimates of new 
budget authority, new spending authority, new credit authority, 
or increased or decreased revenues or tax expenditures) are not 
considered applicable. The estimate and comparison required to 
be prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
under clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives and sections 402 and 423 of the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974 submitted to the committee prior to the 
filing of this report are as follows:

                       Congressional Budget Office,
                                             U.S. Congress,
                                 Washington, DC, February 12, 2014.
Hon. Paul Ryan, Chairman,
Committee on the Budget, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC 
        20515.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has prepared the 
enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1869, the Biennial Budgeting and 
Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be pleased to 
provide them. The CBO staff contact is Jared Brewster, who can be 
reached at 226-2880.
            Sincerely,
                            Douglas W. Elmendorf, Director.

Enclosure.

cc: Hon. Chris Van Hollen, Ranking Member.

               congressional budget office cost estimate
                           february 12, 2014

    H.R. 1869: Biennial Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014

 As ordered reported by the House Committee on the Budget on February 
                                11, 2014

    H.R. 1869 would alter the timeframe of the federal budget, 
appropriations, and other elements of the budget process from an annual 
to a biennial cycle. CBO estimates that enacting the legislation would 
not, by itself, affect the federal budget. Any such impact would depend 
on the extent of future legislative actions by the Congress and the 
President. Because enacting H.R. 1869 would not affect direct spending 
or revenues, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    Under H.R. 1869, a biennium composed of two separate fiscal years 
would become the standard fiscal period. The first year of the process 
(starting in fiscal year 2017) would be devoted to budgetary actions. 
Those actions include the submission of the President's budget and 
adoption of the budget resolution, appropriation acts, and 
reconciliation acts--all under a schedule that parallels the current 
annual timetable. The President's budget and the Congressional budget 
resolution would cover three successive bienniums (a six-year period), 
and regular appropriations acts would be required to provide funds for 
one full biennium. Various rules and procedures in the Senate and House 
would be established to enforce the biennial budget process.
    The second year of the biennium would generally be reserved for 
nonbudgetary activities, including planning, oversight, and 
consideration of authorizing legislation, and for any needed 
adjustments in existing budget laws. CBO and the Office of Management 
and Budget would be required to provide updated budget estimates during 
the second session.
    Changing the current budget cycle from an annual to a biennial 
cycle would not alter some aspects of the current budget process. The 
Office of Management and Budget already prepares multiyear revenue and 
spending estimates for the President's budget. Budget resolutions also 
provide recommendations for revenue and spending levels on a multiyear 
basis. Further, most revenue and spending law is permanent and would 
not be affected by any changes that would result from enacting H.R. 
1869.
    H.R. 1869 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates, 
as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and, by itself, would 
have no impact on the budgets of state, local, or tribal governments. 
Any budgetary effects would depend on subsequent budget action.
    This staff contact for this cost estimate is Jared Brewster. The 
cost estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    With respect to the requirement of clause 3(c)(4) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
performance goals and objectives of this legislation are to 
provide for a biennial budgeting cycle.

                   Constitutional Authority Statement

    Pursuant to clause 7 of rule XII of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives, the committee finds the constitutional 
authority for this legislation in Article I, section 9, clause 
7.

                        Committee Cost Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the committee report incorporates the 
cost estimate prepared by the Director of the Congressional 
Budget Office pursuant to sections 402 and 423 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

                      Advisory Committee Statement

    No advisory committee within the meaning of section 5(b) of 
the Federal Advisory Committee Act was created by this 
legislation.

                Applicability to the Legislative Branch

    The committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act (P.L. 104-1).

                       Federal Mandates Statement

    The committee adopts the estimate of Federal mandates 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act 
(P.L. 104-4).

                          Advisory on Earmarks

    In accordance with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, H.R. 1869 does not contain any 
congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff 
benefits as defined in clause 9(e), 9(f), or 9(g) of rule XXI 
of the Rules of the House of Representatives.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 1869, the Biennial Budgeting and 
Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014, establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that H.R. 1869, the Biennial 
Budgeting and Enhanced Oversight Act of 2014, does not require 
any directed rule makings.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

        CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET AND IMPOUNDMENT CONTROL ACT OF 1974


                    short titles; table of contents

    Section 1. (a) * * *
    (b) Table of Contents.--

     * * * * * * *

                 TITLE III--CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET PROCESS

Sec. 301. [Annual]Biennial adoption of concurrent resolution on the 
          budget.
     * * * * * * *
Sec. 316. Multiyear authorizations of appropriations.

                        declaration of purposes

    Sec. 2. The Congress declares that it is essential--
            [(1) to assure effective congressional control over 
        the budgetary process;
            [(2) to provide for the congressional determination 
        each year of the appropriate level of Federal revenues 
        and expenditures;]
            (1) to assure effective control over the budgetary 
        process;
            (2) to facilitate the determination biennially of 
        the appropriate level of Federal revenues and 
        expenditures by the Congress and the President;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    Sec. 3. In General.--For purposes of this Act--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (12) The term ``direct spending'' has the meaning 
        given to such term in section 250(c)(8) of the Balanced 
        Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.
            (13) The term ``biennium'' means the period of 2 
        consecutive fiscal years beginning on October 1 of any 
        odd-numbered year.
            (14) The term ``Medicare'' means programs within 
        budget function 570.
            (15) The term ``Medicaid and other health-related 
        spending'' means programs within budget function 550.
            (16) The term ``other direct spending'' means 
        programs other than those within budget functions 550 
        and 570, excluding Social Security and net interest.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                    CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET ACT OF 1974



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE II--CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                          duties and functions

    Sec. 202. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Reports to Budget Committees.--
            (1) On or before February 15 of each year, the 
        Director shall submit to the Committees on the Budget 
        of the House of Representatives and the Senate, a 
        report for the fiscal year commencing on October 1 of 
        that year, with respect to fiscal policy, including (A) 
        alternative levels of total revenues, total new budget 
        authority, and total outlays (including related 
        surpluses and deficits), (B) the levels of tax 
        expenditures under existing law, taking into account 
        projected economic factors and any changes in such 
        levels based on proposals in the budget submitted by 
        the President for such fiscal year, and (C) a statement 
        of the levels of budget authority and outlays for each 
        program assumed to be extended in the baseline, as 
        provided in section 257[(b)(2)(A) and for excise taxes 
        assumed to be extended under section 257(b)(2)(C)] of 
        the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act 
        of 1985. Such report shall also include a discussion of 
        national budget priorities, including alternative ways 
        of allocating new budget authority and budget outlays 
        for such fiscal year among major programs or functional 
        categories, taking into account how such alternative 
        allocations will meet major national needs and affect 
        balanced growth and development of the United States.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                TITLE III--CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET PROCESS

                               [timetable

    [Sec. 300. The timetable with respect to the congressional 
budget process for any fiscal year is as follows:

[On or before:      Action to be completed: 
  First Monday in FePresident submits his budget. ......................
  February 15.......Congressional Budget Office submits report to Budget 
                    Committees. 
  Not later than 6 wCommittees submit views and estimates to Budget ....
                    Committees. 
  April 1...........Senate Budget Committee reports concurrent .........
                    resolution on the budget. 
  April 15..........Congress completes action on concurrent resolution .
                    on the budget. 
  May 15............Annual appropriation bills may be considered in the 
                    House. 
  June 10...........House Appropriations Committee reports last annual .
                    appropriation bill. 
  June 15...........Congress completes action on reconciliation ........
                    legislation. 
  June 30...........House completes action on annual appropriation .....
                    bills. 
  October 1.........Fiscal year begins..................................

                               ]TIMETABLE

    Sec. 300. The timetable with respect to the congressional 
budget process for any Congress (beginning with the One Hundred 
Fifteenth Congress) is as follows:


                                                  First Session



On or before:                             Action to be completed:
First Monday in February................  President submits budget recommendations.
February 15.............................  Congressional Budget Office submits report to Budget Committees.
Not later than 6 weeks after budget       Committees submit views and estimates to Budget Committees.
 submission.
April 1.................................  Budget Committees report concurrent resolution on the biennial budget.
April 15................................  Congress completes action on concurrent resolution on the biennial
                                           budget.
May 15..................................  Biennial appropriation bills may be considered in the House of
                                           Representatives.
June 10.................................  House Appropriations Committee reports last biennial appropriation
                                           bill.
June 15.................................  Congress completes action on reconciliation legislation.
June 30.................................  House completes action on biennial appropriation bills.
October 1...............................  Biennium begins.



                                                 Second Session



On or before:                             Action to be completed:
First Monday in February................  President submits budget review.
Not later than 6 weeks after President    Congressional Budget Office submits report to Budget Committees.
 submits budget review.

   [annual] biennial adoption of concurrent resolution on the budget

    Sec. 301. (a) Content of Concurrent Resolution on the 
Budget.--On or before [April 15 of each year] April 15 of each 
odd-numbered year, the Congress shall complete action on a 
concurrent resolution on the budget for [the fiscal year 
beginning on October 1 of such year] the biennium beginning on 
October 1 of such year. The concurrent resolution shall set 
forth appropriate levels for [the fiscal year beginning on 
October 1 of such year] each fiscal year in such period and for 
at least [each of the 4 ensuing fiscal years] each fiscal year 
in the next 2 bienniums for the following--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            [(4) new budget authority and outlays for each 
        major functional category, based on allocations of the 
        total levels set forth pursuant to paragraph (1);]
            (4) subtotals of new budget authority and outlays 
        for nondefense discretionary spending, defense 
        discretionary spending, Medicare, Medicaid and other 
        health-related spending, other direct spending 
        (excluding interest), and net interest;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (6) for purposes of Senate enforcement under this 
        title, outlays of the old-age, survivors, and 
        disability insurance program established under title II 
        of the Social Security Act [for the fiscal year] for 
        each fiscal year in the biennium of the resolution and 
        for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal years; and
            (7) for purposes of Senate enforcement under this 
        title, revenues of the old-age, survivors, and 
        disability insurance program established under title II 
        of the Social Security Act (and the related provisions 
        of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) [for the fiscal 
        year] for each fiscal year in the biennium of the 
        resolution and for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal 
        years.
The concurrent resolution shall not include the outlays and 
revenue totals of the old-age, survivors, and disability 
insurance program established under title II of the Social 
Security Act or the related provisions of the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 in the surplus or deficit totals required by this 
subsection or in any other surplus or deficit totals required 
by this title.
    (b) Additional Matters in Concurrent Resolution.--The 
concurrent resolution on the budget may--
            [(1) set forth, if required by subsection (f), the 
        calendar year in which, in the opinion of the Congress, 
        the goals for reducing unemployment set forth in 
        section 4(b) of the Employment Act of 1946 should be 
        achieved;]
            [(2)] (1) include reconciliation directives 
        described in section 310;
            [(3)] (2) require a procedure under which all or 
        certain bills or resolutions providing new budget 
        authority or new entitlement authority [for such fiscal 
        year] for either fiscal year in such biennium shall not 
        be enrolled until the Congress has completed action on 
        any reconciliation bill or reconciliation resolution or 
        both required by such concurrent resolution to be 
        reported in accordance with section 310(b);
            [(4) set forth such other matters, and require such 
        other procedures, relating to the budget, as may be 
        appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act;]
            (3) set forth such other matters, and require such 
        other procedures, relating to the budget as may be 
        appropriate to carry out the purposes of the Act, but 
        shall not include a suspension or alteration of the 
        application of the motion to strike a provision as set 
        forth in section 310(d)(2) or (h)(2)(F);
            [(5)] (4) include a heading entitled ``Debt 
        Increase as Measure of Deficit'' in which the 
        concurrent resolution shall set forth the amounts by 
        which the debt subject to limit (in section 3101 of 
        title 31 of the United States Code) has increased or 
        would increase in each of the relevant fiscal years[;].
            [(6) include a heading entitled ``Display of 
        Federal Retirement Trust Fund Balances'' in which the 
        concurrent resolution shall set forth the balances of 
        the Federal retirement trust funds;
            [(7) set forth procedures in the Senate whereby 
        committee allocations, aggregates, and other levels can 
        be revised for legislation if that legislation would 
        not increase the deficit, or would not increase the 
        deficit when taken with other legislation enacted after 
        the adoption of the resolution, for the first fiscal 
        year or the total period of fiscal years covered by the 
        resolution;
            [(8) set forth procedures to effectuate pay-as-you-
        go in the House of Representatives; and
            [(9) set forth direct loan obligation and primary 
        loan guarantee commitment levels.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Views and Estimates of Other Committees.--Within 6 
weeks after the President submits a budget under section 
1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, or at such time as may 
be requested by the Committee on the Budget, each committee of 
the House of Representatives having legislative jurisdiction 
shall submit to the Committee on the Budget of the House and 
each committee of the Senate having legislative jurisdiction 
shall submit to the Committee on the Budget of the Senate its 
views and estimates (as determined by the committee making such 
submission) with respect to all matters set forth in 
subsections (a) and (b) which relate to matters within the 
jurisdiction or functions of such committee. The Joint Economic 
Committee shall submit to the Committees on the Budget of both 
Houses its recommendations as to the fiscal policy appropriate 
to the goals of the Employment Act of 1946. Any other committee 
of the House of Representatives or the Senate may submit to the 
Committee on the Budget of its House, and any joint committee 
of the Congress may submit to the Committees on the Budget of 
both Houses, its views and estimates with respect to all 
matters set forth in subsections (a) and (b) which relate to 
matters within its jurisdiction or functions. Any Committee of 
the House of Representatives or the Senate that anticipates 
that the committee will consider any proposed legislation 
establishing, amending, or reauthorizing any Federal program 
likely to have a significant budgetary impact on any State, 
local, or tribal government, or likely to have a significant 
financial impact on the private sector, including any 
legislative proposal submitted by the executive branch likely 
to have such a budgetary or financial impact, shall include its 
views and estimates on that proposal to the Committee on the 
Budget of the applicable House. Each committee of the Senate or 
the House of Representatives shall review the strategic plans, 
performance plans, and performance reports required under 
section 306 of title 5, United States Code, and sections 1115 
and 1116 of title 31, United States Code, of all agencies under 
the jurisdiction of the committee. Each committee may provide 
its views on such plans or reports to the Committee on the 
Budget of the applicable House.
    (e) Hearings and Report.--
            (1) In general.--In developing the concurrent 
        resolution on the budget referred to in subsection (a) 
        for each [fiscal year] biennium, the Committee on the 
        Budget of each House shall hold hearings and shall 
        receive testimony from Members of Congress and such 
        appropriate representatives of Federal departments and 
        agencies, the general public, and national 
        organizations as the committee deems desirable. Each of 
        the recommendations as to short-term and medium-term 
        goal set forth in the report submitted by the members 
        of the Joint Economic Committee under subsection (d) 
        may be considered by the Committee on the Budget of 
        each House as part of its consideration of such 
        concurrent resolution, and its report may reflect its 
        views thereon, including its views on how the estimates 
        of revenues and levels of budget authority and outlays 
        set forth in such concurrent resolution are designed to 
        achieve any goals it is recommending. On or before 
        April 1 of each odd-numbered year, the Committee on the 
        Budget of each House shall report to its House the 
        concurrent resolution on the budget referred to in 
        subsection (a) for the biennium beginning on October 1 
        of that year.
            (2) Required contents of report.--The report 
        accompanying the resolution shall include--
                    (A) new budget authority and outlays for 
                each major functional category, based on 
                allocations of the total levels set forth 
                pursuant to subsection (a)(1);
                    [(A)] (B) a comparison of the levels of 
                total new budget authority, total outlays, 
                total revenues, and the surplus or deficit for 
                each fiscal year set forth in the resolution 
                with those requested in the budget submitted by 
                the President;
                    [(B)] (C) with respect to each major 
                functional category, an estimate of total new 
                budget authority and total outlays, with the 
                estimates divided between discretionary and 
                [mandatory] direct spending amounts;
                    (D) total outlays, total Federal revenues, 
                the surplus or deficit, and new budget 
                authority and outlays for nondefense 
                discretionary spending, defense discretionary 
                spending, Medicare, Medicaid and other health-
                related spending, other direct spending 
                (excluding interest), social security and other 
                major functional categories, as appropriate, 
                and net interest as set forth in such 
                resolution as a percentage of the gross 
                domestic product of the United States;
                    [(C)] (E) the economic assumptions that 
                underlie each of the matters set forth in the 
                resolution and any alternative economic 
                assumptions and objectives the committee 
                considered;
                    [(D)] (F) information, data, and 
                comparisons indicating the manner in which, and 
                the basis on which, the committee determined 
                each of the matters set forth in the 
                resolution;
                    (G) if the concurrent resolution on the 
                budget includes any allocation to a committee 
                other than the Committee on Appropriations of 
                levels in excess of current law levels, a 
                justification for not subjecting any program, 
                project, or activity (for which the allocation 
                is made) to annual discretionary 
                appropriations;
                    [(E)] (H) the estimated levels of tax 
                expenditures (the tax expenditures budget) by 
                major items and functional categories for the 
                President's budget and in the resolution; and
                    [(F)] (I) allocations described in section 
                302(a).
            (3) Additional contents of report.--The report 
        accompanying the resolution may include--
                    (A) new budget authority and outlays for 
                each major functional category, based on 
                allocations of the total levels set forth 
                pursuant to subsection (a)(1);
                    [(A)] (B) a statement of any significant 
                changes in the proposed levels of Federal 
                assistance to State and local governments;
                    [(B)] (C) an allocation of the level of 
                Federal revenues recommended in the resolution 
                among the major sources of such revenues;
                    [(C) information, data, and comparisons on 
                the share of total Federal budget outlays and 
                of gross domestic product devoted to investment 
                in the budget submitted by the President and in 
                the resolution;
                    [(D) the assumed levels of budget authority 
                and outlays for public buildings, with a 
                division between amounts for construction and 
                repair and for rental payments; and]
                    [(E)] (D) other matters, relating to the 
                budget and to fiscal policy, that the committee 
                deems appropriate[.]; and
                    (E) set forth, if required by subsection 
                (f), the calendar year in which, in the opinion 
                of the Congress, the goals for reducing 
                unemployment set forth in section 4(b) of the 
                Employment Act of 1946 should be achieved.
    (f) Achievement of Goals for Reducing Unemployment.--
            (1) If, pursuant to section 4(c) of the Employment 
        Act of 1946, the President recommends in the Economic 
        Report that the goals for reducing unemployment set 
        forth in section 4(b) of such Act be achieved in a year 
        after the close of the five-year period prescribed by 
        such subsection, the concurrent resolution on the 
        budget for the [fiscal year] biennium beginning after 
        the date on which such Economic Report is received by 
        the Congress may set forth the year in which, in the 
        opinion of the Congress, such goals can be achieved.
            (2) After the Congress has expressed its opinion 
        pursuant to paragraph (1) as to the year in which the 
        goals for reducing unemployment set forth in section 
        4(b) of the Employment Act of 1946 can be achieved, if, 
        pursuant to section 4(e) of such Act, the President 
        recommends in the Economic Report that such goals be 
        achieved in a year which is different from the year in 
        which the Congress has expressed its opinion that such 
        goals should be achieved, either in its action pursuant 
        to paragraph (1) or in its most recent action pursuant 
        to this paragraph, the concurrent resolution on the 
        budget for the [fiscal year] biennium beginning after 
        the date on which such Economic Report is received by 
        the Congress may set forth the year in which, in the 
        opinion of the Congress, such goals can be achieved.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (g) Economic Assumptions.--
            (1) It shall not be in order in the Senate to 
        consider any concurrent resolution on the budget [for a 
        fiscal year] for a biennium, or any amendment thereto, 
        or any conference report thereon, that sets forth 
        amounts and levels that are determined on the basis of 
        more than one set of economic and technical 
        assumptions.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                         committee allocations

    Sec. 302. (a) Committee Spending Allocations.--
            (1) Allocation among committees.--The joint 
        explanatory statement accompanying a conference report 
        on a concurrent resolution on the budget shall include 
        an allocation, consistent with the resolution 
        recommended in the conference report, of the levels 
        [for the first fiscal year of the resolution,] for each 
        fiscal year in the biennium, for at least each of the 
        ensuing 4 fiscal years, and a total [for that period of 
        fiscal years] for all fiscal years covered by the 
        resolution (except in the case of the Committee on 
        Appropriations only [for the fiscal year of that 
        resolution] for each fiscal year in the biennium) of--
                    (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (b) Suballocations by Appropriations Committees.--As soon 
as practicable after a concurrent resolution on the budget is 
agreed to, the Committee on Appropriations of each House (after 
consulting with the Committee on Appropriations of the other 
House) shall suballocate each amount allocated to it for the 
budget year under [subsection (a)] subsection (a)(1) among its 
subcommittees. Each Committee on Appropriations shall promptly 
report to its House suballocations made or revised under this 
subsection. The Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
Representatives shall further divide among its subcommittees 
the divisions made under subsection (a)(3)(B) and promptly 
report those divisions to the House.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (f) Legislation Subject to Point of Order.--
            (1) In the house of representatives.--After the 
        Congress has completed action on a concurrent 
        resolution on the budget [for a fiscal year] for a 
        biennium, it shall not be in order in the House of 
        Representatives to consider any bill, joint resolution, 
        or amendment providing new budget authority or outlays 
        for any fiscal year, or any conference report on any 
        such bill or joint resolution, if--
                    (A) the enactment of such bill or 
                resolution [as reported];

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

        would cause the applicable allocation of new budget 
        authority made under subsection (a) or (b) for [the 
        first fiscal year] either fiscal year of the biennium 
        or the total of fiscal years to be exceeded.
            (2) In the senate.--After a concurrent resolution 
        on the budget is agreed to, it shall not be in order in 
        the Senate to consider any bill, joint resolution, 
        amendment, motion, or conference report that would 
        cause--
                    (A) in the case of any committee except the 
                Committee on Appropriations, the applicable 
                allocation of new budget authority or outlays 
                under subsection (a) for the [first fiscal 
                year] each fiscal year of the biennium or [the 
                total of fiscal years] the total of all fiscal 
                years covered by the resolution to be exceeded; 
                or

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [(g) Pay-as-You-Go Exception in the House.--
            [(1) In general.--(A) Subsection (f)(1) and, after 
        April 15, section 303(a) shall not apply to any bill or 
        joint resolution, as reported, amendment thereto, or 
        conference report thereon if, for each fiscal year 
        covered by the most recently agreed to concurrent 
        resolution on the budget--
                    [(i) the enactment of that bill or 
                resolution as reported;
                    [(ii) the adoption and enactment of that 
                amendment; or
                    [(iii) the enactment of that bill or 
                resolution in the form recommended in that 
                conference report,
        would not increase the deficit, and, if the sum of any 
        revenue increases provided in legislation already 
        enacted during the current session (when added to 
        revenue increases, if any, in excess of any outlay 
        increase provided by the legislation proposed for 
        consideration) is at least as great as the sum of the 
        amount, if any, by which the aggregate level of Federal 
        revenues should be increased as set forth in that 
        concurrent resolution and the amount, if any, by which 
        revenues are to be increased pursuant to pay-as-you-go 
        procedures under section 301(b)(8), if included in that 
        concurrent resolution.
            [(B) Section 311(a), as that section applies to 
        revenues, shall not apply to any bill, joint 
        resolution, amendment thereto, or conference report 
        thereon if, for each fiscal year covered by the most 
        recently agreed to concurrent resolution on the 
        budget--
                    [(i) the enactment of that bill or 
                resolution as reported;
                    [(ii) the adoption and enactment of that 
                amendment; or
                    [(iii) the enactment of that bill or 
                resolution in the form recommended in that 
                conference report,
        would not increase the deficit, and, if the sum of any 
        outlay reductions provided in legislation already 
        enacted during the current session (when added to 
        outlay reductions, if any, in excess of any revenue 
        reduction provided by the legislation proposed for 
        consideration) is at least as great as the sum of the 
        amount, if any, by which the aggregate level of Federal 
        outlays should be reduced as required by that 
        concurrent resolution and the amount, if any, by which 
        outlays are to be reduced pursuant to pay-as-you-go 
        procedures under section 301(b)(8), if included in that 
        concurrent resolution.
            [(2) Revised allocations.--(A) As soon as 
        practicable after Congress agrees to a bill or joint 
        resolution that would have been subject to a point of 
        order under subsection (f)(1) but for the exception 
        provided in paragraph (1)(A) or would have been subject 
        to a point of order under section 311(a) but for the 
        exception provided in paragraph (1)(B), the chairman of 
        the Committee on the Budget of the House of 
        Representatives shall file with the House appropriately 
        revised allocations under section 302(a) and revised 
        functional levels and budget aggregates to reflect that 
        bill.
            [(B) Such revised allocations, functional levels, 
        and budget aggregates shall be considered for the 
        purposes of this Act as allocations, functional levels, 
        and budget aggregates contained in the most recently 
        agreed to concurrent resolution on the budget.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


 HOUSE COMMITTEE ACTION ON ALL APPROPRIATION BILLS TO BE COMPLETED BY 
                                JUNE 10

    Sec. 307. On or before June 10 of [each year] each odd-
numbered year, the Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
Representatives shall report [annual] biennial appropriation 
bills providing new budget authority under the jurisdiction of 
all of its subcommittees for the [fiscal year] biennium which 
begins on October 1 of [that year] each odd-numbered year.

  reports, summaries, and projections of congressional budget actions

    Sec. 308. (a) Legislation Providing New Budget Authority or 
Providing an Increase or Decrease in Revenues or Tax 
Expenditures.--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (3) CBO paygo estimates.--
                    (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                    [(C) The Director shall not count timing 
                shifts, as that term is defined at section 3(8) 
                of the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010, in 
                estimates of the budgetary effects of PAYGO 
                Legislation.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Scorekeeping Guidelines.--Estimates under this section 
shall be provided in accordance with the scorekeeping 
guidelines determined under section [252(d)(5)] 252(c) of the 
Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.

             house approval of regular appropriation bills

    Sec. 309. It shall not be in order in the House of 
Representatives to consider any resolution providing for an 
adjournment period of more than three calendar days during the 
month of July of any odd-numbered calendar year until the House 
of Representatives has approved [annual] biennial appropriation 
bills providing new budget authority under the jurisdiction of 
all the subcommittees of the Committee on Appropriations for 
the [fiscal year] biennium beginning on October 1 of such year. 
For purposes of this section, the chairman of the Committee on 
Appropriations of the House of Representatives shall 
periodically advise the Speaker as to changes in jurisdiction 
among its various subcommittees.

                             reconciliation

    Sec. 310. (a) Inclusion of Reconciliation Directives in 
Concurrent Resolutions on the Budget.--A concurrent resolution 
on the budget for [any fiscal year] any biennium, to the extent 
necessary to effectuate the provisions and requirements of such 
resolution, shall--
            (1) specify the total amount by which--
                    (A) new budget authority for [such fiscal 
                year] any fiscal year covered by such 
                resolution;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                    (C) new entitlement authority which is to 
                become effective during [such fiscal year] any 
                fiscal year covered by such resolution; and
                    (D) credit authority for [such fiscal year] 
                any fiscal year covered by such resolution,
        contained in laws, bills, and resolutions within the 
        jurisdiction of a committee is to be changed and direct 
        that committee to determine and recommend changes to 
        accomplish a change of such total amount;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [(f) Completion of Reconciliation Process.--It shall not be 
in order in the House of Representatives to consider any 
resolution providing for an adjournment period of more than 
three calendar days during the month of July until the House of 
Representatives has completed action on the reconciliation 
legislation for the fiscal year beginning on October 1 of the 
calendar year to which the adjournment resolution pertains, if 
reconciliation legislation is required to be reported by the 
concurrent resolution on the budget for such fiscal year.]
    [(g)] (f) Limitation on Changes to the Social Security 
Act.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall not 
be in order in the Senate or the House of Representatives to 
consider any reconciliation bill or reconciliation resolution 
reported pursuant to a concurrent resolution on the budget 
agreed to under section 301 or 304, or a joint resolution 
pursuant to section 258C of the Balanced Budget and Emergency 
Deficit Control Act of 1985, or any amendment thereto or 
conference report thereon, that contains recommendations with 
respect to the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance 
program established under title II of the Social Security Act.

      budget-related legislation must be within appropriate levels

    Sec. 311. (a) Enforcement of Budget Aggregates.--
            (1) In the house of representatives.--Except as 
        provided by subsection (c), after the Congress has 
        completed action on a concurrent resolution on the 
        budget [for a fiscal year] for a biennium, it shall not 
        be in order in the House of Representatives to consider 
        any bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or 
        conference report providing new budget authority or 
        reducing revenues, if--
                    (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

        would cause the level of total new budget authority or 
        total outlays set forth in the applicable concurrent 
        resolution on the budget for [the first fiscal year] 
        either fiscal year of the biennium to be exceeded, or 
        would cause revenues to be less than the level of total 
        revenues set forth in that concurrent resolution for 
        [the first fiscal year] either fiscal year of the 
        biennium or for the total of [that first fiscal year] 
        each fiscal year in the biennium and the ensuing fiscal 
        years for which allocations are provided under section 
        302(a), except when a declaration of war by the 
        Congress is in effect.
            (2) In the senate.--After a concurrent resolution 
        on the budget is agreed to, it shall not be in order in 
        the Senate to consider any bill, joint resolution, 
        amendment, motion, or conference report that--
                    (A) would cause the level of total new 
                budget authority or total outlays set forth 
                [for the first fiscal year] for either fiscal 
                year of the biennium in the applicable 
                resolution to be exceeded; or
                    (B) would cause revenues to be less than 
                the level of total revenues set forth for [that 
                first fiscal year] each fiscal year in the 
                biennium or for the total of [that first fiscal 
                year and the ensuing fiscal years] all fiscal 
                years in the applicable resolution for which 
                allocations are provided under section 302(a).
            (3) Enforcement of social security levels in the 
        senate.--After a concurrent resolution on the budget is 
        agreed to, it shall not be in order in the Senate to 
        consider any bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, 
        or conference report that would cause a decrease in 
        social security surpluses or an increase in social 
        security deficits relative to the levels set forth in 
        the applicable resolution [for the first fiscal year] 
        each fiscal year in the biennium or for the total of 
        [that fiscal year and the ensuing fiscal years] all 
        fiscal years for which allocations are provided under 
        section 302(a).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (c) Exception in the House of Representatives.--Subsection 
(a)(1) shall not apply with respect to new budget authority or 
outlays in the House of Representatives to any bill, joint 
resolution, or amendment that provides new budget authority for 
a fiscal year or to any conference report on any such bill or 
resolution, if--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   determinations and points of order

    Sec. 312. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (c) Maximum Deficit Amount Point of Order in the Senate.--
It shall not be in order in the Senate to consider any 
concurrent resolution on the budget [for a fiscal year] for a 
biennium, or to consider any amendment to that concurrent 
resolution, or to consider a conference report on that 
concurrent resolution, if--
            (1) the level of total outlays for the [first 
        fiscal year] either fiscal year in the biennium set 
        forth in that concurrent resolution or conference 
        report exceeds; or
            (2) the adoption of that amendment would result in 
        a level of total outlays for [that fiscal year] either 
        fiscal year in the biennium that exceeds;
the recommended level of Federal revenues for [that fiscal 
year] the applicable fiscal year, by an amount that is greater 
than the maximum deficit amount, if any, specified in the 
Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 for 
that fiscal year.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


               MULTIYEAR AUTHORIZATIONS OF APPROPRIATIONS

    Sec. 316. (a) It shall not be in order in the House of 
Representatives or the Senate to consider any measure that 
contains an authorization of appropriations for any purpose 
unless the measure includes such an authorization of 
appropriations for that purpose for not less than each fiscal 
year in one or more bienniums.
    (b)(1) For purposes of this section, an authorization of 
appropriations is an authorization for the enactment of an 
amount of appropriations or amounts not to exceed an amount of 
appropriations (whether stated as a sum certain, as a limit, or 
as such sums as may be necessary) for any purpose for a fiscal 
year.
    (2) Subsection (a) does not apply with respect to an 
authorization of appropriations for a single fiscal year for 
any program, project, or activity if the measure containing 
that authorization includes a provision expressly stating the 
following: ``Congress finds that no authorization of 
appropriation will be required for [Insert name of applicable 
program, project, or activity] for any subsequent fiscal 
year.''.
    (c) For purposes of this section, the term ``measure'' 
means a bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or 
conference report.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


               SECTION 105 OF TITLE 1, UNITED STATES CODE

[Sec. 105. Title of appropriation Acts

    [The style and title of all Acts making appropriations for 
the support of Government shall be as follows: ``An Act making 
appropriations (here insert the object) for the year ending 
September 30 (here insert the calendar year).'']

Sec. 105. Title and style of appropriation Acts

    (a) The style and title of all Acts making appropriations 
for the support of the Government shall be as follows: ``An Act 
making appropriations [here insert the object] for each fiscal 
year in the biennium of fiscal years [here insert the fiscal 
years of the biennium].''.
    (b) All Acts making regular appropriations for the support 
of the Government shall be enacted for a biennium and shall 
specify the amount of appropriations provided for each fiscal 
year in such period.
    (c) For purposes of this section, the term ``biennium'' has 
the same meaning as in section 3(13) of the Congressional 
Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (2 U.S.C. 622(13)).
                              ----------                              


                      TITLE 31, UNITED STATES CODE



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
SUBTITLE II--THE BUDGET PROCESS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


   CHAPTER 11--THE BUDGET AND FISCAL, BUDGET, AND PROGRAM INFORMATION

Sec. 1101. Definitions

    In this chapter--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (3) ``biennium'' has the meaning given to such term 
        in paragraph (13) of section 3 of the Congressional 
        Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (2 U.S.C. 
        622(12)).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1105. Budget contents and submission to Congress

    (a) [On or after the first Monday in January but not later 
than the first Monday in February of each year, the President 
shall submit a budget of the United States Government for the 
following fiscal year. Each budget shall include a budget 
message and summary and supporting information. The President 
shall include in each budget the following:] On or before the 
first Tuesday in February of each odd-numbered year, beginning 
with the One Hundred Fifteenth Congress, the President shall 
transmit to the Congress the budget for the biennium beginning 
on October 1 of such calendar year. The budget transmitted 
under this subsection shall include a budget message and 
summary and supporting information. The President shall include 
in each budget submission the following:
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (5) except as provided in subsection (b) of this 
        section, estimated expenditures and proposed 
        appropriations the President decides are necessary to 
        support the Government in [the fiscal year for which 
        the budget is submitted and the 4 fiscal years after 
        that year] each fiscal year in the biennium for which 
        the budget is submitted and in the succeeding 4 years.
            (6) estimated receipts of the Government in [the 
        fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and the 4 
        fiscal years after that year] each fiscal year in the 
        biennium for which the budget is submitted and in the 
        succeeding 4 years under--
                    (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (9) balanced statements of the--
                    (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                    (C) estimated condition of the Treasury at 
                the end of [the fiscal year] each fiscal year 
                in the biennium for which the budget is 
                submitted if financial proposals in the budget 
                are adopted.
            (12) for each proposal in the budget for 
        legislation that would establish or expand a Government 
        activity or function, a table showing--
                    (A) the amount proposed in the budget for 
                appropriation and for expenditure because of 
                the proposal in [the fiscal year] each fiscal 
                year in the biennium for which the budget is 
                submitted; and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (13) an allowance for additional estimated 
        expenditures and proposed appropriations for [the 
        fiscal year] each fiscal year in the biennium for which 
        the budget is submitted.
            (14) an allowance for unanticipated uncontrollable 
        expenditures for [that year] each fiscal year in the 
        biennium for which the budget is submitted.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (16) the level of tax expenditures under existing 
        law in the tax expenditures budget (as defined in 
        section 3(a)(3) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 
        (2 U.S.C. 622(a)(3)) for [the fiscal year] each fiscal 
        year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted, 
        considering projected economic factors and changes in 
        the existing levels based on proposals in the budget.
            (17) information on estimates of appropriations for 
        [the fiscal year following the fiscal year] each fiscal 
        year in the biennium following the biennium for which 
        the budget is submitted for grants, contracts, and 
        other payments under each program for which there is an 
        authorization of appropriations for [that following 
        fiscal year] each such fiscal year when the 
        appropriations are authorized to be included in an 
        appropriation law for the [fiscal year before the 
        fiscal year] biennium before the biennium in which the 
        appropriation is to be available for obligation.
            (18) a comparison of the total amount of budget 
        outlays for [the prior fiscal year] each of the 2 most 
        recently completed fiscal years, estimated in the 
        budget submitted [for that year] with respect to those 
        fiscal years, for each major program having relatively 
        uncontrollable outlays with the total amount of outlays 
        for that program [in that year] in those fiscal years.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (28) [beginning with fiscal year 1999, a] beginning 
        with fiscal year 2017, a biennial Federal Government 
        performance plan for the overall budget as provided for 
        under section 1115.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            [(37)] (39) the list of plans and reports, as 
        provided for under section 1125, that agencies 
        identified for elimination or consolidation because the 
        plans and reports are determined outdated or 
        duplicative of other required plans and reports.
            (40) Totals of new budget authority and outlays.
            (41) Total Federal revenues and the amount, if any, 
        by which the aggregate level of Federal revenues should 
        be increased or decreased by bills and resolutions to 
        be reported by the appropriate committees.
            (42) The surplus or deficit in the budget.
            (43) Subtotals of new budget authority and outlays 
        for nondefense discretionary spending, defense 
        discretionary spending, direct spending (excluding 
        interest), contingencies, and net interest.
            (44) The public debt.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (b) Estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for 
the legislative branch and the judicial branch to be included 
in each budget under subsection (a)(5) of this section shall be 
submitted to the President before October 16 of [each year] 
each even-numbered year and included in the budget by the 
President without change.
    (c) The President shall recommend in the budget appropriate 
action to meet an estimated deficiency when the estimated 
receipts for [the fiscal year for] each fiscal year in the 
biennium for which the budget is submitted (under laws in 
effect when the budget is submitted) and the estimated amounts 
in the Treasury at the end of the current fiscal year available 
for expenditure in [the fiscal year for] each fiscal year of 
the biennium, as the case may be, which the budget is 
submitted, are less than the estimated expenditures for [that 
year] for each year of the biennium. The President shall make 
recommendations required by the public interest when the 
estimated receipts and estimated amounts in the Treasury are 
more than the estimated expenditures.
    (d)(1) When the President submits a budget or supporting 
information about a budget, the President shall include a 
statement on all changes about the current fiscal year that 
were made before the budget or information was submitted.
    (2) Each budget submission shall include a budget message 
and summary and supporting information and, as a separately 
delineated statement, the levels requires in paragraphs (40) 
through (44) of subsection (a) for at least each of the 4 
ensuing fiscal years after the biennium covered by the budget 
submission under such subsection.
    (e)(1) The President shall submit with materials related to 
each budget transmitted under subsection (a) on or after 
January 1, 1985, an analysis for the [ensuing fiscal year] 
biennium to which such budget relates that shall identify 
requested appropriations or new obligational authority and 
outlays for each major program that may be classified as a 
public civilian capital investment program and for each major 
program that may be classified as a military capital investment 
program, and shall contain summaries of the total amount of 
such appropriations or new obligational authority and outlays 
for public civilian capital investment programs and summaries 
of the total amount of such appropriations or new obligational 
authority and outlays for military capital investment programs. 
In addition, the analysis under this paragraph shall contain--
            (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1106. Supplemental budget estimates and changes

    (a) Before July 16 of each year and before February 1 of 
each even-numbered year, the President shall submit to Congress 
a supplemental summary of the budget for the [fiscal year] 
biennium for which the budget is submitted under section 
1105(a) of this title. The summary shall include--
            (1) for [that fiscal year] each fiscal year in such 
        biennium--
                    (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (2) for the [4 fiscal years following the fiscal 
        year] at least 4 fiscal years following the biennium 
        for which the budget is submitted, information on 
        estimated expenditures for programs authorized to 
        continue in future years, or that are considered 
        mandatory, under law; and
            (3) for future fiscal years, information on 
        estimated expenditures of balances carried over from 
        the [fiscal year] biennium for which the budget is 
        submitted.
    (b) Before July 16 of each year and before February 15 of 
each even-numbered year, the President shall submit to Congress 
a statement of changes in budget authority requested, estimated 
budget outlays, and estimated receipts for [the fiscal year] 
each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is 
submitted (including prior changes proposed for the executive 
branch of the Government) that the President decides are 
necessary and appropriate based on current information. The 
statement shall include the effect of those changes on the 
information submitted under section 1105(a)(1)-(14) and (b) of 
this title and shall include supporting information as 
practicable. The statement submitted before July 16 may be 
included in the information submitted under subsection (a)(1) 
of this section.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1109. Current programs and activities estimates

    (a) [On or before the first Monday after January 3 of each 
year (on or before February 5 in 1986)] At the same time the 
budget required by section 1105 is submitted for a biennium, 
the President shall submit to both Houses of Congress the 
estimated budget outlays and proposed budget authority that 
would be included in the budget for [the following fiscal year] 
each fiscal year of such period if programs and activities of 
the United States Government were carried on during that year 
at the same level as the current fiscal year without a change 
in policy. The President shall state the estimated budget 
outlays and proposed budget authority by function and 
subfunction under the classifications in the budget summary 
table under the heading ``Budget Authority and Outlays by 
Function and Agency'', by major programs in each function, and 
by agency. The President also shall include a statement of the 
economic and program assumptions on which those budget outlays 
and budget authority are based, including inflation, real 
economic growth, and unemployment rates, program caseloads, and 
pay increases.
    (b) The Joint Economic Committee shall review the estimated 
budget outlays and proposed budget authority and submit an 
economic evaluation of the budget outlays and budget authority 
to the Committees on the Budget of both Houses [before March 1 
of each year] within 6 weeks of the President's budget 
submission for each odd-numbered year.

Sec. 1110. Year-ahead requests for authorizing legislation

    A request to enact legislation authorizing new budget 
authority to continue a program or activity for a fiscal year 
shall be submitted to Congress before [May 16] March 31 of the 
[year before the year in which the fiscal year begins] calendar 
year preceding the calendar year in which the biennium begins. 
If a new program or activity will continue for more than one 
year, the request must be submitted for at least the first and 
2d fiscal years.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1115. Federal Government and agency performance plans

    (a) Federal Government Performance Plans.--In carrying out 
the provisions of section 1105(a)(28), the Director of the 
Office of Management and Budget shall coordinate with agencies 
to develop the Federal Government performance plan. In addition 
to the submission of such plan with each budget of the United 
States Government, the Director of the Office of Management and 
Budget shall ensure that all information required by this 
subsection is concurrently made available on the website 
provided under section 1122 and updated periodically, but no 
less than annually. The Federal Government performance plan 
shall--
            (1) establish Federal Government performance goals 
        to define the level of performance to be achieved 
        during the year in which the plan is submitted and the 
        next fiscal year for each of the Federal Government 
        priority goals required under section 1120(a) of this 
        title;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (5) establish clearly defined quarterly milestones; 
        [and]
            (6)identify major management challenges that are 
        Governmentwide or crosscutting in nature and describe 
        plans to address such challenges, including relevant 
        performance goals, performance indicators, and 
        milestones[.];  and
            (7) cover each fiscal year of the biennium 
        beginning with the first fiscal year of the next 
        biennial budget cycle.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Treatment of Program Activities.--For the purpose of 
complying with this section, an agency may aggregate, 
disaggregate, or consolidate program activities, except that 
any aggregation or consolidation may not omit or minimize the 
significance of any program activity constituting a major 
function or operation for the agency.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (f) Inherently Governmental Functions The functions and 
activities of this section shall be considered to be inherently 
governmental functions. The drafting of performance plans under 
this section shall be performed only by Federal employees.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1119. Pilot projects for performance budgeting

    (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) No later than March 31, 2001, the Director of the 
Office of Management and Budget shall transmit a report to the 
President and to the Congress on the performance budgeting 
pilot projects which shall--
            (1) assess the feasibility and advisability of 
        including a performance budget as part of the [annual] 
        biennial budget submitted under section 1105;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) After receipt of the report required under subsection 
(d), the Congress may specify that a performance budget be 
submitted as part of the [annual] biennial budget submitted 
under section 1105.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBTITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 97--MISCELLANEOUS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 9703. Managerial accountability and flexibility

    (a) [Beginning with fiscal year 1999, the] Beginning with 
fiscal year 2017, the biennial performance plans required under 
section 1115 may include proposals to waive administrative 
procedural requirements and controls, including specification 
of personnel staffing levels, limitations on compensation or 
remuneration, and prohibitions or restrictions on funding 
transfers among budget object classification 20 and 
subclassifications 11, 12, 31, and 32 of each [annual] budget 
submitted under section 1105, in return for specific individual 
or organization accountability to achieve a performance goal. 
In preparing and submitting the performance plan under [section 
1105(a)(29)] section 1105(a)(28), the Director of the Office of 
Management and Budget shall review and may approve any proposed 
waivers. A waiver shall take effect at the beginning of the 
fiscal year for which the waiver is approved.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) A waiver shall be in effect for [one or] two years as 
specified by the Director of the Office of Management and 
Budget in approving the waiver. A waiver may be renewed for [a 
subsequent year] for a subsequent 2-year period. After a waiver 
has been in effect for [three] four consecutive years, the 
performance plan prepared under section 1115 may propose that a 
waiver, other than a waiver of limitations on compensation or 
remuneration, be made permanent.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                      TITLE 5, UNITED STATES CODE

PART I--THE AGENCIES GENERALLY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 3--POWERS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 306. Agency strategic plans

    (a) Not later than the first Monday in February of any year 
following the year in which the term of the President commences 
under section 101 of title 3, the head of each agency shall 
make available on the public website of the agency a strategic 
plan and notify the President and Congress of its availability. 
Such plan shall contain--
            (1) a comprehensive mission statement covering the 
        major functions and operations of the agency;
            (2) general goals and objectives, including 
        outcome-oriented goals, for the major functions and 
        operations of the agency;
            (3) a description of how any goals and objectives 
        contribute to the Federal Government priority goals 
        required by section 1120(a) of title 31;
            (4) a description of how the goals and objectives 
        are to be achieved, including--
                    (A) a description of the operational 
                processes, skills and technology, and the 
                human, capital, information, and other 
                resources required to achieve those goals and 
                objectives; and
                    (B) a description of how the agency is 
                working with other agencies to achieve its 
                goals and objectives as well as relevant 
                Federal Government priority goals;
            (5) a description of how the goals and objectives 
        incorporate views and suggestions obtained through 
        congressional consultations required under subsection 
        (d);
            (6) a description of how the performance goals 
        provided in the plan required by section 1115(a) of 
        title 31, including the agency priority goals required 
        by section 1120(b) of title 31, if applicable, 
        contribute to the general goals and objectives in the 
        strategic plan;
            (7) an identification of those key factors external 
        to the agency and beyond its control that could 
        significantly affect the achievement of the general 
        goals and objectives; and
            (8) a description of the program evaluations used 
        in establishing or revising general goals and 
        objectives, with a schedule for future program 
        evaluations to be conducted.
    (b) The strategic plan shall cover a period of not less 
than 4 years following the fiscal year in which the plan is 
submitted. As needed, the head of the agency may make 
adjustments to the strategic plan to reflect significant 
changes in the environment in which the agency is operating, 
with appropriate notification of Congress.
    (c) The performance plan required by section 1115(b) of 
title 31 shall be consistent with the agency's strategic plan. 
A performance plan may not be submitted for a fiscal year not 
covered by a current strategic plan under this section, 
including a strategic plan submitted by September 30, 2016, 
meeting the requirements of subsection (a).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                      TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
PART III--MODERNIZATION AND FISCAL ADMINISTRATION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 28--STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 2802. Strategic plans

    (a) No later than [September 30, 1997] September 30, 2016, 
the Postal Service shall submit to the President and the 
Congress a strategic plan for its program activities. Such plan 
shall contain--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (b) The strategic plan shall cover a period of not less 
than [five years forward] six years forward from the fiscal 
year in which it is submitted, and shall be updated and revised 
[at least every three years] at least every 4 years.
    (c) The performance plan required under section 2803 shall 
be consistent with the Postal Service's strategic plan, 
including a strategic plan submitted by September 30, 2016, 
meeting the requirements of subsection (a). A performance plan 
may not be submitted for a fiscal year not covered by a current 
strategic plan under this section.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 2803. Performance plans

    (a) The Postal Service shall prepare [an annual] a biennial 
performance plan covering each program activity set forth in 
the Postal Service budget, which shall be included in the 
comprehensive statement presented under section 2401(e) of this 
title. Such plan shall--
            (1) establish performance goals to define the level 
        of performance to be achieved by a program activity for 
        both years 1 and 2 of the biennial plan;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (5) provide a basis for comparing actual program 
        results with the established performance goals; [and]
            (6) describe the means to be used to verify and 
        validate measured values[.]; and
            (7) cover each fiscal year of the biennium 
        beginning with the first fiscal year of the next 
        biennial budget cycle.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                       Views of Committee Members

    Clause 2(l) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each committee to provide two days to 
Members of the committee to file Minority, additional, 
supplemental, or dissenting views and to include such views in 
the report on legislation considered by the committee. The 
following views were submitted:

              Additional Views from Messrs. Cole, Calvert,
                        McClintock, and Nunnelee

    Supporters of H.R. 1869 argue shifting to biennial 
budgeting would be a step in the right direction toward fixing 
a broken federal budget process. We strongly disagree. While 
well intentioned, biennial budgeting would make the budget, 
authorization and appropriations processes far worse.
    There is little doubt that the current budget process is 
dysfunctional. Every year Congress seems beset by the same 
problems--missed budget deadlines, delays, mounting debt, late 
appropriations bills, an inability to pass authorization bills, 
and runaway mandatory spending. The frustration of Members and 
our constituents is understandable. However, these problems are 
the result of deep political and policy differences over the 
appropriate level of spending, deficits, debt and the size and 
role of the federal government. To argue, as supporters of H.R. 
1869 do, that a shift to biennial budgeting would help avoid 
those problems strains credulity beyond belief. Shifting to a 
two year budget cycle would not make these problems disappear 
but would, at minimum, make them worse, since the stakes would 
be much higher.
    Biennial budgeting transfers significant powers away from 
Congress to the Executive Branch: it would empower bureaucrats. 
The current annual process requiring agency administrators to 
justify and defend their programs and budgets is a critical 
tool to evaluate how Federal programs are working and how 
taxpayer dollars are being expended. Under the existing, annual 
structure, if agency spending is inconsistent with 
Congressional intent, Congress can address the situation that 
year in the next appropriation. Under biennial budgeting, the 
legislative response to activities occurring in the first year 
of the budget would always be a year behind. It is therefore 
little surprise that Presidents and agency officials would like 
a free pass from annually being held accountable by the 
Congress.
    Proponents of biennial budgeting also argue that members 
and authorizing committees lack the time for oversight and that 
biennial budgeting would provide it; however, this is patently 
false. Most authorizing committees already perform effective 
oversight of the programs under their jurisdiction. The 
problems authorizers face is not a lack of time, it is getting 
their legislative bills through the political process, through 
the Congress and to the President. These are mainly political 
and policy challenges, not procedural ones or due to lack of 
oversight. Promises to the contrary, H.R. 1869 does nothing to 
change that and therefore the problems in the authorization 
process of getting work done will continue. Moreover the 
Appropriations Committee annually holds well over 100 budget 
and oversight hearings, including 150 such hearings during the 
FY 2014 cycle alone. The annual appropriations process serves 
as one of the most valuable oversight mechanisms available to 
Congress. Yet, under biennial budgeting this oversight would 
either not occur, or would lack teeth--it would be lost. 
Eliminating Congress's ability to regularly check executive 
action is a bad outcome for the taxpayer.
    Additionally, there is every reason to believe that the 
second year of the biennial budgeting cycle would be consumed 
by frequent supplemental appropriations bills and other 
adjustments that would grow spending and otherwise make 
statutory caps and budget resolution targets meaningless. Even 
under an annual system, making precise projections about agency 
needs is difficult. Under the current annual cycle, the 
formulation of the President's budget begins 15 to 20 months 
prior to the beginning of the fiscal year for which funding 
decisions will be made and as a result projections of outlays, 
revenues, and estimates frequently are wrong. And the further 
out you go with projections and estimates, the less reliable 
they become. Since the time lag between initial forecasts and 
actual budget execution creates difficulties even in an annual 
process, it is difficult to conceive how extending the budget 
lead time to 27 or 30 months would enhance the reliability or 
quality of the estimates, improve the capacity of Congress and 
the Executive Branch to foresee future needs, make decisions, 
or eliminate unanticipated funding requirements.
    Also, it is often cited by supporters of biennial budgeting 
that many states use a two-year budget process and therefore 
that model would work at the federal level. But this is, at 
best, a poor analogy. The federal government is not a state. It 
fulfills numerous functions no state can or should: It serves a 
population of well over 300 million people, provides for the 
national defense on a global basis, conducts international 
relations, supports an economic system that helps drive the 
global economy, and provides transfer payments to individuals 
for retirement, among other activities. Also, the number of 
states using a biennial budgeting system has been steadily 
declining since the 1940s, with the majority of states now 
using an annual process. According to the National Conference 
on State Legislatures, in 1940 forty-four states enacted a 
biennial budget. Only 19 do so now.
    The one area of the budget process that should be looked at 
in greater detail is the Budget Resolution process, the primary 
responsibility of this committee. For unlike with 
appropriations bills which always get done, if late or in the 
form of a continuing resolution, the track record for budget 
resolutions is dismal.
     In the last 5 fiscal years (FY2010-FY2014), 
Congress has failed to agree to a budget resolution conference 
report every single year, a 100 percent failure rate.
     In the last 10 fiscal years (FY2005-FY2014), 
Congress has failed to agree to a budget resolution conference 
report 100 percent of the time.
     In fact, according to the Congressional Research 
Service, Congress has met the budget resolution deadline only 
six times since 1974, the last time being in FY2003.
    If the House and Senate are unable to get out of the gates 
and agree to a fiscal plan and, as has been the case in recent 
years, instead rely on different and frequently unrealistic 
budget goals, it compounds the difficulties for the 
authorization and appropriations processes and helps create the 
delays and missed deadlines that frustrate Members and our 
constituents.
    Unfortunately, we do not agree with the majority of this 
committee that a shift to biennial budgeting will solve any of 
the problems that now plague the budget process or improve the 
authorization or appropriations processes. We believe a change 
to biennial budgeting would undermine Congresses' 
constitutional power of the purse and strengthen unelected 
agency bureaucrats; would weaken oversight across the board; 
would make decisions based on even more error-prone estimates; 
and would likely lead to increased spending--a view of biennial 
budgeting, it is worth noting, shared by previous Chairman of 
the House Budget Committee when they served in this body, 
including Chairman Nussle and Chairman Spratt. We look forward 
to working with you on reforms to the budget process that 
provide real solutions while preserving Congress's 
constitutional role.

                                   Tom Cole,
                                   Ken Calvert,
                                   Tom McClintock,
                                   Alan Nunnelee,
                                     Members of Congress.