H. Rept. 113-40 - 113th Congress (2013-2014)
April 16, 2013, As Reported by the Oversight and Government Reform Committee

Report text available as:

Formatting necessary for an accurate reading of this legislative text may be shown by tags (e.g., <DELETED> or <BOLD>) or may be missing from this TXT display. For complete and accurate display of this text, see the PDF.




House Report 113-40 - FEDERAL INFORMATION SECURITY AMENDMENTS ACT OF 2013




[House Report 113-40]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]


113th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     113-40

======================================================================



 
          FEDERAL INFORMATION SECURITY AMENDMENTS ACT OF 2013

                                _______
                                

 April 16, 2013.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Issa, from the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1163]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 1163) to amend chapter 35 of title 
44, United States Code, to revise requirements relating to 
Federal information security, and for other purposes, having 
considered the same, report favorably thereon with an amendment 
and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.
    The amendment (stated in terms of the page and line numbers 
of the introduced bill) is as follows:
  Page 26, line 17, strike ``subsections (a)(2) and (e)(5)'' 
and insert ``subsection (a)(2)''.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................     2
Section-by-Section...............................................     6
Explanation of Amendments........................................     7
Committee Consideration..........................................     7
Correspondence...................................................     8
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................    14
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................    14
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............    14
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    14
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    14
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................    14
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................    14
Earmark Identification...........................................    15
Committee Estimate...............................................    15
Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate...    15
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill as Reported.............    17

                     Committee Statement and Views


                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The Federal Information Security Amendments Act of 2013 
(H.R. 1163) enhances the Federal Information Security 
Management Act of 2002 (FISMA) by improving the framework for 
securing federal information technology systems. It also 
establishes a mechanism for stronger oversight of information 
technology systems by focusing on ``automated and continuous 
monitoring'' of cybersecurity threats and regular ``threat 
assessments.'' The severity and nature of the threat 
necessitates these changes, to enhance ``real-time'' cyber-
security. Although these changes are now being implemented in 
some form by agencies, it is important that Congress codify a 
requirement that agencies Government-wide continue progressing 
toward the achievement of real time or near-real time automated 
and continuous monitoring of federal information technology 
systems.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

The nature of cybersecurity threats

    Cybersecurity threats represent one of the most serious 
national security, public safety, and economic challenges 
confronting our nation. These threats range from individual 
criminal hackers to organized criminal groups, from terrorist 
networks to advanced nation states. These types of threat 
appear likely to remain prevalent for years. The federal 
government must respond, then, by rapidly increasing its 
ability to defend against them. The President himself has 
acknowledged the existing deficit, stating recently that, 
``Cybersecurity . . . [is] a challenge that we as a government 
or as a country are not adequately prepared to counter.''\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative, President 
Obama, Mar. 2, 2010.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    During the past few years, cybersecurity risks have 
continued to rapidly evolve and increase in both frequency and 
sophistication. On January 31, 2012, Robert S. Mueller, III, 
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), 
testified before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence 
that ``stopping terrorists is the number one priority [for the 
United States], but down the road, the cyber threat will be the 
number one threat to the country.''\2\ On July 28, 2010, 
Director Mueller testified before the Senate Judiciary 
Committee that the FBI found a 22 percent increase in 
cybersecurity breaches, with ``more than 330,000 complaints 
involving more than $550 million in losses.''\3\ Just as 
troubling, in October 2011, the Government Accountability 
Office found that security incidents among 24 key agencies had 
increased more than 650% during the last five years.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\Testimony, Robert S. Mueller, III, Director, Federal Bureau of 
Investigations, Senate Select Intelligence Committee hearing, 
``Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community,'' Jan. 
31, 2012.
    \3\Testimony, Robert S. Mueller, III, Director, Federal Bureau of 
Investigations, Senate Committee on the Judiciary hearing, ``Oversight 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation,'' Jul. 28, 2010.
    \4\See, ``Information Security: Weaknesses Continue Amid New 
Federal Efforts to Implement Requirements,'' GAO-12-137, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office, Oct. 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Today, cybersecurity threats pose serious risks not only to 
the government, but also to private companies. Cyber criminals 
now target private firms in the finance, energy, and 
telecommunications industries, among others, seeking economic 
benefits and sometimes military advantages. For example, cyber 
criminals recently hacked Global Payments, a credit card, debit 
and gift card-processing firm for Visa and MasterCard, 
obtaining 1.5 million card numbers.\5\ Online retailer 
Zappos.com experienced a cybersecurity breach, ultimately 
endangering personally identifiable information from more than 
24 million customers.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\``Global Payments Breach Details Fuzzy: 2 Weeks Later, Questions 
About Timing, Vulnerabilities Remain,'' Tracy Kitten, GovInfoSecurity, 
April 13, 2012; See also, http://www.govinfosecurity.com/global-
payments-breach-details-fuzzy-a-4678 (last visited March 18, 2013).
    \6\``Zappos Cyber Attack: ID Info Hacked,'' David Li, NYPOST, Jan. 
17, 2012; See also, http://www.nypost.com/p/news/national/
zappos_cyber_attack_pWsrU60crm8SGHJWYGuP7K (last visited April 18, 
2012).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002

    The Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 
(FISMA) was introduced by Rep. Tom Davis (R-VA) on March 5, 
2002, in order to create a framework to protect federal 
information systems. FISMA became Title III of the E-Government 
Act of 2002, P.L. No. 107-347, addressing electronic government 
services, and was signed into law by President George W. Bush 
on December 17, 2002. The primary purpose of FISMA was to 
``provide for [the] development and maintenance of minimum 
controls required to protect federal information and 
information systems.''\7\ In doing so, FISMA established that 
each federal agency would develop and implement an agency-wide 
program to provide information security for the information 
systems that support that agency.\8\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\The Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA).
    \8\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Additionally, FISMA authorized the Director of the Office 
of Management and Budget to oversee federal agency information 
security policies and practices. This oversight included 
requiring each federal agency to ``identify and provide 
information security protections commensurate with the risk and 
magnitude of harm resulting from the unauthorized use, 
disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of 
information or information systems.''\9\ In addition to 
delegating responsibility to OMB, FISMA directed the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to set security 
compliance standards for federal information systems.\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \9\See, FISMA.
    \10\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Since its enactment, however, FISMA has become a compliance 
activity, where all too often ``check-the-box'' compliance has 
taken precedence over security enhancement. To ensure that 
FISMA focuses on ``real-time'' threats and incorporates 
technological developments occurring in the decade since its 
enactment, H.R. 1163 was introduced. To address the increasing 
security breaches highlighted by the aforementioned GAO study, 
H.R. 1163 requires automated and continuous monitoring, when 
possible, and regular threat assessments.
    The Committee recognizes that some federal information 
systems may be operated by vendors and service providers that 
also operate commercial non-government information systems on 
the same IT architecture. In the development of continuous 
monitoring methods, the Committee expects OMB to ensure that 
agencies responsible for the operational aspects of FISMA 
implementation use processes and the latest and most effective 
methodologies and industry best practices that sufficiently 
protect the privacy and security of their non-government 
customer-specific data.

The Office of Management and Budget Circular M-10-28

    On July 6, 2010, OMB issued Memorandum M-10-28, 
transferring many of its federal information security roles and 
responsibilities to the Department of Homeland Security. 
Individual agencies, however, are historically hesitant, often 
unwilling, to respond to the demands of another agency. 
Agencies tend to view themselves as being on equal footing 
within the broad government bureaucracy. Therefore, to maintain 
the budgetary leverage of the Executive Office of the President 
in ensuring FISMA compliance, H.R. 1163 reaffirms the current 
role of OMB in overseeing effective security over information 
technology systems. This will help ensure that all agencies 
attain high standards of FISMA compliance.
    The legislation, however, continues to allow DHS--under the 
direction of OMB--to exercise responsibility within the 
Executive Branch for many of the operational aspects of FISMA. 
OMB will continue to be held firmly accountable for ensuring 
that individual agencies meet the new standards. Nothing in 
this legislation is intended to change the existing structure 
of operational roles executed by OMB, DHS, and other agencies 
in the implementation of FISMA compliance measures. Rather, it 
is intended to reaffirm OMB's supervisory and standard-setting 
role with respect to FISMA.

The Federal Information Security Amendments Act of 2013

    To address the shortcomings of FISMA, H.R. 1163 updates and 
amends the activities required to secure federal information 
systems. It establishes a mechanism for improved oversight of 
federal agency information security programs and systems 
through a focus on automated and continuous monitoring of 
agency information systems, when possible, and through the 
conducting of regular threat assessments.
    This bill gives responsibility to individual agencies 
required to adhere to FISMA standards. Each agency is made 
responsible for providing information security protections from 
a ``risk based model'' providing security from harms resulting 
from ``unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
modification, or destruction of information collected or 
maintained by an agency.''\11\ The head of each agency is also 
charged with designating a Chief Information Security Officer 
with the authority and primary responsibility to develop, 
implement and oversee an agency-wide information security 
program, to ensure and enforce compliance with the requirements 
imposed on the agency. Each agency head must ensure that the 
agency has a sufficient number of trained and cleared personnel 
to assist in complying with the statute. In ensuring an 
adequately trained workforce, agencies may utilize existing 
government cyberspace technical centers of excellence for 
purposes of training and certification attainment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \11\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Under H.R. 1163, each agency is directed to develop, 
document, and implement an agency-wide information security 
program that includes a system that involves automated and 
continuous monitoring. Each agency is also directed to conduct 
vulnerability assessments and penetration tests commensurate 
with the risk posed to agency information systems.
    Moreover, the legislation highlights the need for a 
stronger public/private relationship, by emphasizing the 
importance of commercially developed information security 
products to national security. The bill has received strong 
support from cybersecurity experts and industry.

Oversight hearings on cybersecurity

    During this Congress, the House Oversight and Government 
Reform Committee has thoroughly examined a broad range of 
cybersecurity-related matters. On May 25, 2011, the 
Subcommittee on National Security, Homeland Defense, and 
Foreign Operations held a hearing entitled, ``Cybersecurity: 
Assessing the Immediate Threat to the United States,'' at which 
cyber-related intrusions and threats were broadly examined, and 
discussed as being among the greatest threats to our national 
security.
    The full committee held a hearing on July 7, 2011, 
entitled, ``Cybersecurity: Assessing the Nation's Ability to 
Address the Growing Cyber Threat,'' which examined cyber 
threats and the importance of a well-coordinated strategic 
cybersecurity partnership with the private sector.
    Throughout its review of cybersecurity policies, the 
Committee placed great emphasis on obtaining input from non-
government entities, which also confront significant cyber 
threats. According to experts, eighty-five to ninety percent of 
U.S. Government cyber traffic travels over non-government 
networks. Consequently, any policy initiatives must recognize 
the operating role of the private sector. Due to the potential 
impact of cyber attacks against government and non-government 
systems, private and public sectors must work together closely 
in addressing such threats.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    On March 14, 2012, Chairman Issa introduced the ``Federal 
Information Security Amendments Act of 2013'' (H.R. 1163), with 
Ranking Member Cummings, Subcommittee on Government Operations 
Chairman Mica and Subcommittee on Government Operations Ranking 
Member Connolly as original cosponsors. On March 20, 2013, it 
was ordered to be reported, by voice vote. Legislation that 
attempted to amend FISMA preceded H.R 1163 during the 112th 
Congress. On March 26, 2012, Chairman Issa introduced the 
``Federal Information Security Amendments Act of 2012'' (H.R. 
4257), with Ranking Member Cummings as original cosponsor. On 
April 18, 2012, H.R. 4257 was ordered to be reported (as 
amended), by voice vote. The House of Representatives passed 
H.R. 4257 on April 26, 2012, by voice vote. The Senate did not 
act on the legislation.
    In addition, legislation that attempted to amend FISMA 
preceded H.R 1163 during the 111th Congress. On March 22, 2010, 
Rep. Watson introduced the ``Federal Information Security 
Amendments Act of 2010,'' (H.R. 4900) which intended to update 
FISMA. On May 20, 2010, Rep. Watson's bill was ordered to be 
reported (as amended), by voice vote, by the House Oversight 
and Government Reform Committee. On May 6, 2010, Rep. Langevin 
(D-RI) introduced the ``Executive Cyberspace Authorities Act of 
2010,'' (H.R. 5247) which included amendments to FISMA and was 
referred to the House Oversight and Government Reform 
Committee. On May 28, 2010, the House passed the National 
Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which included an amendment, 
offered by Rep. Watson and Rep. Langevin, to update FISMA. The 
amendment in the NDAA, however, did not survive conference.

                           Section-by-Section


Sec. 1. Short title

    This section cites the Act as the ``Federal Information 
Security Amendments Act of 2013.''

Sec. 2. Coordination of Federal information policy

    Sec. 2 amends chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code, 
to revise requirements relating to Federal information 
security, striking subchapters II and III and inserting the 
following new subchapter:

Subchapter II--Information Security

Sec. 3551. Purposes

    The subchapter provides for the development and maintenance 
of minimum controls required to protect Federal information and 
information systems.

Sec. 3552. Definitions

    This section defines the following terms for the purposes 
of this subchapter: adequate security, automated and continuous 
monitoring, incident, information systems, information 
security, information technology, national security system, 
information system, and threat assessment.

Sec. 3553. Authority and functions of the Director

    Section 3553(a) authorizes the Director of the Office of 
Management and Budget to oversee agency information security 
policies and practices, including requiring agencies to 
identify and provide information security protections 
commensurate with the risk and magnitude of the harm resulting 
from the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
modification, or destruction of information collected or 
information systems.

Sec. 3554. Agency responsibilities

    Section 3554(a) directs the head of each agency to: ensure 
that senior agency officials provide information security for 
the information and information systems that support the 
operations and assets under their control; and ensure that the 
Chief Information Security Officer reports periodically, but 
not less than annually, to the agency head on the effectiveness 
of the agency information security program, along with 
information derived from automated and continuous monitoring, 
when possible, and threat assessments, including progress of 
remedial actions.
    Section 3554(b) directs each agency to develop, document, 
and implement an agency-wide information security program that 
includes: automated and continuous monitoring, when possible; 
automated and continuous monitoring, when possible for testing, 
and evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of 
information security policies, procedures, and practices; and 
automated and continuous monitoring, when possible, for 
detecting, reporting, and responding to security incidents, 
consistent with standards and guidelines issued by the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology, to include notifying 
and, as appropriate, consulting with law enforcement agencies, 
relevant Offices of Inspectors General, and any other agency, 
office or entity, in accordance with the law or as directed by 
the President.

Sec. 3555. Federal information security incident center

    Section 3555 directs the Director to ensure the operation 
of a central Federal information security incident center.

Sec. 3556. National security systems

    Section 3556 makes responsible the head of each agency 
operating or exercising control of a national security system 
to ensure that the agency: (1) provides information security 
protections commensurate with the risk and magnitude of the 
harm resulting from the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
disruption, modification, or destruction of the information 
contained in such system; and (2) implements information 
security policies and practices as required by standards and 
guidelines for national security systems, issued in accordance 
with law and as directed by the President.

Sec. 3. Technical and conforming amendments

    Subsection (a) adds a table of sections in Title 44--
Information Security. Subsection (b) references other sections 
of related bills, including the Homeland Security Act of 2002, 
the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act, and the 
Cybersecurity Research and Development Act.

Sec. 4. No additional funds authorized

    Sec. 4 states that no additional funds are authorized to 
carry out this Act.

Sec. 5. Effective date

    Sec. 5 states that the Act shall take effect 30 days after 
the date of enactment of the Act.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    No amendments were offered to H.R. 1163.

                        Committee Consideration

    On March 20, 2013, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, H.R. 1163, by voice vote, 
a quorum being present.
<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill enhances the Federal Information Security Management 
Act of 2002 by improving the framework for securing federal 
information technology systems. As such this bill does not 
relate to employment or access to public services and 
accommodations.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
2(b)(1) of Rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
the Committee's oversight findings and recommendations are 
reflected in the descriptive portions of this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee's performance 
goals and objectives are reflected in the descriptive portions 
of this report.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 1163 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    H.R. 1163 requires the Director of the Office of Management 
and Budget to develop policies, principles, standards, and 
guidelines on information security. The bill also requires the 
head of each agency to delegate to the Chief Information 
Officer, or equivalent, the authority to develop, implement, 
and oversee an agency-wide information security program to 
ensure and enforce compliance with the requirements imposed on 
the agency under Chapter 35 of Title 44. Further, the 
legislation provides that each agency shall develop, document, 
and implement an agency-wide information security program to 
include developing, maintaining, and overseeing information 
security policies, procedures, and control techniques.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not establish 
or authorize the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b).

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandates Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 1163 does not include any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of Rule XXI.

                           Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs that would be incurred in carrying out 
H.R. 1163. However, clause 3(d)(3)(B) of that rule provides 
that this requirement does not apply when the Committee has 
included in its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the 
bill prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act.

           Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office 
                             Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has received 
the following cost estimate for H.R. 1163 from the Director of 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, April 12, 2013.
Hon. Darrell Issa,
Chairman, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1163, the Federal 
Information Security Amendments Act of 2013.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Matthew 
Pickford.
            Sincerely,
                                              Douglas W. Elmendorf.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 1163--Federal Information Security Amendments Act of 2013

    Summary: H.R. 1163 would amend the Federal Information 
Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA) to improve the security 
of federal information technology systems. The legislation 
would require continuous monitoring of computer systems and 
would provide the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 
other federal agencies with specific new responsibilities to 
secure federal information systems. The bill states that no 
additional funds are authorized to implement the legislation 
beyond those already authorized or appropriated.
    Based on information from the Department of Homeland 
Security (DHS), OMB, and other major agencies working to ensure 
the security of federal information systems, CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 1163 would cost $620 million over the 2014-
2018 period, assuming that the necessary amounts are made 
available from appropriated funds. Most of those funds would be 
spent on salaries, expenses, and computer hardware and 
software. Enacting the bill would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    H.R. 1163 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 1163 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 800 
(general government) and all other budget functions that 
include spending for computer information systems.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2014      2015      2016      2017      2018    2014-2018
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Estimated Authorization Level......................        70       120       135       150       170        645
Estimated Outlays..................................        60       115       130       150       165        620
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
bill will be enacted in late fiscal year 2013, that the 
necessary amounts will be made available each year, and that 
spending will follow historical patterns for salaries and 
expenses related to securing federal information systems.
    FISMA sets forth a comprehensive framework for ensuring 
that security controls for information resources that support 
federal operations and assets are effective. Specifically, 
FISMA requires the head of each federal agency to provide 
protections commensurate with the risk and magnitude of harm 
that would result from the unauthorized access, use, 
disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of the 
information and systems used or operated by that agency.
    OMB reports that in 2012, 24 federal agencies (all those 
that have appointed Chief Financial Officers) spent more than 
$15 billion on security for information technology. That 
security spending accounts for about 20 percent of all federal 
spending on information technology and includes spending for 
testing, training, equipment, and personnel costs. Inspectors 
General reviews of federal agencies' compliance with 
information security requirements note that compliance has 
increased over the 2011-2012 period. However, almost 30 percent 
of agencies do not have continuous monitoring programs in 
place.
    H.R. 1163 would expand the requirements in FISMA to 
strengthen and coordinate security controls for computer 
systems across federal agencies. Some of those new requirements 
include establishing uniform standards; implementing automated, 
continuous monitoring of systems to secure information; 
conducting threat assessments; and maintaining secure 
facilities. Based on information from OMB, DHS, and other 
agencies, CBO estimates that when fully implemented, the new 
activities specified in H.R. 1163 would add about 1 percent--
roughly $150 million a year--to the annual cost of implementing 
FISMA. CBO expects that it would take about four years to reach 
that level of effort for the thousands of federal computer 
systems currently operating. Over the 2014-2018 period, we 
estimate that implementing those additional requirements and 
authorities would cost about $620 million, assuming 
appropriation of the necessary amounts.
    When a bill would impose a new requirement on an agency 
(such as acquiring equipment, preparing a plan, or completing a 
study), complying with that new requirement generally would 
entail the use of resources, and the cost of carrying out that 
requirement would be the amount of resources used. Even though 
H.R. 1163 specifies that additional funds are not authorized 
for the purposes of implementing the bill, CBO expects that 
agencies would need to spend appropriated resources to 
implement those new activities, and in the absence of 
additional appropriations, would spend funds that would 
otherwise have been spent to carry out other agency 
responsibilities.
    Pay-as-you-go considerations: None.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 1163 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would impose no costs on state, local, or 
tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Matthew Pickford; 
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Elizabeth Cove 
Delisle; Impact on the Private Sector: Paige Piper/Bach.
    Estimate approved by: Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

               CHAPTER 35 OF TITLE 44, UNITED STATES CODE


CHAPTER 35--COORDINATION OF FEDERAL INFORMATION POLICY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                  [SUBCHAPTER II--INFORMATION SECURITY

[3551. Purposes.
[3532. Definitions.
[3533. Authority and functions of the Director.
[3534. Federal agency responsibilities.
[3535. Annual independent evaluation.
[3536. National security systems.
[3537. Authorization of appropriations.
[3538. Effect on existing law.

                  [SUBCHAPTER III--INFORMATION SECURITY

[3541. Purposes.
[3542. Definitions.
[3543. Authority and functions of the Director.
[3544. Federal agency responsibilities.
[3545. Annual independent evaluation.
[3546. Federal information security incident center.
[3547. National security systems.
[3548. Authorization of appropriations.
[3549. Effect on existing law.]

                   SUBCHAPTER II--INFORMATION SECURITY

Sec.
3551. Purposes.
3552. Definitions.
3553. Authority and functions of the Director.
3554. Agency responsibilities.
3555. Federal information security incident center.
3556. National security systems.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                  [SUBCHAPTER II--INFORMATION SECURITY

[Sec. 3531. Purposes

  [The purposes of this subchapter are to--
          [(1) provide a comprehensive framework for ensuring 
        the effectiveness of information security controls over 
        information resources that support Federal operations 
        and assets;
          [(2) recognize the highly networked nature of the 
        current Federal computing environment and provide 
        effective governmentwide management and oversight of 
        the related information security risks, including 
        coordination of information security efforts throughout 
        the civilian, national security, and law enforcement 
        communities;
          [(3) provide for development and maintenance of 
        minimum controls required to protect Federal 
        information and information systems;
          [(4) provide a mechanism for improved oversight of 
        Federal agency information security programs;
          [(5) acknowledge that commercially developed 
        information security products offer advanced, dynamic, 
        robust, and effective information security solutions, 
        reflecting market solutions for the protection of 
        critical information infrastructures important to the 
        national defense and economic security of the nation 
        that are designed, built, and operated by the private 
        sector; and
          [(6) recognize that the selection of specific 
        technical hardware and software information security 
        solutions should be left to individual agencies from 
        among commercially developed products.

[Sec. 3532. Definitions

  [(a) In General.--Except as provided under subsection (b), 
the definitions under section 3502 shall apply to this 
subchapter.
  [(b) Additional Definitions.--As used in this subchapter--
          [(1) the term ``information security'' means 
        protecting information and information systems from 
        unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
        modification, or destruction in order to provide--
                  [(A) integrity, which means guarding against 
                improper information modification or 
                destruction, and includes ensuring information 
                nonrepudiation and authenticity;
                  [(B) confidentiality, which means preserving 
                authorized restrictions on access and 
                disclosure, including means for protecting 
                personal privacy and proprietary information;
                  [(C) availability, which means ensuring 
                timely and reliable access to and use of 
                information; and
                  [(D) authentication, which means utilizing 
                digital credentials to assure the identity of 
                users and validate their access;
          [(2) the term ``national security system'' means any 
        information system (including any telecommunications 
        system) used or operated by an agency or by a 
        contractor of an agency, or other organization on 
        behalf of an agency, the function, operation, or use of 
        which--
                  [(A) involves intelligence activities;
                  [(B) involves cryptologic activities related 
                to national security;
                  [(C) involves command and control of military 
                forces;
                  [(D) involves equipment that is an integral 
                part of a weapon or weapons system; or
                  [(E) is critical to the direct fulfillment of 
                military or intelligence missions provided that 
                this definition does not apply to a system that 
                is used for routine administrative and business 
                applications (including payroll, finance, 
                logistics, and personnel management 
                applications);
          [(3) the term ``information technology'' has the 
        meaning given that term in section 11101 of title 40; 
        and
          [(4) the term ``information system'' means any 
        equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of 
        equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, 
        storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, 
        display, switching, interchange, transmission, or 
        reception of data or information, and includes--
                  [(A) computers and computer networks;
                  [(B) ancillary equipment;
                  [(C) software, firmware, and related 
                procedures;
                  [(D) services, including support services; 
                and
                  [(E) related resources.

[Sec. 3533. Authority and functions of the Director

  [(a) The Director shall oversee agency information security 
policies and practices, by--
          [(1) promulgating information security standards 
        under section 11331 of title 40;
          [(2) overseeing the implementation of policies, 
        principles, standards, and guidelines on information 
        security;
          [(3) requiring agencies, consistent with the 
        standards promulgated under such section 11331 and the 
        requirements of this subchapter, to identify and 
        provide information security protections commensurate 
        with the risk and magnitude of the harm resulting from 
        the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
        modification, or destruction of--
                  [(A) information collected or maintained by 
                or on behalf of an agency; or
                  [(B) information systems used or operated by 
                an agency or by a contractor of an agency or 
                other organization on behalf of an agency;
          [(4) coordinating the development of standards and 
        guidelines under section 20 of the National Institute 
        of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) with 
        agencies and offices operating or exercising control of 
        national security systems (including the National 
        Security Agency) to assure, to the maximum extent 
        feasible, that such standards and guidelines are 
        complementary with standards and guidelines developed 
        for national security systems;
          [(5) overseeing agency compliance with the 
        requirements of this subchapter, including through any 
        authorized action under section 11303(b)(5) of title 
        40, to enforce accountability for compliance with such 
        requirements;
          [(6) reviewing at least annually, and approving or 
        disapproving, agency information security programs 
        required under section 3534(b);
          [(7) coordinating information security policies and 
        procedures with related information resources 
        management policies and procedures; and
          [(8) reporting to Congress no later than March 1 of 
        each year on agency compliance with the requirements of 
        this subchapter, including--
                  [(A) a summary of the findings of evaluations 
                required by section 3535;
                  [(B) significant deficiencies in agency 
                information security practices;
                  [(C) planned remedial action to address such 
                deficiencies; and
                  [(D) a summary of, and the views of the 
                Director on, the report prepared by the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                under section 20(d)(9) of the National 
                Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 
                U.S.C. 278g-3).
  [(b) Except for the authorities described in paragraphs (4) 
and (7) of subsection (a), the authorities of the Director 
under this section shall not apply to national security 
systems.

[Sec. 3534. Federal agency responsibilities

  [(a) The head of each agency shall--
          [(1) be responsible for--
                  [(A) providing information security 
                protections commensurate with the risk and 
                magnitude of the harm resulting from 
                unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
                disruption, modification, or destruction of--
                          [(i) information collected or 
                        maintained by or on behalf of the 
                        agency; and
                          [(ii) information systems used or 
                        operated by an agency or by a 
                        contractor of an agency or other 
                        organization on behalf of an agency;
                  [(B) complying with the requirements of this 
                subchapter and related policies, procedures, 
                standards, and guidelines, including--
                          [(i) information security standards 
                        promulgated by the Director under 
                        section 11331 of title 40; and
                          [(ii) information security standards 
                        and guidelines for national security 
                        systems issued in accordance with law 
                        and as directed by the President; and
                  [(C) ensuring that information security 
                management processes are integrated with agency 
                strategic and operational planning processes;
          [(2) ensure that senior agency officials provide 
        information security for the information and 
        information systems that support the operations and 
        assets under their control, including through--
                  [(A) assessing the risk and magnitude of the 
                harm that could result from the unauthorized 
                access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
                modification, or destruction of such 
                information or information systems;
                  [(B) determining the levels of information 
                security appropriate to protect such 
                information and information systems in 
                accordance with standards promulgated under 
                section 11331 of title 40 for information 
                security classifications and related 
                requirements;
                  [(C) implementing policies and procedures to 
                cost-effectively reduce risks to an acceptable 
                level; and
                  [(D) periodically testing and evaluating 
                information security controls and techniques to 
                ensure that they are effectively implemented;
          [(3) delegate to the agency Chief Information Officer 
        established under section 3506 (or comparable official 
        in an agency not covered by such section) the authority 
        to ensure compliance with the requirements imposed on 
        the agency under this subchapter, including--
                  [(A) designating a senior agency information 
                security officer who shall--
                          [(i) carry out the Chief Information 
                        Officer's responsibilities under this 
                        section;
                          [(ii) possess professional 
                        qualifications, including training and 
                        experience, required to administer the 
                        functions described under this section;
                          [(iii) have information security 
                        duties as that official's primary duty; 
                        and
                          [(iv) head an office with the mission 
                        and resources to assist in ensuring 
                        agency compliance with this section;
                  [(B) developing and maintaining an agencywide 
                information security program as required by 
                subsection (b);
                  [(C) developing and maintaining information 
                security policies, procedures, and control 
                techniques to address all applicable 
                requirements, including those issued under 
                section 3533 of this title, and section 11331 
                of title 40;
                  [(D) training and overseeing personnel with 
                significant responsibilities for information 
                security with respect to such responsibilities; 
                and
                  [(E) assisting senior agency officials 
                concerning their responsibilities under 
                paragraph (2);
          [(4) ensure that the agency has trained personnel 
        sufficient to assist the agency in complying with the 
        requirements of this subchapter and related policies, 
        procedures, standards, and guidelines; and
          [(5) ensure that the agency Chief Information 
        Officer, in coordination with other senior agency 
        officials, reports annually to the agency head on the 
        effectiveness of the agency information security 
        program, including progress of remedial actions.
  [(b) Each agency shall develop, document, and implement an 
agencywide information security program, approved by the 
Director under section 3533(a)(5), to provide information 
security for the information and information systems that 
support the operations and assets of the agency, including 
those provided or managed by another agency, contractor, or 
other source, that includes--
          [(1) periodic assessments of the risk and magnitude 
        of the harm that could result from the unauthorized 
        access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or 
        destruction of information and information systems that 
        support the operations and assets of the agency;
          [(2) policies and procedures that--
                  [(A) are based on the risk assessments 
                required by paragraph (1);
                  [(B) cost-effectively reduce information 
                security risks to an acceptable level;
                  [(C) ensure that information security is 
                addressed throughout the life cycle of each 
                agency information system; and
                  [(D) ensure compliance with--
                          [(i) the requirements of this 
                        subchapter;
                          [(ii) policies and procedures as may 
                        be prescribed by the Director, and 
                        information security standards 
                        promulgated under section 11331 of 
                        title 40;
                          [(iii) minimally acceptable system 
                        configuration requirements, as 
                        determined by the agency; and
                          [(iv) any other applicable 
                        requirements, including standards and 
                        guidelines for national security 
                        systems issued in accordance with law 
                        and as directed by the President;
          [(3) subordinate plans for providing adequate 
        information security for networks, facilities, and 
        systems or groups of information systems, as 
        appropriate;
          [(4) security awareness training to inform personnel, 
        including contractors and other users of information 
        systems that support the operations and assets of the 
        agency, of--
                  [(A) information security risks associated 
                with their activities; and
                  [(B) their responsibilities in complying with 
                agency policies and procedures designed to 
                reduce these risks;
          [(5) periodic testing and evaluation of the 
        effectiveness of information security policies, 
        procedures, and practices, to be performed with a 
        frequency depending on risk, but no less than annually, 
        of which such testing--
                  [(A) shall include testing of management, 
                operational, and technical controls of every 
                information system identified in the inventory 
                required under section 3505(c); and
                  [(B) may include testing relied on in a 
                evaluation under section 3535;
          [(6) a process for planning, implementing, 
        evaluating, and documenting remedial action to address 
        any deficiencies in the information security policies, 
        procedures, and practices of the agency;
          [(7) procedures for detecting, reporting, and 
        responding to security incidents, including--
                  [(A) mitigating risks associated with such 
                incidents before substantial damage is done; 
                and
                  [(B) notifying and consulting with, as 
                appropriate--
                          [(i) law enforcement agencies and 
                        relevant Offices of Inspector General;
                          [(ii) an office designated by the 
                        President for any incident involving a 
                        national security system; and
                          [(iii) any other agency or office, in 
                        accordance with law or as directed by 
                        the President; and
          [(8) plans and procedures to ensure continuity of 
        operations for information systems that support the 
        operations and assets of the agency.
  [(c) Each agency shall--
          [(1) report annually to the Director, the Committees 
        on Government Reform and Science of the House of 
        Representatives, the Committees on Governmental Affairs 
        and Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate, the appropriate authorization and 
        appropriations committees of Congress, and the 
        Comptroller General on the adequacy and effectiveness 
        of information security policies, procedures, and 
        practices, and compliance with the requirements of this 
        subchapter, including compliance with each requirement 
        of subsection (b);
          [(2) address the adequacy and effectiveness of 
        information security policies, procedures, and 
        practices in plans and reports relating to--
                  [(A) annual agency budgets;
                  [(B) information resources management under 
                subchapter 1 of this chapter;
                  [(C) information technology management under 
                subtitle III of title 40;
                  [(D) program performance under sections 1105 
                and 1115 through 1119 of title 31, and sections 
                2801 and 2805 of title 39;
                  [(E) financial management under chapter 9 of 
                title 31, and the Chief Financial Officers Act 
                of 1990 (31 U.S.C. 501 note; Public Law 101-
                576) (and the amendments made by that Act);
                  [(F) financial management systems under the 
                Federal Financial Management Improvement Act 
                (31 U.S.C. 3512 note); and
                  [(G) internal accounting and administrative 
                controls under section 3512 of title 31, United 
                States Code, (known as the ``Federal Managers 
                Financial Integrity Act''); and
          [(3) report any significant deficiency in a policy, 
        procedure, or practice identified under paragraph (1) 
        or (2)--
                  [(A) as a material weakness in reporting 
                under section 3512 of title 31; and
                  [(B) if relating to financial management 
                systems, as an instance of a lack of 
                substantial compliance under the Federal 
                Financial Management Improvement Act (31 U.S.C. 
                3512 note).
  [(d)(1) In addition to the requirements of subsection (c), 
each agency, in consultation with the Director, shall include 
as part of the performance plan required under section 1115 of 
title 31 a description of--
          [(A) the time periods; and
          [(B) the resources, including budget, staffing, and 
        training,
that are necessary to implement the program required under 
subsection (b).
  [(2) The description under paragraph (1) shall be based on 
the risk assessments required under subsection (b)(2)(1).
  [(e) Each agency shall provide the public with timely notice 
and opportunities for comment on proposed information security 
policies and procedures to the extent that such policies and 
procedures affect communication with the public.

[Sec. 3535. Annual independent evaluation

  [(a)(1) Each year each agency shall have performed an 
independent evaluation of the information security program and 
practices of that agency to determine the effectiveness of such 
program and practices.
  [(2) Each evaluation by an agency under this section shall 
include--
          [(A) testing of the effectiveness of information 
        security policies, procedures, and practices of a 
        representative subset of the agency's information 
        systems;
          [(B) an assessment (made on the basis of the results 
        of the testing) of compliance with--
                  [(i) the requirements of this subchapter; and
                  [(ii) related information security policies, 
                procedures, standards, and guidelines; and
          [(C) separate presentations, as appropriate, 
        regarding information security relating to national 
        security systems.
  [(b) Subject to subsection (c)--
          [(1) for each agency with an Inspector General 
        appointed under the Inspector General Act of 1978 or 
        any other law, the annual evaluation required by this 
        section shall be performed by the Inspector General or 
        by an independent external auditor, as determined by 
        the Inspector General of the agency; and
          [(2) for each agency to which paragraph (1) does not 
        apply, the head of the agency shall engage an 
        independent external auditor to perform the evaluation.
  [(c) For each agency operating or exercising control of a 
national security system, that portion of the evaluation 
required by this section directly relating to a national 
security system shall be performed--
          [(1) only by an entity designated by the agency head; 
        and
          [(2) in such a manner as to ensure appropriate 
        protection for information associated with any 
        information security vulnerability in such system 
        commensurate with the risk and in accordance with all 
        applicable laws.
  [(d) The evaluation required by this section--
          [(1) shall be performed in accordance with generally 
        accepted government auditing standards; and
          [(2) may be based in whole or in part on an audit, 
        evaluation, or report relating to programs or practices 
        of the applicable agency.
  [(e) Each year, not later than such date established by the 
Director, the head of each agency shall submit to the Director 
the results of the evaluation required under this section.
  [(f) Agencies and evaluators shall take appropriate steps to 
ensure the protection of information which, if disclosed, may 
adversely affect information security. Such protections shall 
be commensurate with the risk and comply with all applicable 
laws and regulations.
  [(g)(1) The Director shall summarize the results of the 
evaluations conducted under this section in the report to 
Congress required under section 3533(a)(8).
  [(2) The Director's report to Congress under this subsection 
shall summarize information regarding information security 
relating to national security systems in such a manner as to 
ensure appropriate protection for information associated with 
any information security vulnerability in such system 
commensurate with the risk and in accordance with all 
applicable laws.
  [(3) Evaluations and any other descriptions of information 
systems under the authority and control of the Director of 
Central Intelligence or of National Foreign Intelligence 
Programs systems under the authority and control of the 
Secretary of Defense shall be made available to Congress only 
through the appropriate oversight committees of Congress, in 
accordance with applicable laws.
  [(h) The Comptroller General shall periodically evaluate and 
report to Congress on--
          [(1) the adequacy and effectiveness of agency 
        information security policies and practices; and
          [(2) implementation of the requirements of this 
        subchapter.

[Sec. 3536. Expiration

  [This subchapter shall not be in effect after May 31, 2003.

[Sec. 3537. Authorization of appropriations

  [There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the 
provisions of this subchapter such sums as may be necessary for 
each of fiscal years 2003 through 2007.

[Sec. 3538. Effect on existing law

  [Nothing in this subchapter, section 11331 of title 40, or 
section 20 of the National Standards and Technology Act (15 
U.S.C. 278g-3) may be construed as affecting the authority of 
the President, the Office of Management and Budget or the 
Director thereof, the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, or the head of any agency, with respect to the 
authorized use or disclosure of information, including with 
regard to the protection of personal privacy under section 552a 
of title 5, the disclosure of information under section 552 of 
title 5, the management and disposition of records under 
chapters 29, 31, or 33 of title 44, the management of 
information resources under subchapter I of chapter 35 of this 
title, or the disclosure of information to Congress or the 
Comptroller General of the United States.

                 [SUBCHAPTER III--INFORMATION SECURITY

[Sec. 3541. Purposes

  [The purposes of this subchapter are to--
          [(1) provide a comprehensive framework for ensuring 
        the effectiveness of information security controls over 
        information resources that support Federal operations 
        and assets;
          [(2) recognize the highly networked nature of the 
        current Federal computing environment and provide 
        effective governmentwide management and oversight of 
        the related information security risks, including 
        coordination of information security efforts throughout 
        the civilian, national security, and law enforcement 
        communities;
          [(3) provide for development and maintenance of 
        minimum controls required to protect Federal 
        information and information systems;
          [(4) provide a mechanism for improved oversight of 
        Federal agency information security programs;
          [(5) acknowledge that commercially developed 
        information security products offer advanced, dynamic, 
        robust, and effective information security solutions, 
        reflecting market solutions for the protection of 
        critical information infrastructures important to the 
        national defense and economic security of the nation 
        that are designed, built, and operated by the private 
        sector; and
          [(6) recognize that the selection of specific 
        technical hardware and software information security 
        solutions should be left to individual agencies from 
        among commercially developed products.

[Sec. 3542. Definitions

  [(a) In General.--Except as provided under subsection (b), 
the definitions under section 3502 shall apply to this 
subchapter.
  [(b) Additional Definitions.--As used in this subchapter:
          [(1) The term ``information security'' means 
        protecting information and information systems from 
        unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
        modification, or destruction in order to provide--
                  [(A) integrity, which means guarding against 
                improper information modification or 
                destruction, and includes ensuring information 
                nonrepudiation and authenticity;
                  [(B) confidentiality, which means preserving 
                authorized restrictions on access and 
                disclosure, including means for protecting 
                personal privacy and proprietary information; 
                and
                  [(C) availability, which means ensuring 
                timely and reliable access to and use of 
                information.
          [(2)(A) The term ``national security system'' means 
        any information system (including any 
        telecommunications system) used or operated by an 
        agency or by a contractor of an agency, or other 
        organization on behalf of an agency--
                  [(i) the function, operation, or use of 
                which--
                          [(I) involves intelligence 
                        activities;
                          [(II) involves cryptologic activities 
                        related to national security;
                          [(III) involves command and control 
                        of military forces;
                          [(IV) involves equipment that is an 
                        integral part of a weapon or weapons 
                        system; or
                          [(V) subject to subparagraph (B), is 
                        critical to the direct fulfillment of 
                        military or intelligence missions; or
                  [(ii) is protected at all times by procedures 
                established for information that have been 
                specifically authorized under criteria 
                established by an Executive order or an Act of 
                Congress to be kept classified in the interest 
                of national defense or foreign policy.
          [(B) Subparagraph (A)(i)(V) does not include a system 
        that is to be used for routine administrative and 
        business applications (including payroll, finance, 
        logistics, and personnel management applications).
          [(3) The term ``information technology'' has the 
        meaning given that term in section 11101 of title 40.

[Sec. 3543. Authority and functions of the Director

  [(a) In General.--The Director shall oversee agency 
information security policies and practices, including--
          [(1) developing and overseeing the implementation of 
        policies, principles, standards, and guidelines on 
        information security, including through ensuring timely 
        agency adoption of and compliance with standards 
        promulgated under section 11331 of title 40;
          [(2) requiring agencies, consistent with the 
        standards promulgated under such section 11331 and the 
        requirements of this subchapter, to identify and 
        provide information security protections commensurate 
        with the risk and magnitude of the harm resulting from 
        the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
        modification, or destruction of--
                  [(A) information collected or maintained by 
                or on behalf of an agency; or
                  [(B) information systems used or operated by 
                an agency or by a contractor of an agency or 
                other organization on behalf of an agency;
          [(3) coordinating the development of standards and 
        guidelines under section 20 of the National Institute 
        of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) with 
        agencies and offices operating or exercising control of 
        national security systems (including the National 
        Security Agency) to assure, to the maximum extent 
        feasible, that such standards and guidelines are 
        complementary with standards and guidelines developed 
        for national security systems;
          [(4) overseeing agency compliance with the 
        requirements of this subchapter, including through any 
        authorized action under section 11303 of title 40, to 
        enforce accountability for compliance with such 
        requirements;
          [(5) reviewing at least annually, and approving or 
        disapproving, agency information security programs 
        required under section 3544(b);
          [(6) coordinating information security policies and 
        procedures with related information resources 
        management policies and procedures;
          [(7) overseeing the operation of the Federal 
        information security incident center required under 
        section 3546; and
          [(8) reporting to Congress no later than March 1 of 
        each year on agency compliance with the requirements of 
        this subchapter, including--
                  [(A) a summary of the findings of evaluations 
                required by section 3545;
                  [(B) an assessment of the development, 
                promulgation, and adoption of, and compliance 
                with, standards developed under section 20 of 
                the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) and 
                promulgated under section 11331 of title 40;
                  [(C) significant deficiencies in agency 
                information security practices;
                  [(D) planned remedial action to address such 
                deficiencies; and
                  [(E) a summary of, and the views of the 
                Director on, the report prepared by the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                under section 20(d)(10) of the National 
                Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 
                U.S.C. 278g-3).
  [(b) National Security Systems.--Except for the authorities 
described in paragraphs (4) and (8) of subsection (a), the 
authorities of the Director under this section shall not apply 
to national security systems.
  [(c) Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency 
Systems.--(1) The authorities of the Director described in 
paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) shall be delegated to 
the Secretary of Defense in the case of systems described in 
paragraph (2) and to the Director of Central Intelligence in 
the case of systems described in paragraph (3).
  [(2) The systems described in this paragraph are systems that 
are operated by the Department of Defense, a contractor of the 
Department of Defense, or another entity on behalf of the 
Department of Defense that processes any information the 
unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, 
or destruction of which would have a debilitating impact on the 
mission of the Department of Defense.
  [(3) The systems described in this paragraph are systems that 
are operated by the Central Intelligence Agency, a contractor 
of the Central Intelligence Agency, or another entity on behalf 
of the Central Intelligence Agency that processes any 
information the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
disruption, modification, or destruction of which would have a 
debilitating impact on the mission of the Central Intelligence 
Agency.

[Sec. 3544. Federal agency responsibilities

  [(a) In General.--The head of each agency shall--
          [(1) be responsible for--
                  [(A) providing information security 
                protections commensurate with the risk and 
                magnitude of the harm resulting from 
                unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
                disruption, modification, or destruction of--
                          [(i) information collected or 
                        maintained by or on behalf of the 
                        agency; and
                          [(ii) information systems used or 
                        operated by an agency or by a 
                        contractor of an agency or other 
                        organization on behalf of an agency;
                  [(B) complying with the requirements of this 
                subchapter and related policies, procedures, 
                standards, and guidelines, including--
                          [(i) information security standards 
                        promulgated under section 11331 of 
                        title 40; and
                          [(ii) information security standards 
                        and guidelines for national security 
                        systems issued in accordance with law 
                        and as directed by the President; and
                  [(C) ensuring that information security 
                management processes are integrated with agency 
                strategic and operational planning processes;
          [(2) ensure that senior agency officials provide 
        information security for the information and 
        information systems that support the operations and 
        assets under their control, including through--
                  [(A) assessing the risk and magnitude of the 
                harm that could result from the unauthorized 
                access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
                modification, or destruction of such 
                information or information systems;
                  [(B) determining the levels of information 
                security appropriate to protect such 
                information and information systems in 
                accordance with standards promulgated under 
                section 11331 of title 40, for information 
                security classifications and related 
                requirements;
                  [(C) implementing policies and procedures to 
                cost-effectively reduce risks to an acceptable 
                level; and
                  [(D) periodically testing and evaluating 
                information security controls and techniques to 
                ensure that they are effectively implemented;
          [(3) delegate to the agency Chief Information Officer 
        established under section 3506 (or comparable official 
        in an agency not covered by such section) the authority 
        to ensure compliance with the requirements imposed on 
        the agency under this subchapter, including--
                  [(A) designating a senior agency information 
                security officer who shall--
                          [(i) carry out the Chief Information 
                        Officer's responsibilities under this 
                        section;
                          [(ii) possess professional 
                        qualifications, including training and 
                        experience, required to administer the 
                        functions described under this section;
                          [(iii) have information security 
                        duties as that official's primary duty; 
                        and
                          [(iv) head an office with the mission 
                        and resources to assist in ensuring 
                        agency compliance with this section;
                  [(B) developing and maintaining an agencywide 
                information security program as required by 
                subsection (b);
                  [(C) developing and maintaining information 
                security policies, procedures, and control 
                techniques to address all applicable 
                requirements, including those issued under 
                section 3543 of this title, and section 11331 
                of title 40;
                  [(D) training and overseeing personnel with 
                significant responsibilities for information 
                security with respect to such responsibilities; 
                and
                  [(E) assisting senior agency officials 
                concerning their responsibilities under 
                paragraph (2);
          [(4) ensure that the agency has trained personnel 
        sufficient to assist the agency in complying with the 
        requirements of this subchapter and related policies, 
        procedures, standards, and guidelines; and
          [(5) ensure that the agency Chief Information 
        Officer, in coordination with other senior agency 
        officials, reports annually to the agency head on the 
        effectiveness of the agency information security 
        program, including progress of remedial actions.
  [(b) Agency Program.--Each agency shall develop, document, 
and implement an agencywide information security program, 
approved by the Director under section 3543(a)(5), to provide 
information security for the information and information 
systems that support the operations and assets of the agency, 
including those provided or managed by another agency, 
contractor, or other source, that includes--
          [(1) periodic assessments of the risk and magnitude 
        of the harm that could result from the unauthorized 
        access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or 
        destruction of information and information systems that 
        support the operations and assets of the agency;
          [(2) policies and procedures that--
                  [(A) are based on the risk assessments 
                required by paragraph (1);
                  [(B) cost-effectively reduce information 
                security risks to an acceptable level;
                  [(C) ensure that information security is 
                addressed throughout the life cycle of each 
                agency information system; and
                  [(D) ensure compliance with--
                          [(i) the requirements of this 
                        subchapter;
                          [(ii) policies and procedures as may 
                        be prescribed by the Director, and 
                        information security standards 
                        promulgated under section 11331 of 
                        title 40;
                          [(iii) minimally acceptable system 
                        configuration requirements, as 
                        determined by the agency; and
                          [(iv) any other applicable 
                        requirements, including standards and 
                        guidelines for national security 
                        systems issued in accordance with law 
                        and as directed by the President;
          [(3) subordinate plans for providing adequate 
        information security for networks, facilities, and 
        systems or groups of information systems, as 
        appropriate;
          [(4) security awareness training to inform personnel, 
        including contractors and other users of information 
        systems that support the operations and assets of the 
        agency, of--
                  [(A) information security risks associated 
                with their activities; and
                  [(B) their responsibilities in complying with 
                agency policies and procedures designed to 
                reduce these risks;
          [(5) periodic testing and evaluation of the 
        effectiveness of information security policies, 
        procedures, and practices, to be performed with a 
        frequency depending on risk, but no less than annually, 
        of which such testing--
                  [(A) shall include testing of management, 
                operational, and technical controls of every 
                information system identified in the inventory 
                required under section 3505(c); and
                  [(B) may include testing relied on in a 
                evaluation under section 3545;
          [(6) a process for planning, implementing, 
        evaluating, and documenting remedial action to address 
        any deficiencies in the information security policies, 
        procedures, and practices of the agency;
          [(7) procedures for detecting, reporting, and 
        responding to security incidents, consistent with 
        standards and guidelines issued pursuant to section 
        3546(b), including--
                  [(A) mitigating risks associated with such 
                incidents before substantial damage is done;
                  [(B) notifying and consulting with the 
                Federal information security incident center 
                referred to in section 3546; and
                  [(C) notifying and consulting with, as 
                appropriate--
                          [(i) law enforcement agencies and 
                        relevant Offices of Inspector General;
                          [(ii) an office designated by the 
                        President for any incident involving a 
                        national security system; and
                          [(iii) any other agency or office, in 
                        accordance with law or as directed by 
                        the President; and
          [(8) plans and procedures to ensure continuity of 
        operations for information systems that support the 
        operations and assets of the agency.
  [(c) Agency Reporting.--Each agency shall--
          [(1) report annually to the Director, the Committees 
        on Government Reform and Science of the House of 
        Representatives, the Committees on Governmental Affairs 
        and Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate, the appropriate authorization and 
        appropriations committees of Congress, and the 
        Comptroller General on the adequacy and effectiveness 
        of information security policies, procedures, and 
        practices, and compliance with the requirements of this 
        subchapter, including compliance with each requirement 
        of subsection (b);
          [(2) address the adequacy and effectiveness of 
        information security policies, procedures, and 
        practices in plans and reports relating to--
                  [(A) annual agency budgets;
                  [(B) information resources management under 
                subchapter 1 of this chapter;
                  [(C) information technology management under 
                subtitle III of title 40;
                  [(D) program performance under sections 1105 
                and 1115 through 1119 of title 31, and sections 
                2801 and 2805 of title 39;
                  [(E) financial management under chapter 9 of 
                title 31, and the Chief Financial Officers Act 
                of 1990 (31 U.S.C. 501 note; Public Law 101-
                576) (and the amendments made by that Act);
                  [(F) financial management systems under the 
                Federal Financial Management Improvement Act 
                (31 U.S.C. 3512 note); and
                  [(G) internal accounting and administrative 
                controls under section 3512 of title 31, (known 
                as the ``Federal Managers Financial Integrity 
                Act''); and
          [(3) report any significant deficiency in a policy, 
        procedure, or practice identified under paragraph (1) 
        or (2)--
                  [(A) as a material weakness in reporting 
                under section 3512 of title 31; and
                  [(B) if relating to financial management 
                systems, as an instance of a lack of 
                substantial compliance under the Federal 
                Financial Management Improvement Act (31 U.S.C. 
                3512 note).
  [(d) Performance Plan.--(1) In addition to the requirements 
of subsection (c), each agency, in consultation with the 
Director, shall include as part of the performance plan 
required under section 1115 of title 31 a description of--
          [(A) the time periods, and
          [(B) the resources, including budget, staffing, and 
        training,
that are necessary to implement the program required under 
subsection (b).
  [(2) The description under paragraph (1) shall be based on 
the risk assessments required under subsection (b)(2)(1).
  [(e) Public Notice and Comment.--Each agency shall provide 
the public with timely notice and opportunities for comment on 
proposed information security policies and procedures to the 
extent that such policies and procedures affect communication 
with the public.

[Sec. 3545. Annual independent evaluation

  [(a) In General.--(1) Each year each agency shall have 
performed an independent evaluation of the information security 
program and practices of that agency to determine the 
effectiveness of such program and practices.
  [(2) Each evaluation under this section shall include--
          [(A) testing of the effectiveness of information 
        security policies, procedures, and practices of a 
        representative subset of the agency's information 
        systems;
          [(B) an assessment (made on the basis of the results 
        of the testing) of compliance with--
                  [(i) the requirements of this subchapter; and
                  [(ii) related information security policies, 
                procedures, standards, and guidelines; and
          [(C) separate presentations, as appropriate, 
        regarding information security relating to national 
        security systems.
  [(b) Independent Auditor.--Subject to subsection (c)--
          [(1) for each agency with an Inspector General 
        appointed under the Inspector General Act of 1978 or 
        any other law, the annual evaluation required by this 
        section shall be performed by the Inspector General or 
        by an independent external auditor, as determined by 
        the Inspector General of the agency; and
          [(2) for each agency to which paragraph (1) does not 
        apply, the head of the agency shall engage an 
        independent external auditor to perform the evaluation.
  [(c) National Security Systems.--For each agency operating or 
exercising control of a national security system, that portion 
of the evaluation required by this section directly relating to 
a national security system shall be performed--
          [(1) only by an entity designated by the agency head; 
        and
          [(2) in such a manner as to ensure appropriate 
        protection for information associated with any 
        information security vulnerability in such system 
        commensurate with the risk and in accordance with all 
        applicable laws.
  [(d) Existing Evaluations.--The evaluation required by this 
section may be based in whole or in part on an audit, 
evaluation, or report relating to programs or practices of the 
applicable agency.
  [(e) Agency Reporting.--(1) Each year, not later than such 
date established by the Director, the head of each agency shall 
submit to the Director the results of the evaluation required 
under this section.
  [(2) To the extent an evaluation required under this section 
directly relates to a national security system, the evaluation 
results submitted to the Director shall contain only a summary 
and assessment of that portion of the evaluation directly 
relating to a national security system.
  [(f) Protection of Information.--Agencies and evaluators 
shall take appropriate steps to ensure the protection of 
information which, if disclosed, may adversely affect 
information security. Such protections shall be commensurate 
with the risk and comply with all applicable laws and 
regulations.
  [(g) OMB Reports to Congress.--(1) The Director shall 
summarize the results of the evaluations conducted under this 
section in the report to Congress required under section 
3543(a)(8).
  [(2) The Director's report to Congress under this subsection 
shall summarize information regarding information security 
relating to national security systems in such a manner as to 
ensure appropriate protection for information associated with 
any information security vulnerability in such system 
commensurate with the risk and in accordance with all 
applicable laws.
  [(3) Evaluations and any other descriptions of information 
systems under the authority and control of the Director of 
Central Intelligence or of National Foreign Intelligence 
Programs systems under the authority and control of the 
Secretary of Defense shall be made available to Congress only 
through the appropriate oversight committees of Congress, in 
accordance with applicable laws.
  [(h) Comptroller General.--The Comptroller General shall 
periodically evaluate and report to Congress on--
          [(1) the adequacy and effectiveness of agency 
        information security policies and practices; and
          [(2) implementation of the requirements of this 
        subchapter.

[Sec. 3546. Federal information security incident center

  [(a) In General.--The Director shall ensure the operation of 
a central Federal information security incident center to--
          [(1) provide timely technical assistance to operators 
        of agency information systems regarding security 
        incidents, including guidance on detecting and handling 
        information security incidents;
          [(2) compile and analyze information about incidents 
        that threaten information security;
          [(3) inform operators of agency information systems 
        about current and potential information security 
        threats, and vulnerabilities; and
          [(4) consult with the National Institute of Standards 
        and Technology, agencies or offices operating or 
        exercising control of national security systems 
        (including the National Security Agency), and such 
        other agencies or offices in accordance with law and as 
        directed by the President regarding information 
        security incidents and related matters.
  [(b) National Security Systems.--Each agency operating or 
exercising control of a national security system shall share 
information about information security incidents, threats, and 
vulnerabilities with the Federal information security incident 
center to the extent consistent with standards and guidelines 
for national security systems, issued in accordance with law 
and as directed by the President.

[Sec. 3547. National security systems

  [The head of each agency operating or exercising control of a 
national security system shall be responsible for ensuring that 
the agency--
          [(1) provides information security protections 
        commensurate with the risk and magnitude of the harm 
        resulting from the unauthorized access, use, 
        disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of 
        the information contained in such system;
          [(2) implements information security policies and 
        practices as required by standards and guidelines for 
        national security systems, issued in accordance with 
        law and as directed by the President; and
          [(3) complies with the requirements of this 
        subchapter.

[Sec. 3548. Authorization of appropriations

  [There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the 
provisions of this subchapter such sums as may be necessary for 
each of fiscal years 2003 through 2007.

[Sec. 3549. Effect on existing law

  [Nothing in this subchapter, section 11331 of title 40, or 
section 20 of the National Standards and Technology Act (15 
U.S.C. 278g-3) may be construed as affecting the authority of 
the President, the Office of Management and Budget or the 
Director thereof, the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, or the head of any agency, with respect to the 
authorized use or disclosure of information, including with 
regard to the protection of personal privacy under section 552a 
of title 5, the disclosure of information under section 552 of 
title 5, the management and disposition of records under 
chapters 29, 31, or 33 of title 44, the management of 
information resources under subchapter I of chapter 35 of this 
title, or the disclosure of information to the Congress or the 
Comptroller General of the United States. While this subchapter 
is in effect, subchapter II of this chapter shall not apply.]

                  SUBCHAPTER II--INFORMATION SECURITY

Sec. 3551. Purposes

  The purposes of this subchapter are to--
          (1) provide a comprehensive framework for ensuring 
        the effectiveness of information security controls over 
        information resources that support Federal operations 
        and assets;
          (2) recognize the highly networked nature of the 
        current Federal computing environment and provide 
        effective Governmentwide management and oversight of 
        the related information security risks, including 
        coordination of information security efforts throughout 
        the civilian, national security, and law enforcement 
        communities assets;
          (3) provide for development and maintenance of 
        minimum controls required to protect Federal 
        information and information systems;
          (4) provide a mechanism for improved oversight of 
        Federal agency information security programs and 
        systems through a focus on automated and continuous 
        monitoring of agency information systems and regular 
        threat assessments;
          (5) acknowledge that commercially developed 
        information security products offer advanced, dynamic, 
        robust, and effective information security solutions, 
        reflecting market solutions for the protection of 
        critical information systems important to the national 
        defense and economic security of the Nation that are 
        designed, built, and operated by the private sector; 
        and
          (6) recognize that the selection of specific 
        technical hardware and software information security 
        solutions should be left to individual agencies from 
        among commercially developed products.

Sec. 3552. Definitions

  (a) Section 3502 Definitions.--Except as provided under 
subsection (b), the definitions under section 3502 shall apply 
to this subchapter.
  (b) Additional Definitions.--In this subchapter:
          (1) Adequate security.--The term ``adequate 
        security'' means security commensurate with the risk 
        and magnitude of the harm resulting from the 
        unauthorized access to or loss, misuse, destruction, or 
        modification of information.
          (2) Automated and continuous monitoring.--The term 
        ``automated and continuous monitoring'' means 
        monitoring, with minimal human involvement, through an 
        uninterrupted, ongoing real time, or near real-time 
        process used to determine if the complete set of 
        planned, required, and deployed security controls 
        within an information system continue to be effective 
        over time with rapidly changing information technology 
        and threat development.
          (3) Incident.--The term ``incident'' means an 
        occurrence that actually or potentially jeopardizes the 
        confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an 
        information system, or the information the system 
        processes, stores, or transmits or that constitutes a 
        violation or imminent threat of violation of security 
        policies, security procedures, or acceptable use 
        policies.
          (4) Information security.--The term ``information 
        security'' means protecting information and information 
        systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
        disruption, modification, or destruction in order to 
        provide--
                  (A) integrity, which means guarding against 
                improper information modification or 
                destruction, and includes ensuring information 
                nonrepudiation and authenticity;
                  (B) confidentiality, which means preserving 
                authorized restrictions on access and 
                disclosure, including means for protecting 
                personal privacy and proprietary information; 
                and
                  (C) availability, which means ensuring timely 
                and reliable access to and use of information.
          (5) Information system.--The term ``information 
        system'' means a discrete set of information resources 
        organized for the collection, processing, maintenance, 
        use, sharing, dissemination, or disposition of 
        information and includes--
                  (A) computers and computer networks;
                  (B) ancillary equipment;
                  (C) software, firmware, and related 
                procedures;
                  (D) services, including support services; and
                  (E) related resources.
          (6) Information technology.--The term ``information 
        technology'' has the meaning given that term in section 
        11101 of title 40.
          (7) National security system.--
                  (A) Definition.--The term ``national security 
                system'' means any information system 
                (including any telecommunications system) used 
                or operated by an agency or by a contractor of 
                an agency, or other organization on behalf of 
                an agency--
                          (i) the function, operation, or use 
                        of which--
                                  (I) involves intelligence 
                                activities;
                                  (II) involves cryptologic 
                                activities related to national 
                                security;
                                  (III) involves command and 
                                control of military forces;
                                  (IV) involves equipment that 
                                is an integral part of a weapon 
                                or weapons system; or
                                  (V) subject to subparagraph 
                                (B), is critical to the direct 
                                fulfillment of military or 
                                intelligence missions; or
                          (ii) is protected at all times by 
                        procedures established for information 
                        that have been specifically authorized 
                        under criteria established by an 
                        Executive order or an Act of Congress 
                        to be kept classified in the interest 
                        of national defense or foreign policy.
                  (B) Exception.--Subparagraph (A)(i)(V) does 
                not include a system that is to be used for 
                routine administrative and business 
                applications (including payroll, finance, 
                logistics, and personnel management 
                applications).
          (8) Threat assessment.--The term ``threat 
        assessment'' means the formal description and 
        evaluation of threat to an information system.

Sec. 3553. Authority and functions of the Director

  (a) In General.--The Director shall oversee agency 
information security policies and practices, including--
          (1) developing and overseeing the implementation of 
        policies, principles, standards, and guidelines on 
        information security, including through ensuring timely 
        agency adoption of and compliance with standards 
        promulgated under section 11331 of title 40;
          (2) requiring agencies, consistent with the standards 
        promulgated under such section 11331 and the 
        requirements of this subchapter, to identify and 
        provide information security protections commensurate 
        with the risk and magnitude of the harm resulting from 
        the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
        modification, or destruction of--
                  (A) information collected or maintained by or 
                on behalf of an agency; or
                  (B) information systems used or operated by 
                an agency or by a contractor of an agency or 
                other organization on behalf of an agency;
          (3) coordinating the development of standards and 
        guidelines under section 20 of the National Institute 
        of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) with 
        agencies and offices operating or exercising control of 
        national security systems (including the National 
        Security Agency) to assure, to the maximum extent 
        feasible, that such standards and guidelines are 
        complementary with standards and guidelines developed 
        for national security systems;
          (4) overseeing agency compliance with the 
        requirements of this subchapter, including through any 
        authorized action under section 11303 of title 40, to 
        enforce accountability for compliance with such 
        requirements;
          (5) reviewing at least annually, and approving or 
        disapproving, agency information security programs 
        required under section 3554(b);
          (6) coordinating information security policies and 
        procedures with related information resources 
        management policies and procedures;
          (7) overseeing the operation of the Federal 
        information security incident center required under 
        section 3555; and
          (8) reporting to Congress no later than March 1 of 
        each year on agency compliance with the requirements of 
        this subchapter, including--
                  (A) an assessment of the development, 
                promulgation, and adoption of, and compliance 
                with, standards developed under section 20 of 
                the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) and 
                promulgated under section 11331 of title 40;
                  (B) significant deficiencies in agency 
                information security practices;
                  (C) planned remedial action to address such 
                deficiencies; and
                  (D) a summary of, and the views of the 
                Director on, the report prepared by the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                under section 20(d)(10) of the National 
                Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 
                U.S.C. 278g-3).
  (b) National Security Systems.--Except for the authorities 
described in paragraphs (4) and (8) of subsection (a), the 
authorities of the Director under this section shall not apply 
to national security systems.
  (c) Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency 
Systems.--(1) The authorities of the Director described in 
paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) shall be delegated to 
the Secretary of Defense in the case of systems described in 
paragraph (2) and to the Director of Central Intelligence in 
the case of systems described in paragraph (3).
  (2) The systems described in this paragraph are systems that 
are operated by the Department of Defense, a contractor of the 
Department of Defense, or another entity on behalf of the 
Department of Defense that processes any information the 
unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, 
or destruction of which would have a debilitating impact on the 
mission of the Department of Defense.
  (3) The systems described in this paragraph are systems that 
are operated by the Central Intelligence Agency, a contractor 
of the Central Intelligence Agency, or another entity on behalf 
of the Central Intelligence Agency that processes any 
information the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
disruption, modification, or destruction of which would have a 
debilitating impact on the mission of the Central Intelligence 
Agency.

Sec. 3554. Agency responsibilities

  (a) In General.--The head of each agency shall--
          (1) be responsible for--
                  (A) providing information security 
                protections commensurate with the risk and 
                magnitude of the harm resulting from 
                unauthorized access, use, disclosure, 
                disruption, modification, or destruction of--
                          (i) information collected or 
                        maintained by or on behalf of the 
                        agency; and
                          (ii) information systems used or 
                        operated by an agency or by a 
                        contractor of an agency or other 
                        organization on behalf of an agency;
                  (B) complying with the requirements of this 
                subchapter and related policies, procedures, 
                standards, and guidelines, including--
                          (i) information security standards 
                        and guidelines promulgated under 
                        section 11331 of title 40 and section 
                        20 of the National Institute of 
                        Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 
                        278g-3);
                          (ii) information security standards 
                        and guidelines for national security 
                        systems issued in accordance with law 
                        and as directed by the President; and
                          (iii) ensuring the standards 
                        implemented for information systems and 
                        national security systems of the agency 
                        are complementary and uniform, to the 
                        extent practicable;
                  (C) ensuring that information security 
                management processes are integrated with agency 
                strategic and operational planning and budget 
                processes, including policies, procedures, and 
                practices described in subsection (c)(2);
                  (D) as appropriate, maintaining secure 
                facilities that have the capability of 
                accessing, sending, receiving, and storing 
                classified information;
                  (E) maintaining a sufficient number of 
                personnel with security clearances, at the 
                appropriate levels, to access, send, receive 
                and analyze classified information to carry out 
                the responsibilities of this subchapter; and
                  (F) ensuring that information security 
                performance indicators and measures are 
                included in the annual performance evaluations 
                of all managers, senior managers, senior 
                executive service personnel, and political 
                appointees;
          (2) ensure that senior agency officials provide 
        information security for the information and 
        information systems that support the operations and 
        assets under their control, including through--
                  (A) assessing the risk and magnitude of the 
                harm that could result from the unauthorized 
                access, use, disclosure, disruption, 
                modification, or destruction of such 
                information or information system;
                  (B) determining the levels of information 
                security appropriate to protect such 
                information and information systems in 
                accordance with policies, principles, 
                standards, and guidelines promulgated under 
                section 11331 of title 40 and section 20 of the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) for information security 
                classifications and related requirements;
                  (C) implementing policies and procedures to 
                cost effectively reduce risks to an acceptable 
                level;
                  (D) with a frequency sufficient to support 
                risk-based security decisions, testing and 
                evaluating information security controls and 
                techniques to ensure that such controls and 
                techniques are effectively implemented and 
                operated; and
                  (E) with a frequency sufficient to support 
                risk-based security decisions, conducting 
                threat assessments by monitoring information 
                systems, identifying potential system 
                vulnerabilities, and reporting security 
                incidents in accordance with paragraph 
                (3)(A)(v);
          (3) delegate to the Chief Information Officer or 
        equivalent (or a senior agency official who reports to 
        the Chief Information Officer or equivalent), who is 
        designated as the ``Chief Information Security 
        Officer'', the authority and primary responsibility to 
        develop, implement, and oversee an agencywide 
        information security program to ensure and enforce 
        compliance with the requirements imposed on the agency 
        under this subchapter, including--
                  (A) overseeing the establishment and 
                maintenance of a security operations capability 
                that through automated and continuous 
                monitoring, when possible, can--
                          (i) detect, report, respond to, 
                        contain, and mitigate incidents that 
                        impair information security and agency 
                        information systems, in accordance with 
                        policy provided by the Director;
                          (ii) commensurate with the risk to 
                        information security, monitor and 
                        mitigate the vulnerabilities of every 
                        information system within the agency;
                          (iii) continually evaluate risks 
                        posed to information collected or 
                        maintained by or on behalf of the 
                        agency and information systems and hold 
                        senior agency officials accountable for 
                        ensuring information security;
                          (iv) collaborate with the Director 
                        and appropriate public and private 
                        sector security operations centers to 
                        detect, report, respond to, contain, 
                        and mitigate incidents that impact the 
                        security of information and information 
                        systems that extend beyond the control 
                        of the agency; and
                          (v) report any incident described 
                        under clauses (i) and (ii) to the 
                        Federal information security incident 
                        center, to other appropriate security 
                        operations centers, and to the 
                        Inspector General of the agency, to the 
                        extent practicable, within 24 hours 
                        after discovery of the incident, but no 
                        later than 48 hours after such 
                        discovery;
                  (B) developing, maintaining, and overseeing 
                an agencywide information security program as 
                required by subsection (b);
                  (C) developing, maintaining, and overseeing 
                information security policies, procedures, and 
                control techniques to address all applicable 
                requirements, including those issued under 
                section 11331 of title 40;
                  (D) training and overseeing personnel with 
                significant responsibilities for information 
                security with respect to such responsibilities; 
                and
                  (E) assisting senior agency officials 
                concerning their responsibilities under 
                paragraph (2);
          (4) ensure that the agency has a sufficient number of 
        trained and cleared personnel to assist the agency in 
        complying with the requirements of this subchapter, 
        other applicable laws, and related policies, 
        procedures, standards, and guidelines;
          (5) ensure that the Chief Information Security 
        Officer, in consultation with other senior agency 
        officials, reports periodically, but not less than 
        annually, to the agency head on--
                  (A) the effectiveness of the agency 
                information security program;
                  (B) information derived from automated and 
                continuous monitoring, when possible, and 
                threat assessments; and
                  (C) the progress of remedial actions;
          (6) ensure that the Chief Information Security 
        Officer possesses the necessary qualifications, 
        including education, training, experience, and the 
        security clearance required to administer the functions 
        described under this subchapter; and has information 
        security duties as the primary duty of that official; 
        and
          (7) ensure that components of that agency establish 
        and maintain an automated reporting mechanism that 
        allows the Chief Information Security Officer with 
        responsibility for the entire agency, and all 
        components thereof, to implement, monitor, and hold 
        senior agency officers accountable for the 
        implementation of appropriate security policies, 
        procedures, and controls of agency components.
  (b) Agency Program.--Each agency shall develop, document, and 
implement an agencywide information security program, approved 
by the Director and consistent with components across and 
within agencies, to provide information security for the 
information and information systems that support the operations 
and assets of the agency, including those provided or managed 
by another agency, contractor, or other source, that includes--
          (1) automated and continuous monitoring, when 
        possible, of the risk and magnitude of the harm that 
        could result from the disruption or unauthorized 
        access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction 
        of information and information systems that support the 
        operations and assets of the agency;
          (2) consistent with guidance developed under section 
        11331 of title 40, vulnerability assessments and 
        penetration tests commensurate with the risk posed to 
        agency information systems;
          (3) policies and procedures that--
                  (A) cost effectively reduce information 
                security risks to an acceptable level;
                  (B) ensure compliance with--
                          (i) the requirements of this 
                        subchapter;
                          (ii) policies and procedures as may 
                        be prescribed by the Director, and 
                        information security standards 
                        promulgated pursuant to section 11331 
                        of title 40;
                          (iii) minimally acceptable system 
                        configuration requirements, as 
                        determined by the Director; and
                          (iv) any other applicable 
                        requirements, including--
                                  (I) standards and guidelines 
                                for national security systems 
                                issued in accordance with law 
                                and as directed by the 
                                President; and
                                  (II) the National Institute 
                                of Standards and Technology 
                                standards and guidance;
                  (C) develop, maintain, and oversee 
                information security policies, procedures, and 
                control techniques to address all applicable 
                requirements, including those promulgated 
                pursuant section 11331 of title 40; and
                  (D) ensure the oversight and training of 
                personnel with significant responsibilities for 
                information security with respect to such 
                responsibilities;
          (4) with a frequency sufficient to support risk-based 
        security decisions, automated and continuous 
        monitoring, when possible, for testing and evaluation 
        of the effectiveness and compliance of information 
        security policies, procedures, and practices, 
        including--
                  (A) controls of every information system 
                identified in the inventory required under 
                section 3505(c); and
                  (B) controls relied on for an evaluation 
                under this section;
          (5) a process for planning, implementing, evaluating, 
        and documenting remedial action to address any 
        deficiencies in the information security policies, 
        procedures, and practices of the agency;
          (6) with a frequency sufficient to support risk-based 
        security decisions, automated and continuous 
        monitoring, when possible, for detecting, reporting, 
        and responding to security incidents, consistent with 
        standards and guidelines issued by the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology, including--
                  (A) mitigating risks associated with such 
                incidents before substantial damage is done;
                  (B) notifying and consulting with the Federal 
                information security incident center and other 
                appropriate security operations response 
                centers; and
                  (C) notifying and consulting with, as 
                appropriate--
                          (i) law enforcement agencies and 
                        relevant Offices of Inspectors General; 
                        and
                          (ii) any other agency, office, or 
                        entity, in accordance with law or as 
                        directed by the President; and
          (7) plans and procedures to ensure continuity of 
        operations for information systems that support the 
        operations and assets of the agency.
  (c) Agency Reporting.--Each agency shall--
          (1) submit an annual report on the adequacy and 
        effectiveness of information security policies, 
        procedures, and practices, and compliance with the 
        requirements of this subchapter, including compliance 
        with each requirement of subsection (b) to--
                  (A) the Director;
                  (B) the Committee on Homeland Security and 
                Governmental Affairs of the Senate;
                  (C) the Committee on Oversight and Government 
                Reform of the House of Representatives;
                  (D) other appropriate authorization and 
                appropriations committees of Congress; and
                  (E) the Comptroller General;
          (2) address the adequacy and effectiveness of 
        information security policies, procedures, and 
        practices in plans and reports relating to--
                  (A) annual agency budgets;
                  (B) information resources management of this 
                subchapter;
                  (C) information technology management under 
                this chapter;
                  (D) program performance under sections 1105 
                and 1115 through 1119 of title 31, and sections 
                2801 and 2805 of title 39;
                  (E) financial management under chapter 9 of 
                title 31, and the Chief Financial Officers Act 
                of 1990 (31 U.S.C. 501 note; Public Law 101-
                576);
                  (F) financial management systems under the 
                Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 
                1996 (31 U.S.C. 3512 note); and
                  (G) internal accounting and administrative 
                controls under section 3512 of title 31; and
          (3) report any significant deficiency in a policy, 
        procedure, or practice identified under paragraph (1) 
        or (2)--
                  (A) as a material weakness in reporting under 
                section 3512 of title 31; and
                  (B) if relating to financial management 
                systems, as an instance of a lack of 
                substantial compliance under the Federal 
                Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996 
                (31 U.S.C. 3512 note).

Sec. 3555. Federal information security incident center

  (a) In General.--The Director shall ensure the operation of a 
central Federal information security incident center to--
          (1) provide timely technical assistance to operators 
        of agency information systems regarding security 
        incidents, including guidance on detecting and handling 
        information security incidents;
          (2) compile and analyze information about incidents 
        that threaten information security;
          (3) inform operators of agency information systems 
        about current and potential information security 
        threats, and vulnerabilities; and
          (4) consult with the National Institute of Standards 
        and Technology, agencies or offices operating or 
        exercising control of national security systems 
        (including the National Security Agency), and such 
        other agencies or offices in accordance with law and as 
        directed by the President regarding information 
        security incidents and related matters.
  (b) National Security Systems.--Each agency operating or 
exercising control of a national security system shall share 
information about information security incidents, threats, and 
vulnerabilities with the Federal information security incident 
center to the extent consistent with standards and guidelines 
for national security systems, issued in accordance with law 
and as directed by the President.
  (c) Review and Approval.--The Director shall review and 
approve the policies, procedures, and guidance established in 
this subchapter to ensure that the incident center has the 
capability to effectively and efficiently detect, correlate, 
respond to, contain, mitigate, and remediate incidents that 
impair the adequate security of the information systems of more 
than one agency. To the extent practicable, the capability 
shall be continuous and technically automated.

Sec. 3556. National security systems

  The head of each agency operating or exercising control of a 
national security system shall be responsible for ensuring that 
the agency--
          (1) provides information security protections 
        commensurate with the risk and magnitude of the harm 
        resulting from the unauthorized access, use, 
        disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of 
        the information contained in such system;
          (2) implements information security policies and 
        practices as required by standards and guidelines for 
        national security systems, issued in accordance with 
        law and as directed by the President; and
          (3) complies with the requirements of this 
        subchapter.
                              ----------                              


                     HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
                     TITLE X--INFORMATION SECURITY

SEC. 1001. INFORMATION SECURITY.

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Information Security Responsibilities of Certain 
Agencies.--
          (1) National security responsibilities.--(A) Nothing 
        in this Act (including any amendment made by this Act) 
        shall supersede any authority of the Secretary of 
        Defense, the Director of Central Intelligence, or other 
        agency head, as authorized by law and as directed by 
        the President, with regard to the operation, control, 
        or management of national security systems, as defined 
        by [section 3532(3)] section 3552(b) of title 44, 
        United States Code.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                      TITLE 10, UNITED STATES CODE



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
SUBTITLE A--GENERAL MILITARY LAW

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


PART IV--SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                 CHAPTER 131--PLANNING AND COORDINATION

Sec. 2222. Defense business systems: architecture, accountability, and 
                    modernization

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (j) Definitions.--In this section:
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (5) The term ``national security system'' has the 
        meaning given that term in [section 3542(b)(2)] section 
        3552(b) of title 44.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 2223. Information technology: additional responsibilities of Chief 
                    Information Officers

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Definitions.--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (3) The term ``national security system'' has the 
        meaning given that term by [section 3542(b)(2)] section 
        3552(b) of title 44.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 137--PROCUREMENT GENERALLY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 2315. Law inapplicable to the procurement of automatic data 
                    processing equipment and services for certain 
                    defense purposes

  For purposes of subtitle III of title 40, the term ``national 
security system'', with respect to a telecommunications and 
information system operated by the Department of Defense, has 
the meaning given that term by [section 3542(b)(2)] section 
3552(b) of title 44.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


           NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ACT



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
  Sec. 20. (a) The Institute shall--
          (1) * * *
          (2) develop standards and guidelines, including 
        minimum requirements, for information systems used or 
        operated by an agency or by a contractor of an agency 
        or other organization on behalf of an agency, other 
        than national security systems (as defined in [section 
        3532(b)(2)] section 3552(b) of title 44, United States 
        Code);

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (e) As used in this section--
          (1) * * *
          (2) the term ``information security'' has the same 
        meaning as provided in [section 3532(1)] section 
        3552(b) of such title;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (5) the term ``national security system'' has the 
        same meaning as provided in [section 3532(b)(2)] 
        section 3552(b) of such title.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


              CYBER SECURITY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACT



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
SEC. 8. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS.

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (d) Federal Agency Information Security Programs.--
          (1) In general.--In developing the agencywide 
        information security program required by [section 
        3534(b)] section 3554(b) of title 44, United States 
        Code, an agency that deploys a computer hardware or 
        software system for which the Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a 
        checklist under subsection (c) of this section--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *