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113th Congress  }                                          {     Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session     }                                          {    113-450

======================================================================
 
             JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING ACT OF 2014

                                _______
                                

  May 15, 2014.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Goodlatte, from the Committee on the Judiciary, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 3530]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on the Judiciary, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 3530) to provide justice for the victims of 
trafficking, having considered the same, report favorably 
thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill as 
amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
The Amendment....................................................     1
Purpose and Summary..............................................     7
Background and Need for the Legislation..........................     8
Hearings.........................................................    10
Committee Consideration..........................................    10
Committee Votes..................................................    10
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................    10
New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures........................    10
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................    10
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    14
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    14
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................    14
Advisory on Earmarks.............................................    14
Section-by-Section Analysis......................................    14
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............    17

                             The Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act 
of 2014''.

  39-006



SEC. 2. AVAILABILITY OF SUMS IN CRIME VICTIMS FUND.

  Section 1402 of the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 (42 U.S.C. 10601) is 
amended in subsection (d) by inserting before paragraph (2) the 
following:
          ``(1) Of the amounts available in the Fund, exactly--
                  ``(A) $805,000,000 shall be available for obligation 
                in fiscal year 2016;
                  ``(B) $825,000,000 shall be available for obligation 
                in fiscal year 2017;
                  ``(C) $845,000,000 shall be available for obligation 
                in fiscal year 2018;
                  ``(D) $866,000,000 shall be available for obligation 
                in fiscal year 2019; and
                  ``(E) $890,000,000 shall be available for obligation 
                in fiscal year 2020.''.

SEC. 3. VICTIM-CENTERED SEX TRAFFICKING DETERRENCE GRANT PROGRAM.

  Section 203 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act 
of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 14044b) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsection (g) as subsection (j);
          (2) by striking subsections (a) through (f), and inserting 
        the following:
  ``(a) Grants Authorized.--The Attorney General may make grants to 
eligible entities to develop, improve, or expand comprehensive domestic 
child human trafficking deterrence programs that assist law enforcement 
officers, prosecutors, judicial officials, and qualified victims' 
services organizations in collaborating to rescue and restore the lives 
of victims, while investigating and prosecuting offenses involving 
child human trafficking.
  ``(b) Authorized Activities.--Grants awarded under subsection (a) may 
be used for--
          ``(1) the establishment or enhancement of specialized 
        training programs for law enforcement officers, first 
        responders, health care officials, child welfare officials, 
        juvenile justice personnel, prosecutors, and judicial personnel 
        to--
                  ``(A) identify victims and acts of child human 
                trafficking;
                  ``(B) address the unique needs of victims of child 
                human trafficking;
                  ``(C) facilitate the rescue of victims of child human 
                trafficking;
                  ``(D) investigate and prosecute acts of child human 
                trafficking, including the soliciting, patronizing, or 
                purchasing of commercial sex acts from children, as 
                well as training to build cases against complex 
                criminal networks involved in child human trafficking; 
                and
                  ``(E) implement and provide education on safe harbor 
                laws enacted by States, aimed at preventing the 
                criminalization and prosecution of victims of child 
                human trafficking for prostitution offenses;
          ``(2) the establishment or enhancement of dedicated anti-
        child human trafficking law enforcement units and task forces 
        to investigate child human trafficking offenses and to rescue 
        victims, including--
                  ``(A) funding salaries, in whole or in part, for law 
                enforcement officers, including patrol officers, 
                detectives, and investigators, except that the 
                percentage of the salary of the law enforcement officer 
                paid for by funds from a grant awarded under this 
                section shall not be more than the percentage of the 
                officer's time on duty that is dedicated to working on 
                cases involving child human trafficking;
                  ``(B) investigation expenses for cases involving 
                child human trafficking, including--
                          ``(i) wire taps;
                          ``(ii) consultants with expertise specific to 
                        cases involving child human trafficking;
                          ``(iii) travel; and
                          ``(iv) other technical assistance 
                        expenditures;
                  ``(C) dedicated anti-child human trafficking 
                prosecution units, including the funding of salaries 
                for State and local prosecutors, including assisting in 
                paying trial expenses for prosecution of child human 
                trafficking offenses, except that the percentage of the 
                total salary of a State or local prosecutor that is 
                paid using an award under this section shall be not 
                more than the percentage of the total number of hours 
                worked by the prosecutor that is spent working on cases 
                involving child human trafficking; and
                  ``(D) the establishment of child human trafficking 
                victim witness safety, assistance, and relocation 
                programs that encourage cooperation with law 
                enforcement investigations of crimes of child human 
                trafficking by leveraging existing resources and 
                delivering child human trafficking victims' services 
                through coordination with--
                          ``(i) child advocacy centers;
                          ``(ii) social service agencies;
                          ``(iii) State governmental health service 
                        agencies;
                          ``(iv) housing agencies;
                          ``(v) legal services agencies; and
                          ``(vi) non-governmental organizations and 
                        shelter service providers with substantial 
                        experience in delivering services to victims of 
                        child human trafficking;
          ``(3) the establishment or enhancement of problem solving 
        court programs for child human trafficking victims that 
        include--
                  ``(A) continuing judicial supervision of victims of 
                child human trafficking who have been identified by a 
                law enforcement or judicial officer as a potential 
                victim of child human trafficking, regardless of 
                whether the victim has been charged with a crime 
                related to human trafficking;
                  ``(B) the development of specialized and 
                individualized treatment programs for identified 
                victims of child human trafficking, including--
                          ``(i) State-administered outpatient 
                        treatment;
                          ``(ii) life skills training;
                          ``(iii) housing placement;
                          ``(iv) vocational training;
                          ``(v) education;
                          ``(vi) family support services; and
                          ``(vii) job placement; and
                  ``(C) collaborative efforts with child advocacy 
                centers, child welfare agencies, shelters, and non-
                governmental organizations to provide services to 
                victims and encourage cooperation with law enforcement; 
                and
          ``(4) the establishment or enhancement of victims' services 
        programs for victims of child human trafficking, which offer 
        services including--
                  ``(A) residential care, including temporary or long-
                term placement, as appropriate;
                  ``(B) 24-hour emergency social services response 
                systems; and
                  ``(C) counseling and case management services.
  ``(c) Application.--
          ``(1) In general.--An eligible entity shall submit an 
        application to the Attorney General for a grant under this 
        section in such form and manner as the Attorney General may 
        require.
          ``(2) Required information.--An application submitted under 
        this subsection shall--
                  ``(A) disclose--
                          ``(i) any other grant funding from the 
                        Department of Justice or from any other Federal 
                        department or agency for purposes similar to 
                        those described in subsection (b) for which the 
                        eligible entity has applied, and which 
                        application is pending on the date of the 
                        submission of an application under this 
                        section; and
                          ``(ii) any other such grant funding that the 
                        eligible entity has received during the 5 year 
                        period prior to the date of the submission of 
                        an application under this section;
                  ``(B) describe the activities for which assistance 
                under this section is sought;
                  ``(C) include a detailed plan for the use of funds 
                awarded under the grant; and
                  ``(D) provide such additional information and 
                assurances as the Attorney General determines to be 
                necessary to ensure compliance with the requirements of 
                this section.
          ``(3) Preference.--In reviewing applications submitted in 
        accordance with paragraphs (1) and (2), the Attorney General 
        shall give preference to grant applications if--
                  ``(A) the application includes a plan to use awarded 
                funds to engage in all activities described under 
                paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b); or
                  ``(B) the application includes a plan by the State or 
                unit of local government to continue funding of all 
                activities funded by the award after the expiration of 
                the award.
  ``(d) Duration and Renewal of Award.--
          ``(1) In general.--A grant under this section shall expire 1 
        year after the date of award of the grant.
          ``(2) Renewal.--A grant under this section shall be renewable 
        not more than 3 times and for a period of not greater than 1 
        year.
  ``(e) Evaluation.--The Attorney General shall enter into a contract 
with an academic or non-profit organization that has experience in 
issues related to child human trafficking and evaluation of grant 
programs to conduct an annual evaluation of grants made under this 
section to determine the impact and effectiveness of programs funded 
with grants awarded under this section, and shall submit any such 
evaluation to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate.
  ``(f) Oversight and Accountability.--An eligible entity that receives 
a grant under this section is subject to the requirements of section 10 
of the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2014.
  ``(g) Administrative Cap.--The cost of administering the grants 
authorized by this section shall not exceed 5 percent of the total 
amount appropriated to carry out this section.
  ``(h) Federal Share.--The Federal share of the cost of a program 
funded by a grant awarded under this section may not exceed--
          ``(1) 70 percent in the first year;
          ``(2) 60 percent in the second year; and
          ``(3) 50 percent in the third year.
  ``(i) Definitions.--In this section--
          ``(1) the term `child' means a person under the age of 18;
          ``(2) the term `child advocacy center' means a center created 
        under subtitle A of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 
        U.S.C. 13001 et seq.);
          ``(3) the term `child human trafficking' means 1 or more 
        severe forms of trafficking in persons (as defined in section 
        103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 
        U.S.C. 7102)) involving a victim who is a child; and
          ``(4) the term `eligible entity' means a State or unit of 
        local government that--
                  ``(A) has significant criminal activity involving 
                child human trafficking;
                  ``(B) has demonstrated cooperation between Federal, 
                State, local, and, where applicable, tribal law 
                enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and social service 
                providers in addressing child human trafficking; and
                  ``(C) has developed a workable, multi-disciplinary 
                plan to combat child human trafficking.''; and
          (3) in subsection (j) (as so redesignated)--
                  (A) by striking ``Secretary of Health and Human 
                Services'' and inserting ``Attorney General, in 
                consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human 
                Services,''; and
                  (B) by striking ``fiscal years 2008 through 2011'' 
                and inserting ``fiscal years 2015 through 2019''.

SEC. 4. AMENDMENTS TO THE VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE ACT OF 1990.

  (a) Reauthorization of Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990.--Section 
214B of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13004) is 
amended--
          (1) in subsection (a), by striking ``fiscal years 2004 and 
        2005'' and inserting ``fiscal years 2015 through 2019''; and
          (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``fiscal years 2004 and 
        2005'' and inserting ``fiscal years 2015 through 2019''.
  (b) Direct Services for Victims of Child Pornography.--The Victims of 
Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13001 et seq.) is amended--
          (1) in section 212(5) (42 U.S.C. 13001a(5)), by inserting ``, 
        including human trafficking and the production of child 
        pornography'' before the semicolon at the end; and
          (2) in section 214 (42 U.S.C. 13002)--
                  (A) by redesignating subsections (b), (c), and (d) as 
                subsections (c), (d), and (e), respectively; and
                  (B) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:
  ``(b) Direct Services for Victims of Child Pornography.--The 
Administrator, in coordination with the Director and with the Director 
of the Office of Victims of Crime, may make grants to develop and 
implement specialized programs to identify and provide direct services 
to victims of child pornography.''.
  (c) Oversight and Accountability.--
          (1) Local children's advocacy centers.--Section 214 of the 
        Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13002), as 
        amended by this Act, is further amended by inserting at the end 
        the following:
  ``(f) Oversight and Accountability.--
          ``(1) Accountability requirement.--A grant recipient under 
        this section is subject to the requirements of section 10 of 
        the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2014.
          ``(2) Disclosure of additional sources of federal funding.--
        An application for a grant under this section shall disclose--
                  ``(A) any other grant funding from the Department of 
                Justice or from any other Federal department or agency 
                for purposes similar to those described in subsection 
                (a) for which the entity has applied, and which 
                application is pending on the date of the submission of 
                an application under this section; and
                  ``(B) any other such grant funding that the entity 
                has received during the 5 year period prior to the date 
                of the submission of an application under this 
                section.''.
          (2) Grants for specialized technical assistance and training 
        programs.--Section 214A of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 
        1990 (42 U.S.C. 13003) is amended by inserting at the end the 
        following:
  ``(d) Oversight and Accountability.--
          ``(1) Accountability requirement.--A grant recipient under 
        this section is subject to the requirements of section 10 of 
        the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2014.
          ``(2) Disclosure of additional sources of federal funding.--
        An application for a grant under this section shall disclose--
                  ``(A) any other grant funding from the Department of 
                Justice or from any other Federal department or agency 
                for purposes similar to those described in subsection 
                (a) for which the organization has applied, and which 
                application is pending on the date of the submission of 
                an application under this section; and
                  ``(B) any other such grant funding that the 
                organization has received during the 5 year period 
                prior to the date of the submission of an application 
                under this section.''.

SEC. 5. STREAMLINING STATE AND LOCAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING INVESTIGATIONS.

  Section 2516(2) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by 
inserting ``human trafficking, child sexual exploitation, child 
pornography production,'' after ``kidnapping,''.

SEC. 6. ENHANCING HUMAN TRAFFICKING REPORTING.

  Section 3702 of the Crime Control Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 5780) is 
amended--
          (1) in paragraph (2), by striking ``and'' at the end; and
          (2) in paragraph (4)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by 
                striking ``paragraph (2)'' and inserting ``paragraph 
                (3)'';
                  (B) in subparagraph (A), by inserting ``and a 
                photograph taken within the previous 180 days'' after 
                ``dental records'';
                  (C) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``and'' at the 
                end;
                  (D) by redesignating subparagraph (C) as subparagraph 
                (D); and
                  (E) by inserting after subparagraph (B) the 
                following:
                  ``(C) notify the National Center for Missing and 
                Exploited Children of each report received relating to 
                a child reported missing from a foster care family home 
                or childcare institution; and''.

SEC. 7. REDUCING DEMAND FOR SEX TRAFFICKING.

  (a) In General.--Section 1591 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)(1), by striking ``or maintains'' and 
        inserting ``maintains, patronizes, or solicits'';
          (2) in subsection (b)--
                  (A) in paragraph (1), by striking ``or obtained'' and 
                inserting ``obtained, patronized, or solicited''; and
                  (B) in paragraph (2), by striking ``or obtained'' and 
                inserting ``obtained, patronized, or solicited''; and
          (3) in subsection (c)--
                  (A) by striking ``or maintained'' and inserting ``, 
                maintained, patronized, or solicited''; and
                  (B) by striking ``knew that the person'' and 
                inserting ``knew, or recklessly disregarded the fact, 
                that the person''.
  (b) Definition Amended.--Section 103(10) of the Trafficking Victims 
Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7102(10)) is amended by striking ``or 
obtaining'' and inserting ``obtaining, patronizing, or soliciting''.

SEC. 8. USING EXISTING TASK FORCES TO TARGET OFFENDERS WHO EXPLOIT 
                    CHILDREN.

  Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Attorney General shall ensure that all task forces and working groups 
within the Violent Crimes Against Children Program engage in 
activities, programs, or operations to increase the investigative 
capabilities of State and local law enforcement officers in the 
detection, investigation, and prosecution of persons who patronize, or 
solicit children for sex.

SEC. 9. HOLDING SEX TRAFFICKERS ACCOUNTABLE.

  Section 2423(g) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by 
striking ``a preponderance of the evidence'' and inserting ``clear and 
convincing evidence''.

SEC. 10. OVERSIGHT AND ACCOUNTABILITY.

  (a) Audit Requirement.--In fiscal year 2015, and each fiscal year 
thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall 
conduct audits of covered grantees to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse 
of such funds. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate 
number of covered grantees to be audited each year.
  (b) Mandatory Exclusion.--A covered grantee that is found to have an 
unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible for an allocation of 
grant funds from the covered grant program from which it received a 
grant award during the first 2 fiscal years beginning after the end of 
the 12-month period described in subsection (g)(3).
  (c) Reimbursement.--If a covered grantee is awarded funds under the 
covered grant program from which it received a grant award during the 
2-fiscal year period during which the covered grantee is ineligible for 
an allocation of grant funds as a result of subsection (b), the 
Attorney General shall--
          (1) deposit an amount equal to the amount of the grant funds 
        that were improperly awarded to the covered grantee into the 
        General Fund of the Treasury; and
          (2) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the Fund 
        from the covered grantee that was erroneously awarded grant 
        funds.
  (d) Nonprofit Organization Requirements.--
          (1) Definition.--For purposes of this section, the term 
        ``nonprofit'', when used with respect to an organization, means 
        an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of the 
        Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is exempt from taxation under 
        section 501(a) of such Code.
          (2) Prohibition.--A nonprofit organization that holds money 
        in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax 
        described in section 511(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 
        1986, shall not be eligible to receive, directly or indirectly, 
        any funds from a covered grant program.
          (3) Disclosure.--Each nonprofit organization that is a 
        covered grantee shall disclose in its application for such a 
        grant, as a condition of receipt of such a grant, the 
        compensation of its officers, directors, and trustees. Such 
        disclosure shall include a description of the criteria relied 
        upon to determine such compensation.
  (e) Conference Expenditures.--
          (1) Limitation.--No amounts made available under a covered 
        grant program may be used to host or support a conference that 
        uses more than $20,000 in funds made available by the 
        Department of Justice unless the Deputy Attorney General or the 
        appropriate Assistant Attorney General, Director, or principal 
        deputy (as designated by the Deputy Attorney General) provides 
        prior written approval that the funds may be expended to host 
        or support such conference, except that a conference that uses 
        more than $20,000 in such funds, but less than $500 in such 
        funds for each attendee of the conference, shall not be subject 
        to the limitation under this paragraph.
          (2) Written approval.--Written approval under paragraph (1) 
        shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with 
        the conference, including the cost of all food, beverages, 
        audio-visual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and 
        entertainment.
          (3) Report.--The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an 
        annual report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate 
        and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of 
        Representatives on all conference expenditures approved under 
        this subsection.
  (f) Prohibition on Lobbying Activity.--
          (1) In general.--Amounts made available under a covered grant 
        program may not be used by any covered grantee to--
                  (A) lobby any representative of the Department of 
                Justice regarding the award of grant funding; or
                  (B) lobby any representative of the Federal 
                Government or a State, local, or tribal government 
                regarding the award of grant funding.
          (2) Penalty.--If the Attorney General determines that a 
        covered grantee has violated paragraph (1), the Attorney 
        General shall--
                  (A) require the covered grantee to repay the grant in 
                full; and
                  (B) prohibit the covered grantee from receiving a 
                grant under the covered grant program from which it 
                received a grant award during at least the 5-year 
                period beginning on the date of such violation.
  (g) Definitions.--In this section, the following definitions apply:
          (1) The term ``covered grant program'' means the following:
                  (A) The grant program under section 203 of the 
                Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 
                2005 (42 U.S.C. 14044b).
                  (B) The grant programs under section 214 and 214A of 
                the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 
                13002, 13003).
          (2) The term ``covered grantee'' means a recipient of a grant 
        from a covered grant program.
          (3) The term ``unresolved audit finding'' means an audit 
        report finding in a final audit report of the Inspector General 
        of the Department of Justice that a covered grantee has used 
        grant funds awarded to that grantee under a covered grant 
        program for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise 
        unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved during the 12-
        month period beginning on the date on which the final audit 
        report is issued.

SEC. 11. CRIME VICTIMS' RIGHTS.

  (a) In General.--Section 3771 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended--
          (1) in subsection (a), by adding at the end the following:
          ``(9) The right to be informed in a timely manner of any plea 
        bargain or deferred prosecution agreement.
          ``(10) The right to be informed of the rights under this 
        section and the services described in section 503(c) of the 
        Victims' Rights and Restitution Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 
        10607(c)) and provided contact information for the Office of 
        the Victims' Rights Ombudsman of the Department of Justice.'';
          (2) in subsection (d)(3), in the fifth sentence, by inserting 
        ``, unless the litigants, with the approval of the court, have 
        stipulated to a different time period for consideration'' 
        before the period; and
          (3) in subsection (e)--
                  (A) by striking ``this chapter, the term'' and 
                inserting the following: ``this chapter:
          ``(1) Court of appeals.--The term `court of appeals' means--
                  ``(A) the United States court of appeals for the 
                judicial district in which a defendant is being 
                prosecuted; or
                  ``(B) for a prosecution in the Superior Court of the 
                District of Columbia, the District of Columbia Court of 
                Appeals.
          ``(2) Crime victim.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The term'';
                  (B) by striking ``In the case'' and inserting the 
                following:
                  ``(B) Minors and certain other victims.--In the 
                case''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following:
          ``(3) District court; court.--The terms `district court' and 
        `court' include the Superior Court of the District of 
        Columbia.''.
  (b) Appellate Review of Petitions Relating to Crime Victims' 
Rights.--
          (1) In general.--Section 3771(d)(3) of title 18, United 
        States Code, as amended by subsection (a)(2) of this section, 
        is amended by inserting after the fifth sentence the following: 
        ``In deciding such application, the court of appeals shall 
        apply ordinary standards of appellate review.''.
          (2) Application.--The amendment made by paragraph (1) shall 
        apply with respect to any petition for a writ of mandamus filed 
        under section 3771(d)(3) of title 18, United States Code, that 
        is pending on the date of enactment of this Act.

SEC. 12. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  It is the sense of Congress that child human trafficking (as such 
term is defined in section 203(h) of the Trafficking Victims Protection 
Reauthorization Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 14044b), as added by this Act) 
has no place in a civilized society, and that persons who commit crimes 
relating to child human trafficking should be prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law.

                          Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 3530, as reported, is a comprehensive response to the 
growing crime of minor sex trafficking. Among other things, 
this legislation addresses victim services and provides 
additional resources to law enforcement through the new victim-
centered grant program; helps to facilitate these 
investigations by providing that sex trafficking and other 
similar crimes are predicate offenses for state wiretap 
applications; addresses the demand side of this crime by 
clarifying that under existing 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1591, it is a 
Federal crime to solicit or patronize for sex minors, or adults 
who are involved in the sex trade through force, fraud, or 
coercion; and reauthorizes the funding stream for Child 
Advocacy Centers, which are often the first line of service 
providers for the victims of this and other crimes.

                Background and Need for the Legislation

    According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, sex 
trafficking is the fastest-growing business of organized crime 
and the third-largest criminal enterprise in the world.\1\ 
Because this crime usually occurs outside of the public eye, it 
is difficult to estimate the number of minor victims of sex 
trafficking.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\See Amanda Walker-Rodriguez & Rodney Hill, The FBI, FBI Law 
Enforcement Bulletin: Human Sex Trafficking, Mar. 2011, available at 
http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-
bulletin/march_2011/human_sex_trafficking.
    \2\Starting in January 2013, the FBI began collecting data 
regarding sex trafficking specifically as part of its Uniform Crime 
Report program. This information should help to provide a more fulsome 
picture of the impact of minor sex trafficking nationwide. See fbi, UCR 
Program Continues to Adapt, Evolve, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/
cjis-link/september-2011/ucr-program-continues-to-adapt-evolve.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The problem, however, is extensive. Demand for the 
prostitution (and other forms of commercial sexual 
exploitation) of children is steady, and profit to sex pimps 
(or more aptly called ``traffickers''), has increased. One 
study estimates that over 290,000 American youth are at risk of 
becoming a victim of sex trafficking, and the National Center 
for Missing and Exploited Children estimates that one of every 
seven endangered runaways reported to the Center are likely 
victims of minor sex trafficking.\3\ And, from 2004 through 
2008, the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces have 
experienced an increase of more than 900 percent in the number 
of child victims of prostitution.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Oversight Hearing: The State of Efforts to Stop Human 
Trafficking, H. Subcomm. on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related 
Agencies of the H. Comm. on Appropriations, 113th Congress (statement 
of John Ryan, CEO, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children).
    \4\U.S. Department of Justice, The National Strategy for Child 
Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction, 32, 2010, available at http:/
/www.justice.gov/psc/docs/natstrategyreport.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Victims of sex trafficking are exploited by traffickers who 
may operate alone or as part of a criminal network. Shared Hope 
International estimates that human trafficking in the United 
States is a $9.8 billion industry.\5\ It is more profitable for 
a trafficker to sell the sexual services of a child or adult 
than to commit other crimes such as dealing in drugs--drugs can 
only be sold once, whereas victims can be, and are, prostituted 
multiple times a day.\6\ In fact, traffickers will often set 
daily monetary quotas for their victims, usually ranging 
between $500 and $1,000, which goes to the trafficker and not 
the victim. Failure to meet these quotas can result in violence 
and other types of retaliation against the victim.\7\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\Shared hope international, Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the 
U.S., http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/
DMSTinfographic.pdf.
    \6\U.S. Department of Justice, supra note 4 at 32-33.
    \7\Domestic Sex Trafficking: The Criminal Operations of the 
American Pimp, Polaris Project, available at http://
www.dcjs.virginia.gov/victims/humantrafficking/vs/documents/Domestic_
Sex_Trafficking_Guide.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Many traffickers increase their profits by working together 
and sharing information about ``hot spots'' where there may be 
higher demand or areas of increased police activity to avoid. 
For example, traffickers will often transport their victims to 
cities that are hosting major sporting events or conventions in 
order to find increased demand. The practice of moving children 
from city to city also makes it more difficult for law 
enforcement to investigate and stop trafficking enterprises.
    The average age of minors entering the sex trade is between 
12 and 14 years.\8\ Traffickers often target vulnerable youth, 
who are more easily lured into prostitution and other forms of 
child exploitation. For example, runaways and children in the 
foster care system are particularly vulnerable to becoming 
victims of sex trafficking--one federally funded study found 
that approximately 1.7 million youth had run away from home or 
were forced to leave their homes at some point in 1999, and 
that, while away from home, an estimated 38,600 (2.2%) of these 
youth were sexually assaulted, were in the company of someone 
known to be sexually abusive, or were engaged in sexual 
activity in exchange for money, drugs, food, or shelter.\9\ 
Victims of minor sex trafficking, however, are not always 
runaways or in foster homes. Instead, these victims can and do 
come from any type of home or socioeconomic background.\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\Rights4girls, Trafficking of Girls, http://www.rights4girls.org/
#!trafficking-of-girls/cthj.
    \9\Heather Hammer, David Finkelhor, & Andrea J. Sedlak, U.S. 
Department of Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency 
Prevention, OJJDP NISMART Bulletin Runaway/Thrownaway Children: 
National Estimates and Characteristics, Oct. 2002, available at https:/
/www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196469.pdf.
    \10\See ``You're Pretty--You Could Make Some Money,'' Washingtonian 
Mag., June 10, 2013 (discussing the growth of minor sex trafficking 
victims coming from ``the affluent Northern Virginia suburbs'').
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Traffickers are often able to lure victims with false 
promises to address their emotional and physical 
vulnerabilities. These manipulative, abusive, and traumatizing 
relationships, however, can help to ensure that the victims 
will remain loyal to their traffickers in spite of their 
victimization. Other reasons that victims are often unable to 
leave their traffickers include being kept in captivity or 
confinement, the use of violence and threats, debt bondage, and 
fear of retaliation or arrest.\11\ This applies not only to 
child victims but also adults who, by force, fraud, or 
coercion, are victims of traffickers.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \11\See Domestic Sex Trafficking: The Criminal Operations of the 
American Pimp, supra note 7.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The investigation and prosecution of human trafficking has 
often been carried out by state and local law enforcement. 
Congress has focused recent attention on domestic sex 
trafficking of children, which includes commercial sex acts 
involving children under the age of 18. Under the Victims of 
Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA), the 
primary law that addresses trafficking, sex trafficking of 
children in interstate commerce is a Federal crime.\12\ 
Further, regardless of whether a child is believed to have 
consented to sex or whether the child represents himself or 
herself as an adult, the child is considered a trafficking 
victim under Federal law.\13\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \12\P.L. 106-386.
    \13\18 U.S.C. Sec. 1591.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    While much of the efforts to combat this crime have focused 
on the supply-side of sex trafficking, it is also a Federal 
(and state) crime to purchase sex with a minor.\14\ There is no 
uniform profile of a buyer of commercial sex with a minor, 
making buyers particularly difficult to identify. Research has 
suggested that these predators are often encouraged by online 
solicitations, temptations, and exploitation. In addition to 
those actively seeking out sex with minors, some buyers may 
engage in sex with minors unknowingly, to wit, those 
perpetrators may assume that a prostituted individual is an 
adult, not a child. Alternatively, they may or may not inquire 
about the age of that individual and may still decide to engage 
in a sex act even if she or he is a minor.\15\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \14\United States v. Jungers, 702 F.3d 1066, 1075 (8th Cir. 2013) 
(holding that purchasers of minor sex services can be held criminally 
liable under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1591. See also United States Attorney's 
office for the Western District of Missouri, lebanon man sentenced to 
20 years for coercing a minor to become a sex slave (announcing the 
conviction of sex trafficking customers), available at http://
www.justice.gov/usao/mow/news2013/bagley.sen.html (announcing the 
conviction of sex trafficking customers).
    \15\See generally Malika Saada Saar, There is No Such Thing As A 
Child Prostitute, Wash. Post, Feb, 17, 2014 (discussing Tami, who 
pleaded with her purchasers for months to take her to the police 
because she was a minor, but none did), available at http://
www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/there-is-no-such-thing-as-a-child-
prostitute/2014/02/14/631ebd26-8ec7-11e3-b227-12a45d109e03_story.html
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Hearings

    The Committee on the Judiciary held no hearings on H.R. 
3530.

                        Committee Consideration

    On April 30, 2014, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered the bill H.R. 3530 favorably reported with an 
amendment, by voice vote, a quorum being present.

                            Committee Votes

    In compliance with clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that there 
were no recorded votes during the Committee's consideration of 
H.R. 3530.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the 
descriptive portions of this report.

               New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures

    Clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives is inapplicable because this legislation does 
not provide new budgetary authority or increased tax 
expenditures.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee sets forth, with 
respect to the bill, H.R. 3530, the following estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, May 13, 2014.
Hon. Bob Goodlatte, Chairman,
Committee on the Judiciary,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 3530, the 
``Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2014.''
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Mark 
Grabowicz, who can be reached at 226-2860.
            Sincerely,
                                      Douglas W. Elmendorf,
                                                  Director.

Enclosure

cc:
        Honorable John Conyers, Jr.
        Ranking Member




       H.R. 3530--Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2014.

      As ordered reported by the House Committee on the Judiciary 
                           on April 30, 2014.




                                SUMMARY

    H.R. 3530 would authorize the appropriation of $25 million 
annually over the 2015-2019 period for the Department of 
Justice (DOJ) to provide grants to states and other recipients 
aimed at improving the enforcement of laws against human 
trafficking and to assist victims of such crimes. The bill also 
would establish levels of funding for 2016 through 2020 for 
DOJ's Crime Victims Fund.
    Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing H.R. 3530 would cost $125 million 
over the 2015-2024 period. We estimate that enacting the bill 
would not change total direct spending over the 2015-2024 
period; it would reduce such spending during the 2016-2021 
period and increase it over the subsequent years. We also 
estimate that bill would have an insignificant effect on 
revenues. Pay-as-you-go procedures apply because enacting the 
legislation would affect direct spending and revenues.
    H.R. 3530 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).

                ESTIMATED COST TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

    The estimated budgetary impact of H.R. 3530 is shown in the 
following table. The costs of this legislation fall within 
budget function 750 (administration of justice).

                                                         By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        2015    2016    2017   2018    2019    2020   2021    2022   2023    2024   2015-2019  2015-2024
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
DOJ Grants

  Authorization Level                                     25       25     25     25       25      0       0      0       0       0       125        125

  Estimated Outlays                                        4       11     17     21       25     22      14      8       4       0        78        125

CHANGES IN DIRECT SPENDING
Crime Victims Fund
  Estimated Budget Authority                               0   -1,819   -875   -755     -634   -610   4,693      0       0       0    -4,083          0

  Estimated Outlays                                        0      -73   -435   -859   -1,207   -769    -463    572   1,405   1,830    -2,574          0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           BASIS OF ESTIMATE

Spending Subject to Appropriation
    CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost $125 
million over the 2015-2023 period. We assume that the bill will 
be enacted by the end of 2014, the authorized amounts will be 
provided each year, and spending will follow historical 
patterns for these programs.
    H.R. 3530 would authorize the appropriation of a total of 
$25 million annually over the 2015-2019 period for DOJ grants, 
as follows:

         L$5 million annually for state and local 
        governments to improve the investigation and 
        prosecution of child trafficking crimes and to assist 
        victims;

         L$15 million annually to support children's 
        advocacy centers; and

         L$5 million annually for programs to train and 
        assist attorneys and other personnel who prosecute 
        child abuse cases in state and Federal courts.

Direct Spending
    Collections of most Federal criminal penalties are recorded 
in the budget as revenues, deposited into the Crime Victims 
Fund, and later spent without further appropriation. In recent 
years deposits have ranged from $1.5 billion (in 2013) to 
nearly $2.8 billion (in 2012). For many years, however, the 
Congress has enacted annual caps on obligations from the fund 
at amounts ranging from $500 million to $745 million. As a 
result, large unobligated balances, currently estimated to 
total about $11 billion, have accumulated in the Crime Victims 
Fund. We estimate that annual receipts to this fund will 
average about $1.6 billion a year over the 2014-2024 period.
    Under current law all of those amounts-unobligated balances 
and annual collections-are available to be spent after 2014. 
CBO estimates that, without any limitations, outlays from the 
fund would be about $26 billion over the 2015-2024 period. H.R. 
3530 would set caps on future obligations from the Crime 
Victims Fund as follows:

         L$805 million for 2016,

         L$825 million for 2017,

         L$845 million for 2018,

         L$866 million for 2019, and

         L$890 million for 2020.

    CBO estimates that those limitations would result in a 
decrease in spending from the fund over the 2016-2021 period, 
but an increase in spending in later years. Over the 2015-2024 
period, CBO estimates, there would be no net change in direct 
spending from enacting H.R. 3530.
Revenues
    H.R. 3530 would broaden the coverage of current laws 
against sex trafficking. As a result, the government might be 
able to pursue cases that it otherwise would not be able to 
prosecute. Because those prosecuted and convicted under the 
bill could be subject to criminal fines, the Federal government 
might collect additional fines if the legislation is enacted. 
Criminal fines are recorded as revenues, deposited in the Crime 
Victims Fund, and later spent. CBO expects that any additional 
revenues (or direct spending) would not be significant because 
of the small number of cases likely to be affected.

                      PAY-AS-YOU-GO CONSIDERATIONS

    The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010 establishes budget-
reporting and enforcement procedures for legislation affecting 
direct spending or revenues. The net changes in outlays and 
revenues that are subject to those pay-as-you-go procedures are 
shown in the following table.

_______________________________________________________________________

CBO Estimate of Pay-As-You-Go Effects for H.R. 3530 as ordered reported 
by the House Committee on the Judiciary on April 30, 2014
_______________________________________________________________________

                                                         By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    2014   2015   2016   2017   2018    2019    2020   2021   2022   2023    2024   2014-2019  2014-2024
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NET INCREASE OR DECREASE (-) IN THE ON-BUDGET DEFICIT

Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Impact                         0      0    -73   -435   -859   -1,207   -769   -463    572   1,405   1,830    -2,574          0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

              INTERGOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE-SECTOR IMPACT

    H.R. 3530 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in UMRA. State and local governments would 
benefit from grants authorized in the bill. Any costs to those 
governments would be incurred voluntarily as a condition of 
Federal assistance.

                         ESTIMATE PREPARED BY:

Federal Spending: Mark Grabowicz
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Melissa Merrell
Impact on the Private Sector: Paige Piper/Bach

                         ESTIMATE APPROVED BY:

Theresa Gullo
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 3530 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that H.R. 3530 specifically directs 
to be completed no specific rule makings within the meaning of 
5 U.S.C. 551.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    The Committee states that pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
H.R.3530 is a comprehensive response to the growing crime of 
minor sex trafficking that focuses on prosecuting offenders and 
providing assistance and services to victims.

                          Advisory on Earmarks

    In accordance with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, H.R. 3530 does not contain any 
congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff 
benefits as defined in clause 9(e), 9(f), or 9(g) of Rule XXI.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis

    The following discussion describes the bill as reported by 
the Committee.
    Sec. 1. Short Title. This section cites the short title of 
the bill as the ``Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 
2014.''
    Sec. 2. Availability of Sums in Crime Victims Fund. This 
section increases the obligation cap for the Justice 
Department's Crime Victims Fund by approximately 2.5 percent 
per years for fiscal years 2016 through 2020, ultimately 
reaching $890 million per year. The Crime Victims Fund is 
funded through Federal criminal fines, forfeited bail bonds, 
penalties, and special assessments and is intended to support 
victim assistance programs and victim compensation. In fiscal 
year 2014, Congress set the obligation cap for the Fund at $745 
million, despite the fact that the Fund carried over 
approximately $9 billion from the previous fiscal year. 
Increasing the obligation incrementally over 5 years will help 
to provide additional support to crime victims, including the 
victims of sex trafficking, without threatening the Fund's 
stability.
    Sec. 3. Victim-Centered Sex Trafficking Deterrence Grant 
Program. This section creates a victim-centered model grant 
program to help States and local governments develop and 
implement comprehensive victim-centered programs to train law 
enforcement, rescue exploited children, prosecute human 
traffickers, and restore the lives of victims. Specifically, 
these grant funds could be used for specialized training 
programs, the establishment of anti-trafficking task forces, 
victims' services, and the establishment or enhancement of 
problem-solving court programs for trafficking victims all 
focused on victim rescue and restoration. This grant program 
amends and reauthorizes the existing grant program codified at 
42 U.S.C. Sec. 14044b, and has the same authorization of $5 
million a year over 5 years.
    Sec. 4. Amendments to the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 
1990. This section reauthorizes two programs under the Victims 
of Child Abuse Act of 1990 that provide funding to support 
regional and local Child Advocacy Centers (CACs) and training 
and technical assistance to improve the criminal prosecution of 
child abuse. CACs help to provide a multi-disciplinary response 
to child abuse (e.g., law enforcement, child protection/social 
service, medical, mental health) in a manner that ensures child 
abuse victims (and any non-offending family members) receive 
the support services they need and do not experience the 
investigation of child abuse as an added trauma. There are over 
750 CACs located in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, 
as well as four regional centers. Despite being unauthorized 
since 2005, these programs have received appropriations every 
year. This section reauthorizes the funding for the regional 
and local CACs at $15 million a year for 5 years, which is the 
same as the current authorization. This section also 
reauthorizes the funding for training and technical assistance 
at $5 million a year for 5 years, which is the same as the 
current authorization. Finally, this section clarifies that the 
local CACs may provide assistance and services to the victims 
of child pornography and minor sex trafficking, and extends 
additional accountability measures to these grantees.
    Sec. 5. Streamlining State and Local Human Trafficking 
Investigations. Under current law (18 U.S.C. Sec. 2516), state 
and local law enforcement may obtain a wiretap warrant in their 
state courts upon a showing that the investigation may provide 
evidence of ``murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, 
extortion, or dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana or other 
dangerous drugs, or other crime dangerous to life, limb, or 
property, and punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 
year[.]'' State courts have struggled with whether human 
trafficking and prostitution investigations provide evidence of 
one of the listed classes of offenses, which in some cases has 
precluded state human trafficking task forces from obtaining 
wiretaps in these critical cases.\16\ To address this problem, 
this section clarifies that the principle prosecuting attorney 
of a state or its political subdivision may obtain a wiretap 
warrant in a state court pursuant to a showing of probable 
cause that the wiretap will provide evidence of a crime of 
human trafficking, child sexual exploitation, or child 
pornography production.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\See, e.g., State v. Rivers, 660 So.2d 1360 (Fla. 1995).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Sec. 6. Enhancing Human Trafficking Reporting. This section 
requires law enforcement organizations who file missing 
children reports with the FBI's National Crime Information 
Center (NCIC) to include a recent photograph of the missing 
child in their report where available, and requires the 
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) to 
be notified of each report received relating to a child 
reported missing from a foster care family home or childcare 
institution.
    Sec. 7. Reducing Demand for Sex Trafficking. The TVPA 
defines a sex trafficker as a person who ``knowingly--recruits, 
entices, harbors, transports, provides, obtains, or maintains 
by any means a person . . . knowing, or in reckless disregard 
of the fact, that means of force, threats of force, fraud, 
coercion . . . or any combination of such means will be used to 
cause the person to engage in a commercial sex act, or that the 
person has not attained the age of 18 years and will be caused 
to engage in a commercial sex act.'' In United States vs. 
Jungers, 702 F.3d 1066 (8th Cir. 2013), the Eighth Circuit 
ruled that 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1591 applied to persons who purchase 
illicit sexual acts with trafficking victims after the U.S. 
District Court for the District of South Dakota erroneously 
granted motions to acquit these buyers in two separate cases. 
This section clarifies existing law and codifies the Jungers 
decision by adding the words ``solicits or patronizes'' to the 
sex trafficking statute, thereby clarifying Congress's intent 
that 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1591 criminalizes those who purchase sexual 
acts from human trafficking victims.
    This section of the bill also clarifies that 18 U.S.C. 
Sec. 1591(c) provides that the government not need prove beyond 
a reasonable doubt that a defendant knew or recklessly 
disregarded the fact that the victim was under the age of 18 if 
the defendant had ``a reasonable opportunity to observe the 
person,'' i.e., the victim. This clarifying amendment is meant 
to codify United States v. Robinson, 702 F.3d 22, 34 (2d Cir. 
2012) in which the Second Circuit held that in a ``prosecution 
under Sec. 1591, the government may satisfy its burden of proof 
with respect to the defendant's awareness of the victim's age 
by proving any of the following beyond a reasonable doubt: (1) 
the defendant knew that the victim was under eighteen, (2) the 
defendant recklessly disregarded the fact that the victim was 
under eighteen, or (3) the defendant had a reasonable 
opportunity to observe the victim.'' This clarification is 
intended to direct law enforcement's investigative and 
prosecutorial focus on the purchasers of these illegal 
services, who create the market for the traffickers.
    Sec. 8. Using Existing Task Forces to Target Offenders Who 
Exploit Children. This section directs the Justice Department 
to use its existing law enforcement task forces through the 
Innocence Lost National Initiative to focus on fighting demand 
for human trafficking through the investigation, arrest, and 
prosecution of persons who purchase sexual acts with human 
trafficking victims.
    Sec. 9. Holding Sex Traffickers Accountable. Current 
Federal law allows interstate child predators to claim an 
affirmative defense under the Mann Act (18 U.S.C. Sec. 2423) 
where they can show, by a preponderance of the evidence (more 
likely than not), that they believed the person with whom they 
engaged in a commercial sex act was 18 years of age or older. 
This section increases the standard for claiming this 
affirmative defense by requiring defendants to show by clear 
and convincing evidence that they believed the victim to be 18 
years of age or older.
    Sec. 10. Oversight and Accountability. This section 
provides accountability measures for the new Victim-Centered 
Sex Trafficking Deterrence Grant Program and the grantees under 
the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 by allowing the DOJ 
Inspector General to conduct audits of grant recipients under 
the bill in order to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds 
by grantees; prohibiting grantees with unresolved audit 
findings from receiving grant funds for a 2-year period; giving 
grantee priority to eligible entities that have not had an 
unresolved audit finding for the previous 3-years; and ensuring 
that grantees under the bill who have improperly received funds 
are required to reimburse the Federal Government in an amount 
equal to the improper award, among other things. This section 
also provides that grantees must seek approval when using more 
than $20,000 in grant funds to support or host a conference, 
except that a conference that uses more than $20,000 but less 
than $500 in grant funds per person is not subject to the 
approval requirements. This is intended to encourage grantees 
to be cost effective when holding conferences, and to not 
discourage large conferences that provide information and 
training in an efficient manner.
    Sec. 11. Crime Victim's Rights. This section clarifies 
Congress' intent with regard to several important provisions of 
the Crime Victims' Rights Act (CVRA), enacted in 2004, and 
makes several technical and conforming changes to the CVRA. The 
CVRA gives crime victims ``the right to participate in the 
system,'' including the ``right to be treated with fairness and 
with respect for the victim's dignity and privacy'' and ``the 
reasonable right to confer with the attorney for the Government 
in the case.'' The law also instructs that these rights must be 
provided not just by the Justice Department but by ``other 
departments and agencies of the United States engaged in the 
detection, investigation, or prosecution of crime.'' Despite 
this mandate, in 2010, the Justice Department's Office of Legal 
Counsel issued an opinion concluding that the CVRA does not 
confer rights on victims of Federal crimes until prosecutors 
initiate formal criminal proceedings via the filing of a 
complaint, information, or indictment. The result of this 
opinion is that Federal prosecutors are not required to notify 
crime victims of plea bargain or deferred prosecution agreement 
negotiations that occur prior to the filing of a formal charge. 
This section clarifies Congress' intent that crime victims be 
notified of plea bargains or deferred prosecution agreements, 
including those that may take place prior to a formal charge.
    The CVRA also empowers crime victims to challenge the 
denial of their rights through a writ of mandamus. However, 
since its enactment, the circuit courts have split on the issue 
of what standard of review should apply to such writs. This 
section adopts the approach followed by the Ninth Circuit in 
Kenna v. U.S. District Court for Central District of 
California, 435 F.3d 1011 (9th Cir. 2006), and the Second 
Circuit Circuit in In re W.R. Huff Asset Management Company, 
409 F.3d 555 (2d Cir. 2005), namely that, despite the use of a 
writ of mandamus as a mechanism for victims' rights 
enforcement, Congress intended that such writs be reviewed 
under ordinary appellate review standards.
    Sec. 12. Sense of Congress. This section provides a sense 
of Congress that minor sex trafficking is a terrible crime that 
should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italics, existing law in which no change 
is proposed is shown in roman):

                      VICTIMS OF CRIME ACT OF 1984



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
CHAPTER XIV--VICTIM COMPENSATION AND ASSISTANCE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                           crime victims fund

    Sec. 1402. (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) The Fund shall be available as follows:
            (1) Of the amounts available in the Fund, exactly--
                    (A) $805,000,000 shall be available for 
                obligation in fiscal year 2016;
                    (B) $825,000,000 shall be available for 
                obligation in fiscal year 2017;
                    (C) $845,000,000 shall be available for 
                obligation in fiscal year 2018;
                    (D) $866,000,000 shall be available for 
                obligation in fiscal year 2019; and
                    (E) $890,000,000 shall be available for 
                obligation in fiscal year 2020.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


       TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2005



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE II--COMBATTING DOMESTIC TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 203. PROTECTION OF JUVENILE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS.

    [(a) Establishment of Pilot Program.--Not later than 180 
days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary 
of Health and Human Services shall establish and carry out a 
pilot program to establish residential treatment facilities in 
the United States for juveniles subjected to trafficking.
    [(b) Purposes.--The purposes of the pilot program 
established pursuant to subsection (a) are to--
            [(1) provide benefits and services to juveniles 
        subjected to trafficking, including shelter, 
        psychological counseling, and assistance in developing 
        independent living skills;
            [(2) assess the benefits of providing residential 
        treatment facilities for juveniles subjected to 
        trafficking, as well as the most efficient and cost-
        effective means of providing such facilities; and
            [(3) assess the need for and feasibility of 
        establishing additional residential treatment 
        facilities for juveniles subjected to trafficking.
    [(c) Selection of Sites.--The Secretary of Health and Human 
Services shall select three sites at which to operate the pilot 
program established pursuant to subsection (a).
    [(d) Form of Assistance.--In order to carry out the 
responsibilities of this section, the Secretary of Health and 
Human Services shall enter into contracts with, or make grants 
to, organizations that--
            [(1) have relevant expertise in the delivery of 
        services to juveniles who have been subjected to sexual 
        abuse or commercial sexual exploitation; or
            [(2) have entered into partnerships with 
        organizations that have expertise as described in 
        paragraph (1) for the purpose of implementing the 
        contracts or grants.
    [(e) Report.--Not later than one year after the date on 
which the first pilot program is established pursuant to 
subsection (a), the Secretary of Health and Human Services 
shall submit to Congress a report on the implementation of this 
section.
    [(f) Definition.--In this section, the term ``juvenile 
subjected to trafficking'' means a United States citizen, or 
alien admitted for permanent residence, who is the subject of 
sex trafficking or severe forms of trafficking in persons that 
occurs, in whole or in part, within the territorial 
jurisdiction of the United States and who has not attained 18 
years of age at the time the person is identified as having 
been the subject of sex trafficking or severe forms of 
trafficking in persons.]
    (a) Grants Authorized.--The Attorney General may make 
grants to eligible entities to develop, improve, or expand 
comprehensive domestic child human trafficking deterrence 
programs that assist law enforcement officers, prosecutors, 
judicial officials, and qualified victims' services 
organizations in collaborating to rescue and restore the lives 
of victims, while investigating and prosecuting offenses 
involving child human trafficking.
    (b) Authorized Activities.--Grants awarded under subsection 
(a) may be used for--
            (1) the establishment or enhancement of specialized 
        training programs for law enforcement officers, first 
        responders, health care officials, child welfare 
        officials, juvenile justice personnel, prosecutors, and 
        judicial personnel to--
                    (A) identify victims and acts of child 
                human trafficking;
                    (B) address the unique needs of victims of 
                child human trafficking;
                    (C) facilitate the rescue of victims of 
                child human trafficking;
                    (D) investigate and prosecute acts of child 
                human trafficking, including the soliciting, 
                patronizing, or purchasing of commercial sex 
                acts from children, as well as training to 
                build cases against complex criminal networks 
                involved in child human trafficking; and
                    (E) implement and provide education on safe 
                harbor laws enacted by States, aimed at 
                preventing the criminalization and prosecution 
                of victims of child human trafficking for 
                prostitution offenses;
            (2) the establishment or enhancement of dedicated 
        anti-child human trafficking law enforcement units and 
        task forces to investigate child human trafficking 
        offenses and to rescue victims, including--
                    (A) funding salaries, in whole or in part, 
                for law enforcement officers, including patrol 
                officers, detectives, and investigators, except 
                that the percentage of the salary of the law 
                enforcement officer paid for by funds from a 
                grant awarded under this section shall not be 
                more than the percentage of the officer's time 
                on duty that is dedicated to working on cases 
                involving child human trafficking;
                    (B) investigation expenses for cases 
                involving child human trafficking, including--
                            (i) wire taps;
                            (ii) consultants with expertise 
                        specific to cases involving child human 
                        trafficking;
                            (iii) travel; and
                            (iv) other technical assistance 
                        expenditures;
                    (C) dedicated anti-child human trafficking 
                prosecution units, including the funding of 
                salaries for State and local prosecutors, 
                including assisting in paying trial expenses 
                for prosecution of child human trafficking 
                offenses, except that the percentage of the 
                total salary of a State or local prosecutor 
                that is paid using an award under this section 
                shall be not more than the percentage of the 
                total number of hours worked by the prosecutor 
                that is spent working on cases involving child 
                human trafficking; and
                    (D) the establishment of child human 
                trafficking victim witness safety, assistance, 
                and relocation programs that encourage 
                cooperation with law enforcement investigations 
                of crimes of child human trafficking by 
                leveraging existing resources and delivering 
                child human trafficking victims' services 
                through coordination with--
                            (i) child advocacy centers;
                            (ii) social service agencies;
                            (iii) State governmental health 
                        service agencies;
                            (iv) housing agencies;
                            (v) legal services agencies; and
                            (vi) non-governmental organizations 
                        and shelter service providers with 
                        substantial experience in delivering 
                        services to victims of child human 
                        trafficking;
            (3) the establishment or enhancement of problem 
        solving court programs for child human trafficking 
        victims that include--
                    (A) continuing judicial supervision of 
                victims of child human trafficking who have 
                been identified by a law enforcement or 
                judicial officer as a potential victim of child 
                human trafficking, regardless of whether the 
                victim has been charged with a crime related to 
                human trafficking;
                    (B) the development of specialized and 
                individualized treatment programs for 
                identified victims of child human trafficking, 
                including--
                            (i) State-administered outpatient 
                        treatment;
                            (ii) life skills training;
                            (iii) housing placement;
                            (iv) vocational training;
                            (v) education;
                            (vi) family support services; and
                            (vii) job placement; and
                    (C) collaborative efforts with child 
                advocacy centers, child welfare agencies, 
                shelters, and non-governmental organizations to 
                provide services to victims and encourage 
                cooperation with law enforcement; and
            (4) the establishment or enhancement of victims' 
        services programs for victims of child human 
        trafficking, which offer services including--
                    (A) residential care, including temporary 
                or long-term placement, as appropriate;
                    (B) 24-hour emergency social services 
                response systems; and
                    (C) counseling and case management 
                services.
    (c) Application.--
            (1) In general.--An eligible entity shall submit an 
        application to the Attorney General for a grant under 
        this section in such form and manner as the Attorney 
        General may require.
            (2) Required information.--An application submitted 
        under this subsection shall--
                    (A) disclose--
                            (i) any other grant funding from 
                        the Department of Justice or from any 
                        other Federal department or agency for 
                        purposes similar to those described in 
                        subsection (b) for which the eligible 
                        entity has applied, and which 
                        application is pending on the date of 
                        the submission of an application under 
                        this section; and
                            (ii) any other such grant funding 
                        that the eligible entity has received 
                        during the 5 year period prior to the 
                        date of the submission of an 
                        application under this section;
                    (B) describe the activities for which 
                assistance under this section is sought;
                    (C) include a detailed plan for the use of 
                funds awarded under the grant; and
                    (D) provide such additional information and 
                assurances as the Attorney General determines 
                to be necessary to ensure compliance with the 
                requirements of this section.
            (3) Preference.--In reviewing applications 
        submitted in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (2), 
        the Attorney General shall give preference to grant 
        applications if--
                    (A) the application includes a plan to use 
                awarded funds to engage in all activities 
                described under paragraphs (1) and (2) of 
                subsection (b); or
                    (B) the application includes a plan by the 
                State or unit of local government to continue 
                funding of all activities funded by the award 
                after the expiration of the award.
    (d) Duration and Renewal of Award.--
            (1) In general.--A grant under this section shall 
        expire 1 year after the date of award of the grant.
            (2) Renewal.--A grant under this section shall be 
        renewable not more than 3 times and for a period of not 
        greater than 1 year.
    (e) Evaluation.--The Attorney General shall enter into a 
contract with an academic or non-profit organization that has 
experience in issues related to child human trafficking and 
evaluation of grant programs to conduct an annual evaluation of 
grants made under this section to determine the impact and 
effectiveness of programs funded with grants awarded under this 
section, and shall submit any such evaluation to the Committee 
on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate.
    (f) Oversight and Accountability.--An eligible entity that 
receives a grant under this section is subject to the 
requirements of section 10 of the Justice for Victims of 
Trafficking Act of 2014.
    (g) Administrative Cap.--The cost of administering the 
grants authorized by this section shall not exceed 5 percent of 
the total amount appropriated to carry out this section.
    (h) Federal Share.--The Federal share of the cost of a 
program funded by a grant awarded under this section may not 
exceed--
            (1) 70 percent in the first year;
            (2) 60 percent in the second year; and
            (3) 50 percent in the third year.
    (i) Definitions.--In this section--
            (1) the term ``child'' means a person under the age 
        of 18;
            (2) the term ``child advocacy center'' means a 
        center created under subtitle A of the Victims of Child 
        Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13001 et seq.);
            (3) the term ``child human trafficking'' means 1 or 
        more severe forms of trafficking in persons (as defined 
        in section 103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection 
        Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7102)) involving a victim who is 
        a child; and
            (4) the term ``eligible entity'' means a State or 
        unit of local government that--
                    (A) has significant criminal activity 
                involving child human trafficking;
                    (B) has demonstrated cooperation between 
                Federal, State, local, and, where applicable, 
                tribal law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, 
                and social service providers in addressing 
                child human trafficking; and
                    (C) has developed a workable, multi-
                disciplinary plan to combat child human 
                trafficking.
    [(g)] (j) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are 
authorized to be appropriated to the [Secretary of Health and 
Human Services] Attorney General, in consultation with the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services, to carry out this 
section $5,000,000 for each of the [fiscal years 2008 through 
2011] fiscal years 2015 through 2019.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                   VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE ACT OF 1990



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE II--VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE ACT OF 1990

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  Subtitle A--Improving Investigation and Prosecution of Child Abuse 
Cases

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 212. DEFINITIONS.

     For purposes of this subtitle--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (5) the term ``child abuse'' means physical or 
        sexual abuse or neglect of a child, including human 
        trafficking and the production of child pornography;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 214. LOCAL CHILDREN'S ADVOCACY CENTERS.

    (a) * * *
    (b) Direct Services for Victims of Child Pornography.--The 
Administrator, in coordination with the Director and with the 
Director of the Office of Victims of Crime, may make grants to 
develop and implement specialized programs to identify and 
provide direct services to victims of child pornography.
    [(b)] (c) Grant Criteria.--(1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [(c)] (d) Distribution of Grants.--In awarding grants under 
this section, the Director shall ensure that grants are 
distributed to both large and small States and to rural, 
suburban, and urban jurisdictions.
    [(d)] (e) Consultation With Regional Children's Advocacy 
Centers.--A grant recipient under this section shall consult 
from time to time with regional children's advocacy centers in 
its census region that are grant recipients under section 213.
    (f) Oversight and Accountability.--
            (1) Accountability requirement.--A grant recipient 
        under this section is subject to the requirements of 
        section 10 of the Justice for Victims of Trafficking 
        Act of 2014.
            (2) Disclosure of additional sources of Federal 
        funding.--An application for a grant under this section 
        shall disclose--
                    (A) any other grant funding from the 
                Department of Justice or from any other Federal 
                department or agency for purposes similar to 
                those described in subsection (a) for which the 
                entity has applied, and which application is 
                pending on the date of the submission of an 
                application under this section; and
                    (B) any other such grant funding that the 
                entity has received during the 5 year period 
                prior to the date of the submission of an 
                application under this section.

SEC. 214A. GRANTS FOR SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING 
                    PROGRAMS.

    (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Oversight and Accountability.--
            (1) Accountability requirement.--A grant recipient 
        under this section is subject to the requirements of 
        section 10 of the Justice for Victims of Trafficking 
        Act of 2014.
            (2) Disclosure of additional sources of federal 
        funding.--An application for a grant under this section 
        shall disclose--
                    (A) any other grant funding from the 
                Department of Justice or from any other Federal 
                department or agency for purposes similar to 
                those described in subsection (a) for which the 
                organization has applied, and which application 
                is pending on the date of the submission of an 
                application under this section; and
                    (B) any other such grant funding that the 
                organization has received during the 5 year 
                period prior to the date of the submission of 
                an application under this section.

SEC. 214B. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) Sections 213 and 214.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out sections 213 and 214, $15,000,000 for 
each of [fiscal years 2004 and 2005] fiscal years 2015 through 
2019.
    (b) Section 214A.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
to carry out section 214A, $5,000,000 for each of [fiscal years 
2004 and 2005] fiscal years 2015 through 2019.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                      TITLE 18, UNITED STATES CODE



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
PART I--CRIMES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 77--PEONAGE, SLAVERY, AND TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1591. Sex trafficking of children or by force, fraud, or coercion

    (a) Whoever knowingly--
            (1) in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, 
        or within the special maritime and territorial 
        jurisdiction of the United States, recruits, entices, 
        harbors, transports, provides, obtains, [or maintains] 
        maintains, patronizes, or solicits by any means a 
        person; or

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (b) The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) is--
            (1) if the offense was effected by means of force, 
        threats of force, fraud, or coercion described in 
        subsection (e)(2), or by any combination of such means, 
        or if the person recruited, enticed, harbored, 
        transported, provided, [or obtained] obtained, 
        patronized, or solicited had not attained the age of 14 
        years at the time of such offense, by a fine under this 
        title and imprisonment for any term of years not less 
        than 15 or for life; or
            (2) if the offense was not so effected, and the 
        person recruited, enticed, harbored, transported, 
        provided, [or obtained] obtained, patronized, or 
        solicited had attained the age of 14 years but had not 
        attained the age of 18 years at the time of such 
        offense, by a fine under this title and imprisonment 
        for not less than 10 years or for life.
    (c) In a prosecution under subsection (a)(1) in which the 
defendant had a reasonable opportunity to observe the person so 
recruited, enticed, harbored, transported, provided, obtained 
[or maintained], maintained, patronized, or solicited, the 
Government need not prove that the defendant [knew that the 
person] knew, or recklessly disregarded the fact, that the 
person had not attained the age of 18 years.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  CHAPTER 117--TRANSPORTATION FOR ILLEGAL SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND RELATED 
CRIMES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 2423. Transportation of minors

    (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (g) Defense.--In a prosecution under this section based on 
illicit sexual conduct as defined in subsection (f)(2), it is a 
defense, which the defendant must establish by [a preponderance 
of the evidence] clear and convincing evidence, that the 
defendant reasonably believed that the person with whom the 
defendant engaged in the commercial sex act had attained the 
age of 18 years.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


   CHAPTER 119--WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS INTERCEPTION AND 
INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic 
                    communications

    (1) * * *
    (2) The principal prosecuting attorney of any State, or the 
principal prosecuting attorney of any political subdivision 
thereof, if such attorney is authorized by a statute of that 
State to make application to a State court judge of competent 
jurisdiction for an order authorizing or approving the 
interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, may 
apply to such judge for, and such judge may grant in conformity 
with section 2518 of this chapter and with the applicable State 
statute an order authorizing, or approving the interception of 
wire, oral, or electronic communications by investigative or 
law enforcement officers having responsibility for the 
investigation of the offense as to which the application is 
made, when such interception may provide or has provided 
evidence of the commission of the offense of murder, 
kidnapping, human trafficking, child sexual exploitation, child 
pornography production, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, 
or dealing in narcotic drugs, marihuana or other dangerous 
drugs, or other crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and 
punishable by imprisonment for more than one year, designated 
in any applicable State statute authorizing such interception, 
or any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


PART II--CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   CHAPTER 237--CRIME VICTIMS' RIGHTS

Sec. 3771. Crime victims' rights

    (a) Rights of Crime Victims.--A crime victim has the 
following rights:
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (9) The right to be informed in a timely manner of 
        any plea bargain or deferred prosecution agreement.
            (10) The right to be informed of the rights under 
        this section and the services described in section 
        503(c) of the Victims' Rights and Restitution Act of 
        1990 (42 U.S.C. 10607(c)) and provided contact 
        information for the Office of the Victims' Rights 
        Ombudsman of the Department of Justice.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Enforcement and Limitations.--
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (3) Motion for relief and writ of mandamus.--The 
        rights described in subsection (a) shall be asserted in 
        the district court in which a defendant is being 
        prosecuted for the crime or, if no prosecution is 
        underway, in the district court in the district in 
        which the crime occurred. The district court shall take 
        up and decide any motion asserting a victim's right 
        forthwith. If the district court denies the relief 
        sought, the movant may petition the court of appeals 
        for a writ of mandamus. The court of appeals may issue 
        the writ on the order of a single judge pursuant to 
        circuit rule or the Federal Rules of Appellate 
        Procedure. The court of appeals shall take up and 
        decide such application forthwith within 72 hours after 
        the petition has been filed, unless the litigants, with 
        the approval of the court, have stipulated to a 
        different time period for consideration. In deciding 
        such application, the court of appeals shall apply 
        ordinary standards of appellate review. In no event 
        shall proceedings be stayed or subject to a continuance 
        of more than five days for purposes of enforcing this 
        chapter. If the court of appeals denies the relief 
        sought, the reasons for the denial shall be clearly 
        stated on the record in a written opinion.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Definitions.--For the purposes of [this chapter, the 
term] this chapter:
            (1) Court of appeals._The term ``court of appeals'' 
        means--
                    (A) the United States court of appeals for 
                the judicial district in which a defendant is 
                being prosecuted; or
                    (B) for a prosecution in the Superior Court 
                of the District of Columbia, the District of 
                Columbia Court of Appeals.
            (2) Crime victim._
                    (A) In general._The term ``crime victim'' 
                means a person directly and proximately harmed 
                as a result of the commission of a Federal 
                offense or an offense in the District of 
                Columbia. [In the case]
                    (B) Minors and certain other victims._In 
                the case of a crime victim who is under 18 
                years of age, incompetent, incapacitated, or 
                deceased, the legal guardians of the crime 
                victim or the representatives of the crime 
                victim's estate, family members, or any other 
                persons appointed as suitable by the court, may 
                assume the crime victim's rights under this 
                chapter, but in no event shall the defendant be 
                named as such guardian or representative.
            (3) District court; court.--The terms ``district 
        court'' and ``court'' include the Superior Court of the 
        District of Columbia.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


             SECTION 3702 OF THE CRIME CONTROL ACT OF 1990



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
SEC. 3702. STATE REQUIREMENTS.

    Each State reporting under the provisions of this title 
shall--
            (1) * * *
            (2) ensure that no law enforcement agency within 
        the State establishes or maintains any policy that 
        requires the removal of a missing person entry from its 
        State law enforcement system or the National Crime 
        Information Center computer database based solely on 
        the age of the person; [and]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (4) provide that after receiving reports as 
        provided in [paragraph (2)] paragraph (3), the law 
        enforcement agency that entered the report into the 
        National Crime Information Center shall--
                    (A) no later than 60 days after the 
                original entry of the record into the State law 
                enforcement system and National Crime 
                Information Center computer networks, verify 
                and update such record with any additional 
                information, including, where available, 
                medical and dental records and a photograph 
                taken within the previous 180 days;
                    (B) institute or assist with appropriate 
                search and investigative procedures; [and]
                    (C) notify the National Center for Missing 
                and Exploited Children of each report received 
                relating to a child reported missing from a 
                foster care family home or childcare 
                institution; and
                    [(C)] (D) maintain close liaison with the 
                National Center for Missing and Exploited 
                Children for the exchange of information and 
                technical assistance in the missing children 
                cases.
                              ----------                              


     SECTION 103 OF THE TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION ACT OF 2000

SEC. 103. DEFINITIONS.

     In this division:
            (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            (10) Sex trafficking.--The term ``sex trafficking'' 
        means the recruitment, harboring, transportation, 
        provision, [or obtaining] obtaining, patronizing, or 
        soliciting of a person for the purpose of a commercial 
        sex act.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *