H. Rept. 113-470 - 113th Congress (2013-2014)
June 05, 2014, As Reported by the Science, Space, and Technology Committee

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House Report 113-470 - NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014




[House Report 113-470]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]


113th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                     113-470

======================================================================



 
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014

                                _______
                                

  June 5, 2014.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 4412]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 4412) to authorize the programs of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and for 
other purposes, having considered the same, report favorably 
thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill as 
amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose and Summary............................................36
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation........................36
  IV. Hearing Summary................................................36
   V. Committee Consideration........................................39
  VI. Committee Votes................................................40
 VII. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill........................42
VIII. Committee Views................................................43
  IX. Committee Oversight Findings...................................56
   X. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........56
  XI. New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditur56
 XII. Advisory on Earmarks...........................................56
XIII. Committee Cost Estimate........................................56
 XIV. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................56
  XV. Federal Mandates Statement.....................................59
 XVI. Compliance with House Resolution 5.............................59
XVII. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................59
XVIII.Applicability to Legislative Branch............................59

 XIX. Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation.................59
  XX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, As Reported..........77
 XXI. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup.........................93
XXII. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup......................305

                              I. Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal year 2014.

                      TITLE II--HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT

                        Subtitle A--Exploration

Sec. 201. Space exploration policy.
Sec. 202. Stepping stone approach to exploration.
Sec. 203. Space Launch System.
Sec. 204. Orion crew capsule.
Sec. 205. Space radiation.
Sec. 206. Planetary protection for human exploration missions.

                      Subtitle B--Space Operations

Sec. 211. International Space Station.
Sec. 212. Barriers impeding enhanced utilization of the ISS's National 
Laboratory by commercial companies.
Sec. 213. Utilization of International Space Station for science 
missions.
Sec. 214. International Space Station cargo resupply services lessons 
learned.
Sec. 215. Commercial crew program.
Sec. 216. Space communications.

                           TITLE III--SCIENCE

                          Subtitle A--General

Sec. 301. Science portfolio.
Sec. 302. Radioisotope power systems.
Sec. 303. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose.
Sec. 304. University class science missions.
Sec. 305. Assessment of science mission extensions.

                        Subtitle B--Astrophysics

Sec. 311. Decadal cadence.
Sec. 312. Extrasolar planet exploration strategy.
Sec. 313. James Webb Space Telescope.
Sec. 314. National Reconnaissance Office telescope donation.
Sec. 315. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.
Sec. 316. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy.

                     Subtitle C--Planetary Science

Sec. 321. Decadal cadence.
Sec. 322. Near-Earth objects.
Sec. 323. Near-Earth objects public-private partnerships.
Sec. 324. Research on near-earth object tsunami effects.
Sec. 325. Astrobiology strategy.
Sec. 326. Astrobiology public-private partnerships.
Sec. 327. Assessment of Mars architecture.

                        Subtitle D--Heliophysics

Sec. 331. Decadal cadence.
Sec. 332. Review of space weather.

                       Subtitle E--Earth Science

Sec. 341. Goal.
Sec. 342. Decadal cadence.
Sec. 343. Venture class missions.
Sec. 344. Assessment.

                         TITLE IV--AERONAUTICS

Sec. 401. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 402. Aeronautics research goals.
Sec. 403. Unmanned aerial systems research and development.
Sec. 404. Research program on composite materials used in aeronautics.
Sec. 405. Hypersonic research.
Sec. 406. Supersonic research.
Sec. 407. Research on NextGen airspace management concepts and tools.
Sec. 408. Rotorcraft research.
Sec. 409. Transformative aeronautics research.
Sec. 410. Study of United States leadership in aeronautics research.

                       TITLE V--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 501. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 502. Space Technology Program.
Sec. 503. Utilization of the International Space Station for technology 
demonstrations.

                          TITLE VI--EDUCATION

Sec. 601. Education.
Sec. 602. Independent review of the National Space Grant College and 
Fellowship Program.

                      TITLE VII--POLICY PROVISIONS

Sec. 701. Asteroid Retrieval Mission.
Sec. 702. Termination liability.
Sec. 703. Baseline and cost controls.
Sec. 704. Project and program reserves.
Sec. 705. Independent reviews.
Sec. 706. Commercial technology transfer program.
Sec. 707. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advisory 
Council.
Sec. 708. Cost estimation.
Sec. 709. Avoiding organizational conflicts of interest in major 
Administration acquisition programs.
Sec. 710. Facilities and infrastructure.
Sec. 711. Detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts.
Sec. 712. Space Act Agreements.
Sec. 713. Human spaceflight accident investigations.
Sec. 714. Fullest commercial use of space.
Sec. 715. Orbital debris.
Sec. 716. Review of orbital debris removal concepts.
Sec. 717. Use of operational commercial suborbital vehicles for 
research, development, and education.
Sec. 718. Fundamental space life and physical sciences research.
Sec. 719. Restoring commitment to engineering research.
Sec. 720. Liquid rocket engine development program.
Sec. 721 Remote satellite servicing demonstrations.
Sec. 722. Information technology governance.
Sec. 723. Strengthening Administration security.
Sec. 724. Prohibition on use of funds for contractors that have 
committed fraud or other crimes.
Sec. 725. Protection of Apollo landing sites.
Sec. 726. Astronaut occupational healthcare.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Administration.--The term ``Administration'' means the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
          (2) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of the Administration.
          (3) Orion crew capsule.--The term ``Orion crew capsule'' 
        means the multipurpose crew vehicle described in section 303 of 
        the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
          (4) Space act agreement.--The term ``Space Act Agreement'' 
        means an agreement created under the authority to enter into 
        ``other transactions'' under section 20113(e) of title 51, 
        United States Code.
          (5) Space launch system.--The term ``Space Launch System'' 
        means the follow-on Government-owned civil launch system 
        developed, managed, and operated by the Administration to serve 
        as a key component to expand human presence beyond low-Earth 
        orbit, as described in section 302 of the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18322).

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

SEC. 101. FISCAL YEAR 2014.

  There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administration for 
fiscal year 2014 $17,646,500,000 as follows:
          (1) For Space Exploration, $4,113,200,000, of which--
                  (A) $1,918,200,000 shall be for the Space Launch 
                System, of which $318,200,000 shall be for Exploration 
                Ground Systems;
                  (B) $1,197,000,000 shall be for the Orion crew 
                capsule;
                  (C) $302,000,000 shall be for Exploration Research 
                and Development; and
                  (D) $696,000,000 shall be for Commercial Crew 
                Development activities.
          (2) For Space Operations, $3,778,000,000, of which 
        $2,984,100,000 shall be for the International Space Station 
        Program.
          (3) For Science, $5,151,200,000, of which--
                  (A) $1,826,000,000 shall be for Earth Science;
                  (B) $1,345,000,000 shall be for Planetary Science, of 
                which $30,000,000 shall be for the Astrobiology 
                Institute;
                  (C) $668,000,000 shall be for Astrophysics;
                  (D) $658,200,000 shall be for the James Webb Space 
                Telescope; and
                  (E) $654,000,000 shall be for Heliophysics.
          (4) For Aeronautics, $566,000,000.
          (5) For Space Technology, $576,000,000.
          (6) For Education, $116,600,000.
          (7) For Cross-Agency Support, $2,793,000,000.
          (8) For Construction and Environmental Compliance and 
        Restoration, $515,000,000.
          (9) For Inspector General, $37,500,000.

                      TITLE II--HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT

                        Subtitle A--Exploration

SEC. 201. SPACE EXPLORATION POLICY.

  (a) Policy.--Human exploration deeper into the solar system shall be 
a core mission of the Administration. It is the policy of the United 
States that the goal of the Administration's exploration program shall 
be to successfully conduct a crewed mission to the surface of Mars to 
begin human exploration of that planet. The use of the surface of the 
Moon, cis-lunar space, near-Earth asteroids, Lagrangian points, and 
Martian moons may be pursued provided they are properly incorporated 
into the Human Exploration Roadmap described in section 70504 of title 
51, United States Code.
  (b) Vision for Space Exploration.--Section 20302 of title 51, United 
States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
  ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
          ``(1) Orion crew capsule.--The term `Orion crew capsule' 
        means the multipurpose crew vehicle described in section 303 of 
        the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
          ``(2) Space launch system.--The term `Space Launch System' 
        means the follow-on Government-owned civil launch system 
        developed, managed, and operated by the Administration to serve 
        as a key component to expand human presence beyond low-Earth 
        orbit, as described in section 302 of the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18322).''.
  (c) Key Objectives.--Section 202(b) of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(b)) is 
amended--
          (1) in paragraph (3), by striking ``and'' after the 
        semicolon;
          (2) in paragraph (4), by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following:
          ``(5) to accelerate the development of capabilities to enable 
        a human exploration mission to the surface of Mars and beyond 
        through the prioritization of those technologies and 
        capabilities best suited for such a mission in accordance with 
        the Human Exploration Roadmap under section 70504 of title 51, 
        United States Code.''.
  (d) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight Transportation 
Capabilities.--Section 201(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18311(a)) is 
amended to read as follows:
  ``(a) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight Transportation 
Capabilities.--
          ``(1) In general.--NASA may not obtain non-United States 
        human space flight capabilities unless no domestic commercial 
        or public-private partnership provider that the Administrator 
        has determined to meet safety and affordability requirements 
        established by NASA for the transport of its astronauts is 
        available to provide such capabilities.
          ``(2) Definition.--For purposes of this subsection, the term 
        `domestic commercial provider' means a person providing space 
        transportation services or other space-related activities, the 
        majority control of which is held by persons other than a 
        Federal, State, local, or foreign government, foreign company, 
        or foreign national.''.
  (e) Repeal of Space Shuttle Capability Assurance.--Section 203 of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
(42 U.S.C. 18313) is amended--
          (1) by striking subsection (b);
          (2) in subsection (d), by striking ``subsection (c)'' and 
        inserting ``subsection (b)''; and
          (3) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections 
        (b) and (c), respectively.

SEC. 202. STEPPING STONE APPROACH TO EXPLORATION.

  (a) In General.--Section 70504 of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended to read as follows:

``Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration

  ``(a) In General.--In order to maximize the cost effectiveness of the 
long-term space exploration and utilization activities of the United 
States, the Administrator shall direct the Human Exploration and 
Operations Mission Directorate, or its successor division, to develop a 
Human Exploration Roadmap to define the specific capabilities and 
technologies necessary to extend human presence to the surface of Mars 
and the sets and sequences of missions required to demonstrate such 
capabilities and technologies.
  ``(b) International Participation.--The President should invite the 
United States partners in the International Space Station program and 
other nations, as appropriate, to participate in an international 
initiative under the leadership of the United States to achieve the 
goal of successfully conducting a crewed mission to the surface of 
Mars.
  ``(c) Roadmap Requirements.--In developing the Human Exploration 
Roadmap, the Administrator shall--
          ``(1) include the specific set of capabilities and 
        technologies that contribute to extending human presence to the 
        surface of Mars and the sets and sequences of missions 
        necessary to demonstrate the proficiency of these capabilities 
        and technologies with an emphasis on using or not using the 
        International Space Station, lunar landings, cis-lunar space, 
        trans-lunar space, Lagrangian points, and the natural 
        satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, as testbeds, as 
        necessary, and shall include the most appropriate process for 
        developing such capabilities and technologies;
          ``(2) include information on the phasing of planned 
        intermediate destinations, Mars mission risk areas and 
        potential risk mitigation approaches, technology requirements 
        and phasing of required technology development activities, the 
        management strategy to be followed, related International Space 
        Station activities, and planned international collaborative 
        activities, potential commercial contributions, and other 
        activities relevant to the achievement of the goal established 
        in section 201(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2014;
          ``(3) describe those technologies already under development 
        across the Federal Government or by nongovernment entities 
        which meet or exceed the needs described in paragraph (1);
          ``(4) provide a specific process for the evolution of the 
        capabilities of the fully integrated Orion crew capsule with 
        the Space Launch System and how these systems demonstrate the 
        capabilities and technologies described in paragraph (1);
          ``(5) provide a description of the capabilities and 
        technologies that need to be demonstrated or research data that 
        could be gained through the utilization of the International 
        Space Station and the status of the development of such 
        capabilities and technologies;
          ``(6) describe a framework for international cooperation in 
        the development of all technologies and capabilities required 
        in this section, as well as an assessment of the risks posed by 
        relying on international partners for capabilities and 
        technologies on the critical path of development;
          ``(7) describe a process for utilizing nongovernmental 
        entities for future human exploration beyond trans-lunar space 
        and specify what, if any, synergy could be gained from--
                  ``(A) partnerships using Space Act Agreements (as 
                defined in section 2 of the National Aeronautics and 
                Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014); or
                  ``(B) other acquisition instruments;
          ``(8) include in the Human Exploration Roadmap an addendum 
        from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advisory 
        Council, and an addendum from the Aerospace Safety Advisory 
        Panel, each with a statement of review of the Human Exploration 
        Roadmap that shall include--
                  ``(A) subjects of agreement;
                  ``(B) areas of concern; and
                  ``(C) recommendations; and
          ``(9) include in the Human Exploration Roadmap an examination 
        of the benefits of utilizing current Administration launch 
        facilities for trans-lunar missions.
  ``(d) Updates.--The Administrator shall update such Human Exploration 
Roadmap as needed but no less frequently than every 2 years and include 
it in the budget for that fiscal year transmitted to Congress under 
section 1105(a) of title 31, and describe--
          ``(1) the achievements and goals reached in the process of 
        developing such capabilities and technologies during the 2-year 
        period prior to the submission of the update to Congress; and
          ``(2) the expected goals and achievements in the following 2-
        year period.
  ``(e) Definitions.--In this section, the terms `Orion crew capsule' 
and `Space Launch System' have the meanings given such terms in section 
20302.''.
  (b) Report.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit a copy 
        of the Human Exploration Roadmap developed under section 70504 
        of title 51, United States Code, to the Committee on Science, 
        Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate.
          (2) Updates.--The Administrator shall transmit a copy of each 
        updated Human Exploration Roadmap to the Committee on Science, 
        Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate not later than 7 days after such Human Exploration 
        Roadmap is updated.

SEC. 203. SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
          (1) the Space Launch System is the most practical approach to 
        reaching the Moon, Mars, and beyond, and Congress reaffirms the 
        policy and minimum capability requirements for the Space Launch 
        System contained in section 302 of the National Aeronautics and 
        Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18322);
          (2) the primary goal for the design of the fully integrated 
        Space Launch System, including an upper stage needed to go 
        beyond low-Earth orbit, is to safely carry a total payload to 
        enable human space exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond 
        over the course of the next century as required in section 
        302(c) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18322(c)); and
          (3) In order to promote safety and reduce programmatic risk, 
        the Administrator shall budget for and undertake a robust 
        ground test and uncrewed and crewed flight test and 
        demonstration program for the Space Launch System and the Orion 
        crew capsule and shall budget for an operational flight rate 
        sufficient to maintain safety and operational readiness.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
President's annual budget requests for the Space Launch System and 
Orion crew capsule development, test, and operational phases should 
strive to accurately reflect the resource requirements of each of those 
phases, consistent with the policy established in section 201(a) of 
this Act.
  (c) In General.--Given the critical importance of a heavy-lift launch 
vehicle and crewed spacecraft to enable the achievement of the goal 
established in section 201(a) of this Act, as well as the 
accomplishment of intermediate exploration milestones and the provision 
of a backup capability to transfer crew and cargo to the International 
Space Station, the Administrator shall make the expeditious 
development, test, and achievement of operational readiness of the 
Space Launch System and the Orion crew capsule the highest priority of 
the exploration program.
  (d) Government Accountability Office Review.--Not later than 270 days 
after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall 
transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report on the Administration's 
acquisition of ground systems in support of the Space Launch System. 
The report shall assess the extent to which ground systems acquired in 
support of the Space Launch System are focused on the direct support of 
the Space Launch System and shall identify any ground support projects 
or activities that the Administration is undertaking that do not solely 
or primarily support the Space Launch System.
  (e) Utilization Report.--The Administrator, in consultation with the 
Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, shall 
prepare a report that addresses the effort and budget required to 
enable and utilize a cargo variant of the 130-ton Space Launch System 
configuration described in section 302(c) of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
18322(c)). This report shall also include consideration of the 
technical requirements of the scientific and national security 
communities related to such Space Launch System and shall directly 
assess the utility and estimated cost savings obtained by using such 
Space Launch System for national security and space science missions. 
The Administrator shall transmit such report to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate not 
later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act.
  (f) Naming Competition.--Beginning not later than 180 days after the 
date of enactment of this Act and concluding not later than 1 year 
after such date of enactment, the Administrator shall conduct a well-
publicized competition among students in elementary and secondary 
schools to name the elements of the Administration's exploration 
program, including--
          (1) a name for the deep space human exploration program as a 
        whole, which includes the Space Launch System, the Orion crew 
        capsule, and future missions; and
          (2) a name for the Space Launch System.
  (g) Advanced Booster Competition.--
          (1) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Associate Administrator of the 
        Administration shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
        Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate a report that--
                  (A) describes the estimated total development cost of 
                an advanced booster for the Space Launch System;
                  (B) details any reductions or increases to the 
                development cost of the Space Launch System which may 
                result from conducting a competition for an advanced 
                booster; and
                  (C) outlines any potential schedule delay to the 
                Space Launch System 2017 Exploration Mission-1 launch 
                as a result of increased costs associated with 
                conducting a competition for an advanced booster.
          (2) Competition.--If the Associate Administrator reports 
        reductions pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), and no adverse 
        schedule impact pursuant to paragraph (1)(C), then the 
        Administration shall conduct a full and open competition for an 
        advanced booster for the Space Launch System to meet the 
        requirements described in section 302(c) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18322(c)), to begin as soon as practicable after the 
        development of the upper stage has been initiated.

SEC. 204. ORION CREW CAPSULE.

  (a) In General.--The Orion crew capsule shall meet the practical 
needs and the minimum capability requirements described in section 303 
of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
  (b) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit a report to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate--
          (1) detailing those components and systems of the Orion crew 
        capsule that ensure it is in compliance with section 303(b) of 
        such Act (42 U.S.C. 18323(b));
          (2) detailing the expected date that the Orion crew capsule 
        will be available to transport crew and cargo to the 
        International Space Station; and
          (3) certifying that the requirements of section 303(b)(3) of 
        such Act (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)) will be met by the 
        Administration.

SEC. 205. SPACE RADIATION.

  (a) Strategy and Plan.--
          (1) In general.--The Administrator shall develop a space 
        radiation mitigation and management strategy and implementation 
        plan to enable the achievement of the goal established in 
        section 201 that includes key research and monitoring 
        requirements, milestones, a timetable, and an estimate of 
        facility and budgetary requirements.
          (2) Coordination.--The strategy shall include a mechanism for 
        coordinating Administration research, technology, facilities, 
        engineering, operations, and other functions required to 
        support the strategy and plan.
          (3) Transmittal.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the 
        strategy and plan to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
        Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
        Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.
  (b) Space Radiation Research Facilities.--The Administrator, in 
consultation with the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies, 
shall assess the national capabilities for carrying out critical 
ground-based research on space radiation biology and shall identify any 
issues that could affect the ability to carry out that research.

SEC. 206. PLANETARY PROTECTION FOR HUMAN EXPLORATION MISSIONS.

  (a) Study.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Academies for a study to explore the planetary protection 
ramifications of potential future missions by astronauts such as to the 
lunar polar regions, near-Earth asteroids, the moons of Mars, and the 
surface of Mars.
  (b) Scope.--The study shall--
          (1) collate and summarize what has been done to date with 
        respect to planetary protection measures to be applied to 
        potential human missions such as to the lunar polar regions, 
        near-Earth asteroids, the moons of Mars, and the surface of 
        Mars;
          (2) identify and document planetary protection concerns 
        associated with potential human missions such as to the lunar 
        polar regions, near-Earth asteroids, the moons of Mars, and the 
        surface of Mars;
          (3) develop a methodology, if possible, for defining and 
        classifying the degree of concern associated with each likely 
        destination;
          (4) assess likely methodologies for addressing planetary 
        protection concerns; and
          (5) identify areas for future research to reduce current 
        uncertainties.
  (c) Completion Date.--Not later than 2 years after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall provide the results of 
the study to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.

                      Subtitle B--Space Operations

SEC. 211. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) The International Space Station is an ideal testbed for 
        future exploration systems development, including long-duration 
        space travel.
          (2) The use of the private market to provide cargo and crew 
        transportation services is currently the most expeditious 
        process to restore domestic access to the International Space 
        Station and low-Earth orbit.
          (3) Government access to low-Earth orbit is paramount to the 
        continued success of the International Space Station and 
        National Laboratory.
  (b) In General.--The following is the policy of the United States:
          (1) The United States International Space Station program 
        shall have two primary objectives: supporting achievement of 
        the goal established in section 201 of this Act and pursuing a 
        research program that advances knowledge and provides benefits 
        to the Nation. It shall continue to be the policy of the United 
        States to, in consultation with its international partners in 
        the International Space Station program, support full and 
        complete utilization of the International Space Station.
          (2) The International Space Station shall be utilized to the 
        maximum extent practicable for the development of capabilities 
        and technologies needed for the future of human exploration 
        beyond low-Earth orbit and shall be considered in the 
        development of the Human Exploration Roadmap developed under 
        section 70504 of title 51, United States Code.
          (3) The Administrator shall, in consultation with the 
        International Space Station partners--
                  (A) take all necessary measures to support the 
                operation and full utilization of the International 
                Space Station; and
                  (B) seek to minimize, to the extent practicable, the 
                operating costs of the International Space Station.
          (4) Reliance on foreign carriers for crew transfer is 
        unacceptable, and the Nation's human space flight program must 
        acquire the capability to launch United States astronauts on 
        United States rockets from United States soil as soon as is 
        safe and practically possible, whether on Government-owned and 
        operated space transportation systems or privately owned 
        systems that have been certified for flight by the appropriate 
        Federal agencies.
  (c) Reaffirmation of Policy.--Congress reaffirms--
          (1) its commitment to the development of a commercially 
        developed launch and delivery system to the International Space 
        Station for crew missions as expressed in the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 
        (Public Law 109-155), the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422), 
        and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-267);
          (2) that the Administration shall make use of United States 
        commercially provided International Space Station crew transfer 
        and crew rescue services to the maximum extent practicable;
          (3) that the Orion crew capsule shall provide an alternative 
        means of delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space 
        Station, in the event other vehicles, whether commercial 
        vehicles or partner-supplied vehicles, are unable to perform 
        that function; and
          (4) the policy stated in section 501(b) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18351(b)) that the Administration shall pursue 
        international, commercial, and intragovernmental means to 
        maximize International Space Station logistics supply, 
        maintenance, and operational capabilities, reduce risks to 
        International Space Station systems sustainability, and offset 
        and minimize United States operations costs relating to the 
        International Space Station.
  (d) Assured Access to Low-earth Orbit.--Section 70501(a) of title 51, 
United States Code, is amended to read as follows:
  ``(a) Policy Statement.--It is the policy of the United States to 
maintain an uninterrupted capability for human space flight and 
operations in low-Earth orbit, and beyond, as an essential instrument 
of national security and the capability to ensure continued United 
States participation and leadership in the exploration and utilization 
of space.''.
  (e) Repeals.--
          (1) Use of space shuttle or alternatives.--Chapter 701 of 
        title 51, United States Code, and the item relating to such 
        chapter in the table of chapters for such title, are repealed.
          (2) Shuttle pricing policy for commercial and foreign 
        users.--Chapter 703 of title 51, United States Code, and the 
        item relating to such chapter in the table of chapters for such 
        title, are repealed.
          (3) Shuttle privatization.--Section 50133 of title 51, United 
        States Code, and the item relating to such section in the table 
        of sections for chapter 501 of such title, are repealed.
  (f) Extension Criteria Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date 
of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report on the feasibility of extending 
the operation of the International Space Station that includes--
          (1) criteria for defining the International Space Station as 
        a research success;
          (2) any necessary contributions to enabling execution of the 
        Human Exploration Roadmap developed under section 70504 of 
        title 51, United States Code;
          (3) cost estimates for operating the International Space 
        Station to achieve the criteria required under paragraph (1);
          (4) cost estimates for extending operations to 2024 and 2030;
          (5) an assessment of how the defined criteria under paragraph 
        (1) respond to the National Academies Decadal Survey on 
        Biological and Physical Sciences in Space; and
          (6) an identification of the actions and cost estimate needed 
        to deorbit the International Space Station once a decision is 
        made to deorbit the laboratory.
  (g) Strategic Plan for International Space Station Research.--
          (1) In general.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
        Technology Policy, in consultation with the Administrator, 
        academia, other Federal agencies, the International Space 
        Station National Laboratory Advisory Committee, and other 
        potential stakeholders, shall develop and transmit to the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate a strategic plan for conducting 
        competitive, peer-reviewed research in physical and life 
        sciences and related technologies on the International Space 
        Station through at least 2020.
          (2) Plan requirements.--The strategic plan shall--
                  (A) be consistent with the priorities and 
                recommendations established by the National Academies 
                in its Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical 
                Sciences in Space;
                  (B) provide a research timeline and identify resource 
                requirements for its implementation, including the 
                facilities and instrumentation necessary for the 
                conduct of such research; and
                  (C) identify--
                          (i) criteria for the proposed research, 
                        including--
                                  (I) a justification for the research 
                                to be carried out in the space 
                                microgravity environment;
                                  (II) the use of model systems;
                                  (III) the testing of flight hardware 
                                to understand and ensure its 
                                functioning in the microgravity 
                                environment;
                                  (IV) the use of controls to help 
                                distinguish among the direct and 
                                indirect effects of microgravity, among 
                                other effects of the flight or space 
                                environment;
                                  (V) approaches for facilitating data 
                                collection, analysis, and 
                                interpretation;
                                  (VI) procedures to ensure repetition 
                                of experiments, as needed;
                                  (VII) support for timely presentation 
                                of the peer-reviewed results of the 
                                research;
                                  (VIII) defined metrics for the 
                                success of each study; and
                                  (IX) how these activities enable the 
                                Human Exploration Roadmap described in 
                                section 70504 of title 51, United 
                                States Code;
                          (ii) instrumentation required to support the 
                        measurements and analysis of the research to be 
                        carried out under the strategic plan;
                          (iii) the capabilities needed to support 
                        direct, real-time communications between 
                        astronauts working on research experiments 
                        onboard the International Space Station and the 
                        principal investigator on the ground;
                          (iv) a process for involving the external 
                        user community in research planning, including 
                        planning for relevant flight hardware and 
                        instrumentation, and for utilization of the 
                        International Space Station, free flyers, or 
                        other research platforms;
                          (v) the acquisition strategies the 
                        Administration plans to use to acquire any new 
                        capabilities which are not operational on the 
                        International Space Station as of the date of 
                        enactment of this Act and which have an 
                        estimated total life cycle cost of $10,000,000 
                        or more, along with a justification of any 
                        anticipated use of less than full and open 
                        competition and written approval therefor from 
                        the Administration's Assistant Administrator 
                        for Procurement; and
                          (vi) defined metrics for success of the 
                        research plan.
          (3) Report.--
                  (A) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date 
                of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of 
                the United States shall transmit to the Committee on 
                Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
                Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
                and Transportation of the Senate a report on the 
                progress of the organization chosen for the management 
                of the International Space Station National Laboratory 
                as directed in section 504 of the National Aeronautics 
                and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
                U.S.C. 18354).
                  (B) Specific requirements.--The report shall assess 
                the management, organization, and performance of such 
                organization and shall include a review of the status 
                of each of the 7 required activities listed in section 
                504(c) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 18354(c)).

SEC. 212. BARRIERS IMPEDING ENHANCED UTILIZATION OF THE ISS'S NATIONAL 
                    LABORATORY BY COMMERCIAL COMPANIES.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) enhanced utilization of the International Space Station's 
        National Laboratory requires a full understanding of the 
        barriers impeding such utilization and actions needed to be 
        taken to remove or mitigate them to the maximum extent 
        practicable; and
          (2) doing so will allow the Administration to encourage 
        commercial companies to invest in microgravity research using 
        National Laboratory research facilities.
  (b) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement 
with the National Academies for an assessment to--
          (1) identify barriers impeding enhanced utilization of the 
        International Space Station's National Laboratory;
          (2) recommend ways to encourage commercial companies to make 
        greater use of the International Space Station's National 
        Laboratory, including corporate investment in microgravity 
        research; and
          (3) identify any legislative changes that may be required.
  (c) Transmittal.--Not later than one year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate the 
results of the assessment described in subsection (b).

SEC. 213. UTILIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR SCIENCE 
                    MISSIONS.

   The Administrator shall utilize the International Space Station for 
Science Mission Directorate missions in low-Earth orbit wherever it is 
practical and cost effective to do so.

SEC. 214. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION CARGO RESUPPLY SERVICES LESSONS 
                    LEARNED.

  Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall transmit a report to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate that--
          (1) identifies the lessons learned to date from the 
        Commercial Resupply Services contract;
          (2) indicates whether changes are needed to the manner in 
        which the Administration procures and manages similar services 
        upon the expiration of the existing Commercial Resupply 
        Services contract; and
          (3) identifies any lessons learned from the Commercial 
        Resupply Services contract that should be applied to the 
        procurement and management of commercially provided crew 
        transfer services to and from the International Space Station.

SEC. 215. COMMERCIAL CREW PROGRAM.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that once 
developed and certified to meet the Administration's safety and 
reliability requirements, United States commercially provided crew 
transportation systems offer the potential of serving as the primary 
means of transporting American astronauts and international partner 
astronauts to and from the International Space Station and serving as 
International Space Station emergency crew rescue vehicles. At the same 
time, the budgetary assumptions used by the Administration in its 
planning for the Commercial Crew Program have consistently assumed 
significantly higher funding levels than have been authorized and 
appropriated by Congress. It is the sense of Congress that credibility 
in the Administration's budgetary estimates for the Commercial Crew 
Program can be enhanced by an independently developed cost estimate. 
Such credibility in budgetary estimates is an important factor in 
understanding program risk.
  (b) Objective.--The objective of the Administration's Commercial Crew 
Program shall be to assist the development of at least one crew 
transportation system to carry Administration astronauts safely, 
reliably, and affordably to and from the International Space Station 
and to serve as an emergency crew rescue vehicle as soon as practicable 
within the funding levels authorized. The Administration shall not use 
any considerations beyond this objective in the overall acquisition 
strategy.
  (c) Safety.--Consistent with the findings and recommendations of the 
Columbia Accident Investigation Board, the Administration shall--
          (1) ensure that, in its evaluation and selection of contracts 
        for the development of commercial crew transportation 
        capabilities, safety is the highest priority; and
          (2) seek to ensure that minimization of the probability of 
        loss of crew shall be an important selection criterion of the 
        Commercial Crew Transportation Capability Contract.
  (d) Cost Minimization.--The Administrator shall strive through the 
competitive selection process to minimize the life cycle cost to the 
Administration through the planned period of commercially provided crew 
transportation services.
  (e) Transparency.--Transparency is the cornerstone of ensuring a safe 
and reliable commercial crew transportation service to the 
International Space Station. The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
extent practicable, ensure that every commercial crew transportation 
services provider has provided evidence-based support for their costs 
and schedule.
  (f) Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate.--
          (1) Requirement.--Not later than 30 days after the Federal 
        Acquisition Regulation-based contract for the Commercial Crew 
        Transportation Capability Contract is awarded, the 
        Administrator shall arrange for the initiation of an 
        Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate for--
                  (A) all activities associated with the development, 
                test, demonstration, and certification of commercial 
                crew transportation systems;
                  (B) transportation and rescue services required by 
                the Administration for International Space Station 
                operations through calendar year 2020 or later if 
                Administration requirements so dictate; and
                  (C) the estimated date of operational readiness for 
                the program each assumption listed in paragraph (2) of 
                this subsection.
          (2) Assumptions.--The Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate 
        shall provide an estimate for each of the following scenarios:
                  (A) An appropriation of $600,000,000 over the next 3 
                fiscal years.
                  (B) An appropriation of $700,000,000 over the next 3 
                fiscal years.
                  (C) An appropriation of $800,000,000 over the next 3 
                fiscal years.
                  (D) The funding level assumptions over the next 3 
                fiscal years that are included as part of commercial 
                crew transportation capability contract awards.
          (3) Transmittal.--Not later than 180 days after initiation of 
        the Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate under paragraph (1), 
        the Administrator shall transmit the results of the Independent 
        Cost and Schedule Estimate to the Committee on Science, Space, 
        and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate.
  (g) Implementation Strategies.--
          (1) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the completion of 
        the Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate under subsection 
        (f), the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on 
        Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives 
        and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
        the Senate a report containing 4 distinct implementation 
        strategies based on such Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate 
        for the final stages of the commercial crew program.
          (2) Requirements.--These options shall include--
                  (A) a strategy that assumes an appropriation of 
                $600,000,000 over the next 3 fiscal years;
                  (B) a strategy that assumes an appropriation of 
                $700,000,000 over the next 3 fiscal years;
                  (C) a strategy that assumes an appropriation of 
                $800,000,000 over the next 3 fiscal years; and
                  (D) a strategy that has yet to be considered 
                previously in any budget submission but that the 
                Administration believes could ensure the flight 
                readiness date of 2017 for at least one provider.
          (3) Inclusions.--Each strategy shall include the contracting 
        instruments the Administration will employ to acquire the 
        services in each phase of development or acquisition and the 
        number of commercial providers the Administration will include 
        in the program.

SEC. 216. SPACE COMMUNICATIONS.

  (a) Plan.--The Administrator shall develop a plan, in consultation 
with relevant Federal agencies, for updating the Administration's space 
communications and navigation architecture for low-Earth orbital and 
deep space operations so that it is capable of meeting the 
Administration's communications needs over the next 20 years. The plan 
shall include lifecycle cost estimates, milestones, estimated 
performance capabilities, and 5-year funding profiles. The plan shall 
also include an estimate of the amounts of any reimbursements the 
Administration is likely to receive from other Federal agencies during 
the expected life of the upgrades described in the plan. At a minimum, 
the plan shall include a description of the following:
          (1) Steps to sustain the existing space communications and 
        navigation network and infrastructure and priorities for how 
        resources will be applied and cost estimates for the 
        maintenance of existing space communications network 
        capabilities.
          (2) Upgrades needed to support space communications and 
        navigation network and infrastructure requirements, including 
        cost estimates and schedules and an assessment of the impact on 
        missions if resources are not secured at the level needed.
          (3) Projected space communications and navigation network 
        requirements for the next 20 years, including those in support 
        of human space exploration missions.
          (4) Projected Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System 
        requirements for the next 20 years, including those in support 
        of other relevant Federal agencies, and cost and schedule 
        estimates to maintain and upgrade the Tracking and Data Relay 
        Satellite System to meet projected requirements.
          (5) Steps the Administration is taking to meet future space 
        communications requirements after all Tracking and Data Relay 
        Satellite System third-generation communications satellites are 
        operational.
          (6) Steps the Administration is taking to mitigate threats to 
        electromagnetic spectrum use.
  (b) Schedule.--The Administrator shall transmit the plan developed 
under this section to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology 
of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate not later than 1 year after the date 
of enactment of this Act.

                           TITLE III--SCIENCE

                          Subtitle A--General

SEC. 301. SCIENCE PORTFOLIO.

  (a) Balanced and Adequately Funded Activities.--Section 803 of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
(124 Stat. 2832) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 803. OVERALL SCIENCE PORTFOLIO--SENSE OF THE CONGRESS.

  ``Congress reaffirms its sense, expressed in the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010, that a balanced and 
adequately funded set of activities, consisting of research and 
analysis grants programs, technology development, small, medium, and 
large space missions, and suborbital research activities, contributes 
to a robust and productive science program and serves as a catalyst for 
innovation and discovery.''.
  (b) Decadal Surveys.--In proposing the funding of programs and 
activities for the Administration for each fiscal year, the 
Administrator shall to the greatest extent practicable follow guidance 
provided in the current decadal surveys from the National Academies' 
Space Studies Board.

SEC. 302. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that conducting 
deep space exploration requires radioisotope power systems, and 
establishing continuity in the production of the material needed to 
power these systems is paramount to the success of these future deep 
space missions. It is further the sense of Congress that Federal 
agencies supporting the Administration through the production of such 
material should do so in a cost effective manner so as not to impose 
excessive reimbursement requirements on the Administration.
  (b) Analysis of Requirements and Risks.--The Director of the Office 
of Science and Technology Policy and the Administrator, in consultation 
with other Federal agencies, shall conduct an analysis of--
          (1) the requirements of the Administration for radioisotope 
        power system material that is needed to carry out planned, high 
        priority robotic missions in the solar system and other surface 
        exploration activities beyond low-Earth orbit; and
          (2) the risks to missions of the Administration in meeting 
        those requirements, or any additional requirements, due to a 
        lack of adequate radioisotope power system material.
  (c) Contents of Analysis.--The analysis conducted under subsection 
(b) shall--
          (1) detail the Administration's current projected mission 
        requirements and associated timeframes for radioisotope power 
        system material;
          (2) explain the assumptions used to determine the 
        Administration's requirements for the material, including--
                  (A) the planned use of advanced thermal conversion 
                technology such as advanced thermocouples and Stirling 
                generators and converters; and
                  (B) the risks and implications of, and contingencies 
                for, any delays or unanticipated technical challenges 
                affecting or related to the Administration's mission 
                plans for the anticipated use of advanced thermal 
                conversion technology;
          (3) assess the risk to the Administration's programs of any 
        potential delays in achieving the schedule and milestones for 
        planned domestic production of radioisotope power system 
        material;
          (4) outline a process for meeting any additional 
        Administration requirements for the material;
          (5) estimate the incremental costs required to increase the 
        amount of material produced each year, if such an increase is 
        needed to support additional Administration requirements for 
        the material;
          (6) detail how the Administration and other Federal agencies 
        will manage, operate, and fund production facilities and the 
        design and development of all radioisotope power systems used 
        by the Administration and other Federal agencies as necessary;
          (7) specify the steps the Administration will take, in 
        consultation with the Department of Energy, to preserve the 
        infrastructure and workforce necessary for production of 
        radioisotope power systems and ensure that its reimbursements 
        to the Department of Energy associated with such preservation 
        are equitable and justified; and
          (8) detail how the Administration has implemented or rejected 
        the recommendations from the National Research Council's 2009 
        report titled ``Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for 
        Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration''.
  (d) Transmittal.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the results of the 
analysis to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 303. CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE.

   Section 20102(d) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(10) The direction of the unique competence of the 
        Administration to the search for life's origin, evolution, 
        distribution, and future in the Universe. In carrying out this 
        objective, the Administration may use any practicable ground-
        based, airborne, or space-based technical means and spectra of 
        electromagnetic radiation.''.

SEC. 304. UNIVERSITY CLASS SCIENCE MISSIONS.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that principal 
investigator-led small orbital science missions, including CubeSat 
class, University Explorer (UNEX) class, Small Explorer (SMEX) class, 
and Venture class, offer valuable opportunities to advance science at 
low cost, train the next generation of scientists and engineers, and 
enable participants in the program to acquire skills in systems 
engineering and systems integration that are critical to maintaining 
the Nation's leadership in space and to enhancing the United States 
innovation and competitiveness abroad.
  (b) Review of Principal Investigator-led Small Orbital Science 
Missions.--The Administrator shall conduct a review of the science 
missions described in subsection (a). The review shall include--
          (1) the status, capability, and availability of existing 
        small orbital science mission programs and the extent to which 
        each program enables the participation of university scientists 
        and students;
          (2) the opportunities such mission programs provide for 
        scientific research;
          (3) the opportunities such mission programs provide for 
        training and education, including scientific and engineering 
        workforce development, including for the Administration's 
        scientific and engineering workforce; and
          (4) the extent to which commercial applications such as 
        hosted payloads, free flyers, and data buys could provide 
        measurable benefits for such mission programs, while preserving 
        the principle of independent peer review as the basis for 
        mission selection.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the 
review required under subsection (b) and on recommendations to enhance 
principal investigator-led small orbital science missions conducted by 
the Administration in accordance with the results of the review 
required by subsection (b).

SEC. 305. ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE MISSION EXTENSIONS.

   Section 30504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended to read as 
follows:

``Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions

  ``(a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall carry out biennial reviews 
within each of the Science divisions to assess the cost and benefits of 
extending the date of the termination of data collection for those 
missions that exceed their planned missions' lifetime. The assessment 
shall take into consideration how extending missions impacts the start 
of future missions.
  ``(b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits of 
Instruments on Missions.--When deciding whether to extend a mission 
that has an operational component, the Administrator shall consult with 
any affected Federal agency and shall take into account the potential 
benefits of instruments on missions that are beyond their planned 
mission lifetime.
  ``(c) Report.--The Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, at 
the same time as the submission to Congress of the Administration's 
annual budget request for each fiscal year, a report detailing any 
assessment required by subsection (a) that was carried out during the 
previous year.''.

                        Subtitle B--Astrophysics

SEC. 311. DECADAL CADENCE.

   In carrying out section 301(b), the Administrator shall seek to 
ensure to the extent practicable a steady cadence of large, medium, and 
small astrophysics missions.

SEC. 312. EXTRASOLAR PLANET EXPLORATION STRATEGY.

  (a) Strategy.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Academies to develop a science strategy for the study and 
exploration of extrasolar planets, including the use of the Transiting 
Exoplanet Survey Satellite, the James Webb Space Telescope, a potential 
Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope mission, or any other telescope, 
spacecraft, or instrument as appropriate. Such strategy shall--
          (1) outline key scientific questions;
          (2) identify the most promising research in the field;
          (3) indicate the extent to which the mission priorities in 
        existing decadal surveys address the key extrasolar planet 
        research goals;
          (4) identify opportunities for coordination with 
        international partners, commercial partners, and other not-for-
        profit partners; and
          (5) make recommendations on the above as appropriate.
  (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the strategy to--
          (1) inform roadmaps, strategic plans, and other activities of 
        the Administration as they relate to extrasolar planet research 
        and exploration; and
          (2) provide a foundation for future activities and 
        initiatives.
  (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall transmit a report 
to the Administrator, and to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, containing the 
strategy developed under subsection (a).

SEC. 313. JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE.

   It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize our 
        understanding of star and planet formation and how galaxies 
        evolved, and advance the search for the origins of the 
        universe;
          (2) the James Webb Space Telescope will enable American 
        scientists to maintain their leadership in astrophysics and 
        other disciplines;
          (3) the James Webb Space Telescope program is making steady 
        progress towards a launch in 2018;
          (4) the on-time and on-budget delivery of the James Webb 
        Space Telescope is a high congressional priority; and
          (5) maintaining this progress will require the Administrator 
        to ensure that integrated testing is appropriately timed and 
        sufficiently comprehensive to enable potential issues to be 
        identified and addressed early enough to be handled within the 
        James Webb Space Telescope's development schedule prior to 
        launch.

SEC. 314. NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE TELESCOPE DONATION.

   Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall transmit a report to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate outlining the 
cost of the Administration's potential plan for developing the Wide-
Field Infrared Survey Telescope as described in the 2010 National 
Academies' astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, including an 
alternative plan for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 2.4, 
which includes the donated 2.4-meter aperture National Reconnaissance 
Office telescope. Due to the budget constraints on the Administration's 
science programs, this report shall include--
          (1) an assessment of cost efficient approaches to develop the 
        Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope;
          (2) a comparison to the development of mission concepts that 
        exclude the utilization of the donated asset;
          (3) an assessment of how the Administration's existing 
        science missions will be affected by the utilization of the 
        donated asset described in this section; and
          (4) a description of the cost associated with storing and 
        maintaining the donated asset.

SEC. 315. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY TELESCOPE.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Administrator, to the extent practicable, should make progress on the 
technologies and capabilities needed to position the Administration to 
meet the objectives of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 
mission, as outlined in the 2010 National Academies' astronomy and 
astrophysics decadal survey, in a way that maximizes the scientific 
productivity of meeting those objectives for the resources invested. It 
is further the sense of Congress that the Wide-Field Infrared Survey 
Telescope mission has the potential to enable scientific discoveries 
that will transform our understanding of the universe.
  (b) Continuity of Development.--The Administrator shall ensure that 
the concept definition and pre-formulation activities of a Wide-Field 
Infrared Survey Telescope mission continue while the James Webb Space 
Telescope is being completed.

SEC. 316. STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY.

  The Administrator shall not use any funding appropriated to the 
Administration for fiscal year 2014 for the shutdown of the 
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy or for the preparation 
therefor.

                     Subtitle C--Planetary Science

SEC. 321. DECADAL CADENCE.

   In carrying out section 301(b), the Administrator shall seek to 
ensure to the greatest extent practicable that the Administration 
carries out a balanced set of planetary science programs in accordance 
with the priorities established in the most recent decadal survey for 
planetary science. Such programs shall include, at a minimum--
          (1) a Discovery-class mission at least once every 24 months;
          (2) a New Frontiers-class mission at least once every 60 
        months; and
          (3) at least one Flagship-class mission per decadal survey 
        period, including a Europa mission with a goal of launching by 
        2021.

SEC. 322. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS.

  (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Near-Earth objects pose a serious and credible threat to 
        humankind, as many scientists believe that a major asteroid or 
        comet was responsible for the mass extinction of the majority 
        of the Earth's species, including the dinosaurs, approximately 
        65,000,000 years ago.
          (2) Similar objects have struck the Earth or passed through 
        the Earth's atmosphere several times in the Earth's history and 
        pose a similar threat in the future.
          (3) Several such near-Earth objects have only been discovered 
        within days of the objects' closest approach to Earth, and 
        recent discoveries of such large objects indicate that many 
        large near-Earth objects remain to be discovered.
          (4) The efforts undertaken by the Administration for 
        detecting and characterizing the hazards of near-Earth objects 
        should continue to seek to fully determine the threat posed by 
        such objects to cause widespread destruction and loss of life.
  (b) Definition.--For purposes of this section, the term ``near-Earth 
object'' means an asteroid or comet with a perihelion distance of less 
than 1.3 Astronomical Units from the Sun.
  (c) Near-Earth Object Survey.--The Administrator shall continue to 
detect, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristics 
of near-Earth objects equal to or greater than 140 meters in diameter 
in order to assess the threat of such near-Earth objects to the Earth, 
pursuant to the George E. Brown, Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act (42 
U.S.C. 16691). It shall be the goal of the Survey program to achieve 90 
percent completion of its near-Earth object catalogue (based on 
statistically predicted populations of near-Earth objects) by 2020.
  (d) Warning and Mitigation of Potential Hazards of Near-Earth 
Objects.--Congress reaffirms the policy set forth in section 20102(g) 
of title 51, United States Code (relating to detecting, tracking, 
cataloguing, and characterizing asteroids and comets).
  (e) Program Report.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy and the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, 
not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, an 
initial report that provides--
          (1) recommendations for carrying out the Survey program and 
        an associated proposed budget;
          (2) analysis of possible options that the Administration 
        could employ to divert an object on a likely collision course 
        with Earth; and
          (3) a description of the status of efforts to coordinate and 
        cooperate with other countries to discover hazardous asteroids 
        and comets, plan a mitigation strategy, and implement that 
        strategy in the event of the discovery of an object on a likely 
        collision course with Earth.
  (f) Annual Reports.--Subsequent to the initial report the 
Administrator shall annually transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report that 
provides--
          (1) a summary of all activities carried out pursuant to 
        subsection (c) since the date of enactment of this Act, 
        including the progress toward achieving 90 percent completion 
        of the survey described in subsection (c); and
          (2) a summary of expenditures for all activities carried out 
        pursuant to subsection (c) since the date of enactment of this 
        Act.
  (g) Study.--The Administrator, in collaboration with other relevant 
Federal agencies, shall carry out a technical and scientific assessment 
of the capabilities and resources to--
          (1) accelerate the survey described in subsection (c); and
          (2) expand the Administration's Near-Earth Object Program to 
        include the detection, tracking, cataloguing, and 
        characterization of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects 
        less than 140 meters in diameter.
  (h) Transmittal.--Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the results of the 
assessment carried out under subsection (g) to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 323. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Administration should seek to leverage the capabilities of the private 
sector and philanthropic organizations to the maximum extent 
practicable in carrying out the Near-Earth Object Survey program in 
order to meet the goal of the Survey program.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, Transportation of the Senate a report describing 
how the Administration can expand collaborative partnerships to detect, 
track, catalogue, and categorize near-Earth objects.

SEC. 324. RESEARCH ON NEAR-EARTH OBJECT TSUNAMI EFFECTS.

  (a) Report on Potential Tsunami Effects From Near-earth Object 
Impact.--The Administrator, in collaboration with the Administrator of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and other relevant 
agencies, shall prepare a report identifying and describing existing 
research activities and further research objectives that would increase 
our understanding of the nature of the effects of potential tsunamis 
that could occur if a near-Earth object were to impact an ocean of 
Earth.
  (b) Transmittal.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the report required and 
prepared under subsection (a) to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 325. ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGY.

  (a) Strategy.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Academies to develop a science strategy for astrobiology 
that would outline key scientific questions, identify the most 
promising research in the field, and indicate the extent to which the 
mission priorities in existing decadal surveys address the search for 
life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe. The 
strategy shall include recommendations for coordination with 
international partners.
  (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the strategy 
developed under subsection (a) in planning and funding research and 
other activities and initiatives in the field of astrobiology.
  (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall transmit a report 
to the Administrator, and to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, containing the 
strategy developed under subsection (a).

SEC. 326. ASTROBIOLOGY PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.

   Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, Transportation of the Senate a report describing how 
the Administration can expand collaborative partnerships to study 
life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe.

SEC. 327. ASSESSMENT OF MARS ARCHITECTURE.

  (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement 
with the National Academies to assess--
          (1) the Administration's revised post-2016 Mars exploration 
        architecture and its responsiveness to the strategies, 
        priorities, and guidelines put forward by the National 
        Academies' planetary science decadal surveys and other relevant 
        National Academies Mars-related reports;
          (2) the long-term goals of the Administration's Mars 
        Exploration Program and such program's ability to optimize the 
        science return, given the current fiscal posture of the 
        program;
          (3) the Mars architecture's relationship to Mars-related 
        activities to be undertaken by agencies and organizations 
        outside of the United States; and
          (4) the extent to which the Mars architecture represents a 
        reasonably balanced mission portfolio.
  (b) Transmittal.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the results of 
the assessment to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate.

                        Subtitle D--Heliophysics

SEC. 331. DECADAL CADENCE.

   In carrying out section 301(b), the Administrator shall seek to 
ensure to the extent practicable a steady cadence of large, medium, and 
small heliophysics missions.

SEC. 332. REVIEW OF SPACE WEATHER.

  (a) Review.--The Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy, in consultation with the Administrator, the Administrator of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Director of 
the National Science Foundation, and heads of other relevant Federal 
agencies, shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academies 
to provide a comprehensive study that reviews current and planned 
ground-based and space-based space weather monitoring requirements and 
capabilities, identifies gaps, and identifies options for a robust and 
resilient capability. The study shall inform the process of identifying 
national needs for future space weather monitoring, forecasts, and 
mitigation. The National Academies shall give consideration to 
international and private sector efforts and collaboration that could 
potentially contribute to national space weather needs. The study shall 
also review the current state of research capabilities in observing, 
modeling, and prediction and provide recommendations to ensure future 
advancement of predictive capability.
  (b) Report to Congress.--Not later than 14 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall transmit a report 
containing the results of the study provided under subsection (a) to 
the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.

                       Subtitle E--Earth Science

SEC. 341. GOAL.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Administration is being asked to undertake important Earth science 
activities in an environment of increasingly constrained fiscal 
resources, and that any transfer of additional responsibilities to the 
Administration, such as climate instrument development and measurements 
that are currently part of the portfolio of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, should be accompanied by the provision of 
additional resources to allow the Administration to carry out the 
increased responsibilities without adversely impacting its 
implementation of its existing Earth science programs and priorities.
  (b) General.--The Administrator shall continue to carry out a 
balanced Earth science program that includes Earth science research, 
Earth systematic missions, competitive Venture class missions, other 
missions and data analysis, mission operations, technology development, 
and applied sciences, consistent with the recommendations and 
priorities established in the National Academies' Earth Science Decadal 
Survey.
  (c) Collaboration.--The Administrator shall collaborate with other 
Federal agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, non-government entities, and international partners, as 
appropriate, in carrying out the Administration's Earth science 
program. The Administration shall continue to develop first-of-a-kind 
instruments that, once proved, can be transitioned to other agencies 
for operations.
  (d) Reimbursement.--Whenever responsibilities for the development of 
sensors or for measurements are transferred to the Administration from 
another agency, the Administration shall seek, to the extent possible, 
to be reimbursed for the assumption of such responsibilities.

SEC. 342. DECADAL CADENCE.

  In carrying out section 341(b), the Administrator shall seek to 
ensure to the extent practicable a steady cadence of large, medium, and 
small Earth science missions.

SEC. 343. VENTURE CLASS MISSIONS.

   It is the sense of Congress that the Administration's Venture class 
missions provide opportunities for innovation in the Earth science 
program, offer low-cost approaches for high-quality competitive science 
investigations, enable frequent flight opportunities to engage the 
Earth science and applications community, and serve as a training 
ground for students and young scientists. It is further the sense of 
Congress that the Administration should seek to increase the number of 
Venture class projects to the extent practicable as part of a balanced 
Earth science program.

SEC. 344. ASSESSMENT.

   The Administrator shall carry out a scientific assessment of the 
Administration's Earth science global datasets for the purpose of 
identifying those datasets that are useful for understanding regional 
changes and variability, and for informing applied science research. 
The Administrator shall complete and transmit the assessment to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology in the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act.

                         TITLE IV--AERONAUTICS

SEC. 401. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) a robust aeronautics research portfolio will help 
        maintain the United States status as a leader in aviation, 
        enhance the competitiveness of the United States in the world 
        economy and improve the quality of life of all citizens;
          (2) aeronautics research is essential to the Administration's 
        mission, continues to be an important core element of the 
        Administration's mission and should be supported;
          (3) the Administrator should coordinate and consult with 
        relevant Federal agencies and the private sector to minimize 
        duplication and leverage resources; and
          (4) carrying aeronautics research to a level of maturity that 
        allows the Administration's research results to be transitioned 
        to the users, whether private or public sector, is critical to 
        their eventual adoption.

SEC. 402. AERONAUTICS RESEARCH GOALS.

   The Administrator shall ensure that the Administration maintains a 
strong aeronautics research portfolio ranging from fundamental research 
through integrated systems research with specific research goals, 
including the following:
          (1) Enhance airspace operations and safety.--The 
        Administration's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate shall 
        address research needs of the Next Generation Air 
        Transportation System and identify critical gaps in technology 
        which must be bridged to enable the implementation of the Next 
        Generation Air Transportation System so that safety and 
        productivity improvements can be achieved as soon as possible.
          (2) Improve air vehicle performance.--The Administration's 
        Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate shall conduct research 
        to improve aircraft performance and minimize environmental 
        impacts. The Associate Administrator for the Aeronautics 
        Research Mission Directorate shall consider and pursue concepts 
        to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel consumption while 
        maintaining high safety standards, and shall conduct research 
        related to the impact of alternative fuels on the safety, 
        reliability and maintainability of current and new air 
        vehicles.
          (3) Strengthen aviation safety.--The Administration's 
        Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate shall proactively 
        address safety challenges associated with current and new air 
        vehicles and with operations in the Nation's current and future 
        air transportation system.
          (4) Demonstrate concepts at the system level.--The 
        Administration's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate shall 
        mature the most promising technologies to the point at which 
        they can be demonstrated in a relevant environment and shall 
        integrate individual components and technologies as appropriate 
        to ensure that they perform in an integrated manner as well as 
        they do when operated individually.

SEC. 403. UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

  (a) In General.--The Administrator, in consultation with the 
Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and other Federal 
agencies, shall carry out research and technological development to 
facilitate the safe integration of unmanned aerial systems into the 
National Airspace System, including--
          (1) positioning and navigation systems;
          (2) sense and avoid capabilities;
          (3) secure data and communication links;
          (4) flight recovery systems; and
          (5) human systems integration.
  (b) Roadmap.--The Administrator shall update a roadmap for unmanned 
aerial systems research and development and transmit this roadmap to 
the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act.
  (c) Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Activities.--Section 31504 of 
title 51, United States Code, is amended by inserting ``Operational 
flight data derived from these cooperative agreements shall be made 
available, in appropriate and usable formats, to the Administration and 
the Federal Aviation Administration for the development of regulatory 
standards.'' after ``in remote areas.''.

SEC. 404. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS USED IN AERONAUTICS.

  (a) Purpose of Research.--The Administrator shall continue the 
Administration's cooperative research program with industry to identify 
and demonstrate more effective and safe ways of developing, 
manufacturing, and maintaining composite materials for use in 
airframes, subsystems, and propulsion components.
  (b) Consultation.--The Administrator, in overseeing the 
Administration's work on composite materials, shall consult with 
relevant Federal agencies and partners in industry to accelerate safe 
development and certification processes for new composite materials and 
design methods while maintaining rigorous inspection of new composite 
materials.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit a report to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
detailing the Administration's work on new composite materials and the 
coordination efforts among Federal agencies.

SEC. 405. HYPERSONIC RESEARCH.

  Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator, in consultation with other Federal agencies, shall 
develop and transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology 
of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate a research and development roadmap for 
hypersonic aircraft research with the objective of exploring hypersonic 
science and technology using air-breathing propulsion concepts, through 
a mix of theoretical work, basic and applied research, and development 
of flight research demonstration vehicles. The roadmap shall prescribe 
appropriate agency contributions, coordination efforts, and technology 
milestones.

SEC. 406. SUPERSONIC RESEARCH.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
          (1) the ability to fly commercial aircraft over land at 
        supersonic speeds without adverse impacts on the environment or 
        on local communities could open new global markets and enable 
        new transportation capabilities; and
          (2) continuing the Administration's research program is 
        necessary to assess the impact in a relevant environment of 
        commercial supersonic flight operations and provide the basis 
        for establishing appropriate sonic boom standards for such 
        flight operations.
  (b) Roadmap for Supersonic Research.--Not later than 1 year after the 
date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall develop and 
transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a roadmap that allows for flexible funding 
profiles for supersonic aeronautics research and development with the 
objective of developing and demonstrating, in a relevant environment, 
airframe and propulsion technologies to minimize the environmental 
impact, including noise, of supersonic overland flight in an efficient 
and economical manner. The roadmap shall include--
          (1) the baseline research as embodied by the Administration's 
        existing research on supersonic flight;
          (2) a list of specific technological, environmental, and 
        other challenges that must be overcome to minimize the 
        environmental impact, including noise, of supersonic overland 
        flight;
          (3) a research plan to address such challenges, as well as a 
        project timeline for accomplishing relevant research goals;
          (4) a plan for coordination with stakeholders, including 
        relevant government agencies and industry; and
          (5) a plan for how the Administration will ensure that sonic 
        boom research is coordinated as appropriate with relevant 
        Federal agencies.

SEC. 407. RESEARCH ON NEXTGEN AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND TOOLS.

  (a) In General.--The Administrator shall, in consultation with other 
Federal agencies, review at least annually the alignment and timing of 
the Administration's research and development activities in support of 
the NextGen airspace management modernization initiative, and shall 
make any necessary adjustments by reprioritizing or retargeting the 
Administration's research and development activities in support of the 
NextGen initiative.
  (b) Annual Reports.--The Administrator shall report to the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
annually regarding the progress of the Administration's research and 
development activities in support of the NextGen airspace management 
modernization initiative, including details of technologies transferred 
to relevant Federal agencies for eventual operation implementation, 
consultation with other Federal agencies, and any adjustments made to 
research activities.

SEC. 408. ROTORCRAFT RESEARCH.

  Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator, in consultation with other Federal agencies, shall 
prepare and transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology 
of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate a roadmap for research relating to 
rotorcraft and other runway-independent air vehicles, with the 
objective of developing and demonstrating improved safety, noise, and 
environmental impact in a relevant environment. The roadmap shall 
include specific goals for the research, a timeline for implementation, 
metrics for success, and guidelines for collaboration and coordination 
with industry and other Federal agencies.

SEC. 409. TRANSFORMATIVE AERONAUTICS RESEARCH.

  It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator, in looking 
strategically into the future and ensuring that the Administration's 
Center personnel are at the leading edge of aeronautics research, 
should encourage investigations into the early-stage advancement of new 
processes, novel concepts, and innovative technologies that have the 
potential to meet national aeronautics needs. The Administrator shall 
continue to ensure that awards for the investigation of these concepts 
and technologies are open for competition among Administration civil 
servants at its Centers, separate from other awards open only to non-
Administration sources.

SEC. 410. STUDY OF UNITED STATES LEADERSHIP IN AERONAUTICS RESEARCH.

  (a) Study.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Academies for a study to benchmark the position of the 
United States in civil aeronautics research compared to the rest of the 
world. The study shall--
          (1) seek to define metrics by which relative leadership in 
        civil aeronautics research can be determined;
          (2) ascertain how the United States compares to other 
        countries in the field of civil aeronautics research and any 
        relevant trends; and
          (3) provide recommendations on what can be done to regain or 
        retain global leadership, including--
                  (A) identifying research areas where United States 
                expertise has been or is at risk of being overtaken;
                  (B) defining appropriate roles for the 
                Administration;
                  (C) identifying public-private partnerships that 
                could be formed; and
                  (D) estimating the impact on the Administration's 
                budget should such recommendations be implemented.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall provide the results of the study to 
the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.

                       TITLE V--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

SEC. 501. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  It is the sense of Congress that space technology is critical to--
          (1) enabling a new class of Administration missions beyond 
        low-Earth orbit;
          (2) developing technologies and capabilities that will make 
        the Administration's missions more affordable and more 
        reliable; and
          (3) improving technological capabilities and promoting 
        innovation for the Administration and the Nation.

SEC. 502. SPACE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM.

  (a) Amendment.--Section 70507 of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended to read as follows:

``Sec. 70507. Space Technology Program authorized

  ``(a) Program Authorized.--The Administrator shall establish a Space 
Technology Program to pursue the research and development of advanced 
space technologies that have the potential of delivering innovative 
solutions and to support human exploration of the solar system or 
advanced space science. The program established by the Administrator 
shall take into consideration the recommendations of the National 
Academies' review of the Administration's Space Technology roadmaps and 
priorities, as well as applicable enabling aspects of the Human 
Exploration Roadmap specified in section 70504. In conducting the space 
technology program established under this section, the Administrator 
shall--
          ``(1) to the maximum extent practicable, use a competitive 
        process to select projects to be supported as part of the 
        program;
          ``(2) make use of small satellites and the Administration's 
        suborbital and ground-based platforms, to the extent 
        practicable and appropriate, to demonstrate space technology 
        concepts and developments; and
          ``(3) undertake partnerships with other Federal agencies, 
        universities, private industry, and other spacefaring nations, 
        as appropriate.
  ``(b) Small Business Programs.--The Administrator shall organize and 
manage the Administration's Small Business Innovation Research program 
and Small Business Technology Transfer Program within the Space 
Technology Program.
  ``(c) Nonduplication Certification.--The Administrator shall include 
in the budget for each fiscal year, as transmitted to Congress under 
section 1105(a) of title 31, a certification that no project, program, 
or mission undertaken by the Space Technology Program is duplicative of 
any other project, program, or mission conducted by another office or 
directorate of the Administration.''.
  (b) Collaboration, Coordination, and Alignment.--The Administrator 
shall ensure that the Administration's projects, programs, and 
activities in support of technology research and development of 
advanced space technologies are fully coordinated and aligned and that 
results from such work are shared and leveraged within the 
Administration. Projects, programs, and activities being conducted by 
the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate in support of 
research and development of advanced space technologies and systems 
focusing on human space exploration should continue in that 
Directorate. The Administrator shall ensure that organizational 
responsibility for research and development activities in support of 
human space exploration not initiated as of the date of enactment of 
this Act is established on the basis of a sound rationale. The 
Administrator shall provide the rationale in the report specified in 
subsection (d).
  (c) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall provide to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report 
comparing the Administration's space technology investments with the 
high-priority technology areas identified by the National Academies in 
the National Research Council's report on the Administration's Space 
Technology Roadmaps. The Administrator shall identify how the 
Administration will address any gaps between the agency's investments 
and the recommended technology areas, including a projection of funding 
requirements.
  (d) Annual Report.--The Administrator shall include in the 
Administration's annual budget request for each fiscal year the 
rationale for assigning organizational responsibility for, in the year 
prior to the budget fiscal year, each initiated project, program, and 
mission focused on research and development of advanced technologies 
for human space exploration.
  (e) Table of Sections Amendment.--The item relating to section 70507 
in the table of sections for chapter 705 of title 51, United States 
Code, is amended to read as follows:

``70507. Space Technology Program authorized.''.

SEC. 503. UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR TECHNOLOGY 
                    DEMONSTRATIONS.

  The Administrator shall utilize the International Space Station and 
commercial services for space technology demonstration missions in low-
Earth orbit whenever it is practical and cost effective to do so.

                          TITLE VI--EDUCATION

SEC. 601. EDUCATION.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the Administration's missions are an inspiration for 
        Americans and in particular for the next generation, and that 
        this inspiration has a powerful effect in stimulating interest 
        in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (in this 
        section referred to as ``STEM'') education and careers;
          (2) the Administration's Office of Education and mission 
        directorates have been effective in delivering Administration 
        educational content because of the strong engagement of 
        Administration scientists and engineers in the Administration's 
        education and outreach activities; and
          (3) the Administration should be a central partner in 
        contributing to the goals of the National Science and 
        Technology Council's Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, 
        and Mathematics (STEM) Education 5-Year Strategic Plan.
  (b) In General.--The Administration shall continue its education and 
outreach efforts to--
          (1) increase student interest and participation in STEM 
        education;
          (2) improve public literacy in STEM;
          (3) employ proven strategies for improving student learning 
        and teaching;
          (4) provide curriculum support materials; and
          (5) create and support opportunities for professional 
        development for STEM teachers.
  (c) Organization.--In order to ensure the inspiration and engagement 
of children and the general public, the Administration shall continue 
its STEM education and outreach activities within the Science, 
Aeronautics Research, Space Operations, and Exploration Mission 
Directorates.
  (d) Continuation of Education and Outreach Activities and Programs.--
The Administrator shall continue to carry out education and outreach 
programs and activities through the Office of Education and the 
Administration mission directorates and shall continue to engage, to 
the maximum extent practicable, Administration and Administration-
supported researchers and engineers in carrying out those programs and 
activities.
  (e) Continuation of Space Grant Program.--The Administrator shall 
continue to operate the National Space Grant College and Fellowship 
program through a national network consisting of a State-based 
consortium in each State that provides flexibility to the States, with 
the objective of providing hands-on research, training, and education 
programs, with measurable outcomes, to enhance America's STEM education 
and workforce.
  (f) Reaffirmation of Policy.--Congress reaffirms its commitment to 
informal science education at science centers and planetariums as set 
forth in section 616 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (51 U.S.C. 40907).

SEC. 602. INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE AND 
                    FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the National 
Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, which was established in 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
1988 (42 U.S.C. 2486 et seq.), has been an important program by which 
the Federal Government has partnered with State and local governments, 
universities, private industry, and other organizations to enhance the 
understanding and use of space and aeronautics activities and their 
benefits through education, fostering of interdisciplinary and 
multidisciplinary space research and training, and supporting Federal 
funding for graduate fellowships in space-related fields, among other 
purposes.
  (b) Review.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Academies for--
          (1) a review of the National Space Grant College and 
        Fellowship Program, including its structure and capabilities 
        for supporting science, technology, engineering, and 
        mathematics education and training consistent with the National 
        Science and Technology Council's Federal Science, Technology, 
        Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education 5-Year Strategic 
        Plan; and
          (2) recommendations on measures, if needed, to enhance the 
        Program's effectiveness and mechanisms by which any increases 
        in funding appropriated by Congress can be applied.
  (c) National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program Amendments.--
          (1) Purposes.--Section 40301 of title 51, United States Code, 
        is amended--
                  (A) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (5);
                  (B) by striking the period at the end of paragraph 
                (6) and inserting ``; and''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(7) support outreach to primary and secondary schools to 
        help support STEM engagement and learning at the K-12 level and 
        to encourage K-12 students to pursue postsecondary degrees in 
        fields related to space.''.
          (2) Regional consortium.--Section 40306 of title 51, United 
        States Code, is amended--
                  (A) in subsection (a)--
                          (i) by redesignating paragraphs (2) and (3) 
                        as paragraphs (3) and (4), respectively; and
                          (ii) by inserting after paragraph (1) the 
                        following new paragraph:
          ``(2) Inclusion of 2-year institutions.--A space grant 
        regional consortium designated in paragraph (1)(B) may include 
        one or more 2-year institutions of higher education.''; and
                  (B) in subsection (b)(1), by striking ``paragraphs 
                (2)(C) and (3)(D)'' and inserting ``paragraphs (3)(C) 
                and (4)(D)''.

                      TITLE VII--POLICY PROVISIONS

SEC. 701. ASTEROID RETRIEVAL MISSION.

  (a) Asteroid Retrieval Report.--Not later than 180 days after the 
date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall provide to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report on the proposed Asteroid 
Retrieval Mission. Such report shall include--
          (1) a detailed budget profile, including cost estimates for 
        the development of all necessary technologies and spacecraft 
        required for the mission;
          (2) a detailed technical plan that includes milestones and a 
        specific schedule;
          (3) a description of the technologies and capabilities 
        anticipated to be gained from the proposed mission that will 
        enable future human missions to Mars which could not be gained 
        by lunar missions;
          (4) a description of the technologies and capabilities 
        anticipated to be gained from the proposed mission that will 
        enable future planetary defense missions, against impact 
        threats from near-Earth objects equal to or greater than 140 
        meters in diameter, which could not be gained by robotic 
        missions; and
          (5) a complete assessment by the Small Bodies Assessment 
        Group and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Advisory Council of how the proposed mission is in the 
        strategic interests of the United States in space exploration.
  (b) Mars Flyby Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, an independent, private systems engineering and 
technical assistance organization contracted by the Human Exploration 
Operations Mission Directorate shall transmit to the Administrator, the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report analyzing the proposal for a Mars 
Flyby human spaceflight mission to be launched in 2021. Such report 
shall include--
          (1) a technical development, test, fielding, and operations 
        plan using the Space Launch System and other systems to 
        successfully mount a Mars Flyby mission by 2021;
          (2) a description of the benefits in scientific knowledge and 
        technologies demonstrated by a Mars Flyby mission to be 
        launched in 2021 suitable for future Mars missions; and
          (3) an annual budget profile, including cost estimates, for 
        the development test, fielding, and operations plan to carry 
        out a Mars Flyby mission through 2021 and comparison of that 
        budget profile to the 5-year budget profile contained in the 
        President's Budget request for fiscal year 2015.
  (c) Assessment.--Not later than 60 days after transmittal of the 
report specified in subsection (b), the Administrator shall transmit to 
the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate an assessment by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Advisory Council of whether the proposal for a 
Mars Flyby Mission to be launched in 2021 is in the strategic interests 
of the United States in space exploration.
  (d) Crewed Mission.--The report transmitted under subsection (b) may 
consider a crewed mission with the Space Launch System in cis-lunar 
space prior to the Mars Flyby mission in 2021.

SEC. 702. TERMINATION LIABILITY.

  (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) The International Space Station, the Space Launch System, 
        and the Orion crew capsule will enable the Nation to continue 
        operations in low-Earth orbit and to send its astronauts to 
        deep space. The James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize 
        our understanding of star and planet formation and how galaxies 
        evolved and advance the search for the origins of our universe. 
        As a result of their unique capabilities and their critical 
        contribution to the future of space exploration, these systems 
        have been designated by Congress and the Administration as 
        priority investments.
          (2) In addition, contractors are currently holding program 
        funding, estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of 
        dollars, to cover the potential termination liability should 
        the Government choose to terminate a program for convenience. 
        As a result, hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars are 
        unavailable for meaningful work on these programs.
          (3) According to the Government Accountability Office, the 
        Administration procures most of its goods and services through 
        contracts, and it terminates very few of them. In fiscal year 
        2010, the Administration terminated 28 of 16,343 active 
        contracts and orders--a termination rate of about 0.17 percent.
          (4) Providing processes requiring congressional notification 
        on termination of these high-priority programs would enable 
        contractors to apply taxpayer dollars to making maximum 
        progress in meeting the established technical goals and 
        schedule milestones of these programs.
  (b) Administration Termination Liability.--
          (1) General rule.--Termination liability costs for a covered 
        program shall be provided only pursuant to this subsection.
          (2) Prohibition on reserving funds.--The Administrator may 
        not reserve funds from amounts appropriated for a covered 
        program, or require the reservation of funds by the prime 
        contractor, for potential termination liability costs with 
        respect to a covered program.
          (3) Intent of congress.--It is the intent of Congress that 
        funds authorized to be appropriated for covered programs be 
        applied in meeting established technical goals and schedule 
        milestones.
          (4) Application of prior reserved funds.--Funds that have 
        been reserved before the date of enactment of this Act for 
        potential termination liability shall be promptly used to make 
        maximum progress in meeting the established goals and 
        milestones of the covered program.
          (5) Notification.--The Administrator shall notify the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate at least 120 days in advance of 
        initiating termination for convenience or termination for cause 
        of a prime contract on a covered program.
          (6) Supplemental appropriation request.--
                  (A) Request.--If the Administrator initiates 
                termination of a prime contract on a covered program 
                pursuant to paragraph (5), and sufficient unobligated 
                appropriations are not available to cover termination 
                liability costs in the appropriations account that is 
                funding the prime contract being terminated, the 
                Administrator shall provide to Congress a notification 
                that an authorization of appropriations is necessary 
                not later than 120 days in advance of the proposed 
                contract termination settlement for the covered 
                program.
                  (B) Intent of congress.--It is the intent of Congress 
                to provide additional authorization for appropriations 
                as may be necessary to pay termination liability costs 
                on prime contracts for covered programs if Congress 
                deems it appropriate that the Administration terminate 
                such prime contracts. The Administration shall be 
                responsible for applying these additional funds for 
                payment of all allowable and reasonable negotiated 
                termination liability costs if the Administration 
                terminates a prime contract for a covered program. If 
                the Administration terminates a prime contract for a 
                covered program for the convenience of the Federal 
                Government, then the Federal Government is responsible 
                for payment of all allowable and reasonable negotiated 
                termination liability costs on the prime contract.
  (c) Reporting.--Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment 
of this Act, and every 6 months thereafter for the duration of the 
prime contracts on covered programs, the Administrator shall transmit 
to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report that provides--
          (1) the estimated termination liability costs for each of the 
        prime contracts; and
          (2) the basis for how such estimate was determined.
  (d) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:
          (1) Covered program.--The term ``covered program'' means the 
        International Space Station, the Space Launch System, the Orion 
        crew capsule, and the James Webb Space Telescope.
          (2) Prime contract.--The term ``prime contract'' means a 
        contract entered directly between a person or entity and the 
        Federal Government for the performance of all or the majority 
        of the responsibilities for developing, integrating, fielding, 
        operating, or sustaining a covered program.
          (3) Prime contractor.--The term ``prime contractor'' means a 
        person or entity contracting directly with the Federal 
        Government on a covered program.
          (4) Termination liability costs.--The term ``termination 
        liability costs'' means any costs incurred by a prime 
        contractor, or by any subcontractor of a prime contractor, for 
        which the Federal Government is liable as a result of 
        termination of a prime contract by the Administrator.

SEC. 703. BASELINE AND COST CONTROLS.

  Section 30104 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)(1), by striking ``Procedural 
        Requirements 7120.5c, dated March 22, 2005'' and inserting 
        ``Procedural Requirements 7120.5E, dated August 14, 2012''; and
          (2) in subsection (f), by striking ``beginning 18 months 
        after the date the Administrator transmits a report under 
        subsection (e)(1)(A)'' and inserting ``beginning 18 months 
        after the Administrator makes such determination''.

SEC. 704. PROJECT AND PROGRAM RESERVES.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
judicious use of program and project reserves provides the 
Administration's project and program managers with the flexibility 
needed to manage projects and programs to ensure that the impacts of 
contingencies can be mitigated.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report 
describing--
          (1) the Administration's criteria for establishing the amount 
        of reserves held at the project and program levels;
          (2) how such criteria relate to the agency's policy of 
        budgeting at a 70-percent confidence level; and
          (3) the Administration's criteria for waiving the policy of 
        budgeting at a 70-percent confidence level and alternative 
        strategies and mechanisms aimed at controlling program and 
        project costs when a waiver is granted.

SEC. 705. INDEPENDENT REVIEWS.

  Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report 
describing--
          (1) the Administration's procedures for conducting 
        independent reviews of projects and programs at lifecycle 
        milestones and how the Administration ensures the independence 
        of the individuals who conduct those reviews prior to their 
        assignment;
          (2) the internal and external entities independent of project 
        and program management that conduct reviews of projects and 
        programs at life cycle milestones; and
          (3) how the Administration ensures the independence of such 
        entities and their members.

SEC. 706. COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM.

  Section 50116(a) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
inserting ``, while protecting national security'' after ``research 
community''.

SEC. 707. NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADVISORY 
                    COUNCIL.

  (a) Study.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Academy of Public Administration to assess the 
effectiveness of the NASA Advisory Council and to make recommendations 
to Congress for any change to--
          (1) the functions of the Council;
          (2) the appointment of members to the Council;
          (3) qualifications for members of the Council;
          (4) duration of terms of office for members of the Council;
          (5) frequency of meetings of the Council;
          (6) the structure of leadership and Committees of the 
        Council; and
          (7) levels of professional staffing for the Council.
In carrying out the assessment, the Academy shall also assess the 
impacts of broadening the Council's role to advising Congress, and any 
other issues that the Academy determines could potentially impact the 
effectiveness of the Council. The Academy shall consider the past 
activities of the NASA Advisory Council, as well as the activities of 
other analogous federal advisory bodies in conducting its assessment. 
The results of the assessment, including any recommendations, shall be 
transmitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.
  (b) Consultation and Advice.--Section 20113(g) of title 51, United 
States Code, is amended by inserting ``and Congress'' after ``advice to 
the Administration''.
  (c) Sunset.--Subsection (b) shall expire on September 30, 2014.

SEC. 708. COST ESTIMATION.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that realistic 
cost estimating is critically important to the ultimate success of 
major space development projects. The Administration has devoted 
significant efforts over the past five years to improving its cost 
estimating capabilities, but it is important that the Administration 
continue its efforts to develop and implement guidance in establishing 
realistic cost estimates.
  (b) Guidance and Criteria.--The Administrator shall provide to 
programs and projects and in a manner consistent with the 
Administration's Space Flight Program and Project Management 
Requirements--
          (1) guidance on when an Independent Cost Estimate and 
        Independent Cost Assessment should be used; and
          (2) the criteria to be used to make such a determination.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report--
          (1) describing efforts to enhance internal cost estimation 
        and assessment expertise;
          (2) describing the mechanisms the Administration is using and 
        will continue to use to ensure that adequate resources are 
        dedicated to cost estimation;
          (3) listing the steps the Administration is undertaking to 
        advance consistent implementation of the joint cost and 
        schedule process;
          (4) identifying criteria used by programs and projects in 
        determining when to conduct an Independent Cost Estimate and 
        Independent Cost Assessment; and
          (5) listing--
                  (A) the costs of each individual Independent Cost 
                Estimate or Independent Cost Assessment activity 
                conducted in fiscal year 2011, fiscal year 2012, and 
                fiscal year 2013;
                  (B) the purpose of the activity;
                  (C) identification of the primary Administration unit 
                or outside body that conducted the activity; and
                  (D) key findings and recommendations.
  (d) Updated Report.--Subsequent to submission of the report under 
subsection (c), for each subsequent year, the Administrator shall 
provide an update of listed elements in conjunction with subsequent 
congressional budget justifications.

SEC. 709. AVOIDING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN MAJOR 
                    ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION PROGRAMS.

  (a) Revised Regulations Required.--Not later than 270 days after the 
date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall revise the 
Administration Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to 
provide uniform guidance and recommend revised requirements for 
organizational conflicts of interest by contractors in major 
acquisition programs in order to address elements identified in 
subsection (b).
  (b) Elements.--The revised regulations required by subsection (a) 
shall, at a minimum--
          (1) address organizational conflicts of interest that could 
        potentially arise as a result of--
                  (A) lead system integrator contracts on major 
                acquisition programs and contracts that follow lead 
                system integrator contracts on such programs, 
                particularly contracts for production;
                  (B) the ownership of business units performing 
                systems engineering and technical assistance functions, 
                professional services, or management support services 
                in relation to major acquisition programs by 
                contractors who simultaneously own business units 
                competing to perform as either the prime contractor or 
                the supplier of a major subsystem or component for such 
                programs;
                  (C) the award of major subsystem contracts by a prime 
                contractor for a major acquisition program to business 
                units or other affiliates of the same parent corporate 
                entity, and particularly the award of subcontracts for 
                software integration or the development of a 
                proprietary software system architecture; or
                  (D) the performance by, or assistance of, contractors 
                in technical evaluations on major acquisition programs;
          (2) ensure that the Administration receives advice on systems 
        architecture and systems engineering matters with respect to 
        major acquisition programs from objective sources independent 
        of the prime contractor;
          (3) require that a contract for the performance of systems 
        engineering and technical assistance functions for a major 
        acquisition program contains a provision prohibiting the 
        contractor or any affiliate of the contractor from 
        participating as a prime contractor or a major subcontractor in 
        the development of a system under the program; and
          (4) establish such limited exceptions to the requirement in 
        paragraphs (2) and (3) as may be necessary to ensure that the 
        Administration has continued access to advice on systems 
        architecture and systems engineering matters from highly-
        qualified contractors with domain experience and expertise, 
        while ensuring that such advice comes from sources that are 
        objective and unbiased.

SEC. 710. FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the Administration must reverse the deteriorating 
        condition of its facilities and infrastructure, as this 
        condition is hampering the effectiveness and efficiency of 
        research performed by both the Administration and industry 
        participants making use of Administration facilities, thus 
        reducing the competitiveness of the United States aerospace 
        industry;
          (2) the Administration has a role in providing laboratory 
        capabilities to industry participants that are economically 
        viable as commercial entities and thus are not available 
        elsewhere;
          (3) to ensure continued access to reliable and efficient 
        world-class facilities by researchers, the Administration 
        should seek to establish strategic partnerships with other 
        Federal agencies, academic institutions, and industry, as 
        appropriate; and
          (4) decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or 
        modernize existing facilities must be made in the context of 
        meeting future Administration and other Federal agencies' 
        laboratory needs, including those required to meet the 
        activities supporting the Human Exploration Roadmap required by 
        section 70504 of title 51, United States Code.
  (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
Administration maintain reliable and efficient facilities and that 
decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or modernize existing 
facilities be made in the context of meeting future Administration 
needs.
  (c) Plan.--The Administrator shall develop a plan that has the goal 
of positioning the Administration to have the facilities, laboratories, 
tools, and approaches necessary to address future Administration 
requirements. Such plan shall identify--
          (1) future Administration research and development and 
        testing needs;
          (2) a strategy for identifying facilities that are candidates 
        for disposal, that is consistent with the national strategic 
        direction set forth in--
                  (A) the National Space Policy;
                  (B) the National Aeronautics Research, Development, 
                Test, and Evaluation Infrastructure Plan;
                  (C) National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
                Authorization Acts; and
                  (D) the Human Exploration Roadmap specified in 
                section 70504 of title 51, United States Code;
          (3) a strategy for the maintenance, repair, upgrading, and 
        modernization of the Administration's laboratories, facilities, 
        and equipment;
          (4) criteria for prioritizing deferred maintenance tasks and 
        also for upgrading or modernizing laboratories, facilities, and 
        equipment and implementing processes, plans, and policies for 
        guiding the Administration's Centers on whether to maintain, 
        repair, upgrade, or modernize a facility and for determining 
        the type of instrument to be used;
          (5) an assessment of modifications needed to maximize usage 
        of facilities that offer unique and highly specialized benefits 
        to the aerospace industry and the American public; and
          (6) implementation steps, including a timeline, milestones, 
        and an estimate of resources required for carrying out the 
        plan.
  (d) Policy.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall establish and make publically 
available a policy that guides the Administration's use of existing 
authorities to out-grant, lease, excess to the General Services 
Administration, sell, decommission, demolish, or otherwise transfer 
property, facilities, or infrastructure. This policy shall establish 
criteria for the use of authorities, best practices, standardized 
procedures, and guidelines for how to appropriately manage property, 
infrastructure, and facilities.
  (e) Transmittal.--Not later than one year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the plan developed under 
subsection (c) to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate.
  (f) Establishment of Capital Fund.--The Administrator shall establish 
a capital fund for the modernization of facilities and laboratories. 
The Administrator shall ensure to the maximum extent practicable that 
all financial savings achieved by closing outdated or surplus 
facilities at an Administration Center shall be made available to that 
Center for the purpose of modernizing the Center's facilities and 
laboratories and for upgrading the infrastructure at the Center.
  (g) Report on Capital Fund.--Expenditures and other activities of the 
fund established under subsection (f) shall require review and approval 
by the Administrator and the status, including the amounts held in the 
capital fund, shall be reported to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate in conjunction with 
the Administration's annual budget request justification for each 
fiscal year.

SEC. 711. DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE OF COUNTERFEIT ELECTRONIC PARTS.

  (a) Regulations.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall revise the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration Supplement to the 
        Federal Acquisition Regulation to address the detection and 
        avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts.
          (2) Contractor responsibilities.--The revised regulations 
        issued pursuant to paragraph (1) shall provide that--
                  (A) Administration contractors who supply electronic 
                parts or products that include electronic parts are 
                responsible for detecting and avoiding the use or 
                inclusion of counterfeit electronic parts or suspect 
                counterfeit electronic parts in such products and for 
                any rework or corrective action that may be required to 
                remedy the use or inclusion of such parts; and
                  (B) the cost of counterfeit electronic parts and 
                suspect counterfeit electronic parts and the cost of 
                rework or corrective action that may be required to 
                remedy the use or inclusion of such parts are not 
                allowable costs under Administration contracts, 
                unless--
                          (i) the covered contractor has an operational 
                        system to detect and avoid counterfeit parts 
                        and suspect counterfeit electronic parts that 
                        has been reviewed and approved by the 
                        Administration or the Department of Defense;
                          (ii) the covered contractor provides timely 
                        notice to the Administration pursuant to 
                        paragraph (4); or
                          (iii) the counterfeit electronic parts or 
                        suspect counterfeit electronic parts were 
                        provided to the contractor as Government 
                        property in accordance with part 45 of the 
                        Federal Acquisition Regulation.
          (3) Suppliers of electronic parts.--The revised regulations 
        issued pursuant to paragraph (1) shall--
                  (A) require that the Administration and 
                Administration contractors and subcontractors at all 
                tiers--
                          (i) obtain electronic parts that are in 
                        production or currently available in stock from 
                        the original manufacturers of the parts or 
                        their authorized dealers, or from suppliers who 
                        obtain such parts exclusively from the original 
                        manufacturers of the parts or their authorized 
                        dealers; and
                          (ii) obtain electronic parts that are not in 
                        production or currently available in stock from 
                        suppliers that meet qualification requirements 
                        established pursuant to subparagraph (C);
                  (B) establish documented requirements consistent with 
                published industry standards or Government contract 
                requirements for--
                          (i) notification of the Administration; and
                          (ii) inspection, testing, and authentication 
                        of electronic parts that the Administration or 
                        an Administration contractor or subcontractor 
                        obtains from any source other than a source 
                        described in subparagraph (A);
                  (C) establish qualification requirements, consistent 
                with the requirements of section 2319 of title 10, 
                United States Code, pursuant to which the 
                Administration may identify suppliers that have 
                appropriate policies and procedures in place to detect 
                and avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect 
                counterfeit electronic parts; and
                  (D) authorize Administration contractors and 
                subcontractors to identify and use additional suppliers 
                beyond those identified pursuant to subparagraph (C) 
                provided that--
                          (i) the standards and processes for 
                        identifying such suppliers comply with 
                        established industry standards;
                          (ii) the contractor or subcontractor assumes 
                        responsibility for the authenticity of parts 
                        provided by such suppliers as provided in 
                        paragraph (2); and
                          (iii) the selection of such suppliers is 
                        subject to review and audit by appropriate 
                        Administration officials.
          (4) Timely notification.--The revised regulations issued 
        pursuant to paragraph (1) shall require that any Administration 
        contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware, or has reason to 
        suspect, that any end item, component, part, or material 
        contained in supplies purchased by the Administration, or 
        purchased by a contractor or subcontractor for delivery to, or 
        on behalf of, the Administration, contains counterfeit 
        electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts, shall 
        provide notification to the applicable Administration 
        contracting officer within 30 calendar days.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 120 days after the revised regulations 
specified in subsection (a) have been implemented, the Administrator 
shall submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report updating the Administration's 
actions to prevent counterfeit electronic parts from entering the 
supply chain as described in its October 2011 report pursuant to 
section 1206(d) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18444(d)).
  (c) Definition.--In this section, the term ``electronic part'' means 
a discrete electronic component, including a microcircuit, transistor, 
capacitor, resistor, or diode that is intended for use in a safety or 
mission critical application.

SEC. 712. SPACE ACT AGREEMENTS.

  (a) Cost Sharing.--To the extent that the Administrator determines 
practicable, the funds provided by the Government under a funded Space 
Act Agreement shall not exceed the total amount provided by other 
parties to the Space Act Agreement.
  (b) Need.--A funded Space Act Agreement may be used only when the use 
of a standard contract, grant, or cooperative agreement is not feasible 
or appropriate, as determined by the Associate Administrator for 
Procurement.
  (c) Public Notice and Comment.--The Administrator shall make 
available for public notice and comment each proposed Space Act 
Agreement at least 30 days before entering into such agreement, with 
appropriate redactions for proprietary, sensitive, or classified 
information.
  (d) Transparency.--The Administrator shall publicly disclose on the 
Administration's website and make available in a searchable format each 
Space Act Agreement, with appropriate redactions for proprietary, 
sensitive, or classified information, not later than 60 days after such 
agreement is signed.
  (e) Annual Report.--
          (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the end of 
        each fiscal year, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate a report on the use of Space Act 
        Agreement authority by the Administration during the previous 
        fiscal year.
          (2) Contents.--The report shall include for each Space Act 
        Agreement in effect at the time of the report--
                  (A) an indication of whether the agreement is a 
                reimbursable, nonreimbursable, or funded Space Act 
                Agreement;
                  (B) a description of--
                          (i) the subject and terms;
                          (ii) the parties;
                          (iii) the responsible--
                                  (I) mission directorate;
                                  (II) center; or
                                  (III) headquarters element;
                          (iv) the value;
                          (v) the extent of the cost sharing among 
                        Federal Government and non-Federal sources;
                          (vi) the time period or schedule; and
                          (vii) all milestones; and
                  (C) an indication of whether the agreement was 
                renewed during the previous fiscal year.
          (3) Anticipated agreements.--The report shall also include a 
        list of all anticipated reimbursable, nonreimbursable, and 
        funded Space Act Agreements for the upcoming fiscal year.
          (4) Cumulative program benefits.--The report shall also 
        include, with respect to the Space Act Agreements covered by 
        the report, a summary of--
                  (A) the technology areas in which research projects 
                were conducted under such agreements;
                  (B) the extent to which the use of the Space Act 
                Agreements--
                          (i) has contributed to a broadening of the 
                        technology and industrial base available for 
                        meeting Administration needs; and
                          (ii) has fostered within the technology and 
                        industrial base new relationships and practices 
                        that support the United States; and
                  (C) the total amount of value received by the Federal 
                Government during the fiscal year pursuant to such 
                Space Act Agreements.

SEC. 713. HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS.

  Section 70702(a) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
striking paragraph (3) and inserting the following:
          ``(3) any other orbital or suborbital space vehicle carrying 
        humans--
                  ``(A) that is owned by the Federal Government; or
                  ``(B) that is being used pursuant to a contract or 
                Space Act Agreement, as defined in section 2 of the 
                National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
                Authorization Act of 2014, with the Federal Government 
                for carrying a researcher or payload funded by the 
                Federal Government; or''.

SEC. 714. FULLEST COMMERCIAL USE OF SPACE.

  (a) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on 
current and continuing efforts by the Administration to ``seek and 
encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use 
of space,'' as described in section 20102(c) of title 51, United States 
Code.
  (b) Elements.--The report required under subsection (a) shall 
include--
          (1) an assessment of the Administration's efforts to comply 
        with the policy;
          (2) an explanation of criteria used to define compliance;
          (3) a description of programs, policies, and activities the 
        Administration is using, and will continue to use, to ensure 
        compliance;
          (4) an explanation of how the Administration could expand on 
        the efforts to comply; and
          (5) a summary of all current and planned activities pursuant 
        to this policy.
  (c) Barriers to Fullest Commercial Use of Space.--Not later than 90 
days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate a report on current and continuing efforts 
by the Administration to reduce impediments, bureaucracy, redundancy, 
and burdens to ensure the fullest commercial use of space as required 
by section 20102(c) of title 51, United States Code.

SEC. 715. ORBITAL DEBRIS.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that orbital debris poses serious risks 
to the operational space capabilities of the United States and that an 
international commitment and integrated strategic plan are needed to 
mitigate the growth of orbital debris wherever possible. Congress finds 
the delay in the Office of Science and Technology Policy's submission 
of a report on the status of international coordination and development 
of mitigation strategies to be inconsistent with such risks.
  (b) Reports.--
          (1) Coordination.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall provide the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate with a report on the status of 
        efforts to coordinate with countries within the Inter-Agency 
        Space Debris Coordination Committee to mitigate the effects and 
        growth of orbital debris as required by section 1202(b)(1) of 
        the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(1)).
          (2) Mitigation strategy.--Not later than 90 days after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of 
        Science and Technology Policy shall provide the Committee on 
        Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives 
        and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
        the Senate with a report on the status of the orbital debris 
        mitigation strategy required under section 1202(b)(2) of the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
        of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(2)).

SEC. 716. REVIEW OF ORBITAL DEBRIS REMOVAL CONCEPTS.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the amount 
of orbital debris in low-Earth orbit poses risks for human activities 
and robotic spacecraft and that this debris may increase due to 
collisions between existing debris objects. Understanding options to 
address and remove orbital debris is important for ensuring safe and 
effective spacecraft operations in low-Earth orbit.
  (b) Review.--The Administrator, in collaboration with other relevant 
Federal agencies, shall solicit and review concepts and technological 
options for removing orbital debris from low-Earth orbit. The 
solicitation and review shall also address the requirements for and 
feasibility of developing and implementing each of the options.
  (c) Transmittal.--Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall provide a report to the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on 
the solicitation and review required under subsection (b).

SEC. 717. USE OF OPERATIONAL COMMERCIAL SUBORBITAL VEHICLES FOR 
                    RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND EDUCATION.

  (a) Policy.--The Administrator shall develop a policy on the use of 
operational commercial reusable suborbital flight vehicles for carrying 
out scientific and engineering investigations and educational 
activities.
  (b) Plan.--The Administrator shall prepare a plan on the 
Administration's use of operational commercial reusable suborbital 
flight vehicles for carrying out scientific and engineering 
investigations and educational activities. The plan shall--
          (1) describe the purposes for which the Administration 
        intends to use such vehicles;
          (2) describe the processes required to support such use, 
        including the criteria used to determine which scientific and 
        engineering investigations and educational activities are 
        selected for a suborbital flight;
          (3) describe Administration, space flight operator, and 
        supporting contractor responsibilities for developing standard 
        payload interfaces and conducting payload safety analyses, 
        payload integration and processing, payload operations, and 
        safety assurance for Administration-sponsored space flight 
        participants, among other functions required to fly 
        Administration-sponsored payloads and space flight participants 
        on operational commercial suborbital vehicles;
          (4) identify Administration-provided hardware, software, or 
        services that may be provided to commercial reusable suborbital 
        space flight operators on a cost-reimbursable basis, through 
        agreements or contracts entered into under section 20113(e) of 
        title 51, United States Code; and
          (5) describe the United States Government and space flight 
        operator responsibilities for liability and indemnification 
        with respect to commercial suborbital vehicle flights that 
        involve Administration-sponsored payloads or activities, 
        Administration-supported space flight participants, or other 
        Administration-related contributions.
  (c) Assessment of Capabilities and Risks.--The Administrator shall 
assess and characterize the potential capabilities and performance of 
commercial reusable suborbital vehicles for addressing scientific 
research, including research requiring access to low-gravity and 
microgravity environments, for carrying out technology demonstrations 
related to science, exploration, or space operations requirements, and 
for providing opportunities for educating and training space scientists 
and engineers, once those vehicles become operational. The assessment 
shall also characterize the risks of using potential commercial 
reusable suborbital flights to Administration-sponsored researchers and 
scientific investigations and flight hardware.
  (d) Transmittal.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the plan and assessment 
described in subsections (b) and (c) to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.
  (e) Annual Progress Reports.--In conjunction with the 
Administration's annual budget request justification for each fiscal 
year, the Administrator shall transmit a report to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
describing progress in carrying out the Commercial Reusable Suborbital 
Research Program, including the number and type of suborbital missions 
planned in each fiscal year.
  (f) Indemnification and Liability.--The Administrator shall not 
proceed with a request for proposals, award any contract, commit any 
United States Government funds, or enter into any other agreement for 
the provision of a commercial reusable suborbital vehicle launch 
service for an Administration-sponsored spaceflight participant until 
transmittal of the plan and assessment specified in subsections (b) and 
(c), the liability issues associated with the use of such systems by 
the United States Government have been addressed, and the liability and 
indemnification provisions that are planned to be included in such 
contracts or agreements have been provided to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 718. FUNDAMENTAL SPACE LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It the sense of Congress that fundamental, 
discovery-based space life and physical sciences research is critical 
for enabling space exploration, protecting humans in space, and 
providing societal benefits, and that the space environment facilitates 
the advancement of understanding of the life sciences and physical 
sciences. Space life and physical science research contributes to 
advancing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics research, 
and provides careers and training opportunities in academia, Federal 
laboratories, and commercial industry. Congress encourages the 
Administrator to augment discovery-based fundamental research and to 
establish requirements reflecting the importance of such research in 
keeping with the priorities established in the National Academies' 
decadal survey entitled ``Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: 
Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era''.
  (b) Budget Request.--The Administrator shall include as part of the 
Administration's annual budget request for each fiscal year a budget 
line for fundamental space life and physical sciences research, devoted 
to competitive, peer-reviewed grants, that is separate from the 
International Space Station Operations account.
  (c) Strategic Plan.--
          (1) Development.--The Administrator, in consultation with 
        academia, other Federal agencies, and other potential 
        stakeholders, shall develop a strategic plan for carrying out 
        competitive, peer-reviewed fundamental space life science and 
        physical sciences and related technology research, among other 
        activities, consistent with the priorities in the National 
        Academies' decadal survey described in subsection (a).
          (2) Transmittal.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the 
        strategic plan developed under paragraph (1) to the Committee 
        on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 719. RESTORING COMMITMENT TO ENGINEERING RESEARCH.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that engineering 
excellence has long been a hallmark of the Administration's ability to 
make significant advances in aeronautics and space exploration. 
However, as has been noted in recent National Academies reports, 
increasingly constrained funding and competing priorities have led to 
an erosion of the Administration's commitment to basic engineering 
research. This research provides the basis for the technology 
development that enables the Administration's many challenging missions 
to succeed. If current trends continue, the Administration's ability to 
attract and maintain the best and brightest engineering workforce at 
its Centers as well as its ability to remain on the cutting edge of 
aeronautical and space technology will continue to erode and will 
threaten the Administration's ability to be a world leader in 
aeronautics research and development and space exploration.
  (b) Plan.--The Administrator shall develop a plan for restoring a 
meaningful basic engineering research program at the Administration's 
Centers, including, as appropriate, collaborations with industry, 
universities, and other relevant organizations. The plan shall identify 
the organizational approach to be followed, an initial set of basic 
research priorities, and a proposed budget.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit the plan specified in 
subsection (b) to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 720. LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

  The Administrator shall consult with the Secretary of Defense to 
ensure that any next generation liquid rocket engine made in the United 
States for national security space launch objectives can contribute, to 
the extent practicable, to the space programs and missions carried out 
by the Administration.

SEC. 721 REMOTE SATELLITE SERVICING DEMONSTRATIONS.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the Administration plays a key role in demonstrating the 
        feasibility of using robotic technologies for a spacecraft that 
        could autonomously access, inspect, repair, and refuel 
        satellites;
          (2) demonstrating this feasibility would both assist the 
        Administration in its future missions and provide other Federal 
        agencies and private sector entities with enhanced confidence 
        in the feasibility to robotically refuel, inspect, repair, and 
        maintain their satellites in both near and distant orbits; and
          (3) the capability to refuel, inspect, repair, and maintain 
        satellites robotically could add years of functional life to 
        satellites.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall transmit a report to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
describing the Administration's--
          (1) activities, tools, and techniques associated with the 
        ultimate goal of autonomously servicing satellites using 
        robotic spacecraft;
          (2) efforts to coordinate its technology development and 
        demonstrations with other Federal agencies and private sector 
        entities that conduct programs, projects, or activities on on-
        orbit satellite inspection and servicing capabilities;
          (3) efforts to leverage the work of these Federal agencies 
        and private sector entities into the Administration's plans;
          (4) accomplishments to date in demonstrating various 
        servicing technologies;
          (5) major technical and operational challenges encountered 
        and mitigation measures taken; and
          (6) demonstrations needed to increase confidence in the use 
        of the technologies for operational missions, and the timeframe 
        for these demonstrations.

SEC. 722. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that information 
security is central to the Administration's ability to protect 
information and information systems vital to its mission.
  (b) Study.--The Comptroller General of the United States shall 
conduct a study to assess the effectiveness of the Administration's 
Information Technology Governance. The study shall include an 
assessment of--
          (1) the resources available for overseeing Administration-
        wide information technology operations, investments, and 
        security measures and the Chief Information Officer's 
        visibility into and access to those resources;
          (2) the effectiveness of the Administration's decentralized 
        information technology structure, decisionmaking processes and 
        authorities and its ability to enforce information security; 
        and
          (3) the impact of providing the Chief Information Officer 
        approval authority over information technology investments that 
        exceed a defined monetary threshold and any potential impacts 
        of the Chief Information Officer having such authority on the 
        Administration's missions, flights programs and projects, 
        research activities, and Center operations.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Comptroller General shall transmit a report detailing the 
results of the study conducted under subsection (b) to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

SEC. 723. STRENGTHENING ADMINISTRATION SECURITY.

  (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Following the public disclosure of security and export 
        control violations at its research centers, the Administration 
        contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration 
        to conduct an independent assessment of how the Administration 
        carried out Foreign National Access Management practices and 
        other security matters.
          (2) The assessment by the National Academy of Public 
        Administration concluded that ``NASA networks are 
        compromised'', that the Administration lacked a standardized 
        and systematic approach to export compliance, and that 
        individuals within the Administration were not held accountable 
        when making serious, preventable errors in carrying out Foreign 
        National Access Management practices and other security 
        matters.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administration shall report to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on how it plans 
to address each of the recommendations made in the security assessment 
by the National Academy of Public Administration.
  (c) Review.--Within one year of enactment of this Act, the 
Comptroller General of the United States shall report to the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
its assessment of how the Administration has complied with the 
recommendations of the National Academy of Public Administration.

SEC. 724. PROHIBITION ON USE OF FUNDS FOR CONTRACTORS THAT HAVE 
                    COMMITTED FRAUD OR OTHER CRIMES.

  None of the funds authorized to be appropriated or otherwise made 
available for fiscal year 2014 or any fiscal year thereafter for the 
Administration may be used to enter into a contract with any offeror or 
any of its principals if the offeror certifies, pursuant to the Federal 
Acquisition Regulation, that the offeror or any of its principals--
          (1) within a three-year period preceding this offer has been 
        convicted of or had a civil judgment rendered against it for--
                  (A) commission of fraud or a criminal offense in 
                connection with obtaining, attempting to obtain, or 
                performing a public (Federal, State, or local) contract 
                or subcontract;
                  (B) violation of Federal or State antitrust statutes 
                relating to the submission of offers; or
                  (C) commission of embezzlement, theft, forgery, 
                bribery, falsification or destruction of records, 
                making false statements, tax evasion, violating Federal 
                criminal tax laws, or receiving stolen property;
          (2) are presently indicted for, or otherwise criminally or 
        civilly charged by a governmental entity with, commission of 
        any of the offenses enumerated in paragraph (1); or
          (3) within a three-year period preceding this offer, has been 
        notified of any delinquent Federal taxes in an amount that 
        exceeds $3,000 for which the liability remains unsatisfied.

SEC. 725. PROTECTION OF APOLLO LANDING SITES.

  (a) Assessment.--The Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy, in consultation with all relevant agencies of the Federal 
Government and other appropriate entities and individuals, shall carry 
out a review and assessment of the issues involved in protecting and 
preserving historically important Apollo Program lunar landing sites 
and Apollo program artifacts residing on the lunar surface, including 
those pertaining to Apollo 11 and Apollo 17. The review and assessment 
shall, at a minimum, include determination of what risks to the 
protection and preservation of those sites and artifacts exist or may 
exist in the future, what measures are required to ensure such 
protection and preservation, the extent to which additional domestic 
legislation or international treaties or agreements will be required, 
and specific recommendations for protecting and preserving those lunar 
landing sites and artifacts.
  (b) Report.--Not later than one year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director shall transmit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate the results of 
the assessment required under subsection (a).

SEC. 726. ASTRONAUT OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHCARE.

  (a) In General.--The National Academies' Institute of Medicine report 
``Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: 
Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework'' found 
that the Administration has ethical responsibilities for and should 
adopt policies and processes related to health standards for long 
duration and exploration spaceflights that recognize those ethical 
responsibilities. In particular, the report recommended that the 
Administration ``provide preventative long-term health screening and 
surveillance of astronauts and lifetime health care to protect their 
health, support ongoing evaluation of health standards, improve mission 
safety, and reduce risks for current and future astronauts''.
  (b) Response.--The Administration shall prepare a response to the 
National Academies report recommendation described in subsection (a). 
The response shall include the estimated budgetary resources required 
for the implementation of those recommendations, and any options that 
might be considered as part of the response.
  (c) Transmittal.--The response required under subsection (b) shall be 
transmitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate not later than 6 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act.

                        II. Purpose and Summary

    The purpose of H.R. 4412, sponsored by Rep. Steven Palazzo 
and Rep. Lamar Smith, is to reauthorize the science, 
aeronautics, and human space flight and exploration programs of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for 
the fiscal year 2014, and address space and aeronautics policy 
and programmatic issues.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    The NASA Authorization Acts of 2005, 2008, and 2010 
provided policy and programmatic guidance for the 
Administration that made clear that the Administration is, and 
should remain, a multi-mission agency with a balanced portfolio 
of programs in science, aeronautics, and human space flight, 
including human and robotic exploration beyond low Earth orbit. 
The NASA Authorization Act of 2014 reaffirms the basic 
principles espoused in the prior NASA Authorization acts, while 
emphasizing the importance of providing a long-term goal of a 
human mission to the surface of Mars and the need for a Human 
Exploration Roadmap to define the capabilities and milestones 
required to achieve the goal, and maintaining U.S. leadership 
in NASA's space and Earth science, aeronautics research and 
development, and human spaceflight programs. The need for the 
legislation at this time is the expiration of an authorization 
for the Administration.

                          IV. Hearing Summary

    In the 113th Congress, the Subcommittee on Space held a 
hearing on February 27, 2013, titled ``A Review of the Space 
Leadership Preservation Act'' to receive testimony on this 
piece of legislation that would also inform the Committee's 
consideration of the policies, organization, programs, and 
budget for re-authorizing the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration in this Congress. The Subcommittee heard from 
four witnesses:
    Panel 1
          
 The Honorable Frank R. Wolf
          
 The Honorable John Culberson
    Panel 2
          
  Mr. A. Thomas Young, Chair of the Board for 
        SAIC (testifying on his own behalf)
          
  Mr. Elliot Pulham, Chief Executive Officer, 
        The Space Foundation
    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology then held 
two hearings to address efforts to track and mitigate asteroids 
and meteors.
    The first, held on March 19, 2013, was titled, ``Threats 
from Space: A Review of U.S. Government Efforts to Track and 
Mitigate Asteroids and Meteors, Part 1''. The Committee heard 
from three witnesses:
          
  The Honorable John P. Holdren, Director of 
        the Office of Science and Technology Policy for the 
        Executive Office of the President
          
  Gen. William L. Shelton, Commander of the 
        U.S. Air Force Space Command
          
  The Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr., 
        Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration
    The second hearing, held on April 10, 2013, was titled, 
``Threats from Space, Part II: A Review of Private Sector 
Efforts to Track and Mitigate Asteroids and Meteors''. The 
Committee heard from three witnesses:
          
 Dr. Ed Lu, Chairman & CEO, B612 Foundation
          
  Dr. Donald K. Yeomans, Manager, Near-Earth 
        Objects Program Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
          
  Dr. Michael F. A'Hearn, Vice-Chair, 
        Committee to Review Near-Earth Object Surveys and 
        Hazard Mitigation Strategies, National Research Council
    On April 24, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space held a hearing 
titled, ``An Overview of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Budget for Fiscal Year 2014,'' to review the 
Administration's FY 2014 budget request for the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration and examine its priorities 
and challenges. The Subcommittee heard from one witness:
          
  The Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr., 
        Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration
    On Thursday, May 9, 2013, the Subcommittees on Space and 
Research held a joint hearing titled ``Exoplanet Discoveries: 
Have We Found Other Earths?'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
review the recent discovery of three super-Earth sized planets 
by NASA's Kepler space telescope. The hearing also assessed the 
state of exoplanet surveying, characterization, and research; 
NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program; National Science 
Foundation's (NSF) Division of Astronomical Science; as well as 
coordination within the government and with external partners. 
NASA and NSF both contribute to the search for exoplanets. NASA 
provides space-based telescopes to identify potential planets, 
while NSF builds ground-based telescopes. Both agencies fund 
research that assists in categorizing and characterizing 
candidate planets. The Subcommittees heard from three 
witnesses:
          
  Dr. Laurance Doyle, Principal Investigator, 
        Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, SETI 
        Institute, and member of the NASA Kepler Mission 
        Science Team
          
  Dr. John Grunsfeld, Associate 
        Administrator, Science Mission Directorate, NASA
          
  Dr. James (Jim) Ulvestad, Division 
        Director, Division of Astronomical Sciences, 
        Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, NSF
    On May 21, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space held a hearing 
titled, ``Next Steps in Human Exploration to Mars and Beyond.'' 
The purpose of this hearing was to examine possible options for 
the next steps in human space flight and how these options move 
the United States closer to a human mission to Mars and beyond. 
In particular, the Subcommittee explored whether the 
Administration's proposed asteroid rendezvous mission is a 
better precursor for an eventual manned mission to Mars 
compared to Apollo-like follow-on missions to return to the 
Moon. The Subcommittee heard from four witnesses:
          
  Dr. Louis Friedman, Co-Lead, Keck Institute 
        for Space Studies Asteroid Retrieval Mission Study and 
        Executive Director Emeritus, The Planetary Society
          
  Dr. Paul Spudis, Senior Staff Scientist at 
        the Lunar and Planetary Institute
          
  Dr. Steve Squyres, Goldwin Smith Professor 
        of Astronomy at Cornell University
          
  Mr. Doug Cooke, Owner, Cooke Concepts and 
        Solutions
    On June 19, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space held a hearing 
titled, ``NASA Authorization Act of 2013,'' to review a 
discussion draft of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) Authorization Act of 2013. The 
Subcommittee heard from two witnesses:
          
  Dr. Steven M. Squyres, Goldwin Smith 
        Professor of Astronomy, Cornell University
          
  Mr. A. Thomas Young, Executive Vice 
        President (retired), Lockheed Martin Corporation
    On September 20, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space held a 
hearing titled, ``NASA Infrastructure: Enabling Discovery and 
Ensuring Capability,'' to review NASA's efforts to manage its 
facilities and infrastructure, the agency's current legislative 
authority, and its proposed legislation to provide greater 
flexibility to the agency. NASA is the ninth largest Federal 
Government real property holder; however, nearly 80 percent of 
the agency's facilities are 40 or more years old. A 2012 study 
by NASA estimated that NASA may have as many as 865 unneeded 
facilities, with maintenance costs of over $24 million a year. 
Similarly, NASA has a backlog of over $2.19 billion in deferred 
maintenance. The Subcommittee heard from two witnesses:
          
  The Honorable Paul K. Martin, Inspector 
        General, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
          
  Mr. Richard Keegan, Associate Deputy 
        Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration
    On December 4, 2013, the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology held a hearing titled, Astrobiology: The Search for 
Biosignatures in our Solar System and Beyond, to examine 
astrobiology research and the search for biosignatures. The 
hearing included a general assessment of the multi- and 
interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology research, including 
the role astrobiology plays in formulating NASA space missions. 
It also examined the techniques and capabilities necessary to 
determine the potential for the existence of biosignatures 
within our Solar System. With the discovery of potential Earth-
like planets outside of our Solar System, the hearing also 
investigated what methods are being used to determine if any of 
these planets may harbor life. The hearing explored existing 
and planned astrobiology research strategies and roadmaps. The 
Committee heard from three witnesses:
          
  Dr. Mary Voytek, Senior Scientist for 
        Astrobiology in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA 
        headquarters
          
  Dr. Sara Seager, Professor of Physics and 
        of Planetary Science at M.I.T. and 2013 recipient of a 
        MacArthur Foundation ``Genius Grant'' for her work in 
        exoplanet research
          
  Dr. Steven J. Dick, Baruch S. Blumberg 
        Chair of Astrobiology, John W. Kluge Center, Library of 
        Congress
    On February 27, 2014, the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology, held a hearing titled ``Mars Flyby 2021: The First 
Deep Space Mission for the Orion and SLS?'' This hearing 
explored the need for a roadmap of missions to guide 
investments in NASA's human spaceflight programs, how a manned 
mission to flyby the planets Mars and Venus launching in 2021 
might fit into a series of missions and how the Space Launch 
System (SLS) and Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle could 
contribute to that mission. The Committee heard from four 
witnesses:
          
  Dr. Scott Pace, Director of the Space 
        Policy Institute, George Washington University
          
  General Lester Lyles (Ret.), Independent 
        Aerospace Consultant and former Chairman of the 
        National Research Council Committee on the Rationale 
        and Goals of the U.S. Civil Space Program
          
  Mr. Doug Cooke, Owner, Cooke Concepts and 
        Solutions and former NASA Associate Administrator for 
        Exploration Systems Mission Directorate;
          
  Dr. Sandy Magnus, Executive Director, 
        American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
    On March 27, 2014, the Subcommittee held a hearing titled, 
``An Overview of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Budget for Fiscal Year 2015''. The purpose of 
the hearing was to review the Administration's fiscal year 2015 
(FY15) budget request for the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration and examine its priorities and challenges. The 
Committee heard from one witness:
          
  The Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr., 
        Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration.

                       V. Committee Consideration

    The Subcommittee on Space met to consider H.R. 4412 on 
Wednesday, April 9, 2014. The Subcommittee considered and 
approved by voice vote one amendment in the nature of a 
substitute offered by Mr. Palazzo and Ms. Edwards to H.R. 4412. 
The bill, as amended, was agreed to by voice vote, and was 
favorably reported to the full Committee.
    On April 29, 2014, the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology met in open markup session. The Committee considered 
and approved by voice vote a manager's amendment offered by Ms. 
Edwards and Mr. Palazzo. The bill, as amended, was agreed to by 
voice vote and favorably reported to the House.

                          VI. Committee Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee to list the recorded 
votes on the motion to report legislation and amendments 
thereto. A motion to order H.R. 4412 favorably reported to the 
House, as amended, was agreed to by voice vote.
    During Full Committee consideration of H.R. 4412, the 
following amendments were considered:
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              VII. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    This bill authorizes programs and projects at the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration for FY14. Authorized NASA 
funding is consistent with the funding appropriated for NASA in 
the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76)--
$17,646,500,000. NASA continues to be the world's premier space 
organization. This bill seeks to maintain sustainability of 
purpose and budget for NASA programs, and ensure that it 
continues to be a multi-mission agency.
    Human Spaceflight: Building on the themes of previous 
authorizations, this bill reaffirms Congress's commitment to 
space exploration, both human and robotic. This legislation 
makes clear that a human mission to Mars is the goal for NASA's 
human spaceflight program and requires the development of a 
roadmap to achieve that goal, as well as biennial updates. In 
the near-term, the primary tasks for NASA human spaceflight 
include:
          
 Realizing the research potential of the 
        International Space Station with an Office of Science & 
        Technology Policy-led strategic plan for all science 
        agencies to conduct research on the Station. NASA will 
        study the feasibility of continuing its operational 
        lifespan beyond 2020.
          
 Continued commitment to develop the Space 
        Launch System and Orion Crew Vehicle and reiteration of 
        Congressional direction that Orion serve as a backup 
        system to support the Space Station if necessary.
          
 Assist in building at least one Commercial 
        Crew system (with NASA funds) to carry American 
        astronauts on American rockets safely, reliably, and 
        affordably to and from the International Space Station 
        so that we are no longer reliant on Russia for crew 
        access.
    Science Programs: Relying on guidance of the National 
Academy of Sciences Decadal Surveys, this bill emphasizes the 
importance of maintaining a steady cadence of science missions, 
including a Europa mission with a goal of launching by 2021. It 
directs NASA and the National Academy of Sciences to provide 
Congress with a report assessing the long-term goals of NASA's 
Mars Exploration Program, which includes the Mars 2020 rover. 
To reflect the increase in the number of newly discovered 
planets outside our solar system, the legislation also directs 
NASA and the National Academy of Sciences to provide an 
exoplanet exploration strategy. This bill stresses the 
importance of completing and expanding the Congressionally 
mandated near-Earth object survey to detect, track, catalogue, 
and characterize near-Earth objects 140 meters in diameter or 
larger. When additional Earth science responsibilities are 
transferred from other agencies to NASA, the legislation seeks 
to ensure that NASA will be reimbursed for the cost of new 
responsibilities. The bill also:
          
 Maintains launch date goal of the James Webb 
        Space Telescope by 2018.
          
 Continues survey for potentially-hazardous 
        Earth-crossing objects.
          
 Continues exciting search for planets around 
        other stars and life on other worlds.
          
 Prohibits use of FY14 funds to shut down the 
        Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy.
    Aeronautics: Authorizes a robust aeronautics research 
program, including efforts to safely integrate unmanned aerial 
systems into the national airspace as well as NextGen 
technology for future air traffic management. Directs NASA to 
develop a plan to better position the agency to have the 
facilities and infrastructure necessary to meet future 
requirements including those set forth in the human exploration 
roadmap.
    Education: Requires that NASA educational and outreach 
activities continue within the mission directorates.
    Space Act Agreements (SAA): The bill provides greater 
public accountability and transparency on SAAs.
    Controlling Costs: Requires NASA to enforce more cost 
estimating discipline for its programs, and frees up funding 
for meaningful work rather than setting aside money for 
potential contract termination costs for defined programs and 
prohibits NASA from reserving funds from amounts appropriated 
for potential termination liability costs.
    Liquid Rocket Engines: Requires the Administrator to 
consult with the Secretary of Defense to ensure that any new 
liquid rocket engine developed in the United States for 
national security space launch objectives can contribute, to 
the extent practicable, to NASA's space programs and missions.

                         VIII. Committee Views


                      TITLE II--HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT


                        SUBTITLE A--EXPLORATION

    The Committee supports continuing the ``go-as-you-can-
afford-to-pay'' strategy for exploration in accordance with a 
stepping stone plan as described in section 202 of this bill. 
The Committee reiterates that Human exploration deeper into the 
solar system shall be a core mission of the Administration and 
that the goal of the Administration's exploration program shall 
be to conduct a human mission to the surface of Mars.
    The Committee recognizes that NASA cannot accomplish every 
goal set forth in this or previous authorizations all at one 
time and continues to endorse a phased approach to development 
that should be clearly outlined by the Human Exploration 
Roadmap required under section 202.
    The Committee is concerned about the absence of a unifying 
plan for NASA's future human exploration efforts. The plan 
required by this section should serve as a pathway to Mars with 
multiple missions or mission sets that may be used to 
demonstrate those technologies and capabilities necessary for 
deep space exploration. The Committee encourages NASA to use 
this plan as an opportunity to utilize assets from all of the 
relevant Mission Directorates to find the most efficient and 
effective ways to build technologies and capabilities within 
constrained budgets.
    Additionally, to ensure that NASA has unencumbered access 
to domestic, fully operational, critical testing facilities 
required for the development of manned and unmanned space 
systems, the Committee encourages NASA to refrain from closing, 
demolishing, out-granting or consolidating facilities deemed 
critical to the development, certification and operation of 
agency space exploration systems until the Human Exploration 
Roadmap in this section is completed. Without the roadmap, as 
well as the continuation of ongoing facilities and 
infrastructure reviews, NASA cannot assess what facilities it 
will and will not need for future exploration initiatives. The 
Committee recognizes the challenges facing the agency from a 
maintenance backlog perspective, and commends the agency for 
moving forward with initiatives to address those challenges; 
however, such decisions should be informed by future needs, 
including reasonable launch rate projections.
    The Committee strongly supports Space Launch System (SLS) 
development as the enabling element for human exploration 
beyond low-Earth Orbit, as well as for its ability to support 
advanced science missions and national security priorities. In 
designing the SLS, NASA is directed to ensure the launch 
vehicle is capable of lifting a total payload of 130 tons or 
more into low-Earth orbit as required in the NASA Authorization 
Act of 2010. Additionally, the Committee believes it is 
important to ensure that the SLS is capable of lifting a mass 
sufficient to conduct robust beyond low Earth orbit missions as 
soon as practicable.
    The Committee acknowledges the current balanced approach to 
the development of a heavy lift launch vehicle, a crew capsule 
and a supporting launch infrastructure capability whereby the 
management of the SLS Program resides at the Marshall Space 
Flight Center (MSFC), the Orion Program resides at Johnson 
Space Center (JSC) and the Exploration Ground Systems Program 
resides at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).
    The Committee reaffirms past commitments to revitalizing 
the Kennedy Space Center and Eastern Range into a multi-user 
spaceport. As such, the Committee reiterates support for the 
21st Century Launch Complex (21CLC).
    Subsection 203(f) requires the Administrator to initiate a 
competition to name the overall deep space exploration program 
and the SLS. The Apollo program and Saturn rockets were popular 
names, and the public knew the Space Shuttle orbiters by name. 
Public recognition will be enhanced with popularly-selected 
names for SLS and the overall exploration program.
    The Committee is pleased with the progress made thus far on 
the Orion crew capsule. The report required in subsection 
204(b) is essential to instilling confidence in the development 
efforts of NASA towards deep space exploration and the 
Committee expects a prompt response from the Administrator.
    At this point in the development of the SLS, the 
development of boosters is secondary to completion of an 
exploration upper stage. If the Administrator determines that a 
competition is necessary, the Committee directs NASA to conduct 
this competition subject to the conditions described in Section 
203(g). In the analysis required, the Associate Administrator 
shall ensure a determination to conduct a booster competition 
does not in any way create financial pressure significant 
enough to delay the EM-1 or the EM-2 test flights, and that it 
does not adversely impact the development of the upper stage.

                      SUBTITLE B--SPACE OPERATIONS

    The Committee finds the International Space Station (ISS) 
to be an ideal short-term test bed for future exploration 
systems development including long-duration space travel, 
therefore the ISS should be utilized to the fullest extent 
possible for the development of capabilities needed for the 
future of human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.
    It is the intent of the Committee to ensure the ISS is a 
research success To that end, the report on the feasibility of 
extending the operation of the station as required in 
subsection 211(f) will help inform a framework for the future 
of the facility. The Committee will use this plan to evaluate 
future investments in station and research cadence to maximize 
utilization of the National Lab and other government research 
efforts.
    As directed in subsection 211(g), the Director of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) should consider 
innovative options for encouraging federal agencies to conduct 
research on the station as often as possible. As ISS will only 
be available for a finite time period, a timely response will 
help to ensure there is maximum utilization of this important 
research facility.
    Acquiring and maintaining an operational domestic 
commercial crew transportation service as soon as is safe and 
practicable is of the utmost importance to the Committee. The 
Committee is troubled by the fact that NASA has developed an 
acquisition strategy that has assumed funding levels in excess 
of authorized levels. The independent cost and schedule 
estimate required in subsection 215(f) is intended to ensure 
maximum transparency for the program and to build confidence in 
the acquisition approach. The Committee is concerned that the 
schedule for bringing domestic commercial providers of crew 
transportation services online has slipped multiple times. The 
Commercial Crew program is a public-private partnership made 
possible with substantial taxpayer investment. The objective of 
the Commercial Crew Program is to assist the private sector in 
developing capabilities necessary to provide safe, reliable, 
and affordable domestic crew access to the Station.
    The Committee recognizes the vital role that space 
communications play in current space operations for NASA, as 
well as other Federal agencies, and the role space 
communications will play in future science and exploration 
missions. The Committee is concerned that NASA has not 
adequately funded plans to continue to support the sustainment 
and upgrading of space communications and navigation network 
and infrastructure. Without sufficient planning and investment, 
NASA could find itself with limited capabilities that will not 
meet critical mission needs. Therefore, NASA, in consultation 
with relevant Federal agencies, must develop and implement a 
long-term plan to meet all projected requirements for its space 
communications.

                           TITLE III--SCIENCE


                          SUBTITLE A--GENERAL

    The Committee recognizes that Congress has consistently 
supported a balanced portfolio of scientific activities, 
including research and analysis grant programs, technology 
development, small, medium, and large space missions, and 
suborbital research activities. Support of a well-rounded 
science portfolio, as guided by the decadal surveys for 
astronomy and astrophysics, earth science, heliophysics, and 
planetary science, allows for innovation and discovery in all 
areas of the Science Mission Directorate.
    The Committee recognizes that in this financially difficult 
period it is necessary to assess the potential extension of 
existing missions to determine how such extensions will impact 
the start of future missions. Consequently, the NASA 
Administrator is directed to conduct biennial reviews within 
each of the Science divisions to assess the costs and benefits 
of extending the date of the termination of data collection for 
those missions that exceed their planned missions' lifetime.

                        SUBTITLE B--ASTROPHYSICS

    The Committee recognizes that the field of extrasolar (or 
exoplanet) research has grown in the past 20 years, and that 
recent discoveries of super-Earth planets by the Kepler 
telescope have created greater interest in finding not only 
planet similar to ours, but also the prospects for finding 
biosignatures on these planets. With Kepler potentially unable 
to gather more scientific data on exoplanets, Section 312 
directs NASA to work with the National Academy of Sciences to 
develop a strategy for how to further the research in this 
area.
    The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) transferred two 
telescopes to NASA for potential use. A recent NASA Science 
Definition Team issued a report on the benefits of the 
potential science that could be collected by the addition of 
the 2.4 meter aperture NRO telescope to plans for the Wide-
Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). While the report 
indicates that the 2.4 meter telescope would be a significant 
tool to conduct science, Section 314 requires a detailed report 
about the cost difference between the original WFIRST design 
plans and those of the WFIRST 2.4 that include the new 
telescope, as well as how much the total cost would be to store 
and maintain the donated assets.
    The Committee recognizes that completing the James Webb 
Space Telescope is a priority. As its launch draws near, NASA 
should maintain its current level of effort regarding the pre-
formulation of the WFIRST mission, which is next on the list of 
priorities of large space-based telescopes selected by the 
scientific community and recommended by the latest astronomy 
and astrophysics decadal survey. While significant investment 
and development of WFIRST cannot occur until JWST is completed, 
the Administrator should continue concept definition and pre-
formulation activity activities for WFIRST.
    The Committee was concerned with the Administration's 
proposal to ``mothball'' the Stratospheric Observatory for 
Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) before an initial senior review or 
external review was conducted. Section 316 prohibits any FY 
2014 funding from being used to shut down or prepare to shut 
down SOFIA

                     SUBTITLE C--PLANETARY SCIENCE

    The Committee applauds NASA for the tremendous successes in 
the planetary science program and believes the program should 
be made a top-priority for the agency. The National Academies' 
decadal surveys provide NASA and the Administration with the 
scientific community's consensus on priority space science 
missions. The Committee strongly supports the priorities laid 
out in the Planetary Science decadal survey, Visions and 
Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. However, 
the Committee is highly disappointed with the cuts proposed for 
planetary science over the last several years and the steep 
reduction in planned missions for the next decade.
    In accordance with priorities established in the most 
recent decadal survey for planetary science, the agency is 
directed to maintain a balanced planetary science program, 
including at least one Flagship-class mission per decadal 
period. To this end, the Committee is supportive of a Europa 
mission with a goal of launching by 2021.
    Further, the Committee believes a steady cadence of small, 
medium, and large missions is the best way to sustain a healthy 
planetary science program and maintain public interest and 
excitement, and strongly urges NASA to adhere to the cadence of 
missions recommended in the decadal survey, as possible under 
the funding provided. In addition to the Planetary Science 
decadal survey's recommendations for Discovery, New Frontiers, 
and Flagship missions outlined in the bill, Congress recognizes 
the priority the Planetary Science decadal survey has placed on 
planning and implementing a Mars sample return mission in the 
next decade. This provision does not limit consideration of 
that mission.
    The Committee recognizes the George E. Brown, Jr., Near-
Earth Object Survey, as authorized in the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005, as the 
means for the discovery, tracking, cataloguing, and 
characterization of near-Earth objects 140 meters in diameter 
and larger. NASA should place a higher priority on identifying 
90 percent of these ``continent,'' ``region,'' and ``city-
killer'' sized asteroids by 2020. In addition to completing a 
catalogue of hazardous near-Earth objects, it is important for 
planetary defense purposes to have a warning and mitigation 
plan in place, both domestically, and in conjunction with 
global partners.
    NASA is party to several well-known private partnerships 
with institutions, including, for example, the Minor Planet 
Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. NASA 
should seek to leverage the capabilities of the private sector 
and philanthropic organizations in order to meet the objectives 
stated in the George E. Brown, Jr., Near-Earth Object Survey 
and in Section 322.
    The Committee also encourages NASA to expand its 
collaboration with private institutions focused on studying 
life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the 
Universe, including searches for natural and technological 
signatures of life on distant worlds.

                        SUBTITLE D--HELIOPHYSICS

    The Committee remains concerned with the potential impacts 
of space weather events on national interests and critical 
infrastructure. Section 332 requires the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy to report on current and planned space 
weather monitoring requirements and capabilities necessary for 
the development of forecasts and mitigation processes. 
Coordination with various agencies, international partners, and 
private sector efforts should be taken into account.

                       SUBTITLE E--EARTH SCIENCE

    This title reaffirms the goal of NASA's Earth Science 
activities and directs the NASA Administrator to continue 
carrying out a balanced Earth science Program and, in doing so, 
collaborate with other Federal agencies. This title also 
directs NASA to continue to develop first-of-a-kind instruments 
that, once proved, can be transitioned to other agencies for 
operations. The title also directs NASA to seek reimbursement 
when assuming the development of sensors or measurements used 
by other agencies.
    The Joint Agency Satellite Division currently manages the 
reimbursable satellite and instrument development activities 
performed by NASA for partner agencies. The division's 
portfolio includes the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), the 
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series 
(GOES-R), the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), Jason-3, 
MetOp/POES, and Polar Free Flyer. The Committee recommends that 
NASA utilize this existing organization for all activities on 
behalf of other agencies.

                         TITLE IV--AERONAUTICS

    The Committee notes the importance of a robust aeronautics 
research portfolio to the United States and NASA in particular. 
Section 401 states it is the sense of Congress that NASA should 
coordinate with other Federal agencies and the private sector 
to ensure that there is synergy across the various aeronautics 
research efforts and to maximize available resources without 
duplicating effort.
    Section 403 is intended to facilitate cross-agency 
coordination for the safe integration of unmanned aerial 
systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). At 
present, domestic use of UAS is limited to academic and 
government institutions that receive a Certificate of Waiver or 
Authorization and private sector entities that receive 
certification by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). 
However, UAS usage is poised to continue growing, and NASA and 
FAA must coordinate research and development to address the 
technical issues listed in the bill, all of which are necessary 
precursors to the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. This 
section would also require that flight data derived from 
university UAS research and development activities be supplied 
to NASA and other agencies so as to aid in the development of 
regulatory standards for UAS operation in the NAS.
    NASA is making a concerted effort to accelerate the 
development and certification of new composite materials 
through its Integrated Systems Research Program. In Sec. 404, 
the Committee seeks to ensure that in doing so, NASA consults 
with partners in industry and across the Federal government in 
order to ensure that all of these research efforts build on one 
another so as to minimize duplication and maximize results.
    Currently, the majority of hypersonic research funded by 
the Federal government is conducted by the Department of 
Defense. However, given NASA's historical work on hypersonics 
and the potential for NASA's hypersonic research program to be 
revived at some point in the future, the Committee believes it 
is essential for NASA to remain involved in charting the course 
for Federally-funded hypersonic research. Section 405 requires 
the Administrator to create a roadmap for research and 
development in hypersonic aircraft in consultation with other 
Federal agencies in order to ensure that research efforts 
across the Federal government complement one another and are 
working toward a unified set of goals. Additionally, Section 
406 and 408 seek to coordinate other technological research 
that is currently funded by NASA and other agencies, 
specifically supersonic and rotorcraft research.
    As the FAA continues to move forward with its NextGen 
airspace management modernization initiative, it is imperative 
that NASA's research and development activities be continually 
tailored to support the NextGen program as it evolves to ensure 
that Federal funds are used efficiently and effectively. 
Section 407 requires the Administrator to review NASA's 
activities in support of NextGen in conjunction with other 
Federal agencies in order to synchronize NASA's research and 
development with the NextGen program.

                       TITLE V--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

    In February of 2013, NASA announced the creation of a new 
Mission Directorate for the Space Technology program. This bill 
represents the first opportunity for the Committee to authorize 
the new Mission Directorate and to provide policy direction for 
its activities. The Committee supports the creation of enabling 
technologies for long-lead missions as well as an independent 
program designed specifically for solving complex problems with 
innovative solutions. The Committee supports the Advanced 
Exploration Systems program in the Human Exploration and 
Operations Mission Directorate and directs NASA to continue 
these technology development programs and activities.
    The Committee authorizes the creation of the Space 
Technology program within the specific guidelines in Section 
70507 of Title 51 as amended in Section 502. The program should 
continue to develop cross-cutting technologies and coordinate 
activities within the various mission directorates. The 
Administrator is encouraged to require all new proposed 
technology demonstrations which can be carried out in low-Earth 
orbit to consider utilizing the ISS internal, external, or 
small spacecraft deployment capabilities as a means of reducing 
the life cycle costs. The International Space Station, as 
complemented by U.S. commercial cargo transportation and 
research infrastructure providers, offers NASA's Space 
Technology Program a cost effective and rapid means of 
demonstrating emerging space technologies and maturing new 
space systems.
    The Committee has included a directive that the 
Administrator shall ensure that efforts within the Space 
Technology program are not duplicative of efforts already 
underway in other mission directorates.

                    TITLE VI--EDUCATION AND OUTREACH

    The Administration's latest budget request proposed 
consolidating NASA education activities within the Office of 
Education, for a second year in a row. Education activities 
within the Mission Directorates would be zeroed out in all but 
one Directorate. As a result, numerous Science, Technology, 
Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education activities that 
are embedded in larger NASA research programs would likely be 
terminated. Sec. 601 reaffirms the importance of NASA's 
existing STEM education activities and requires NASA to 
maintain its STEM education and outreach activities within the 
Mission Directorates as well as the Office of Education. This 
section also directs the Administrator to continue to operate 
the National Space Grant College and Fellowship program. This 
section reaffirms Congress' commitment to NASA's ``informal 
science education at science centers and planetariums.'' 
Informal education takes place outside of the classroom and 
plays an important role in instilling an interest in STEM 
education in children and adults.
    Sec. 602 requires an Independent Review of the National 
Space Grant College and Fellowship Program in order to ensure 
that this program is doing all it can to support our STEM 
workforce and train the next generation of scientists and 
engineers. This section also allows the participation of two 
year institutions in the Space Grant program, and adds outreach 
to K-12 students to support STEM engagement into the Space 
Grant program.

                      TITLE VII--OTHER PROVISIONS

    Members of the Committee have expressed concerns with the 
lack of specifics on the schedule, technical plan, budget and 
vision for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission; these concerns have 
not been addressed by the Administration. The Administration 
should seek input from Congress before attempting large-scale 
projects that involve major financial commitments from 
taxpayers. Additionally, the Committee encourages the 
Administrator to work with Congress in the future before 
proposing missions of this magnitude.
    The purpose of Sec. 702 is to allow covered programs to 
utilize obligated funds for conducting meaningful work, thus 
enabling contractors to make maximum progress in meeting the 
established technical schedule goals of these programs. This 
will provide more stability of purpose for covered programs and 
facilitate progress toward Congressionally-mandated milestones.
    In 2010 the President proposed the cancellation of the 
Constellation Program\1\ after NASA Administrator Charles 
Bolden informed Congress that work on the Constellation Program 
must slow to ensure NASA would not run afoul of the Anti-
Deficiency Act due to an inaccurate accounting of potential 
termination liability.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Budget of the United States Government for Fiscal Year 2011, at 
129-30, available at www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy11/index.html (last 
visited December 2, 2013).
    \2\Letter From NASA Administrator Charles Bolden to House Science 
and Technology Committee Chairman Bart Gordon, June 9, 2010.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Potential termination liability refers to an estimate of 
possible costs that a contractor would incur if it stopped work 
on a contract prior to completing performance in the event that 
the Government terminated the contract for convenience.\3\ The 
Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) permit government 
agencies to manage potential termination liability on 
incrementally-funded, multiple year, cost-reimbursable 
contracts in at least two ways: the agency may require a 
contractor to track and account for their own potential 
termination liability costs under the limitations of funds 
clause\4\; or, the agency may use a special termination costs 
clause which allows the contractor to ignore possible 
termination liability when calculating its contract funding 
request.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Letter from NASA CFO Beth Robinson to House Science, Space, and 
Technology Committee Chairman Lamar Smith, February 22, 2013.
    \4\Federal Acquisition Regulations 52.232-22
    \5\Federal Acquisition Regulations 249.501-70
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Under the special termination costs clause, ``NASA informs 
the contractor that it need not include potential termination 
liability in its contract funding request calculations under 
the limitation of funds clause, and that NASA will still pay 
the contractor for allowable termination costs in addition to 
incurred costs in the event of a contract termination, usually 
up to an agreed-upon ceiling amount.''\6\ On most NASA 
contracts, the vendor is ultimately responsible for tracking 
their termination liability to ensure there are enough funds 
provided on a contract to cover any potential loss as a result 
of cancellation for convenience.\7\ However, it is not unheard 
of for NASA to use a special termination costs clause, and the 
agency used them on three contracts during the Constellation 
Program.\8\ In the past, NASA contractors have reported, and 
the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has cited, 
inconsistent practices with regard to tracking and funding 
termination liability properly.\9\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\Ibid. 3
    \7\Government Accountability Office Report GAO-11-609R, ``NASA 
Needs to Better Assess Contract Termination Liability Risks and Ensure 
Consistency in Its Practices.'' July 12, 2011, p. 4.
    \8\Ibid. 3
    \9\Ibid. 7
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Following the cancellation of the Constellation Program, 
GAO reviewed NASA's management of potential termination 
liability and found, ``The Agency has not issued detailed 
instructions or provided guidance to direct contracting 
officers and others on how to monitor or track termination 
liability and to supplement the reliance on the relevant FAR 
provisions. As a result, resource analysts and financial 
managers inconsistently monitor and fund potential termination 
liability across the projects we reviewed,''\10\ and that ``In 
some cases, NASA contractors said they did not view 
insufficient potential termination liability funding as a risk 
because NASA's past practice on contract terminations was to 
provide additional funding to the contract to cover the agreed 
upon termination settlement costs and they assumed this would 
be the continuing NASA practice.''\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\Ibid. 7
    \11\Ibid. 7
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    As of the beginning of calendar year 2013, contractors for 
the Space Launch System and Orion crew capsule carried 
approximately $462 million in potential termination liability 
costs as a result of NASA's inconsistent use of the limitation 
of funds clause and management of termination liability.\12\ 
This section will provide contractors consistency and allow 
them to apply reserved funds to contract work.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \12\Briefing chart titled ``NASA Ongoing Major programs,'' NASA 
response to an inquiry from the House Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology, February, 2013. Document indicated $255 million in 
potential termination liability for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle 
and $207 million in potential termination liability for Space Launch 
System.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The purpose of Sec. 703 is to ensure that the underlying 
provision 30104 of Title 51 is initiated when the Administrator 
makes a determination that a cost overrun has occurred rather 
than after the Administrator transmits a report detailing such 
determination.
    Sec. 704 directs NASA to report to Congress on the criteria 
it uses to determine program and project reserve levels, and 
how that criteria complements the directive to budget at a 70 
percent confidence level.
    Sec. 705 directs the Administrator to transmit a report not 
later than 270 days after enactment of this Act describing how 
NASA conducts independent reviews of projects and programs and 
how NASA ensures the independence of members of these reviews 
prior to their assignment.
    The Committee remains concerned with the intense efforts by 
foreign actors to exploit U.S. technology and intellectual 
property. NASA is tasked with the dual requirements to 
``provide for the widest practicable and appropriate 
dissemination of information concerning its activities and the 
results thereof'' and ``establish such security requirements, 
restrictions, and safeguards as the Administrator deems 
necessary in the interest of national security.'' The 
Commercial Technology Transfer program as authorized by Section 
50116(a) of Title 51 outlines goals for the program but does 
not include a goal that takes national security into 
consideration. Sac. 706 would direct the Administrator to 
maintain the commercial technology transfer program in a manner 
that provides a clear benefit to not only the domestic economy 
and research, but also national security.
    Sec. 707 instructs the National Academy of Public 
Administration to assess the effectiveness of the NASA Advisory 
Council and provide recommendations regarding changes to the 
structure of the Council that may increase the Council's 
effectiveness. This section also directs the Council to provide 
advice to both the Administration and Congress, not unlike what 
the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) and the NASA Office 
of the Inspector General do currently.
    The Committee is concerned that NASA may not be utilizing 
all of the program management and oversight tools available 
with regards to cost estimation. The development Joint 
Confidence Levels (JCL) for programs and program segments 
provide important information for decision makers to assess the 
status of a program or project, as well as valuable data about 
the progress they are making. Sec. 708 directs the 
Administrator to report on the agency's efforts to implement 
and utilize JCLs. The section also requires the NASA 
Administrator to develop guidance on when and Independent Cost 
Estimate and Independent Cost Assessment should be used. 
Independent cost estimates and assessments are valuable tools 
in enhancing the realism of NASA's cost estimating activities.
    NASA is the ninth largest Federal Government real property 
holder; however, nearly 80 percent of the agency's facilities 
are 40 or more years old.\13\ A 2012 study by NASA estimated 
that NASA may have as many as 865 unneeded facilities, with 
maintenance costs of over $24 million a year.\14\ Similarly, 
NASA has a backlog of over $2.19 billion in deferred 
maintenance.\15\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \13\``NASA's Efforts to Reduce Unneeded Infrastructure and 
Facilities.'' Office of Inspector General. February 12, 2013. http://
oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/FY13/IG-13-008.pdf, p.i
    \14\``NASA's Efforts to Reduce Unneeded Infrastructure and 
Facilities.'' Office of Inspector General. February 12, 2013. http://
oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/FY13/IG-13-008.pdf, p.i
    \15\``Deferred Maintenance Assessment Report,'' NASA, October 1, 
2012.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The NASA Office of the Inspector General (OIG), the 
Government Accountability Office (GAO), the National Academies, 
and Congress have repeatedly highlighted the need to address 
NASA's aging infrastructure.
    The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 required a study of 
NASA's institutional requirements that would identify ``a 
strategy to evolve toward the most efficient retention, sizing, 
and distribution of facilities, laboratories, test 
capabilities, and other infrastructure consistent with NASA's 
missions and mandates,'' stating that the Administrator, 
``should pay particular attention to identifying and removing 
unneeded or duplicative infrastructure.''\16\ NASA's response 
described a strategy to translate the Agency Facilities 
Strategy developed in 2009 into results through the creation of 
an Agency Master Plan, and specifically through more integrated 
and prominent governance, specific facilities consolidation and 
renewal metrics, and a more ``corporate'' model for managing 
technical capabilities efficiently and effectively. The report 
noted NASA's goal of a 10 percent reduction by 2020 and a 15% 
reduction by 2050.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\Public Law 111-267, ``NASA Authorization Act of 2010.''
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In 2009, NASA developed an Agency Facilities Strategy and 
subsequently developed its first Agency-wide integrated master 
plan, based on Center input, to implement this strategy and 
align funding with facilities requirements.\17\ A December 2011 
OIG report on the development of the Agency Master Plan found 
deficiencies within the individual Center plans that had the 
potential to limit the Agency plan's usefulness. Specifically, 
the OIG report found that the Center plans ``(1) were developed 
using funding assumptions for the recapitalization program that 
are no longer realistic and (2) are missing essential 
information needed to make objective Agency-wide real property 
decisions. In addition, 5 of the 10 Centers did not develop 
master plans to reduce their real property footprint in 
accordance with Agency goals because of uncertain mission 
requirements.''\18\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \17\``NASA's Efforts to Reduce Unneeded Infrastructure and 
Facilities.'' Office of Inspector General. February 12, 2013. http://
oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/FY13/IG-13-008.pdf, p.v-vi
    \18\``NASA's Infrastructure and Facilities: An Assessment of the 
Agency's Real Property Master Planning.'' Office of Inspector General. 
December 19, 2011. http://oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/FY12/IG-12-
008.pdf, p.iii
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    One of the greatest challenges facing NASA's management of 
its facilities and infrastructure is the lack of a 
comprehensive roadmap to identify long-term mission needs for 
human spaceflight exploration of the solar system. The most 
recent NASA OIG report noted that reducing infrastructure and 
facilities is a challenge because of the considerable changes 
in mission focus over the past six years due to the end of the 
Space Shuttle program, the initiation of the Constellation 
Program in 2004 and its subsequent termination in 2010, and the 
development of the Space Launch System and Orion crew capsule. 
Without a long-term goal or destination the agency is unable to 
determine the facilities and infrastructure necessary to 
implement a strategy to achieve that goal. This legislation 
contains a provision directing NASA to develop such a Human 
Exploration Roadmap. Absent a roadmap and stability of purpose 
for NASA's human spaceflight exploration mission objectives, 
NASA will continue to be unable to determine what facility and 
infrastructure capabilities are needed.
    As NASA seeks to manage its infrastructure challenges, it 
is important that it follow a rigorous process to ensure that 
facilities and capabilities are not lost because of short-
sighted decisions and that appropriate oversight is conducted 
to ensure taxpayer equities are appropriately considered. Sec. 
710 requires NASA to develop a detailed plan with the goal of 
positioning the Administration to have the facilities, 
laboratories, tools and approaches necessary to address NASA's 
needs. The plan requires the identification of future research 
and development needs, and the identification of candidate 
facilities for disposal that are consistent with future needs. 
The plan requires a strategic approach to addressing deferred 
maintenance tasks. Sec. 710 also requires publication of a NASA 
policy that guides the use of NASA's authorities to transfer or 
dispose of property so as to ensure that property transfer is 
transparent and follows the appropriate federal regulations. 
Finally, Sec. 710 requires the Administrator to establish a 
capital fund to facilitate the modernization of facilities and 
laboratories, and required annual updates to Congress on the 
status of the capital fund.
    Reports by the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC), the 
Department of Commerce (DoC) industrial base assessment, and 
the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) 
demonstrate that counterfeit electronic parts are a serious and 
growing problem and that such parts have contaminated industry 
supply chains. Section 1206 of the NASA Authorization Act of 
2010 directed the Administrator to develop and implement a 
mitigation plan to reduce the number of counterfeit electronic 
parts in the NASA supply chain. Reinforcing this provision, 
NASA requested the Committee include additional statutory 
language in the NASA Authorization Act of 2013 that largely 
mirrors Section 818 of the FY12 National Defense Authorization 
Act. The Committee included this legislative provision and is 
encouraged by NASA's proactive efforts to mitigate counterfeit 
electronic part intrusion into the supply chain, including 
efforts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to utilize 
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) authentication marking on items 
which have been determined to be at high risk for 
counterfeiting.
    Sec. 712 creates oversight requirements, many of which are 
already conducted by NASA, in order to provide more 
transparency and accountability regarding NASA's use of Space 
Act Agreements.
    Subsection (a) ensures that NASA enters into funded Space 
Act Agreements where partners contribute in total no less than 
the amount of funding contributed by the U.S. government, 
unless the Administrator determines the directive 
impracticable. The Committee recognizes that such cost sharing 
arrangement may not always be practicable, as Space Act 
Agreements often do not require standardized accounting 
measures, and Space Act Agreements may not reflect prior 
investments or in-kind contributions. This section brings 
NASA's Space Act Agreement authority in line with the 
Department of Defense's other transaction authority, as outline 
in 10 USC Section 2371(e)(1)(B).
    Subsection (b) restricts the use of Space Act Agreements to 
instances where other contracts, grants, or cooperative 
agreements (which have greater levels of oversight) are not 
feasible or appropriate. This provision directs the Associate 
Administrator for Procurement to determine the appropriateness 
of the use of a Space Act Agreement. This requirement is 
already established for funded Space Act Agreements in NAII 
1050-1C, NASA's Space Act Agreement Guide, February 25, 2013.
    Subsection (c) directs the Administrator to make Space Act 
Agreements available for public notice and comment at least 30 
days prior to agreement. The Committee notes the importance of 
protecting not only sensitive and classified information from 
disclosure, but also partner proprietary information that could 
provide a competitive advantage or disadvantage to another 
party; therefore the provision allows for appropriate 
redactions. NASA already has an internal review and concurrence 
process outlined in NAII 1050-1C, NASA's Space Act Agreement 
Guide, February 25, 2013. The Committee does not intend for the 
public notice and comment period outlined in this subsection to 
add additional time to the review process, and believes both 
processes can be accomplished in parallel before a finalized 
agreement is signed. The Committee also does not intend for 
this subsection to delay Space Act Agreements, but rather to 
inform the public and provide for transparent agency actions. 
If a Space Act Agreement is modified during this process, a 
relevant agency official should outline the rationale for why 
the changes are not significant enough to warrant an extension 
to new public notice and comment period.
    Subsection (d) requires NASA to make finalized Space Act 
Agreements available in a searchable format on a public 
website, with appropriate redactions for sensitive, classified, 
or proprietary information. NASA may also deem information that 
provides a competitive advantage or disadvantage to a party 
worthy of redaction. The Committee notes that this should not 
be a burden to the agency, and that this provision would bring 
the agency into compliance with the Administration's various 
transparency directives.
    Subsection (e) outlines a yearly reporting requirement that 
details NASA's use of Space Act Agreements. The Committee notes 
the importance of protecting not only sensitive and classified 
information from disclosure, but also partner proprietary 
information that could provide a competitive advantage or 
disadvantage to another party; therefore the provision allows 
for appropriate redactions.
    Section 70702(a) of Title 51 outlines a process to 
investigate any incident that results in the loss of any 
federal space vehicle, crewmember, or passenger. Sec. 713 is 
intended to update the existing criteria such that any accident 
of a suborbital or orbital space vehicle carrying a human that 
is being operated at the behest of the federal government 
should be included in the presidential accident investigation 
statute.
    The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 directed the 
Administrator to coordinate with the various space agencies of 
the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee. To date, 
Congress has not received a formal update on this process and 
directs the Administrator to provide a progress report on these 
efforts. Additionally, the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy was directed in Section 1202(b)(2) of the same act to 
``[coordinate] with the Director of the National Security 
Council and using the President's Council of Advisors on 
Science and Technology coordinating mechanism, shall develop an 
overall strategy for review by the President, with 
recommendations for proposed international collaborative 
efforts to address this challenge.'' To date, there has been no 
report provided to Congress on this strategy. Sec. 715 directs 
the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy to 
provide the plan required under 42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(2).
    The Committee is concerned about recent geopolitical 
changes that have the potential of creating instability in the 
supply of the RD-180 and NK-33 engines. The provision in 
Section 720 directs the NASA Administrator to consult with the 
Secretary of Defense to ensure that any next generation liquid 
engine developed for National Security can contribute, to the 
extent practicable, to NASA's space programs and missions.

                    IX. Committee Oversight Findings

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee held an oversight 
hearing and made findings that are reflected in the descriptive 
portions of this report.

        X. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the performance goals and 
objectives of the Committee are reflected in the descriptive 
portions of this report, including the goal to reauthorize the 
science, aeronautics, and human space flight and exploration 
programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
(NASA), and address space and aeronautics policy and 
programmatic issues.

 XI. New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee adopts as its 
own the estimate of new budget authority, entitlement 
authority, or tax expenditures or revenues contained in the 
cost estimate prepared by the Director of the Congressional 
Budget Office pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974.

                       XII. Advisory on Earmarks

    In compliance with clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of rule XXI, 
the Committee finds that H.R. 4412, the ``National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014'', contains 
no earmarks.

                     XIII. Committee Cost Estimate

    The Committee adopts as its own the cost estimate prepared 
by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to 
section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

             XIV. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the following is the cost estimate 
provided by the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, May 15, 2014.
Hon. Lamar Smith,
Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 4412, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Martin von 
Gnechten.
            Sincerely,
                                         Robert A. Sunshine
                                          For Douglas W. Elmendorf.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 4412--National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2014

    Summary: H.R. 4412 would authorize the appropriation of 
about $17.6 billion for 2014 for activities of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The amount 
appropriated to NASA for 2014 is also about $17.6 billion. For 
the purpose of this estimate, CBO assumes that no further 
appropriations will be provided to NASA for fiscal year 2014 
and we therefore estimate that no additional discretionary 
costs would result from enacting H.R. 4412.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 4412 would increase direct 
spending by adding about $600 million over the 2015-2024 period 
to outlays for certain NASA contracts. Because the legislation 
would increase direct spending, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. 
Enacting the legislation would not affect revenues.
    H.R. 4412 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of H.R. 4412 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget functions 250 
(general science, space, technology) and 400 (transportation).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
                                                                2015    2016    2017    2018    2019   2015-2019
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           CHANGES IN DIRECT SPENDING

Estimated Budget Authority...................................     600       0       0       0       0       600
Estimated Outlays............................................     400     200       0       0       0       600
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
4412 will be enacted near the end of 2014. Appropriations for 
2014 have been enacted, and that funding amount is roughly the 
same as the authorization contained in H.R. 4412. For the 
purpose of this estimate, CBO assumes there will not be any 
further appropriations for this fiscal year. As a result, there 
is no estimated discretionary cost associated with H.R. 4412.
    Section 702 addresses how NASA should budget for 
termination liability in the event contracts for certain 
programs, including the International Space Station, the Space 
Launch System, the James Webb Space Telescope, and the Orion 
crew capsule, are terminated. Based on information provided by 
NASA, CBO estimates that contracts involving those programs are 
currently funded at about $2 billion per year. NASA has 
obligated but not expended roughly $600 million under such 
contracts to cover federal obligations in the event that those 
contracts are terminated. Those obligations include the federal 
government's liability for such items as severance pay, 
undelivered work, and rent for unexpired leases.
    Under the bill, NASA (and its contractors) would be 
prohibited from reserving any appropriated funds to pay for 
federal liabilities in the event of a contract termination. 
Instead, work would proceed under the contract, and all 
appropriated amounts would be spent to pay for that work.
    In most years, few NASA contracts are terminated for any 
reason.\1\ Hence, CBO estimates that provisions in H.R. 4412 
prohibiting the reservation of funds for potential termination 
liability costs would increase outlays because we expect that 
NASA would spend the roughly $600 million that it would 
otherwise reserve for contract termination liabilities. Under 
the legislation, we expect that those amounts would be spent on 
ongoing costs to fulfill the terms of those contracts in 2015 
and 2016.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Government Accountability Office, NASA Needs to Better Assess 
Contract Termination Liability Risks and Ensure Constancy in Its 
Practices, GAO-11-609R (Washington, DC: July 21, 2011).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    However, under H.R. 4412, NASA would still be liable for 
potential termination liability costs and would not be able to 
use previously appropriated funds to pay them. In CBO's view, 
the bill would create new budget authority equivalent to the 
potential termination liability, roughly $600 million. CBO 
estimates that the chances of spending that amount because of 
contract termination would be small. Under current law, CBO 
estimates there is the same small chance that some of the $600 
million previously appropriated for potential termination 
liability will be spent. Thus, CBO estimates that there would 
be no change in contract termination costs under the bill.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go 
Act of 2010 establishes budget-reporting and enforcement 
procedures for legislation affecting direct spending or 
revenues. The net changes in outlays that are subject to those 
pay-as-you-go procedures are shown in the following table.

   CBO ESTIMATE OF PAY-AS-YOU-GO EFFECTS FOR H.R. 4412, AS ORDERED REPORTED BY THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY ON APRIL 29, 2014
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    2014     2015     2016    2017     2018     2019     2020     2021     2022     2023     2024   2014-2019  2014-2024
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               NET INCREASE IN THE DEFICIT

Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Impact...      0      400      200       0        0        0        0        0        0        0        0        600        600
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 4412 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA.
    Previous CBO estimate: On February 18, 2014, CBO 
transmitted a cost estimate for H.R. 2687, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2013, 
as ordered reported by the House Committee on Science, Space, 
and Technology on July 18, 2013. Many provisions in H.R. 2687 
are similar to those in H.R. 4412. However, the bills authorize 
different amounts over different periods (H.R. 2687 would 
authorize funding for 2015 in addition to 2014) and include 
several different policy provisions. In addition to the 
provision prohibiting the reservation of funds for potential 
termination liability found in H.R. 4412, H.R. 2687 also would 
prohibit the government from terminating contracts for the 
specified programs for the convenience of the government. The 
CBO cost estimates reflect those differences.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Martin von Gnechten; 
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: J'nell L. 
Blanco; Impact on the Private Sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

                     XV. Federal Mandates Statement

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of Federal 
mandates prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act.

                     XVI. Compliance with H. Res. 5

    A. Directed Rule Making. This bill does not direct any 
executive branch official to conduct any specific rule-making 
proceedings.
    B. Duplication of Existing Programs. This bill does not 
establish or reauthorize a program of the federal government 
known to be duplicative of another program. Such program was 
not included in any report from the Government Accountability 
Office to Congress pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139 
or identified in the most recent Catalog of Federal Domestic 
Assistance published pursuant to the Federal Program 
Information Act (Public Law 95-220, as amended by Public Law 
98-169) as relating to other programs.

               XVII. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    No advisory committees within the meaning of section 5(b) 
of the Federal Advisory Committee Act were created by this 
legislation.

               XVIII. Applicability to Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act.

                    XIX. Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short Title; Table of Contents

    This Act may be cited as the ``National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014''.

Section 2. Definitions.

    This section provides relevant definitions within the Act.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS


Sec. 101. Fiscal year 2014

    This section authorizes NASA at levels in line with the 
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76).

                      TITLE II--HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT


                        SUBTITLE A--EXPLORATION

Sec. 201. Space exploration policy

    Section 201 states that exploration deeper into the solar 
system shall be a core mission of NASA. It further states that 
it is the policy of the United States that the goal of NASA's 
human exploration program shall be to successfully conduct a 
crewed mission to the surface of Mars to begin human 
exploration of that planet. This section adds relevant 
definitions to title 51 and also adds language to title 42 
regarding the acceleration of development of capabilities to 
enable a human exploration mission to the surface of Mars and 
beyond through the prioritization of those technologies and 
capabilities best suited for such a mission in accordance with 
the Human Exploration Roadmap under title 51. This section 
states that non-United States human space flight capabilities 
should only be used as a contingency when no domestic 
commercial or public-private partnership provider that meets 
NASA's safety and affordability requirements is available.

Sec. 202. Stepping stone approach to exploration

    This section requires the development of a Human 
Exploration Roadmap defining the capabilities and technologies 
necessary to extend human presence to the surface of Mars. This 
section establishes requirements for the content of the 
roadmap. The roadmap must be transmitted to Congress, updated 
no less frequently than every two years, and include addenda 
from the NASA Advisory Council and Aerospace Safety Advisory 
Panel, each with a statement of review. The roadmap must also 
include an examination of the benefits of utilizing current 
Administration launch facilities for trans-lunar missions.

Sec. 203. Space Launch System

    Section 203 contains findings regarding the importance of 
the Space Launch System (SLS) and describes its intended uses. 
It includes a sense of Congress stating that the President's 
budget requests for the SLS and Orion multipurpose crew vehicle 
development, test, and operational phases should strive to 
accurately reflect the resource requirements of each of those 
phases. This section requires the Administrator to make 
expeditious development, test, and achievement of operational 
readiness of the SLS and the Orion crew capsule the highest 
priority of the exploration program. It requires a Government 
Accountability Office review of NASA's acquisition of ground 
systems in support of the SLS, and establishes requirements for 
the review. This section requires the Administrator to report 
on the effort and budget required to enable and utilize a cargo 
variant of the SLS configuration. This section further requires 
NASA to conduct a competition among students in elementary and 
secondary schools to name the elements of NASA's exploration 
program. Section 203 requires a report to Congress describing 
the estimated cost of an advanced booster for SLS, detailing 
changes in development costs that may result from conducting a 
competition for an advanced booster, and outlining potential 
schedule delay resulting from a competition. It directs NASA to 
conduct a competition for an advanced booster if the Associate 
Administrator reports the results would be cost reductions and 
no adverse schedule impact in the required report. It directs 
NASA to conduct a competition for an advanced booster as soon 
as practicable after the development of the upper stage, if the 
Associate Administrator reports the results would be cost 
reduction and no adverse schedule impact in the required 
report.

Sec. 204. Orion crew capsule

    Section 204 states that Orion must meet the practical needs 
and the minimum capability requirements described in law. It 
requires a report to Congress detailing the components and 
systems of Orion that ensure it is in compliance with the law 
and the expected date that Orion will be available to transport 
crew and cargo to the ISS, as well as certification that the 
requirements of the law will be met in time for the first 
crewed test flight in the year 2021.

Sec. 205. Space radiation

    This section requires the Administrator to develop a space 
radiation mitigation and management strategy and implementation 
plan. The strategy and plan must be submitted to Congress. The 
Administrator, in consultation with the heads of other 
agencies, must assess the national capabilities for carrying 
out critical ground-based research on space radiation biology.

Sec. 206. Planetary protection for human exploration missions

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with 
the National Academies for a study to explore the planetary 
protection ramifications of future missions by astronauts. The 
study must be submitted to Congress.

                      SUBTITLE B--SPACE OPERATIONS

Sec. 211. International Space Station (ISS)

    This section contains findings regarding the importance of 
the International Space Station (ISS) and the need for access 
to the ISS. This section states that the ISS shall have two 
primary objectives: supporting the goal established in Section 
201 of this Act and pursuing a research program that advances 
knowledge and provides benefits to the Nation. It shall 
continue to be the policy of the United States, in consultation 
with its international partners in the ISS program, to support 
full and complete utilization of the ISS. Section 211 states 
that the ISS shall be utilized to the maximum extent 
practicable for the development of capabilities and 
technologies needed for the future of human exploration beyond 
low-Earth orbit. This section requires the Administrator to 
take all necessary steps to support the operation and full 
utilization of the ISS and seek to minimize the operating costs 
of the ISS. It further states that reliance on foreign carriers 
for crew and cargo is unacceptable and the Nation's human space 
flight program must acquire the capability to launch American 
astronauts on American rockets from American soil as soon as is 
safe and practically possible. It reaffirms Congress' 
commitment to the development of a commercially developed 
launch and delivery system to the ISS for crew missions. This 
section reaffirms that NASA shall make use of the United 
States' commercially provided ISS crew transfer and crew rescue 
services to the maximum extent practicable. Section 211 
reaffirms that the Orion crew capsule shall provide an 
alternative means to deliver crew and cargo to the 
International Space Station, in the event other vehicles are 
unable to perform that function. It also reaffirms that NASA 
shall pursue means to maximize ISS logistics capabilities, 
reduce risks to ISS systems sustainability, and minimize United 
States operations costs relating to the ISS. This section 
amends the law to state that it is the policy of the United 
States to maintain an uninterrupted capability for human space 
flight and operations in low-Earth orbit and beyond as an 
essential instrument of national security and the capability to 
ensure continued United States participation and leadership in 
the exploration and utilization of space. This section requires 
the Administrator to submit a report to Congress on the 
feasibility of extending the operation of the ISS and also 
requires the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy to develop and transmit to Congress a strategic plan for 
conducting research in the physical and life sciences and 
related technologies on the ISS through at least 2020. Finally, 
this section requires the Comptroller General to submit a 
report to Congress on the progress of the chosen not-for-profit 
entity for management of the National Laboratory.

Sec. 212. Barriers impeding enhanced utilization of the ISS National 
        Laboratory by commercial companies

    Section 212 includes a sense of Congress regarding the 
importance of enhanced utilization of the ISS National 
Laboratory. This section requires the Administrator to contract 
with the National Academies for an assessment (to be 
transmitted to Congress) to identify barriers impeding enhanced 
utilization of the ISS National Laboratory, recommend ways to 
encourage companies to make greater use of the ISS National 
Laboratory, and identify any legislative changes that may be 
required.

Sec. 213. Utilization of the International Space Station for science 
        missions

    This section directs the Administrator to utilize the ISS 
for Science Mission Directorate missions in low-Earth orbit 
wherever it is practical and cost effective to do so.

Sec. 214. International Space Station cargo resupply services lessons 
        learned

    This section requires the Administrator to transmit a 
report to Congress that identifies lessons learned from the 
Commercial Resupply Services contract, indicates whether 
changes are needed to NASA's procurement and management of 
similar services upon expiration of the existing contract, and 
identifies any lessons learned that should be applied to the 
procurement and management of commercial crew services.

Sec. 215. Commercial Crew Program

    Section 215 states it is the sense of Congress that United 
States commercially-provided crew transportation systems offer 
the potential of serving as the primary means of transporting 
American astronauts to and from the ISS and serving as ISS 
emergency crew rescue vehicles. It is the sense of Congress 
that credibility in the Administration's budgetary estimates 
for the Commercial Crew Program can be enhanced by an 
independently developed cost estimate. This section states that 
the objective of the Commercial Crew Program shall be to assist 
the development of at least one crew transportation system to 
carry NASA astronauts safely, reliably, and affordably to and 
from the ISS and to serve as an emergency crew rescue vehicle 
as soon as practicable under the funding levels authorized in 
this Act. This section requires NASA to ensure that, consistent 
with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident 
Investigation Board, safety is the highest priority in its 
evaluation and selection of contracts for the development of 
commercial crew transportation capabilities. It requires the 
Administrator to strive through the competitive selection 
process to minimize the Program's lifecycle cost to NASA. 
Section 215 requires the Administrator to ensure that every 
crew transportation services provider has provided evidence-
based support for their costs and schedule. This section 
requires the Administrator to arrange for the initiation of an 
Independent Cost and Schedule Estimate that meets specified 
requirements. This estimate must be provided to Congress. This 
section also requires the Administrator to transmit an 
implementation plan based on the estimate with four distinct 
options for the final stage of the Commercial Crew program: a 
strategy that assumes an appropriation of $600 million over 
three years; a strategy that assumes an appropriation of $700 
million over three years; a strategy that assumes an 
appropriation of $800 million over three years; and a strategy 
that has yet to be considered previously, but that NASA 
believes could ensure the flight readiness date of 2017 for at 
least one provider or decrease the program cost. Each strategy 
shall include the contracting instruments NASA will employ to 
acquire the services in each phase of development or 
acquisition and the number of commercial providers NASA will 
include in the program.

Sec. 216. Space communications

    This section directs the Administrator to develop a plan 
(to be transmitted to Congress) for updating NASA's space 
communications architecture for both low-Earth orbit operations 
and deep space exploration so that it is capable of meeting 
NASA's needs over the next twenty years. The plan shall include 
life-cycle cost estimates, milestones, estimated performance 
capabilities, and five year funding profits. This section 
specifies additional requirements for the plan.

                           TITLE III--SCIENCE


                          SUBTITLE A--GENERAL

Sec. 301. Science portfolio

    Section 301 amends the law to state that a balanced and 
adequately funded set of activities contributes to a robust and 
productive science program that serves as a catalyst for 
innovation and discovery. This section states that unless 
otherwise directed by Congress, NASA shall take into account 
the current decadal surveys from the National Academies when 
submitting the President's budget request to Congress.

Sec. 302. Radioisotope power systems

    This section requires the Administrator to conduct and 
transmit to Congress an analysis of NASA requirements for 
radioisotope power system material needed to carry out high 
priority robotic missions in the solar system and other surface 
exploration activities beyond low-Earth orbit, as well as the 
risks to NASA missions in meeting those requirements due to a 
lack of adequate domestic production of radioisotope power 
system material.

Sec. 303. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose

    This section amends current law to add the search for 
life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the 
Universe to the list of objectives of NASA's activities.

Sec. 304. University class science missions

    Section 304 includes a sense of Congress regarding the 
value of principal investigator-led small orbital science 
mission. This section directs the Administrator to conduct a 
review of these missions. The Administrator must transmit a 
report on the review to Congress.

Sec. 305. Assessment of science mission extensions

    Section 305 amends the law to require biennial reviews 
within each of the Science divisions to assess the benefits of 
extending the date of termination of data collection for 
missions that exceed their planned mission lifetimes. This 
section requires consultation by relevant agencies for missions 
with an operational component. This section requires a report 
to Congress detailing the assessment required.

                        SUBTITLE B--ASTROPHYSICS

Sec. 311. Decadal cadence

    This section states that the Administrator shall seek to 
ensure to the extent practicable a steady cadence of large, 
medium, and small missions when following the guidance provided 
by the decadal surveys.

Sec. 312. Extrasolar planet exploration strategy

    Section 312 requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies to develop a strategy for the study and 
exploration of extrasolar planets that would provide a 
foundation for NASA roadmaps, strategic plans, and activities 
related to exoplanet research and exploration.

Sec. 313. James Webb Space Telescope

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that 
the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program will 
revolutionize our understanding of star and planet formation 
and how galaxies evolved and advance the search for the origins 
of the universe; the JWST program will enable American 
scientists to maintain their leadership in astrophysics and 
other disciplines; the JWST program is making steady progress 
towards a launch in 2018; the on-time and on-budget delivery of 
JWST is a high congressional priority; and maintaining this 
progress will require the Administrator to ensure that 
integrated testing is appropriately timed and sufficiently 
comprehensive to enable potential issues to be identified and 
addressed early enough to handle within JWST's development 
schedule.

Sec. 314. National Reconnaissance Office telescope donation

    Section 314 requires the Administrator to report to 
Congress on NASA's plan for developing the Wide-Field Infrared 
Survey Telescope including a plan for the Wide-Field Infrared 
Survey Telescope 2.4, which includes the donated 2.4-meter 
aperture National Reconnaissance Office telescope.

Sec. 315. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope

    This section includes a sense of Congress stating that the 
Administrator should, to the extent practicable, make progress 
on the technologies and capabilities needed to position NASA to 
meet the objectives of the WFIRST mission, as outlined in the 
National Academies' 2010 decadal survey, in a way that 
maximizes the scientific productivity of meeting those 
objectives. This section requires the Administrator to ensure 
that the concept definition and pre-formulation activities for 
the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope continue while the 
James Webb Space Telescope is completed.

Sec. 316. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Section 316 prohibits the Administrator from using funding 
appropriated to NASA for FY14 for the shutdown of the 
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy or any 
preparation thereof.

                     SUBTITLE C--PLANETARY SCIENCE

Sec. 321. Decadal cadence

    This section states that when following the guidance 
provided by the decadal surveys, the Administrator shall seek 
to ensure to the greatest extent practicable that NASA carries 
out a balanced set of programs in accordance with the 
priorities established in the most recent decadal survey, 
including: a Discovery-class mission at least once every 24 
months; a New Frontiers-class mission at least once every 60 
months; and a Flagship-class mission at least once per decadal 
survey period, including a Europa mission with a goal of 
launching by 2021.

Sec. 322. Near Earth objects

    Section 322 requires the Administrator to continue to 
discover, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical 
characteristic of near-Earth objects equal to or greater than 
140 meters in diameter in order to assess the threat of such 
near-Earth objects to Earth. It shall be the goal of the Survey 
to achieve 90 percent completion of its near-Earth object 
catalogue by 2020. Section 322 reaffirms the policy in title 51 
relating to detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and 
characterizing asteroids and comets. This section requires the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy to transmit to Congress 
an initial report that provides the following: recommendations 
and a proposed budget to carry out the Survey program; an 
analysis of possible options NASA could employ to divert an 
object on a likely collision course with Earth; and a 
description of the status of efforts to coordinate and 
cooperate with other countries to discover hazardous asteroids 
and comets, plan a mitigation strategy, and implement that 
strategy. It further requires the Administrator to transmit an 
annual report that provides a summary of all activities and 
expenditures taken with regards to the Survey since the 
enactment of this act. This section requires a technical and 
scientific assessment of the capabilities and resources to 
accelerate the Survey and expand NASA's Near-Earth Object 
program to include detection, tracking, cataloging, and 
characterizing potentially hazardous near-Earth objects less 
than 140 meters in diameter.

Sec. 323. Near-Earth Object public-private partnerships

    This section states it is the sense of Congress that NASA 
should seek to leverage the capabilities of private sector and 
philanthropic organizations in carrying out the Near-Earth 
Object Survey program in order to meet the goal of the Survey 
program. It requires the Administrator to transmit a report to 
Congress describing how the Administration can expand 
collaborative partnerships to detect, catalogue, and categorize 
near-Earth asteroids.

Sec. 324. Research on near-Earth object tsunami effects

    Section 324 requires the Administrator to prepare a report 
(to be transmitted to Congress) identifying and describing 
existing research activities and further research objectives 
that would increase our understanding of the nature of the 
effects of potential tsunamis that could occur if a near-Earth 
object were to impact an ocean.

Sec. 325. Astrobiology strategy

    This section would require the Administrator to contract 
with the National Academies to develop a science strategy for 
astrobiology to be used in planning and funding research and 
other activities and initiatives in the field of astrobiology. 
This section would also require the Administrator to transmit a 
report containing the strategy to Congress.

Sec. 326. Astrobiology public-private partnerships

    Section 326 requires a report to Congress describing how 
NASA can expand collaborative public-private partnerships to 
study life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the 
Universe.

Sec. 327. Assessment of Mars architecture

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with 
the National Academies to assess NASA's revised post-2016 Mars 
exploration architecture and its responsiveness to the National 
Academies' planetary science decadal surveys and other relevant 
National Academies Mars-related reports; the long-term goals of 
NASA's Mars Exploration Program and the program's ability to 
optimize the science return; the Mars architecture's 
relationship to Mars-related activities to be undertaken by 
agencies and organizations outside of the United States; and 
the extent to which the Mars architecture represents a 
reasonably balanced mission portfolio. The results of the 
assessment must be transmitted to Congress.

                        SUBTITLE D--HELIOPHYSICS

Sec. 331. Decadal cadence

    This section states that the Administrator shall seek to 
ensure to the extent practicable a steady cadence of large, 
medium, and small heliophysics missions when following the 
guidance provided by the decadal surveys.

Sec. 332. Review of space weather

    Section 332 directs the Director of the Office of Science 
and Technology Policy to enter into an arrangement with the 
National Academies to provide a comprehensive study, which will 
be transmitted to Congress, that reviews current and planned 
ground-based and space-based space weather monitoring 
requirements and capabilities, identifies gaps, and identifies 
options for a robust and resilient capability. The study shall 
inform the process of identifying national needs for future 
space weather monitoring, forecasts, and mitigation.

                       SUBTITLE E--EARTH SCIENCE

Sec. 341. Goal

    Section 341 states it is the sense of Congress that NASA is 
being asked to undertake important Earth science activities in 
an environment of increasingly constrained fiscal resources, 
and that any transfer of additional responsibilities to NASA 
should be accompanied by the provision of additional resources 
to allow NASA to carry out the increased responsibilities 
without adversely impacting its implementation of its existing 
Earth science programs and priorities. This section directs the 
Administrator to continue to carry out a balanced Earth science 
program consistent with the recommendations and priorities 
established in the National Academies' Earth Science Decadal 
Survey. It instructs the Administrator to collaborate with 
other Federal agencies, non-government entities, and 
international partners, as appropriate, in carrying out NASA's 
Earth science program. This section directs NASA to continue to 
develop first-of-a-kind instruments that, once proved, can be 
transitioned to other agencies for operations. Finally, this 
section states that whenever responsibilities for the 
development of sensors or for measurements are transferred to 
NASA from another agency, the Administrator shall seek, to the 
extent possible, to be reimbursed for the assumption of such 
responsibilities.

Sec. 342. Decadal cadence

    This section directs the Administrator to seek to ensure to 
the extent practical a steady cadence of large, medium, and 
small Earth science missions.

Sec. 343. Venture class missions

    Section 343 states it is the sense of Congress that the 
Administration's Venture class missions provide opportunities 
for innovation in the Earth Science program, offer low-cost 
approaches for high-quality competitive science investigations, 
enable frequent flight opportunities to engage the Earth 
science and applications community, and serve as a training 
ground for students and young scientists. It further states it 
is the sense of Congress that NASA should seek to increase the 
number of Venture class projects as part of a balanced Earth 
science program.

Sec. 343. Assessment

    This section directs the Administrator to carry out a 
scientific assessment of NASA's Earth science global datasets 
to identify those datasets that are useful for understanding 
regional changes and variability, and for informing applied 
science research. The assessment must be transmitted to 
Congress.

                         TITLE IV--AERONAUTICS


Sec. 401. Sense of Congress

    Section 401 states that it is the sense of Congress that a 
robust aeronautics research portfolio will help maintain the 
United States' status as a leader in aviation, enhance the 
competitiveness of the United States in the world economy, and 
improve the quality of life of all citizens. It further states 
that aeronautics research is essential to NASA's mission and 
should be supported and that the Administrator should 
coordinate with other stakeholders to minimize duplication and 
leverage resources. This section states that carrying 
aeronautics research to a level of maturity that allows NASA's 
research results to be transitioned to the users is critical to 
their eventual adoption.

Sec. 402. Aeronautics research goals

    This section instructs the Administrator to ensure that 
NASA maintains a strong aeronautics research portfolio, ranging 
from fundamental research through integrated systems research, 
with specific research goals including: enhance airspace 
operations and safety; improve air vehicle performance; 
strengthen aviation safety; and demonstrate concepts at the 
system level.

Sec. 403. Unmanned aerial systems research and development

    Section 403 requires the Administrator to direct research 
and technological development to facilitate the safe 
integration of unmanned aerial systems into the National 
Airspace System. It requires the Administrator to update and 
transmit to Congress a roadmap for unmanned aerial systems 
research and development. This section requires that 
operational flight data from specified cooperative agreements 
be made available to NASA and the FAA for the development of 
regulatory standards.

Sec. 404. Research program on composite materials used in aeronautics

    Section 404 requires the Administrator to continue NASA's 
cooperative research program with industry to identify and 
demonstrate more effective and safe ways of developing, 
manufacturing, and maintaining composite materials. This 
section states that the Administrator, in overseeing NASA's 
work on composite materials, shall consult with relevant 
Federal agencies and partners in industry to accelerate safe 
development and certification processes for new composite 
materials and design methods while maintaining rigorous 
inspection of new composite materials. It requires the 
Administrator to transmit to Congress a report detailing the 
work of NASA on new composite materials and the coordination 
efforts among agencies.

Sec. 405. Hypersonic research

    This section requires the Administrator to develop and 
transmit to Congress a roadmap for hypersonic aircraft 
research.

Sec. 406. Supersonic research

    Section 406 includes findings regarding the importance of 
supersonic overland flight and continuing NASA's research 
program in supersonic flight. It requires the Administrator to 
develop and transmit to Congress a roadmap for supersonic 
aeronautics research and development with the goal of 
developing and demonstrating, in a relevant environment, 
airframe and propulsion technologies to minimize the 
environmental impact of supersonic overland flight in an 
efficient and economical manner.

Sec. 407. Research on NextGen airspace management concepts and tools

    This section requires the Administrator, in consultation 
with the relevant federal agencies, to review NASA's research 
and development activities in support of NextGen and make any 
necessary adjustments to NASA's research and development 
activities in support of NextGen. It also requires the 
Administrator to report to Congress regarding the progress of 
NASA's research and development activities in support of the 
NextGen airspace management modernization initiative, including 
details of technology transfer to other agencies, consultation 
with other agencies, and any adjustments made to research 
activities.

Sec. 408. Rotorcraft research

    Section 408 requires the Administrator to prepare and 
transmit to Congress a plan for research relating to rotorcraft 
and other runway-independent air vehicles. The plan must 
include specific goals for the research, a timeline for 
implementation, metrics for success, and guidelines for 
collaboration and coordination with industry and other Federal 
agencies.

Sec. 409. Transformative aeronautics research

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that 
the Administrator should encourage investigations into the 
early-stage advance of new processes, novel concepts, and 
innovative technology that have the potential to meet national 
aeronautics needs.

Sec. 410. Study of United States leadership in aeronautics research

    Section 410 requires the Administrator to enter into an 
arrangement with the National Academies for a study to assess 
the position of the United States in civil aeronautics research 
compared to the rest of the world. This section establishes 
requirements for the study. The study must be transmitted to 
Congress.

                       TITLE V--SPACE TECHNOLOGY


Sec. 501. Sense of Congress

    This section contains a sense of Congress regarding the 
importance of space technology development.

Sec. 502. Space Technology Program

    Section 502 authorizes a Space Technology Program to pursue 
the development of technologies that enable exploration of the 
solar system or advanced space science through various elements 
of NASA. This section also states that the Administrator shall 
organize and manage NASA's Small Business Innovation Research 
program and Small Business Technology Transfer program within 
the Space Technology Program. Additionally, this section 
requires the Administrator to certify that no project within 
the Space Technology Program is also under development in any 
established mission directorate. It requires the Administrator 
to ensure that NASA's work in space technology is fully 
coordinated and aligned and results from such work are shared 
and leveraged within NASA. Work being conducted by the Human 
Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate in support of 
advanced space technologies and systems focusing on human space 
exploration should continue. This section requires a report to 
Congress comparing NASA's space technology investments with the 
high-priority technology areas identified by the National 
Academies in the National Research Council's report on NASA's 
Space Technology Roadmaps. It requires an annual submission 
with the budget for each fiscal year describing the rationale 
for assigning organizational responsibility for, in the year 
prior to the budget fiscal year, each initiated project, 
program, and mission focused on research and development of 
advanced technologies for human space exploration.

Sec. 503. Utilization of the International Space Station for Technology 
        Demonstrations

    This section requires the Administrator to utilize the ISS 
and commercial services for Space Technology Demonstration 
missions in low-Earth orbit wherever it is practical and cost 
effective to do so.

                          TITLE VI--EDUCATION


Sec. 601. Education

    Section 601 states it is the sense of Congress that NASA's 
missions are an inspiration for Americans and that this 
inspiration has a powerful effect in stimulating interest in 
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) 
education and careers. This section further states it is the 
sense of Congress that NASA's Office of Education and mission 
directorates have been effective in delivering NASA's 
educational content because of the strong engagement of NASA 
scientists and engineers in NASA's education and outreach 
activities. It includes a sense of Congress that NASA should be 
a central partner in contributing to the goals of the National 
Science and Technology Council's Federal Science, Technology, 
Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education 5-Year Strategic 
Plan. Section 601 directs NASA to continue its education and 
outreach efforts to: increase student interest and 
participation in STEM education; improve public literacy in 
STEM; employ proven strategies for improving student learning 
and teaching; provide curriculum support materials; and create 
and support opportunities for professional development for STEM 
teachers. It states that in order to ensure the inspiration and 
engagement of children and the general public, the 
Administrator should continue to carry out education and 
outreach programs and activities through the Office of 
Education and NASA's mission directorates and to continue to 
engage, to the maximum extent practicable, NASA and NASA-
supported researchers and engineers in carrying out those 
programs and activities. This section requires the 
Administrator to continue to operate the National Space Grant 
College and Fellowship program through a national network 
consisting of a State-based consortium in each state. It 
reaffirms Congress' commitment to informal science education 
and science centers and planetariums as set forth in the NASA 
Authorization Act of 2005.

Sec. 602. Independent review of the National Space Grant College and 
        Fellowship Program

    Section 602 includes a sense of Congress regarding the 
importance of the Space Grant Program. This section directs the 
Administrator to arrange for a review of the Space Grant 
Program by the National Academies. It expands the Space Grant 
Program to support outreach to primary and secondary schools to 
help support STEM engagement and learning at the K-12 level and 
to encourage K-12 students to pursue postsecondary degrees in 
fields related to space. This section would also permit a space 
grant regional consortium to include one or more 2-year 
institutions of higher education.

                      TITLE VII--POLICY PROVISIONS


Sec. 701. Asteroid Retrieval Mission

    Section 701 requires the Administrator to report to 
Congress on the proposed Asteroid Retrieval Mission including a 
detailed budget profile; a detailed technical plan; a 
description of the technologies and capabilities anticipated to 
be gained that will enable future missions to Mars that could 
not be gained by lunar missions; a description of the 
technologies and capabilities anticipated to be gained from the 
proposed mission that will enable future planetary defense 
missions; and a review by the Small Bodies Assessment Group and 
the NASA Advisory Council. This section requires a report 
conducted by an independent, private systems engineering and 
technical assistance organization analyzing the proposal for a 
Mars Flyby human spaceflight mission to be launched in 2021. 
The report must be transmitted to Congress.

Sec. 702. Termination liability

    This section directs that funds set aside for contract 
termination liability shall be utilized for conducting 
meaningful work, thus enabling contractors to make maximum 
progress in meeting the established technical and schedule 
goals of these programs.

Sec. 703. Baseline and Cost Controls

    Section 703 amends requirements associated with Baseline 
and Cost Controls to make the reporting more timely.

Sec. 704. Project and program reserves

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that 
the judicious use of program and project reserves provides NASA 
managers with the flexibility needed to manage projects and 
programs to ensure that the impacts of contingencies can be 
mitigated. It requires the Administrator to report to Congress 
on NASA's criteria for establishing the amount of reserves at 
the project and program levels; how such criteria relate to 
NASA's policy of budgeting at a 70 percent confidence level; 
NASA's criteria for waiving the policy of budgeting at a 70 
percent confidence level, and strategies for controlling costs 
when a waiver is granted.

Sec. 705. Independent reviews

    Section 705 requires the Administrator to report to 
Congress on NASA's procedure for independent reviews of 
projects and programs at lifecycle milestones and how NASA 
ensures the independence of the individuals conducting those 
reviews as well as the independence of internal and external 
entities that review projects and programs at lifecycle 
milestones.

Sec. 706. Commercial technology transfer program

    This section adds ``protecting national security'' to the 
considerations used to evaluate when to transfer technology.

Sec. 707. NASA Advisory Council

    Section 707 requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academy of Public Administrator for an assessment of 
the effectiveness of the NASA Advisory Council. The assessment 
must make recommendations for Congress for any changes to: the 
functions of the Council; the appointment of members to the 
Council; qualifications for members of the Council; duration of 
terms of office for members of the Council; frequency of 
meetings of the Council; the structure of leadership and 
Committees of the Council; and levels of professional staffing 
for the Council. The Academy must also assess the impacts of 
broadening the Council's role to advising Congress, and any 
other issues that that the Academy determines could potentially 
impact the effectiveness of the Council. The assessment must be 
transmitted to Congress. It amends current law to state that in 
the performance of its functions, the Administrator is 
authorized to appoint such advisory committees as may be 
appropriate for purposes of consultation and advice to the 
Administration and Congress. The inclusion of ``Congress'' will 
sunset on September 30, 2014.

Sec. 708. Cost estimation

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that 
realistic cost estimating is important to the success of major 
development projects, and that it is important that NASA 
continue its efforts to develop and implement guidance in 
establishing realistic cost estimates. It requires the 
Administrator to provide guidance on when an Independent Cost 
Estimate and Independent Cost Assessment should be used and the 
criteria to be used to make such a determination to program and 
projects. Section 708 requires a report to Congress on the 
implementation of more effective cost estimation practices.

Sec. 709. Avoiding organizational conflicts of interest in major NASA 
        acquisition programs

    This section requires the Administrator to revise the NASA 
Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to provide 
uniform guidance and recommend revised requirements for 
organizational conflicts of interest by contractors in major 
acquisition programs in order to address specified concerns.

Sec. 710. Facilities and infrastructure

    Section 710 states that it is the sense of Congress that 
NASA must reverse the deteriorating condition of its facilities 
and infrastructure; NASA has a role in providing laboratory 
capabilities to industry participants that are economically 
viable as commercial entities and thus are not available 
elsewhere; NASA should seek to establish strategic partnerships 
with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and 
industry, as appropriate; and decisions on whether to dispose 
of, maintain, or modernize existing facilities must be made in 
the context of meeting future NASA and other Federal agencies' 
laboratory needs, including those required to meet the 
activities supporting the Roadmap required by Sec 202. It 
further states that it is the policy of the United States that 
NASA maintain reliable and efficient facilities and that 
decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or modernize 
existing facilities be made in the context of meeting future 
NASA needs. This section requires the Administrator to develop 
a plan that has the goal of positioning NASA to have the 
facilities, laboratories, tools, and approaches necessary to 
address future NASA requirements. It requires the Administrator 
to establish and make publically available a policy that guides 
the agency's use of existing authorities to out-grant, lease, 
excess to the General Services Administration, sell, 
decommission, demolish, or otherwise transfer property, 
facilities, or infrastructure. This section requires the 
Administrator to establish a capital fund for the modernization 
of facilities and laboratories.

Sec. 711. Detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts

    Section 711 requires NASA to revise the NASA Supplement for 
the Federal Acquisition Regulation to address the detection and 
avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. The revised 
regulations must provide that contractors who supply electronic 
parts or products including electronic parts are responsible 
for detecting and avoiding the use or inclusion of counterfeit 
electronic parts or suspect counterfeit parts in such products, 
and for any corrective actions that may be required to remedy 
the use of such parts. The costs of counterfeit electronic 
parts and the cost of corrective action are not allowable costs 
under Agency contracts except under specified exemptions. It 
sets requirements for acquisition of electronic parts by NASA 
contractors and subcontractors to ensure authenticity. It 
requires that any contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware 
of a possible counterfeit part must notify NASA within 30 
calendar days. This section requires the Administrator to 
submit a report to Congress updating NASA's actions to prevent 
counterfeit electronic parts from entering the supply chain.

Sec. 712. Space Act Agreements

    Section 712 sets the following conditions for Space Act 
Agreements: funds provided by the government under a funded 
Space Act Agreement should not exceed the total amount provided 
by other parties to the agreement or other transaction; a Space 
Act Agreement may be used only when the use of a standard 
contract, grant, or cooperative agreement is not feasible or 
appropriate; Space Act Agreements must be available for public 
notice and comment prior to agreement; the Administrator shall 
publically disclose on NASA's website and make available in a 
searchable format all Space Act Agreements with appropriate 
redactions for proprietary information in a timely manner; and 
the Administrator must submit to Congress an annual report on 
the use of Space Act Agreement authority by NASA during the 
previous fiscal year. The report must include a list of 
anticipated agreements for the upcoming fiscal year. The report 
must also include a discussion of the benefits NASA has 
accumulated by using Space Act Agreements.

Sec. 713. Human spaceflight accident investigations

    This section amends current law such that any accident of a 
suborbital or orbital space vehicle carrying a human that is 
being operated at the behest of the Federal government shall be 
included in the presidential accident investigation statute.

Sec. 714. Fullest commercial use of space

    Section 714 requires the Administrator to transmit a report 
to Congress on current and continuing efforts by NASA to ``seek 
and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest 
commercial use of space.'' This section also requires a report 
to Congress on current and continuing efforts by NASA to reduce 
impediments, bureaucracy, redundancy, and burdens to ensure the 
fullest commercial use of space.

Sec. 715. Orbital debris

    Section 715 includes findings regarding the dangers of 
orbital debris. This section requires the Administrator to 
report to Congress on the status of efforts to coordinate with 
countries within the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination 
Committee to mitigate the effects and growth of orbital debris. 
It requires the Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy to report to Congress on the status of the 
orbital debris mitigation strategy required by law.

Sec. 716. Review of orbital debris removal concepts

    This section states it is the sense of Congress that the 
amount of orbital debris in low-Earth orbit poses risks for 
human activities and robotic spacecraft and that this debris 
may increase due to collisions between existing debris objects. 
It requires the Administrator to solicit and review concepts 
and technological options for removing orbital debris from low-
Earth orbit. The solicitation and review shall also address the 
requirements for and feasibility of developing and implementing 
each of the options. The review must be transmitted to 
Congress.

Sec. 717. Use of operational commercial suborbital vehicles for 
        research, development, and education

    Section 717 requires the Administrator to develop a policy 
on the use of operational commercial reusable suborbital flight 
vehicles for carrying out scientific and engineering 
investigations and educational activities. This section 
requires the Administrator to prepare a plan on NASA's use of 
operational commercial reusable suborbital flight vehicles for 
carrying out scientific and engineering investigations and 
educational activities. The Administrator must also assess and 
characterize the potential capabilities and performance of 
commercial reusable suborbital vehicles for addressing 
scientific research. The plan and assessment must be 
transmitted to Congress. The Administrator must report to 
Congress annually describing progress in carrying out the 
Commercial Reusable Suborbital Research Program, including the 
number and type of suborbital missions planned in each fiscal 
year. This section prohibits the Administrator from proceeding 
with requests for proposals or contracts until the liability 
issues in the plan have been addressed.

Sec. 718. Fundamental space life and physical sciences research

    Section 718 states it is the sense of Congress that 
fundamental, discovery-based space life and physical sciences 
research is critical for enabling space exploration, protecting 
humans in space, and providing societal benefits. It directs 
the Administrator to include a budget line for such research in 
the annual budget request. This section directs the 
Administrator to develop and transmit to Congress a strategic 
plan for competitive, peer reviewed fundamental space life 
science and physical sciences and related technology research.

Sec. 719. Restoring commitment to engineering research

    This section states it is the sense of Congress that 
engineering excellence has long been a hallmark of NASA's 
ability to make significant advances in aeronautics and space 
exploration. The sense of Congress expresses concern that 
constrained funding and competing priorities have led to an 
erosion of NASA's commitment to basic engineering research, and 
that this trend could have negative effects on the engineering 
workforce. This section directs the Administrator to develop a 
plan for restoring a meaningful basic engineering research 
program to NASA's Centers. The plan must be transmitted to 
Congress.

Sec. 720. Liquid rocket engine development program

    Section 720 directs the Administrator to consult with the 
Secretary of Defense to ensure that any next generation liquid 
rocket engine made in the U.S. for national security space 
launch objectives can contribute, to the extent practicable, to 
the space programs and missions carried out by NASA.

Sec. 721. Remote satellite servicing demonstration

    This section states it is the sense of Congress that NASA 
plays a key role in demonstrating the feasibility of using 
robotic technologies for a spacecraft that could autonomously 
service satellites, that demonstrating this feasibility would 
both assist the NASA in its future missions and provide other 
agencies and the private sector with enhanced confidence in the 
feasibility to robotically service satellites, and the 
capability to service satellites robotically could add years of 
functional life to satellites. It requires the Administrator to 
report to Congress regarding specified aspects of robotic 
satellite servicing technology and technology development.

Sec. 722. Information Technology Governance

    Section 722 includes a sense of Congress stating that 
information security is central to NASA's ability to protect 
information and information systems vital to its mission. This 
section requires an assessment of NASA's Information Technology 
Governance by the Comptroller General. The results of the 
assessment must be transmitted to Congress.

Sec. 723. Strengthening administration security

    Section 723 includes findings regarding the need to 
strengthen NASA's security, particularly with regard to Foreign 
National Access Management. This section requires a report to 
Congress on how NASA plans to address each of the 
recommendations made in the National Academy of Public 
Administration's (NAPA) review of NASA security. This section 
requires the Comptroller General to report to Congress on its 
assessment of how NASA has complied with the recommendations.

Sec. 724. Prohibition on use of funds for contractors that have 
        committed fraud or other crimes

    This section prohibits any funds authorized or appropriated 
for NASA from being used to enter into a contract with an 
offeror or any of its principals if the offeror or any of its 
principals has been convicted within a three-year period 
preceding the offer of: fraud related to Federal contracts; 
violation Federal or State antitrust statutes; or commission of 
embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or 
destruction of records, making false statements, tax evasion, 
violating Federal tax laws, or receiving stolen property. It 
also forbids contracts with offerors if the offeror or 
principal is presently indicted for any of those crimes, or has 
been notified of delinquent Federal taxes in an amount that 
exceeds $3,000 for which the liability remains unsatisfied.

Sec. 725. Protection of Apollo landing sites

    Section 725 instructs the Director of Office of Science and 
Technology Policy to carry out a review and assessment of the 
issues involved in protecting and preserving historically 
important Apollo Program lunar landing sites and Apollo Program 
artifacts residing on the lunar surface. This section requires 
the Director to transmit the results of the assessment to 
Congress.

Sec. 726. Astronaut occupational healthcare

    This section directs the Administrator to prepare a 
response to the National Academies report recommendations on 
health standards for long duration and exploration spaceflight 
and transmit the response to Congress.

       XX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, As Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

                      TITLE 51, UNITED STATES CODE


            TITLE 51--NATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL SPACE PROGRAMS

                           Subtitle I--General

Chap.                                                               Sec.
      Definitions..................................................10101
     * * * * * * *

                      Subtitle VII--Access to Space

      Use of Space Shuttle or Alternatives........................70101]
70301]uttle Pricing Policy for Commercial and Foreign Users...........

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBTITLE II--GENERAL PROGRAM AND POLICY PROVISIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 201--NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE PROGRAM

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBCHAPTER I--SHORT TITLE, DECLARATION OF POLICY, AND DEFINITIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 20102. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (d) Objectives of Aeronautical and Space Activities.--The 
aeronautical and space activities of the United States shall be 
conducted so as to contribute materially to one or more of the 
following objectives:
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (10) The direction of the unique competence of the 
        Administration to the search for life's origin, 
        evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe. In 
        carrying out this objective, the Administration may use 
        any practicable ground-based, airborne, or space-based 
        technical means and spectra of electromagnetic 
        radiation.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBCHAPTER II--COORDINATION OF AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE ACTIVITIES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 20113. Powers of the Administration in performance of functions

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (g) Advisory Committees.--In the performance of its 
functions, the Administration is authorized to appoint such 
advisory committees as may be appropriate for purposes of 
consultation and advice to the Administration and Congress.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 203--RESPONSIBILITIES AND VISION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 20302. Vision for space exploration

  (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (c) Definitions.--In this section:
          (1) Orion crew capsule.-- The term ``Orion crew 
        capsule'' means the multipurpose crew vehicle described 
        in section 303 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18323).
          (2) Space launch system.-- The term ``Space Launch 
        System'' means the follow-on Government-owned civil 
        launch system developed, managed, and operated by the 
        Administration to serve as a key component to expand 
        human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, as described in 
        section 302 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18322).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBTITLE III--ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 301--APPROPRIATIONS, BUDGETS, AND ACCOUNTING

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 30104. Baselines and cost controls

  (a) Definitions.--In this section:
          (1) Development.-- The term ``development'' means the 
        phase of a program following the formulation phase and 
        beginning with the approval to proceed to 
        implementation, as defined in the Administration's 
        [Procedural Requirements 7120.5c, dated March 22, 2005] 
        Procedural Requirements 7120.5E, dated August 14, 2012.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (f) Thirty Percent Threshold.--If the Administrator 
determines under subsection (e) that the development cost of a 
program will exceed the estimate provided in the Baseline 
Report of the program by more than 30 percent, then, [beginning 
18 months after the date the Administrator transmits a report 
under subsection (e)(1)(A)] beginning 18 months after the 
Administrator makes such determination , the Administrator 
shall not expend any additional funds on the program, other 
than termination costs, unless Congress has subsequently 
authorized continuation of the program by law. An appropriation 
for the specific program enacted subsequent to a report being 
transmitted shall be considered an authorization for purposes 
of this subsection. If the program is continued, the 
Administrator shall submit a new Baseline Report for the 
program no later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
the Act under which Congress has authorized continuation of the 
program.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 305--MANAGEMENT AND REVIEW

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions

  [(a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall carry out biennial 
reviews within each of the Science divisions to assess the cost 
and benefits of extending the date of the termination of data 
collection for those missions that have exceeded their planned 
mission lifetime.
  [(b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits of 
Instruments on Missions.--For those missions that have an 
operational component, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration or any other affected agency shall be consulted 
and the potential benefits of instruments on missions that are 
beyond their planned mission lifetime taken into account.]

Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions

  (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall carry out biennial 
reviews within each of the Science divisions to assess the cost 
and benefits of extending the date of the termination of data 
collection for those missions that exceed their planned 
missions' lifetime. The assessment shall take into 
consideration how extending missions impacts the start of 
future missions.
  (b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits of 
Instruments on Missions.--When deciding whether to extend a 
mission that has an operational component, the Administrator 
shall consult with any affected Federal agency and shall take 
into account the potential benefits of instruments on missions 
that are beyond their planned mission lifetime.
  (c) Report.--The Administrator shall transmit to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate, at the same time as the 
submission to Congress of the Administration's annual budget 
request for each fiscal year, a report detailing any assessment 
required by subsection (a) that was carried out during the 
previous year.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 315--MISCELLANEOUS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 31504. Cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle activities

  The Administrator, in cooperation with the Administrator of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and in 
coordination with other agencies that have existing civil 
capabilities, shall continue to utilize the capabilities of 
unmanned aerial vehicles as appropriate in support of 
Administration and interagency cooperative missions. The 
Administrator may enter into cooperative agreements with 
universities with unmanned aerial vehicle programs and related 
assets to conduct collaborative research and development 
activities, including development of appropriate applications 
of small unmanned aerial vehicle technologies and systems in 
remote areas. Operational flight data derived from these 
cooperative agreements shall be made available, in appropriate 
and usable formats, to the Administration and the Federal 
Aviation Administration for the development of regulatory 
standards.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBTITLE IV--AERONAUTICS AND SPACE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 403--NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 40301. Purposes

  The purposes of this chapter are to--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (5) encourage and support Federal funding for 
        graduate fellowships in fields related to space; [and]
          (6) support activities in colleges and universities 
        generally for the purpose of creating and operating a 
        network of institutional programs that will enhance 
        achievements resulting from efforts under this 
        chapter[.]; and
          (7) support outreach to primary and secondary schools 
        to help support STEM engagement and learning at the K-
        12 level and to encourage K-12 students to pursue 
        postsecondary degrees in fields related to space.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 40306. Space grant college and space grant regional consortium

  (a) Designation and Qualifications.--
          (1) * * *
          (2) Inclusion of 2-year institutions.-- A space grant 
        regional consortium designated in paragraph (1)(B) may 
        include one or more 2-year institutions of higher 
        education.
          [(2)] (3) Space grant college requirements.-- No 
        institution of higher education may be designated as a 
        space grant college unless the Administrator finds that 
        such institution--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(3)] (4) Space grant regional consortium 
        requirements.-- No association or other alliance of 2 
        or more persons may be designated as a space grant 
        regional consortium unless the Administrator finds that 
        such association or alliance--
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (b) Qualifications and Guidelines.--The Administrator shall 
by regulation prescribe--
          (1) the qualifications required to be met under 
        [paragraphs (2)(C) and (3)(D)] paragraphs (3)(C) and 
        (4)(D) of subsection (a); and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBTITLE V--PROGRAMS TARGETING COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                      CHAPTER 501--SPACE COMMERCE

                          SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec.
50101. Definitions.
     * * * * * * *

  SUBCHAPTER III--FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SPACE TRANSPORTATION SERVICES

     * * * * * * *
[50133. Shuttle privatization.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBCHAPTER II--PROMOTION OF COMMERCIAL SPACE OPPORTUNITIES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 50116. Commercial technology transfer program

  (a) In General.--The Administrator shall execute a commercial 
technology transfer program with the goal of facilitating the 
exchange of services, products, and intellectual property 
between the Administration and the private sector. This program 
shall place at least as much emphasis on encouraging the 
transfer of Administration technology to the private sector 
(``spinning out'') as on encouraging use of private sector 
technology by the Administration. This program shall be 
maintained in a manner that provides clear benefits for the 
Administration, the domestic economy, and the research 
community, while protecting national security.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBCHAPTER III--FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SPACE TRANSPORTATION SERVICES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[Sec. 50133. Shuttle privatization

  [The Administrator shall prepare for an orderly transition 
from the Federal operation, or Federal management of contracted 
operation, of space transportation systems to the Federal 
purchase of commercial space transportation services for all 
nonemergency space transportation requirements for 
transportation to and from Earth orbit, including human, cargo, 
and mixed payloads. In those preparations, the Administrator 
shall take into account the need for short-term economies, as 
well as the goal of restoring the Administration's research 
focus and its mandate to promote the fullest possible 
commercial use of space. As part of those preparations, the 
Administrator shall plan for the potential privatization of the 
space shuttle program. Such plan shall keep safety and cost 
effectiveness as high priorities. Nothing in this section shall 
prohibit the Administration from studying, designing, 
developing, or funding upgrades or modifications essential to 
the safe and economical operation of the space shuttle fleet.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBTITLE VII--ACCESS TO SPACE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


           [CHAPTER 701--USE OF SPACE SHUTTLE OR ALTERNATIVES

[Sec. 70101. Recovery of fair value of placing Department of Defense 
                    payloads in orbit with space shuttle

  [Notwithstanding any other provision of law, or any 
interagency agreement, the Administrator shall charge such 
prices as are necessary to recover the fair value of placing 
Department of Defense payloads into orbit by means of the space 
shuttle.

[Sec. 70102. Space shuttle use policy

  [(a) Use Policy.--
          [(1) In general.--
                  [(A) Policy.-- It shall be the policy of the 
                United States to use the space shuttle--
                          [(i) for purposes that require a 
                        human presence;
                          [(ii) for purposes that require the 
                        unique capabilities of the space 
                        shuttle; or
                          [(iii) when other compelling 
                        circumstances exist.
                  [(B) Definition of compelling 
                circumstances.-- In this paragraph, the term 
                ``compelling circumstances'' includes, but is 
                not limited to, occasions when the 
                Administrator determines, in consultation with 
                the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of 
                State, that important national security or 
                foreign policy interests would be served by a 
                shuttle launch.
          [(2) Using available cargo space for secondary 
        payloads.-- The policy stated in paragraph (1) shall 
        not preclude the use of available cargo space, on a 
        space shuttle mission otherwise consistent with the 
        policy described in paragraph (1), for the purpose of 
        carrying secondary payloads (as defined by the 
        Administrator) that do not require a human presence if 
        such payloads are consistent with the requirements of 
        research, development, demonstration, scientific, 
        commercial, and educational programs authorized by the 
        Administrator.
  [(b) Annual Report.--At least annually, the Administrator 
shall submit to Congress a report certifying that the payloads 
scheduled to be launched on the space shuttle for the next 4 
years are consistent with the policy set forth in subsection 
(a)(1). For each payload scheduled to be launched from the 
space shuttle that does not require a human presence, the 
Administrator shall, in the certified report to Congress, state 
the specific circumstances that justified the use of the space 
shuttle. If, during the period between scheduled reports to 
Congress, any additions are made to the list of certified 
payloads intended to be launched from the shuttle, the 
Administrator shall inform Congress of the additions and the 
reasons therefor within 45 days of the change.
  [(c) Administration Payloads.--The report described in 
subsection (b) shall also include those Administration payloads 
designed solely to fly on the space shuttle which have begun 
the phase C/D of its development cycle.

[Sec. 70103. Commercial payloads on space shuttle

  [(a) Definitions.--In this section:
          [(1) Launch vehicle.-- The term ``launch vehicle'' 
        means any vehicle constructed for the purpose of 
        operating in, or placing a payload in, outer space.
          [(2) Payload.-- The term ``payload'' means an object 
        which a person undertakes to place in outer space by 
        means of a launch vehicle, and includes subcomponents 
        of the launch vehicle specifically designed or adapted 
        for that object.
  [(b) In General.--Commercial payloads may not be accepted for 
launch as primary payloads on the space shuttle unless the 
Administrator determines that--
          [(1) the payload requires the unique capabilities of 
        the space shuttle; or
          [(2) launching of the payload on the space shuttle is 
        important for either national security or foreign 
        policy purposes.

 [CHAPTER 703--SHUTTLE PRICING POLICY FOR COMMERCIAL AND FOREIGN USERS

[Sec. 70301. Congressional findings and declarations

  [Congress finds and declares that--
          [(1) the Space Transportation System is a vital 
        element of the United States space program, 
        contributing to the United States leadership in space 
        research, technology, and development;
          [(2) the Space Transportation System is the primary 
        space launch system for both United States national 
        security and civil government missions;
          [(3) the Space Transportation System contributes to 
        the expansion of United States private sector 
        investment and involvement in space and therefore 
        should serve commercial users;
          [(4) the availability of the Space Transportation 
        System to foreign users for peaceful purposes is an 
        important means of promoting international cooperative 
        activities in the national interest and in maintaining 
        access to space for activities which enhance the 
        security and welfare of humankind;
          [(5) the United States is committed to maintaining 
        world leadership in space transportation;
          [(6) making the Space Transportation System fully 
        operational and cost effective in providing routine 
        access to space will maximize the national economic 
        benefits of the system; and
          [(7) national goals and the objectives for the Space 
        Transportation System can be furthered by a stable and 
        fair pricing policy for the Space Transportation 
        System.

[Sec. 70302. Purpose, policy, and goals

  [The purpose of this chapter is to set, for commercial and 
foreign users, the reimbursement pricing policy for the Space 
Transportation System that is consistent with the findings 
included in section 70301 of this title, encourages the full 
and effective use of space, and is designed to achieve the 
following goals:
          [(1) The preservation of the role of the United 
        States as a leader in space research, technology, and 
        development.
          [(2) The efficient and cost effective use of the 
        Space Transportation System.
          [(3) The achievement of greatly increased commercial 
        space activity.
          [(4) The enhancement of the international competitive 
        position of the United States.

[Sec. 70303. Definition of additive cost

  [In this chapter, the term ``additive cost'' means the 
average direct and indirect costs to the Administration of 
providing additional flights of the Space Transportation System 
beyond the costs associated with those flights necessary to 
meet the space transportation needs of the United States 
Government.

[Sec. 70304. Duties of Administrator

  [(a) Establishment and Implementation of Reimbursement 
Recovery System.--The Administrator shall establish and 
implement a pricing system to recover reimbursement in 
accordance with the pricing policy under section 70302 of this 
title from each commercial or foreign user of the Space 
Transportation System, which, except as provided in subsections 
(c), (d), and (e), shall include a base price of not less than 
$74,000,000 for each flight of the Space Transportation System 
in 1982 dollars.
  [(b) Reports to Congress.--Each year the Administrator shall 
submit to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Science and 
Technology of the House of Representatives a report, 
transmitted contemporaneously with the annual budget request of 
the President, which shall inform Congress how the policy goals 
contained in section 70302 of this title are being furthered by 
the shuttle price for foreign and commercial users.
  [(c) Reduction of Base Price.--
          [(1) Authority to reduce.-- If at any time the 
        Administrator finds that the policy goals contained in 
        section 70302 of this title are not being achieved, the 
        Administrator shall have authority to reduce the base 
        price established in subsection (a) after 45 days 
        following receipt by the President of the Senate, the 
        Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee 
        on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, 
        and the Committee on Science and Technology of the 
        House of Representatives of a notice by the 
        Administrator containing a description of the proposed 
        reduction together with a full and complete statement 
        of the facts and circumstances which necessitate such 
        proposed reduction.
          [(2) Minimum price.-- In no case shall the minimum 
        price established under paragraph (1) be less than 
        additive cost.
  [(d) Low or No-Cost Flights.--The Administrator may set a 
price lower than the price determined under subsection (a) or 
(c), or provide no-cost flights, for any commercial or foreign 
user of the Space Transportation System that is involved in 
research, development, or demonstration programs with the 
Administration.
  [(e) Customer Incentives.--Notwithstanding the provisions of 
subsection (a), the Administrator shall have the authority to 
offer reasonable customer incentives consistent with the policy 
goals in section 70302 of this title.]

                  CHAPTER 705--EXPLORATION INITIATIVES

Sec.
70501. Space shuttle follow-on.
     * * * * * * *
[70507. Technology development.]
70507. Space Technology Program authorized.
     * * * * * * *

Sec. 70501. Space shuttle follow-on

  [(a) Policy Statement.--It is the policy of the United States 
to possess the capability for human access to space on a 
continuous basis.]
  (a) Policy Statement.--It is the policy of the United States 
to maintain an uninterrupted capability for human space flight 
and operations in low-Earth orbit, and beyond, as an essential 
instrument of national security and the capability to ensure 
continued United States participation and leadership in the 
exploration and utilization of space.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration

  [In order to maximize the cost-effectiveness of the long-term 
exploration and utilization activities of the United States, 
the Administrator shall take all necessary steps, including 
engaging international partners, to ensure that activities in 
its lunar exploration program shall be designed and implemented 
in a manner that gives strong consideration to how those 
activities might also help meet the requirements of future 
exploration and utilization activities beyond the Moon. The 
timetable of the lunar phase of the long-term international 
exploration initiative shall be determined by the availability 
of funding. However, once an exploration-related project enters 
its development phase, the Administrator shall seek, to the 
maximum extent practicable, to complete that project without 
undue delays.]

Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration

  (a) In General.--In order to maximize the cost effectiveness 
of the long-term space exploration and utilization activities 
of the United States, the Administrator shall direct the Human 
Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, or its 
successor division, to develop a Human Exploration Roadmap to 
define the specific capabilities and technologies necessary to 
extend human presence to the surface of Mars and the sets and 
sequences of missions required to demonstrate such capabilities 
and technologies.
  (b) International Participation.--The President should invite 
the United States partners in the International Space Station 
program and other nations, as appropriate, to participate in an 
international initiative under the leadership of the United 
States to achieve the goal of successfully conducting a crewed 
mission to the surface of Mars.
  (c) Roadmap Requirements.--In developing the Human 
Exploration Roadmap, the Administrator shall--
          (1) include the specific set of capabilities and 
        technologies that contribute to extending human 
        presence to the surface of Mars and the sets and 
        sequences of missions necessary to demonstrate the 
        proficiency of these capabilities and technologies with 
        an emphasis on using or not using the International 
        Space Station, lunar landings, cis-lunar space, trans-
        lunar space, Lagrangian points, and the natural 
        satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, as testbeds, as 
        necessary, and shall include the most appropriate 
        process for developing such capabilities and 
        technologies;
          (2) include information on the phasing of planned 
        intermediate destinations, Mars mission risk areas and 
        potential risk mitigation approaches, technology 
        requirements and phasing of required technology 
        development activities, the management strategy to be 
        followed, related International Space Station 
        activities, and planned international collaborative 
        activities, potential commercial contributions, and 
        other activities relevant to the achievement of the 
        goal established in section 201(a) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
        of 2014;
          (3) describe those technologies already under 
        development across the Federal Government or by 
        nongovernment entities which meet or exceed the needs 
        described in paragraph (1);
          (4) provide a specific process for the evolution of 
        the capabilities of the fully integrated Orion crew 
        capsule with the Space Launch System and how these 
        systems demonstrate the capabilities and technologies 
        described in paragraph (1);
          (5) provide a description of the capabilities and 
        technologies that need to be demonstrated or research 
        data that could be gained through the utilization of 
        the International Space Station and the status of the 
        development of such capabilities and technologies;
          (6) describe a framework for international 
        cooperation in the development of all technologies and 
        capabilities required in this section, as well as an 
        assessment of the risks posed by relying on 
        international partners for capabilities and 
        technologies on the critical path of development;
          (7) describe a process for utilizing nongovernmental 
        entities for future human exploration beyond trans-
        lunar space and specify what, if any, synergy could be 
        gained from--
                  (A) partnerships using Space Act Agreements 
                (as defined in section 2 of the National 
                Aeronautics and Space Administration 
                Authorization Act of 2014); or
                  (B) other acquisition instruments;
          (8) include in the Human Exploration Roadmap an 
        addendum from the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Advisory Council, and an addendum from 
        the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, each with a 
        statement of review of the Human Exploration Roadmap 
        that shall include--
                  (A) subjects of agreement;
                  (B) areas of concern; and
                  (C) recommendations; and
          (9) include in the Human Exploration Roadmap an 
        examination of the benefits of utilizing current 
        Administration launch facilities for trans-lunar 
        missions.
  (d) Updates.--The Administrator shall update such Human 
Exploration Roadmap as needed but no less frequently than every 
2 years and include it in the budget for that fiscal year 
transmitted to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, and 
describe--
          (1) the achievements and goals reached in the process 
        of developing such capabilities and technologies during 
        the 2-year period prior to the submission of the update 
        to Congress; and
          (2) the expected goals and achievements in the 
        following 2-year period.
  (e) Definitions.--In this section, the terms ``Orion crew 
capsule'' and ``Space Launch System'' have the meanings given 
such terms in section 20302.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[Sec. 70507. Technology development

  [The Administrator shall establish an intra-Directorate long-
term technology development program for space and Earth science 
within the Science Mission Directorate for the development of 
new technology. The program shall be independent of the flight 
projects under development. The Administration shall have a 
goal of funding the intra-Directorate technology development 
program at a level of 5 percent of the total Science Mission 
Directorate annual budget. The program shall be structured to 
include competitively awarded grants and contracts.]

Sec. 70507. Space Technology Program authorized

  (a) Program Authorized.--The Administrator shall establish a 
Space Technology Program to pursue the research and development 
of advanced space technologies that have the potential of 
delivering innovative solutions and to support human 
exploration of the solar system or advanced space science. The 
program established by the Administrator shall take into 
consideration the recommendations of the National Academies' 
review of the Administration's Space Technology roadmaps and 
priorities, as well as applicable enabling aspects of the Human 
Exploration Roadmap specified in section 70504. In conducting 
the space technology program established under this section, 
the Administrator shall--
          (1) to the maximum extent practicable, use a 
        competitive process to select projects to be supported 
        as part of the program;
          (2) make use of small satellites and the 
        Administration's suborbital and ground-based platforms, 
        to the extent practicable and appropriate, to 
        demonstrate space technology concepts and developments; 
        and
          (3) undertake partnerships with other Federal 
        agencies, universities, private industry, and other 
        spacefaring nations, as appropriate.
  (b) Small Business Programs.--The Administrator shall 
organize and manage the Administration's Small Business 
Innovation Research program and Small Business Technology 
Transfer Program within the Space Technology Program.
  (c) Nonduplication Certification.--The Administrator shall 
include in the budget for each fiscal year, as transmitted to 
Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, a certification 
that no project, program, or mission undertaken by the Space 
Technology Program is duplicative of any other project, 
program, or mission conducted by another office or directorate 
of the Administration.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 707--HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION COMMISSION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 70702. Establishment of Commission

  (a) Establishment.--The President shall establish an 
independent, nonpartisan Commission within the executive branch 
to investigate any incident that results in the loss of--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          [(3) any other United States space vehicle carrying 
        humans that is owned by the Federal Government or that 
        is being used pursuant to a contract with the Federal 
        Government; or]
          (3) any other orbital or suborbital space vehicle 
        carrying humans--
                  (A) that is owned by the Federal Government; 
                or
                  (B) that is being used pursuant to a contract 
                or Space Act Agreement, as defined in section 2 
                of the National Aeronautics and Space 
                Administration Authorization Act of 2014, with 
                the Federal Government for carrying a 
                researcher or payload funded by the Federal 
                Government; or

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2010



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
  TITLE II--POLICY, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES FOR HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT AND 
                              EXPLORATION

SEC. 201. UNITED STATES HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT POLICY.

  [(a) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight 
Transportation Capabilities.--It is the policy of the United 
States that reliance upon and use of non-United States human 
space flight capabilities shall be undertaken only as a 
contingency in circumstances where no United States-owned and 
operated human space flight capability is available, 
operational, and certified for flight by appropriate Federal 
agencies.]
  (a) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight 
Transportation Capabilities.--
          (1) In general.-- NASA may not obtain non-United 
        States human space flight capabilities unless no 
        domestic commercial or public-private partnership 
        provider that the Administrator has determined to meet 
        safety and affordability requirements established by 
        NASA for the transport of its astronauts is available 
        to provide such capabilities.
          (2) Definition.-- For purposes of this subsection, 
        the term ``domestic commercial provider'' means a 
        person providing space transportation services or other 
        space-related activities, the majority control of which 
        is held by persons other than a Federal, State, local, 
        or foreign government, foreign company, or foreign 
        national.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 202. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.

  (a) * * *
  (b) Key Objectives.--The key objectives of the United States 
for human expansion into space shall be--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (3) to maximize the role that human exploration of 
        space can play in advancing overall knowledge of the 
        universe, supporting United States national and 
        economic security and the United States global 
        competitive posture, and inspiring young people in 
        their educational pursuits; [and]
          (4) to build upon the cooperative and mutually 
        beneficial framework established by the ISS partnership 
        agreements and experience in developing and undertaking 
        programs and meeting objectives designed to realize the 
        goal of human space flight set forth in subsection 
        (a)[.]; and
          (5) to accelerate the development of capabilities to 
        enable a human exploration mission to the surface of 
        Mars and beyond through the prioritization of those 
        technologies and capabilities best suited for such a 
        mission in accordance with the Human Exploration 
        Roadmap under section 70504 of title 51, United States 
        Code.

SEC. 203. ASSURANCE OF CORE CAPABILITIES.

  (a) * * *
  [(b) Space Shuttle Capability Assurance.--
          [(1) Development of follow-on space transportation 
        systems.-- The Administrator shall proceed with the 
        development of follow-on space transportation systems 
        in a manner that ensures that the national capability 
        to restart and fly Space Shuttle missions can be 
        initiated if required by the Congress, in an Act 
        enacted after the date of enactment of this Act, or by 
        a Presidential determination transmitted to the 
        Congress, before the last Space Shuttle mission 
        authorized by this Act is completed.
          [(2) Required actions.-- In carrying out the 
        requirement in paragraph (1), the Administrator shall 
        authorize refurbishment of the manufactured external 
        tank of the Space Shuttle, designated as ET-94, and 
        take all actions necessary to enable its readiness for 
        use in the Space Launch System development as a 
        critical skills and capability retention effort or for 
        test purposes, while preserving the ability to use this 
        tank if needed for an ISS contingency if deemed 
        necessary under paragraph (1).]
  [(c)] (b) Sense of Congress Regarding Human Space Flight 
Capability Assurance.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Administrator shall proceed with the utilization of the ISS, 
technology development, and follow-on transportation systems 
(including the Space Launch System, multi-purpose crew vehicle, 
and commercial crew and cargo transportation capabilities) 
under titles III and IV of this Act in a manner that ensures--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  [(d)] (c) Limitation.--Nothing in [subsection (c)] subsection 
(b) shall apply to or affect any capability authorized by any 
other title of this Act

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE VIII--SPACE SCIENCE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 803. OVERALL SCIENCE PORTFOLIO-SENSE OF THE CONGRESS.

  [Congress reaffirms its sense that a balanced and adequately 
funded set of activities, consisting of research and analysis 
grants programs, technology development, small, medium, and 
large space missions, and suborbital research activities, 
contributes to a robust and productive science program and 
serves as a catalyst for innovation.]

SEC. 803. OVERALL SCIENCE PORTFOLIO--SENSE OF THE CONGRESS.

  Congress reaffirms its sense, expressed in the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010, 
that a balanced and adequately funded set of activities, 
consisting of research and analysis grants programs, technology 
development, small, medium, and large space missions, and 
suborbital research activities, contributes to a robust and 
productive science program and serves as a catalyst for 
innovation and discovery.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                        XXI. PROCEEDINGS OF THE

                         SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE

                          MARKUP ON H.R. 4412,

                        THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS

                        AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

                       AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, APRIL 9, 2014

                  House of Representatives,
                                   Subcommittee on Space,  
               Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
                                                   Washington, D.C.

    The Subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9:09 a.m., in 
Room 2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Steven 
Palazzo [Chairman of the Subcommittee] presiding.
    Chairman Palazzo. The Space Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology will come to order.
    Without objection, the Chair is authorized to declare 
recesses of the Subcommittee at any time. I recognize myself 
for an opening statement.
    The bill and amendment before the Subcommittee this morning 
reflect a true bipartisan agreement. I want to thank my 
colleague, the Ranking Member Ms. Edwards, for her hard work, 
determination, and patience in putting together this consensus 
agreement with me. The Ranking Member and I don't always see 
eye-to-eye, but the provisions contained in the agreement are a 
testament that Republicans and Democrats can work together in 
an effective manner for the good of the Nation.
    The agreement before us today will enable NASA to continue 
its proud tradition as the preeminent civilian space agency in 
the world. The agreement is not perfect, nor is it complete, 
but it is a reflection of good-faith efforts on both sides to 
continue working together to write common-sense policy.
    Congress has been consistent in its support for the Space 
Launch System, Orion crew capsule, Commercial Crew Program and 
the James Webb Space Telescope. These priorities are clearly 
reflected in the agreement and represent yet another 
affirmation of policy already contained in Federal law.
    The agreement before us today makes absolutely clear that 
NASA's goal for the human space flight program should be to 
send humans to Mars. It is also the Committee's intent to be 
clear that proposals that cannot be proven essential to a Mars 
mission be removed from this portfolio. For this purpose, the 
agreement provides a framework for the development of an 
exploration roadmap, which is critical to ensure every taxpayer 
dollar is spent effectively and efficiently. A clear and 
detailed roadmap is a reasonable and necessary requirement for 
future development efforts at NASA.
    The bill seeks to limit U.S. dependence on Russia for 
access to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. 
As the Administrator said last week before this Subcommittee, 
and again yesterday, budgets are about choices. I could not 
agree more. That is why this bill allows NASA to better focus 
its efforts on once more launching American astronauts on 
American rockets from American soil.
    The development of the deep space capabilities is of the 
utmost importance for this Subcommittee. Members on both sides 
of the aisle have expressed disappointment in the 
Administration's insufficient budget requests for the Space 
Launch System and Orion crew capsule. This agreement makes it 
clear that SLS and Orion are top priorities for Congress and 
the American people.
    Additionally, the agreement contains continued direction 
for the on-time and on-budget development of the James Webb 
Space Telescope. The completion of the James Webb Space 
Telescope has been a top priority, and we expect NASA will 
continue to treat it as such.
    I am proud of the good work this Subcommittee has done. I 
am sure my colleagues would agree that finding bipartisan 
agreement in an austere budget environment is never an easy 
task, and our work is not done. But this Subcommittee is well-
served by an excellent negotiating partner in Ms. Edwards and a 
supportive Full Committee Chairman and Ranking Member.
    I look forward to working together with my friends on the 
other side of the aisle to make additional changes on 
provisions important to Republicans and Democrats as we move 
this bill to the Full Committee and House Floor.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Palazzo follows:]

       Prepared Statement of Subcommittee Chairman Steven Palazzo

    The bill and amendment before the Subcommittee this morning reflect 
a true bipartisan agreement.
    I want to thank my colleague, the Ranking Member, Ms. Edwards for 
her hard work, determination, and patience in putting together this 
consensus agreement with me. The Ranking Member and I don't always see 
eye-to-eye, but the provisions contained in the agreement are a 
testament that Republicans and Democrats can work together in an 
effective manner for the good of the nation.
    The agreement before us today will enable NASA to continue its 
proud tradition as the preeminent civilian space agency in the world. 
The agreement is not perfect, nor is it complete, but it is a 
reflection of good faith efforts on both sides to continue working 
together to write common-sense policy.
    Congress has been consistent in its support for the Space Launch 
System, Orion crew capsule, Commercial Crew Program, and the James Webb 
Space Telescope. These priorities are clearly reflected in the 
agreement and represent yet another affirmation of policy already 
contained in federal law.
    The agreement before us today makes absolutely clear that NASA's 
goal for the human space flight program should be to send humans to 
Mars. It is also the Committee's intent to be clear that proposals that 
cannot be proven essential to a Mars mission be removed from this 
portfolio. For this purpose, the agreement provides a framework for the 
development of an exploration roadmap, which is critical to ensure 
every taxpayer dollar is spent effectively and efficiently. A clear and 
detailed roadmap is a reasonable and necessary requirement for future 
development efforts at NASA.
    The bill seeks to limit US dependence on Russia for access to low 
earth orbit and the International Space Station. As the Administrator 
said last week before this Subcommittee (and again yesterday), budgets 
are about choices. I could not agree more. That is why this bill allows 
NASA to better focus its efforts on once more launching American 
astronauts on American rockets from American soil.
    The development of deep space capabilities is of the utmost 
importance for this Subcommittee. Members on both sides of the aisle 
have expressed disappointment in the Administration's insufficient 
budget requests for the Space Launch System and Orion crew capsule. 
This agreement makes it clear that SLS and Orion are top priorities for 
Congress and the American people.
    Additionally, the agreement contains continued direction for the 
on-time and on-budget development of the James Webb Space Telescope. 
The completion of the JWST has been a top priority, and we expect NASA 
will continue to treat it as such.
    I am proud of the good work this Subcommittee has done. I'm sure my 
colleagues would agree that finding bipartisan agreement in an austere 
budget environment is never an easy task, and our work is not done. But 
this Subcommittee is well-served by an excellent negotiating partner in 
Ms. Edwards and a supportive Full Committee Chairman and Ranking 
Member.
    I look forward to working together with my friends on the other 
side of the aisle to make additional changes on provisions important to 
Republicans and Democrats as we move this bill to the Full Committee 
and House floor.

    Chairman Palazzo. I now yield to the Ranking Member of the 
Subcommittee, Ms. Edwards, for her remarks.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. Today 
really is a good day for us in this Subcommittee. And I join 
you in recognizing NASA's critical--as critical to this Nation, 
to our economic strength, and to our place in the world. NASA's 
accomplishments in human spaceflight, space science, 
aeronautics research, and space technology are the envy of 
other nations and a source of inspiration for all our citizens. 
Helping NASA to maintain its leadership in all these areas is 
one of the most critical responsibilities of this Subcommittee. 
The 21st century requires a robust space agency supported by a 
strong, vibrant, and innovative private sector. So, Mr. 
Chairman, I know that that is why you and I redoubled our 
commitment to working together over these last several weeks 
and months to develop a truly bipartisan NASA authorization 
bill.
    Today, we are marking up a NASA Authorization Act of 2014. 
And while the markup bill that is introduced did not reflect 
all of the ongoing work that both sides have been doing in 
trying to reach common ground, the bipartisan manager's 
amendment being introduced today is a major step forward and 
serves as an important example of progress that this 
Subcommittee and the Full Committee can build upon.
    First and foremost, the manager's amendment directs NASA to 
develop an exploration roadmap, one that will have the agency 
define the specific capabilities and technologies to extend 
human presence to the surface of Mars and sets the sequences of 
missions required to demonstrate such capabilities and 
technologies. The roadmap will allow NASA's technical experts 
to analyze the merits of potential interim destinations toward 
achieving the goal of sending humans to Mars.
    I know that different Members have their own personal 
favorite destinations and interim missions, but this amendment 
puts the job of deciding the pathway forward where it squarely 
belongs, by requiring NASA to develop an informed and realistic 
roadmap to get this Nation to Mars. Within 180 days, just six 
months, NASA will share that roadmap with Congress and provide 
updates in the coming years.
    There are other important aspects of the manager's 
amendment worth mentioning. I am pleased that the manager's 
amendment unequivocally states that the safety shall be the 
highest priority in the selection and development of commercial 
crew transportation services that NASA plans to use to 
transport U.S. astronauts to and from the International Space 
Station. We learned from the mistakes leading up to the 
Columbia disaster and we do not want to repeat them.
    The amendment recognizes the importance of robust science 
and aeronautics research portfolios and highlights the 
importance of NASA's space technology program in enabling new 
technologies and capabilities that will make NASA's mission 
more reliable and affordable.
    And this amendment we have also removed the prohibition 
against canceling covered programs without Congressional 
action. Those covered programs are no more protected than any 
other NASA program, nor should they be, but this amendment will 
ensure that the funds appropriated for these programs will not 
be sitting idle but instead, in this austere environment, as 
the Chairman puts it, would be put to productive use in making 
as much progress as possible on major development programs.
    Mr. Chairman, I am also pleased to be achieving this markup 
milestone and I thank you and Chairman Smith for your 
willingness to respond to many of the concerns raised by 
Ranking Member Johnson and me in the process of reaching this 
bipartisan amendment. And while the amendment covers a sizable 
chunk of NASA's roles and responsibilities, it is clear that we 
still have more work to do in a number of important areas. I 
look forward to honoring our commitment and the commitments of 
our Chairman and Ranking Member to bring this to finality in a 
bipartisan fashion through the Full Committee.
    For example, I have made no secret of my view that we need 
to provide authorizations of sufficient length and magnitude to 
meaningfully reflect the funding required to carry out all the 
tasks we are asking NASA to undertake. We were unable to do so 
for this markup but I hope that by the time this bill has been 
enacted into law for this one-year authorization, we will have 
begun the longer-term work to provide the funding guidance that 
Congress has a responsibility to render in the coming years.
    We also need to continue discussions on NASA's education 
activities on earth science and a range of other topics so we 
can ideally include sensible provisions in these areas when we 
move to Full Committee markup. Their omission from today's 
markup in no way minimizes their importance. It simply reflects 
the need to take our time together to get them right and for 
all of us to be on the same page in the same spirit in which we 
have engaged up to this point.
    In addition, Mr. Chairman, I know there are other technical 
improvements the staff will continue to seek to make for us in 
preparation for the Full Committee markup. I look forward to 
engaging Members on both sides of the aisle who have ideas for 
strengthening the bill. I am committed to maintaining a 
bipartisan product that reflects the high regard we have on 
both sides of the aisle for the agency, its workers, and the 
incredible private sector partners who think about the future 
every day.
    Today, we can be proud to have achieved to reach common 
ground for this Subcommittee markup. Mr. Chairman, let us 
maintain our resolve to continue working together as we have so 
that we can come up with an even better bill before the Full 
Committee markup. And let us continue our progress on 
reauthorizing NASA and getting a bill enacted into law. Thank 
you, Mr. Chairman.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Edwards follows:]

    Prepared Statement of Subcommittee Ranking Member Donna Edwards

    Mr. Chairman, NASA is critical to this Nation, to our economic 
strength, and to our place in the world. NASA's accomplishments in 
human spaceflight, space science, aeronautics research, and space 
technology are the envy of other nations and a source of inspiration 
for all our citizens.
    Helping NASA to maintain its leadership in all of these areas is 
one of the most critical responsibilities of this subcommittee. The 
21st Century requires a robust space agency supported by a strong, 
vibrant, and innovative private sector.
    Mr. Chairman, that is why you and I redoubled our commitment to 
working together over these last several weeks and months to develop a 
bipartisan NASA Authorization bill.
    Today, we are marking up the NASA Authorization Act of 2014.
    While the markup bill, as introduced, did not reflect all of the 
ongoing work that both sides had been doing to reach common ground, the 
bipartisan Manager's Amendment being introduced today is a major step 
forward and serves as an important example of progress that this 
Subcommittee and the Full Committee can build upon.
    First and foremost, the Manager's Amendment directs NASA to develop 
an Exploration Roadmap, one that will have the agency define the 
specific capabilities and technologies to extend human presence to the 
surface of Mars, and the sets and sequences of missions required to 
demonstrate such capabilities and technologies.
    The Roadmap will allow NASA's technical experts to analyze the 
merits of potential interim destinations toward achieving the goal of 
sending humans to Mars.
    I know that different Members have their own personal favorite 
destinations and interim missions, but this Amendment puts the job of 
deciding the pathway forward where it belongs by requiring NASA to 
develop an informed and realistic Roadmap to get this nation to Mars. 
Within 180 days - just 6 months - NASA will share that Roadmap with 
Congress and provide updates in the coming years.
    There are other important aspects of the Manager's Amendment worth 
mentioning:
    I'm pleased that Manager's Amendment unequivocally states that the 
safety shall be the highest priority in the selection and development 
of commercial crew transportation services that NASA plans to use to 
transport U.S. astronauts to and from the International Space Station. 
We learned from the mistakes leading up to the Columbia disaster and we 
do not want to repeat them.
    The Amendment recognizes the importance of robust science and 
aeronautics research portfolios and highlights the importance of NASA's 
space technology program in enabling new technologies and capabilities 
that will make NASA's missions more affordable and reliable.
    In this Amendment we have also removed the prohibition against 
cancelling ``covered programs'' without congressional action-those 
covered programs are no more protected than any other NASA program, nor 
should they be.
    This Amendment will ensure that funds appropriated for these 
programs will not be sitting idle, but instead be put to productive use 
in making as much progress as possible on major development programs.
    Mr. Chairman, I am pleased to be achieving this markup milestone, 
and I thank you and Chairman Smith for your willingness to respond to 
many of the concerns raised by Ranking Member Johnson and me in the 
process of reaching this bipartisan Amendment.
    And while the amendment covers a sizeable chunk of NASA's roles and 
responsibilities, it is clear we still have more work to do in a number 
of important areas. I look forward to honoring our commitment and the 
commitments of our Chairman and Ranking Member to bring this to 
finality in a bipartisan fashion through the Full Committee.
    For example, I have made no secret of my view that we need to 
provide authorizations of sufficient length and magnitude to 
meaningfully reflect the funding required to carry out all the tasks we 
are asking NASA to undertake.
    We were unable to do so for this markup, but I hope that by the 
time this bill has been enacted into law, we will have begun the longer 
term work to provide the funding guidance that Congress has a 
responsibility to render in the coming years.
    We also need to continue discussions on NASA's education 
activities, on Earth Science, and a range of other topics so we ideally 
can include sensible provisions in these areas when we move to Full 
Committee markup. Their omission from today's markup in no way 
minimizes their importance-it just reflects the need to take the time 
to get them right and to be on the same page in the spirit in which we 
have engaged to this point.
    In addition, Mr. Chairman, I know there other technical 
improvements that staff will continue to seek to make for us in 
preparation for a Full Committee markup.
    I look forward to engaging Members on both sides of the aisle who 
have ideas for strengthening the bill. I am committed to maintaining a 
bipartisan product that reflects the high regard we have on both sides 
of the aisle for the agency, its workers, and the incredible private 
sector partners who think about the future every day.
    Today, we can be proud to have reached common ground for this 
subcommittee markup.
    Mr. Chairman, let us maintain our resolve to continue working 
together so that we can come up with an even better bill before Full 
Committee markup. Let us continue our progress on reauthorizing NASA 
and get a bill enacted into law.

    Chairman Palazzo. Thank you, Ms. Edwards.
    I now recognize the Ranking Member of the Full Committee, 
Ms. Johnson, for a statement.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, for 
yielding to me. I will be brief in my remarks.
    Today's Subcommittee markup represents a step forward for 
NASA. I think we will come out of this markup with an approved 
NASA reauthorization, not a perfect one by any means, but 
definitely a better piece of legislation. It is also a step 
forward for our committee. Chairman Palazzo, Chairman Smith, 
and their staffs have worked constructively with Ranking Member 
Edwards and me and our staff to try to reach an agreement on a 
bipartisan NASA bill, something that had always been a hallmark 
of this committee.
    It has not been easy to get to where we are today and the 
Committee's work on this NASA reauthorization bill is by no 
means done. However, I greatly appreciate the willingness of 
Chairman Palazzo and Chairman Smith to work with us and I look 
forward to our continued collaboration so that at the end of 
the process we can have a bill that we will all take pride in 
having enacted into law.
    Ranking Member Edwards has always articulated both a number 
of the manager's amendment's strengths and some of our 
remaining concerns about the bill before us today. As a result, 
I will not spend any time restating them now. I will just close 
by again making the point that NASA is an important part of our 
Nation's R&D enterprise. We need to keep it strong and vital 
and I think that the manager's amendment before us today will 
help us achieve that goal.
    Thank you and I yield back the balance of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]

   Prepared Statement of Full Committee Ranking Member Eddie Bernice 
                                Johnson

    Thank you, Mr. Chairman for yielding to me. I will be brief in my 
remarks. Today's subcommittee markup represents a step forward for 
NASA. I think we will come out of this markup with an improved NASA 
reauthorization-not a perfect one, by any means, but definitely a 
better piece of legislation. It is also a step forward for our 
Committee.
    Chairman Palazzo, Chairman Smith, and their staffs have worked 
constructively with Ranking Member Edwards and me and our staffs to try 
to reach agreement on a bipartisan NASA bill--something that had always 
been a hallmark of this Committee. It has not been easy to get to where 
we are today, and the Committee's work on this NASA Reauthorization 
bill is by no means done. However, I greatly appreciate the willingness 
of Chairman Palazzo and Chairman Smith to work with us, and I look 
forward to our continued collaboration so that at the end of the 
process we can have a bill that we will all take pride in having 
enacted into law.
    Ranking Member Edwards has already articulated both a number of the 
Manager's Amendment's strengths, and some of our remaining concerns 
about the bill before us today. As a result, I will not spend any time 
restating them now.
    I will just close by again making the point that NASA is an 
important part of our nation's R&D enterprise. We need to keep it 
strong and vital, and I think that the Manager's Amendment before us 
today will help us achieve that goal.
    Thank you, and I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Palazzo. Thank you, Ms. Johnson.
    Pursuant to Committee Rule 2(f) and House Rule XI(2)(h)(4), 
the Chair announces that he may postpone roll call votes on 
matters on which the yeas and nays are ordered.
    Pursuant to notice, I now call up H.R. 4412, the NASA 
Reauthorization Act of 2014, for markup. The clerk will report 
the bill.
    The Clerk. H.R. 4412, to authorize the programs in the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration and for other 
purposes.
    [H.R. 4412 appears in Appendix I]
    Chairman Palazzo. Without objection, the bill is considered 
as read.
    Does any Member wish to be recognized on the bill?
    Mr. Rohrabacher. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Palazzo. I recognize Mr. Rohrabacher.
    Mr. Rohrabacher. I rise in support of your authorization 
bill--this authorization bill. I should say ours because I will 
be supporting it and also would like to stand in solidarity 
with my colleagues on both sides of the aisle and I think that 
this has been exemplary and we have seen some great leadership 
on your part, as well as from our leaders on the other side of 
the aisle, and I want to congratulate all of you.
    However, I feel compelled to state for the record my 
thoughts of one of the basic tenants of this authorization. I 
believe it is an expensive folly to tie America's--American 
Government's program so closely to the goal of putting human 
beings on Mars. The odds are too great that this will result in 
huge waste of very limited resources that could be spent on 
goals that are much more certain and much more beneficial to 
our people today. When one tries to cross a bridge too far, 
somebody is going to get soaked. And in this case, it will be 
the American taxpayer who will be paying dearly for unnecessary 
expenditures in achieving a goal, meaning landing human beings 
on Mars, which is more of a publicity stunt than a scientific 
achievement.
    If we are to maximize the benefits to mankind and to our 
citizens of space and humans--human involvement in space, we 
need to prioritize and we need to be realistic. I do not find 
the goal of landing a human being on Mars something that will 
benefit our citizens or humankind at this time as much as 
perhaps some other goals, and then going on to Mars when other 
technologies have been developed that will make it less 
expensive and more certain.
    Chairman Palazzo. The gentleman yields back.
    Is there any further discussion on the bill?
    Is there any further discussion on the bill?
    Mr. Smith.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    I don't know if this is an appropriate time or not but I 
would like to make a quick statement about the bill. And I 
appreciate everybody's attendance here and I appreciate the 
fact that we are underway.
    Mr. Chairman, first, I want to thank you for your 
leadership on this Subcommittee and your dedication to NASA and 
its employees. The work you and Ranking Member Donna Edwards 
did to put this agreement together sets an example for how this 
Committee can work productively towards a common goal. Also, I 
want to thank the Republican and Democratic staff who worked 
long hours to help advance this legislation.
    This bill continues the bipartisan direction that this 
Committee has provided to NASA for nearly a decade, despite the 
Administration's attempts to reorder Congressional priorities. 
The 91-page bill before the Subcommittee today provides support 
and guidance to the Space Launch System and Orion crew capsule, 
the Commercial Crew Program, the International Space Station, 
astrophysics including the James Webb Space Telescope, 
planetary science, heliophysics, Earth science, space 
technology and aeronautics.
    At a fundamental level, space exploration--the mission of 
NASA--is about inspiration. The agreement reached by Chairman 
Palazzo and Ranking Member Edwards demonstrates what we can 
accomplish together. It is my hope that the bipartisanship 
embodied in this agreement will establish a precedent for the 
future.
    I look forward to continuing this discussion with Ranking 
Member Johnson. It is my desire to move this bill through the 
Full Committee and to the House Floor as soon as possible. I 
know we still have work to do, but this is certainly a positive 
step.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I will yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Smith follows:]

      Prepared Statement of Full Committee Chairman Lamar S. Smith

    Thank you Mr. Chairman. I appreciate your leadership on this 
Subcommittee and your dedication to NASA and its employees. The work 
you and Ranking Member Donna Edwards did to put this agreement together 
sets an example for how this Committee can work productively towards a 
common goal. Also, I want to thank the Republican and Democratic staff 
who worked long hours to help advance this legislation.
    This bill continues the bipartisan direction that this Committee 
has provided to NASA for nearly a decade, despite the Administration's 
attempts to reorder Congressional priorities.
    The 91 page bill before the Subcommittee today provides support and 
guidance to the Space Launch System and Orion crew capsule, the 
Commercial Crew Program, the International Space Station, Astrophysics 
including the James Webb Space Telescope, Planetary Science, 
Heliophysics, Earth Science, Space Technology and Aeronautics.
    At a fundamental level, space exploration--the mission of NASA--is 
about inspiration. The agreement reached by Chairman Palazzo and 
Ranking Member Edwards demonstrates what we can accomplish together. It 
is my hope that the bipartisanship embodied in this agreement will 
establish a precedent of the future.
    I look forward to continuing this discussion with Ranking Member 
Johnson. It is my desire to move this bill through the Full Committee 
and to the House floor as soon as possible. I know we still have work 
to do, but this is certainly a positive step.
    Thank you Mr. Chairman, I yield back.

    Chairman Palazzo. Thank you, Mr. Smith, for your statement.
    Is there any further discussion on the bill?
    Hearing none, without objection, I ask unanimous consent 
that the bill is considered open to amendment at any point and 
that Members proceed with amendments in the order listed on the 
roster. So ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute offered by myself and the gentlewoman 
from Maryland, Ms. Edwards. The clerk shall report the 
amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment in the nature of a substitute to H.R. 
4412 offered by Mr. Palazzo of Mississippi and Ms. Edwards of 
Maryland. Strike all after the----
    [The amendment of Mr. Palazzo and Ms. Edwards appears in 
Appendix I]
    Chairman Palazzo. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize myself for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    The amendment in the nature of a substitute before us today 
is the result of weeks of negotiations between the minority and 
majority. While this amendment is not perfect, it represents a 
sincere effort and desire by both Republicans and Democrats to 
come to an agreement on the future of NASA.
    The amendment sets NASA on a path of landing humans on Mars 
with the creation of a human exploration roadmap. This roadmap 
is critical to the future of human exploration for the United 
States and ensures there is a plan and structure in place that 
will span several administrations and elections.
    The prioritization of the Space Launch System and Orion 
crew capsule are reaffirmed by this agreement, not just in 
authorized funding levels but also in a direction for their 
use. The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 laid out very clear 
guidelines and a direction for the development of these 
systems. This agreement is intended to ensure that the 
Administration's rhetoric is supported by reality in NASA's 
budgets.
    One of the most important near-term challenges facing our 
program is access to low-Earth orbit and the International 
Space Station. The agreement authorizes ample funding for the 
Commercial Crew Program in order to develop domestic access to 
the International Space Station. There are also oversight 
provisions to provide transparency in the contracts and 
processes used to develop these systems. This agreement 
represents an understanding that both our commercial crew 
partners and those developed in SLS and Orion have a crucial 
role to play in ending our reliance on Russian rockets.
    The science title of the agreement emphasizes the 
importance of completing and launching the James Webb Space 
Telescope in 2018, which will build on the work of its Hubble 
predecessor while expanding our view into the universe.
    The agreement reaffirms Congress' commitment to the first 
``A'' in NASA, Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The 
agency has a proud history of infusing critical industry-
changing technologies into the aerospace sector. This agreement 
directs NASA to create research and develop roadmaps for the 
agency's work on unmanned aerial systems, hypersonics, 
supersonics, and rotorcraft. The agreement also supports 
critical development efforts in composite materials in the 
NextGen program.
    In an ongoing effort to keep NASA's shrinking budgets 
focused to support the agency's primary mission, our amendment 
asks that any transfer of additional responsibilities to NASA 
be accompanied by additional resources. NASA is the only agency 
tasked with space exploration and its budget must reflect space 
exploration as a priority. Yet the President's budget request 
again transfers responsibility for developing instruments for 
climate research from NOAA to NASA without providing additional 
resources to NASA to pay for such responsibilities.
    Finally, this Committee has made multiple requests for more 
information on a proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission, or ARM. 
These are reasonable requests, especially in light of the 
considerable concerns that have been expressed in the 
scientific community by NASA's own advisory groups. To date, 
NASA has failed to provide a budget profile, program office, or 
schedule. This agreement continues asking NASA to provide these 
key details about this mission.
    There is still work to be done to perfect this bill. 
Specifically, I know the Ranking Member and I will continue 
work on refining several sections. Some provisions have been 
left out to allow for more time to discuss but that does not 
mean we will not address them in the future. Specifically, the 
advanced booster competition section may need to be updated to 
reflect current realities of NASA. Other provisions such as the 
Space Act Agreement section may need further changes. I look 
forward to continuing our efforts as we move to Full Committee, 
the Floor, and eventually the conference with the Senate.
    I want to thank Ms. Edwards, her staff, and of course the 
majority staff for their tireless efforts to pull together this 
agreement. I am proud that at the end of the day we were able 
to put our names on a bipartisan bill.
    Is there any further discussion on the amendment?
    I now recognize Ms. Edwards.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    I just want to echo your words with respect to the 
amendment that we have developed together in this Subcommittee, 
both Republicans and Democrats, as a demonstration of our 
strong support for NASA.
    I do want to take just a moment to recognize all of the 
staff who put in many, many hours of work over these last 
several weeks and months. From the majority, Chris Shank, Tom 
Hammond, Jared Stout, Allison Rose-Sonnesyn, and Gabriella 
Ra'anan, and your personal staff, Megan Mitchell; from the 
minority, Dick Obermann, Pam Whitney, Allen Li, and my personal 
staff Anne Nelson.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Palazzo. Thank you, Ms. Edwards, for recognizing 
the staff that pretty much helped make this all possible.
    Is there any further discussion on the amendment?
    Hearing none, the vote occurs on the Palazzo-Edwards 
amendment in the nature of a substitute.
    All in favor, say aye.
    Those opposed, say no.
    The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to.
    Are there any further amendments?
    Hearing none and a reporting quorum being present, the 
question is on the bill, H.R. 4412, the NASA Authorization Act 
of 2014, as amended.
    Those in favor, say aye.
    Opposed, no.
    The ayes have it and the bill, as amended, is agreed to.
    Without objection, the Motion to Reconsider is laid upon 
the table.
    I now recognize Ms. Edwards for a motion.
    Ms. Edwards. Mr. Chairman, I move that the bill H.R. 4412, 
the NASA Authorization Act of 2014, as amended, be favorably 
reported to the Full Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology and the staff be authorized to make any necessary 
technical and conforming changes.
    Chairman Palazzo. Without objection, so ordered.
    If there is no further discussion, this completes our 
business. This concludes the Subcommittee markup. The 
Subcommittee on Space stands adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 9:33 a.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix I

                              ----------                              


     H.R. 4412, THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
                       AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014

                Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendments

                            Amendment Roster





<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>

                     Section-by-Section Analysis of

     H.R. 4412, THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
                       AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014

Section 1. Short Title; Table of Contents.

    This Act may be cited as the ``National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2014.''

Section 2. Definitions.

    This section provides relevant definitions within the Act.
                TITLE I-AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal Year 2014.

    This section authorizes NASA at levels in line with the 
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76).
                      TITLE II-HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT
                         Subtitle A-Exploration

Sec. 201. Space Exploration Policy.

    This section supports a human exploration program that is not 
dependent on achieving milestones by fixed dates, and an exploration 
technology development program to enable lunar human and robotic 
operations. It supports expanding human presence beyond low-Earth 
orbit. This section states that Congress remains committed to ensuring 
that authorized budgets for the human space flight program maintain 
NASA's high safety standards. This section states that exploration 
deeper into the solar system should be the core mission of NASA. 
Congress strongly supports the development of the SLS and Orion as 
enabling elements for human exploration, advanced scientific missions, 
and national security priorities beyond low-Earth orbit. This section 
further states that it is the policy of the United States that the 
development of capabilities and technologies necessary for a human 
mission to Mars and beyond is the top priority of NASA's human space 
flight and technology development programs. This section states that it 
is the policy of the United States that the development of capabilities 
necessary for human mission to lunar orbit, the surface of the Moon, 
the surface of Mars and beyond shall be the goal of the 
Administration's human space flight program. The section requires the 
Administrator to establish a program to develop a sustained human 
presence on the Moon and the surface of Mars. Section 201 directs the 
Administrator to focus on the milestone of launching the first crewed 
mission of Orion fully integrated with SLS as close to 2020 as 
possible. It adds language to the law creating the milestone of 
enabling humans to land on the Moon. This section also adds language to 
title 51 regarding the acceleration of development of capabilities to 
enable a human exploration mission to the surface of Mars and beyond 
through the prioritization of those technologies and capabilities best 
suited for such a mission in accordance with the Mars Human Exploration 
Roadmap. Finally, this section states that non-United States human 
space flight capabilities should only be used as a contingency when no 
domestic commercial or public-private partnerships provider that meets 
NASA's safety requirements is available. This section requires a report 
to Congress on current and continuing efforts to seek and encourage, to 
the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space. This 
section also requires a report to Congress on efforts by NASA to reduce 
impediments, bureaucracy, redundancy, and burdens to ensure the fullest 
commercial use of space.

Sec. 202. Stepping Stone Approach to Exploration.

    This section encourages the President to invite our partners in the 
ISS program and other nations to participate in an international 
initiative, under US leadership, to conduct a crewed mission to the 
surface of Mars. This section requires the development of a Mars Human 
Exploration Roadmap defining the capabilities and technologies 
necessary to extend human presence to the surface of Mars, providing a 
process for the evolution of the capabilities of the fully integrated 
Orion with SLS, and describing the capabilities and technologies that 
could be demonstrated, or research data that could be gained through 
the utilization of the ISS. The roadmap describes a framework for 
international cooperation and a process for utilizing private 
companies. The roadmap must be transmitted the Congress, updated at 
least every four years, and include addenda from the NASA Advisory 
Council and Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, each with a statement of 
review. The roadmap must also include an examination of the benefits of 
utilizing current Administration launch facilities for trans-lunar 
missions.

Sec. 203. Space Launch System.

    This section contains findings regarding the importance of the SLS 
and describing its intended uses. This section also contains findings 
describing the test flight required by the 2010 Authorization Act and 
stating that the schedule for this demonstration is subject to 
appropriations. This section requires a progress report on the status 
of SLS and its integration with Orion. If the Administrator determines 
that either required test flight will not occur before the dates 
specified, the progress report must include an estimate of additional 
funds necessary to meet these goals. This section requires the 
Administrator to report on the effort and budget required to enable and 
utilize a cargo variant of the 130 ton SLS configuration. This section 
would require NASA to conduct a competition among students in 
elementary and secondary schools to name the elements of NASA's 
exploration program.

Sec. 204. Orion Crew Capsule.

    This section states that the Orion must meet the practical needs 
and the minimum capability requirements described in law. It requires a 
report to Congress detailing those components and systems of Orion 
which ensure it is in compliance with the law and the expected date 
that Orion will be available to transport crew and cargo to the ISS, as 
well as certifying that the requirements of the law will be met in time 
for the first crewed test flight in the year 2021.

Sec. 205. Advanced Booster Competition.

    This section requires the Associate Administrator of NASA to 
transmit a report to Congress describing the estimated total cost of an 
advanced booster for SLS, detailing any reductions or increases to 
development costs of SLS that may result from conducting a competition 
for an advanced booster, and outlining any potential schedule delay to 
the 2017 launch as a result of increased costs associated with 
conducting a booster competition. It further directs NASA to conduct a 
full and open competition for an advanced booster for SLS if the 
Associate Administrator reports reductions and no adverse schedule 
impact in the required report.

                      Subtitle B-Space Operations

Sec. 211. Findings.

    This section contains findings regarding the importance of ISS and 
the need to acquire an operational domestic commercial crew 
transportation service by the year 2017.

Sec. 212. International Space Station (ISS).

    This section states that it is the policy of the United States that 
the ISS be utilized to the maximum extent practicable for the 
development of capabilities and technologies needed for the future of 
human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. This section requires the 
Administrator to take all necessary steps to support the operation and 
full utilization of the ISS and seek to minimize the operating costs of 
the ISS. It states that reliance on foreign carriers for crew and cargo 
is unacceptable and the Nation's human space flight program must 
acquire the capability to launch American astronauts on American 
rockets from American soil as soon as possible. This section reaffirms 
Congress' commitment to development of a commercially developed launch 
and delivery system to the ISS for crew missions. This section 
reaffirms that NASA shall make use of the United States' commercially 
provided ISS crew transfer and crew rescue services to the maximum 
extent practicable. Section 212 also reaffirms that NASA shall pursue 
means to maximize ISS logistics capabilities, reduce risks to ISS 
systems sustainability, and minimize United States operations costs 
relating to the ISS. This section amends the law to state that it is 
the policy of the United States to maintain an uninterrupted capability 
for human space flight and operations in low-Earth orbit and beyond as 
an essential instrument of national security and the capability to 
ensure continued United States participation and leadership in the 
exploration and utilization of space. This section requires the 
Administrator to submit a report to Congress on the feasibility of 
extending the operation of the ISS. This section also requires the 
Director of OSTP to develop and transmit to Congress a strategic plan 
for conducting research in the physical and life sciences and related 
technologies on the ISS through at least 2020. Finally, this section 
requires the Comptroller General to submit a report to Congress on the 
progress of the chosen not-for profit entity for management of the 
National Laboratory.

Sec. 213. Commercial Crew Report.

    This section requires the Administrator to provide a clear plan 
forward for funding the Commercial Crew program. This section requires 
the Administrator to transmit a report with five distinct options for 
the final stage of the Commercial Crew program: a strategy that assumes 
an appropriation of $500 million over three years; a strategy that 
assumes an appropriation of $600 million over three years; a strategy 
that assumes an appropriation of $700 million over three years; a 
strategy that assumes an appropriation of $800 million over three 
years; and a strategy that has yet to be considered previously, but 
that NASA believes could ensure the flight readiness date of 2017 for 
at least one provider or decrease the program cost. Each strategy shall 
include the contracting instruments NASA will employ to acquire the 
services in each phase of development or acquisition, the number of 
commercial providers NASA will include in the program, and the 
estimated flight readiness date in each scenario.

Sec. 214. Flight Readiness Demonstration.

    This section requires NASA to carry out its flight readiness 
demonstration by December 31, 2017. This section requires a quarterly 
report to Congress providing the status of the Commercial Crew 
development program and a Statement of Flight Readiness. NASA must 
notify Congress if a partner misses a milestone. The Administrator must 
provide, and begin implementation of, a new acquisition strategy with 
the goal of ensuring that one company will be prepared to provide crew 
transport services by December 31, 2017.

Sec. 215. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Advice.

    This section would reaffirm the importance of the Aerospace Safety 
Advisory Panel. This section would require an initial report on the 
extent to which the Administration has followed, intends to follow, or 
does not follow the advice of the 2012 Annual Report of the Aerospace 
Safety Advisory Panel. This section would amend the requirements of the 
annual report required by the Panel such that the Panel's annual report 
must: include an evaluation of NASA's management and culture related to 
safety and an evaluation of the extent to which NASA follows the 
Panel's advice. This section would require an annual report to Congress 
on the extent to which NASA has followed, intends to follow, or does 
not follow the Panel's advice.

Sec. 216. Space Communications.

    This section directs the Administrator to develop a plan for 
updating NASA's space communications architecture for both low-Earth 
orbit operations and deep space exploration so that it is capable of 
meeting NASA's needs over the next twenty years. The plan shall include 
life-cycle cost estimates, milestones, estimated performance 
capabilities, and five year funding profits. The plan shall also 
include (but is not limited to) a description of: projected Deep Space 
Network requirements for the next twenty years; upgrades needed to 
support Deep Space Network requirements; cost estimates for the 
maintenance of existing Deep Space Network capabilities; projected 
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System requirements for the next 
twenty years; cost and schedule estimates to maintain and+ upgrade the 
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System to meet projected 
requirements; and steps the Administration is taking to mitigate 
threats to electromagnetic spectrum use.
                           TITLE III-SCIENCE
                           Subtitle A-General

Sec. 301. Science Portfolio.

    This section amends the law to state that a balanced and adequately 
funded set of activities contributes to a robust and productive science 
program that serves as a catalyst for innovation and discovery 
(language previously did not contain ``discovery''). This section 
states that unless otherwise directed by Congress, NASA shall take into 
account the current decadal surveys from the National Academies when 
submitting the President's budget request to Congress.

Sec. 302. Assessment of Science Mission Extensions.

    This section amends the law to require that biennial reviews within 
each of the Science divisions take into account how extending the date 
of termination for missions that exceed their planned mission lifetime 
impacts the start of future missions. This section requires 
consultation by relevant agencies for missions with an operational 
component. It states that if a mission is extended by a consultation, 
the full costs of the extension shall be paid for by the operational 
agency. This section requires a report to Congress detailing the 
assessment required.

Sec. 303. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators.

    This section requires the Administrator to conduct and transmit to 
Congress an analysis of NASA requirements for radioisotope power system 
material needed to carry out high priority robotic missions in the 
solar system and other surface exploration activities beyond low-Earth 
orbit, as well as the risks to NASA missions in meeting those 
requirements due to a lack of adequate domestic production of 
radioisotope power system material.

Sec. 304. Congressional Declaration of Policy and Purpose.

    This section amends current law to add the search for life's 
origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe to the list 
of objectives of NASA's activities.

Sec. 305. Utilization of the International Space Station for Science 
                    Missions.

    This section requires the Administrator to utilize the ISS and 
commercial services for Science Mission Directorate missions in low-
Earth orbit wherever it is practical and cost effective to do so.
                        Subtitle B-Astrophysics

Sec. 311. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that the Administrator shall ensure a steady 
cadence of large, medium, and small missions when following the 
guidance provided by the decadal surveys.

Sec. 312. Extrasolar Planet Exploration Strategy.

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies to develop a strategy for the study and exploration 
of extrasolar planets that would provide a foundation for NASA 
roadmaps, strategic plans, and activities related to exoplanet research 
and exploration.

Sec. 313. James Webb Space Telescope.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that the James 
Webb Space Telescope program is significant to our understanding of the 
history of the universe and should continue to receive priority of 
funding in accordance with the recommendations of the most recent 
decadal survey.

Sec. 314. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.

    This section requires the Administrator to ensure that the 
development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope continue while 
the James Webb Space Telescope is completed.

Sec. 315. National Reconnaissance Office Telescope Donation

    Section 315 requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
NASA's plan for developing the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 
including a plan for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 2.4, 
which includes the donated 2.4-meter aperture National Reconnaissance 
Office telescope.
                      Subtitle C-Planetary Science

Sec. 321. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that when following the guidance provided by 
the decadal surveys, the Administrator shall ensure that NASA carries 
out a balanced set of programs in accordance with the priorities 
established in the most recent decadal survey, including: a Discovery-
class mission at least once every 24 months; a New Frontiers-class 
mission at least once every 60 months; and a Flagship-class mission at 
least once per decadal survey period, starting with a Europa mission 
with a goal of launching by 2021.

Sec. 322. Near Earth Objects.

    This section requires the Administrator to continue to discover, 
track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristic of near-
Earth objects equal to or greater than 140 meters in diameter in order 
to assess the threat of such near-Earth objects to Earth. It shall be 
the goal of the survey to achieve 90 percent completion of its near-
earth object catalogue by 2020. This section reaffirms the policy in 
title 51 relating to detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and 
characterizing asteroids and comets. It requires the Office of Science 
and Technology Policy to transmit to Congress an initial report that 
provides the following: recommendations and a proposed budget to carry 
out the Survey program; an analysis of possible options NASA could 
employ to divert an object on a likely collision course with Earth; and 
a description of the status of efforts to coordinate and cooperate with 
other countries to discover hazardous asteroids and comets, plan a 
mitigation strategy, and implement that strategy. This section further 
requires the Administrator to transmit an annual report that provides a 
summary of all activities and expenditures taken with regards to the 
Survey since the enactment of this act.

Sec. 323. Astrobiology Strategy.

    This section would require the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies to develop a science strategy for astrobiology to 
guide NASA roadmaps, strategic plans and other activities.

Sec. 324. Public-Private Partnerships.

    This section requires a report to Congress describing how NASA can 
expand collaborative public-private partnerships to study life's 
origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe.
                        Subtitle D-Heliophysics

Sec. 331. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that the Administrator shall ensure a steady 
cadence of large, medium, and small heliophysics missions when 
following the guidance provided by the decadal surveys.

Sec. 332. Review of Space Weather.

    This section requires the Director of OSTP to contract with the 
National Academies to provide a comprehensive study that reviews 
planned space weather monitoring requirements and capabilities to 
inform future space weather monitoring.

Sec. 333. Deep Space Climate Observatory

    This section prohibit the Administrator from integrating or funding 
the development of any sensor on the Deep Space Climate Observatory not 
aligned with the spacecraft's original space weather mission 
requirements. This section prohibits NASA from developing or 
implementing algorithms or any other application or product that are 
not aligned with the Deep Space Climate Observatory mission's intended 
space weather requirements, or that enables the ``Earth at noon'' 
images from the spacecraft.
                        Subtitle E-Earth Science

Sec. 341. Goal.

    This section states that the Administrator shall continue to 
develop first of a kind instruments that can be transitioned to other 
agencies for operations. This section requires the Administrator to 
conduct research and development on new sensors and instruments that 
will mitigate the risks associated with the development of operational 
systems and long term data continuity requirements by other agencies. 
This section also adds language stating that NASA is not responsible 
for long term data continuity or the development of operational 
systems, including satellite, sensor, or instrument development, 
acquisition, and operations, as well as product development and data 
analysis, unless such work is conducted on a reimbursable basis that 
accounts for the full cost of the work. It further requires that NASA 
shall use the existing Joint Agency Satellite Division structure to 
manage this process on a fully reimbursable basis.

Sec. 342. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that the Administrator shall ensure a steady 
cadence of large, medium, and small Earth Science missions when 
following the guidance provided by the decadal surveys.

Sec. 343. Research to Operations.

    This section prevents the transfer of operational responsibility of 
science and space weather mission or sensors to NASA without 
authorization by Congress.

Sec. 344. Interagency Coordination.

    This section amends the law to require coordination with other 
Federal agencies in addition to NOAA.

Sec. 345. Joint Polar Satellite System Climate Sensors.

    This section states that NASA shall not be responsible for the 
development of Joint Polar Satellite System climate sensors, and that 
any effort by NASA related to this work will be conducted on a fully-
reimbursable basis, and executed by NASA's Joint Agency Satellite 
Division.

Sec. 346. Land Imaging.

    This section requires the Director of OSTP to take steps to ensure 
the continuous collection of space-based medium-resolution observations 
of the Earth's land cover with the data available to facilitate the 
widest possible use. This section prevents the Administrator from 
initiating the definition of land imaging capabilities unless this work 
is conducted on a fully-reimbursable basis, and executed by NASA's 
Joint Agency Satellite Division.

Sec. 347. Sources of Earth Science Data.

    This section directs the Administrator to acquire space-based and 
airborne Earth remote sensing data, services, distribution, and 
applications from a commercial provider. It requires that acquisition 
be carried out in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. This 
section also requires a report to Congress on NASA's efforts to utilize 
this authority.
                          TITLE IV-AERONAUTICS

Sec. 401. Sense of Congress.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that a robust 
aeronautics research portfolio will help maintain the United States' 
status as a leader in aviation. This section would state that 
aeronautics research is essential to NASA's mission and that the 
Administrator should coordinate with other stakeholders to minimize 
duplication and leverage resources.

Sec. 402. Unmanned Aerial Systems Research and Development.

    This section requires the Administrator to direct research and 
technological development to facilitate the safe integration of 
unmanned aerial systems into the National Airspace System. This section 
requires the Administrator to update and transmit to Congress a roadmap 
for unmanned aerial systems research and development. This section 
requires that operational flight data from specified cooperative 
agreements be made available to NASA and the FAA for the development of 
regulatory standards.

Sec. 403. Research Program On Composite Materials Used In Aeronautics.

    This section states that the Administrator, in overseeing NASA's 
Integrated Systems Research Program's work on composite materials, 
shall consult with relevant Federal agencies and partners in industry 
to accelerate safe development and certification processes for new 
composite materials and design methods while maintaining rigorous 
inspection of new composite materials. This section requires the 
Administrator to transmit to Congress a report detailing the work of 
NASA on new composite materials and the coordination efforts between 
agencies.

Sec. 404. Hypersonic Research.

    This section requires the Administrator to develop and transmit to 
Congress a roadmap for hypersonic aircraft research.

Sec. 405. Supersonic Research.

    This section requires the Administrator to develop and transmit to 
Congress a roadmap for supersonic aeronautics research and development 
with the goal of developing and demonstrating, in a relevant 
environment, airframe and propulsion technologies to minimize the 
environmental impact of supersonic overland flight in an efficient and 
economical manner.

Sec. 406 - Research On NextGen Airspace Management Concepts And Tools.

    This section requires the Administrator, in consultation with other 
Federal agencies, to review NASA's research and development activities 
in support of NextGen and make any necessary adjustments to NASA's 
research and development activities in support of NextGen. This section 
also requires the Administrator to report to Congress regarding the 
progress of NASA's research and development activities in support of 
the NextGen airspace management modernization initiative, including 
details of consultation with the FAA and any adjustments made to 
research activities.

Sec. 407. Rotorcraft Research.

    This section requires the Administrator to prepare and transmit to 
Congress a plan for research relating to rotorcraft and other runway-
independent air vehicles. The plan must include specific goals for the 
research, a timeline for implementation, metrics for success, and 
guidelines for collaboration and coordination with industry and other 
Federal agencies.
                        TITLE V-SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 501. Space Technology Program.

    This section creates a Space Technology Program within the office 
of the Administrator to pursue the development of technologies that 
enable exploration of the solar system or advanced space science 
through various elements of NASA. This section also states that the 
Administrator shall organize and manage NASA's Small Business 
Innovation Research program and Small Business Technology Transfer 
program within the Space Technology Program. Finally, this section 
requires the Administrator to certify that no project within the Space 
Technology Program is also under development in any established mission 
directorate.

Sec. 502. Utilization of the International Space Station for Technology 
                    Demonstrations.

    This section requires the Administrator to utilize the ISS and 
commercial services for Space Technology Demonstration missions in low-
Earth orbit wherever it is practical and cost effective to do so.
                   TITLE VI V-EDUCATION AND OUTREACH

Sec. 601. Education.

    This section states that NASA must continue its education and 
outreach efforts to: increase student interest and participation in 
STEM education; improve public literacy in STEM; employ proven 
strategies for improving student learning and teaching; provide 
curriculum support materials; and create and support opportunities for 
professional development for STEM teachers. It requires NASA to 
continue its STEM education and outreach activities within the Missions 
Directorates. This section requires that funds for education and public 
outreach be maintained in the Directorates, and prohibit their 
consolidations into the Education Directorate. This section prohibits 
NASA from implementing any proposed STEM education and outreach related 
changes proposed in the budget for FY 2014. This section requires the 
Administrator to continue to operate the National Space Grant College 
and Fellowship program through a national network consisting of a 
State-based consortium in each state. This section reaffirms Congress' 
commitment to informal science education and science centers and 
planetariums as set forth in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005.

Sec. 602. Independent Review of the National Space Grant College and 
                    Fellowship Program.

    This section contains a sense of Congress stating the importance of 
the Space Grant Program. This section would require a review of the 
Space Grant Program by the National Academies. This section would 
expand the Space Grant Program to support outreach to primary and 
secondary schools to help support STEM engagement and learning at the 
K-12 level and to encourage K-12 students to pursue postsecondary 
degrees in fields related to space. This section would also permit a 
space grant regional consortium to include one or more two-year 
institutions of higher education.
                       TITLE VI-Other Provisions

Sec. 701. Asteroid Retrieval Mission.

    This section prohibits the Administrator from funding the 
development of any asteroid retrieval mission to send a robotic 
spacecraft to a near-Earth asteroid for rendezvous, retrieval, and 
redirection of that asteroid to lunar orbit for exploration by 
astronauts. This section prohibits the Administrator from pursuing a 
program to search for asteroids of 20 meters or less in diameter until 
the survey program described in section 322 is at least 90 percent 
complete. This section also requires the Administrator to report to 
Congress on the proposed Asteroid Retrieval Mission including a 
detailed budget profile, a detailed technical plan, a description of 
the technologies and capabilities anticipated to be gained that will 
enable future missions to Mars that could not be gained by lunar 
missions, a description of the technologies and capabilities 
anticipated to be gained from the proposed mission that will enable 
future planetary defense missions, and a review by the Small Bodies 
Assessment Group and the NASA Advisory Council.

Sec. 702 . Termination Liability.

    This section directs that funds set aside for contract termination 
liability be utilized for development work.

Sec. 703. Baseline and Cost Controls.

    This section amends requirements associated with Baseline and Cost 
Controls to make the reporting more timely.

Sec. 704. Project and Program Reserves.

    This section requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
NASA's criteria for establishing the amount of reserves at the project 
and program levels and how such criteria complement NASA's policy of 
budgeting at a 70 percent confidence level.

Sec. 705. Independent Reviews.

    This section requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
NASA's procedure for independent reviews of projects and programs at 
lifecycle milestones and how NASA ensures the independence of the 
individuals conducting those reviews.11

Sec. 706. Space Act Agreements.

    This section would set the following conditions for Space Act 
Agreements:
    
  Funds provided by the government under a funded Space Act 
Agreement should not exceed the total amount provided by other parties 
to the agreement or other transaction;
    
  A Space Act Agreement may be used only when the use of a 
standard contract, grant, or cooperative agreement is not feasible or 
appropriate;
    
  Space Act Agreements must be available for public notice 
and comment prior to agreement;
    
  The Administrator shall publically disclose on NASA's 
website and make available in a searchable format all Space Act 
Agreements with appropriate redactions for proprietary information in a 
timely manner;
    
  The Administrator shall not enter into any funded Space 
Act Agreements in excess of $50 million unless such an agreement has 
been specifically authorized by law;
    
  The Administrator must submit to Congress an annual 
report on the use of Space Act Agreement authority by NASA during the 
previous fiscal year. The report must also include a list of 
anticipated agreements for the upcoming fiscal year.

Sec. 707. Human Spaceflight Accident Investigations.

    This section adds vehicles being used by the Federal Government 
pursuant to a contract or Space Act Agreement to the list of vehicles 
covered by the investigative provision.

Sec. 708. Commercial Technology Transfer Program.

    This section adds ``protecting national security'' to the 
considerations used in evaluating technology transfer.

Sec. 709. Orbital Debris

    This section requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
efforts to coordinate with countries within the Inter-Agency Space 
Debris Coordination Committee to mitigate the effects of orbital debris 
as required by law. This section requires the Director of OSTP to 
report to Congress on the status of the orbital debris mitigation 
strategy required by law, as well as the status of any orbital debris 
mitigation concepts and technological operations that have been 
developed or funded by any Federal agency in the past five years or 
that otherwise show promise to mitigate orbital debris.

Sec. 710. NASA Advisory Council

    This section establishes the NASA Advisory Council and set 
guidelines for appointing its members. This section also establishes 
criteria for membership on the Council, set the terms of such 
membership, set requirements for meetings of the Council, and describes 
its internal leadership. This section requires the Administrator to 
provide the Council with staff. This section states that the functions 
of the Council are as follows: to review the Administration's budget 
proposal and provide advice to the President, to advise the Congress on 
the budget, and to report their findings, advice, and recommendations 
to the President and Congress on matters of policy related to space 
exploration and aeronautics.

Sec. 711. Cost Estimation.

    This section requires a report to Congress on the implementation of 
more effective cost estimation practices.

Sec. 712. Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts.

    This section would require NASA to revise the NASA Supplement for 
the Federal Acquisition Regulation to address the detection and 
avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. The revised regulations must 
provide that contractors who supply electronic parts or products 
including electronic parts are responsible for detecting and avoiding 
the use or inclusion of counterfeit electronic parts or suspect 
counterfeit parts in such products, and for any corrective actions that 
may be required to remedy the use of such parts. The costs of 
counterfeit electronic parts and the cost of corrective action are not 
allowable costs under Agency contracts except under specified 
exemptions. This section sets requirements for acquisition of 
electronic parts by NASA contractors and subcontractors to ensure 
authenticity. This section requires that any contractor or 
subcontractor who becomes aware of a possible counterfeit part notify 
NASA within 30 calendar days.

Sec. 713. Prohibition on Use of Funds for Contractors that Have 
                    Committed Fraud or Other Crimes.

    This section prohibits any funds authorized or appropriated for 
NASA from being used to enter into a contract with an offeror or any of 
its principals if the offeror or any of its principals has been 
convicted of: fraud related to Federal contracts; violation Federal or 
State antitrust statutes; or commission of embezzlement, theft, 
forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, making false 
statements, tax evasion, violating Federal tax laws, or receiving 
stolen property. It also forbids contracts with offerors if the offeror 
or principal is presently indicted for any of those crimes, or has been 
notified of delinquent Federal taxes in an amount that exceeds $3,000 
for which the liability remains unsatisfied.
                               Amendments

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                            Amendment Roster

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                XXII. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE

                          MARKUP ON H.R. 4412,
                   THE NASA AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014

                              ----------                              


                        TUESDAY, APRIL 29, 2014

                  House of Representatives,
       Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
                                           Washington, D.C.


    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 1:31 p.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Lamar Smith 
[Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Smith. The Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology will come to order. Without objection, the Chair is 
authorized to declare recesses of the Committee at any time. 
Pursuant to Committee Rule 2(f) and House Rule XI(2)(h)(4), 
roll call votes may be postponed.
    Today we meet to consider H.R. 4412, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014. 
I will recognize myself, then the Ranking Member, for opening 
statements.
    Let me thank the Members who are here, and we expect more 
momentarily, to be here for today's markup of H.R. 4412, the 
NASA Authorization Act of 2014.
    There is a reason why the National Air and Space Museum is 
the most visited museum in America. Space exploration captures 
the imagination of people around the world and encourages 
future generations to dream big, work hard and shoot for the 
stars.
    NASA has accomplished some of the most awe-inspiring and 
technologically advanced space initiatives in the history of 
humankind. Throughout its history, our space program has set 
goals that required vision and offered challenges that have led 
to innovation and the development of new technologies. New 
technologies give us new discoveries about the universe and 
hope that we can find solutions to problems here on Earth.
    Space exploration is an investment in our nation's future, 
often the distant future, and many technologies that Americans 
use on a daily basis were born out of NASA research. These 
include heart rate monitors, athletic shoes, air and water 
purifiers, cordless tools, and laptop computers. They improve 
Americans' quality of life and save lives.
    Today's bill ensures that NASA will continue to innovate 
and inspire. The scientists, engineers and astronauts who find 
creative and new solutions to the challenges of exploring the 
universe serve as role models for our students. They motivate 
young people to study science, math, engineering and computer 
science. Even if not all of these students become astronauts, 
the skills and knowledge they learn can be applied to make 
technological breakthroughs in other fields. These 
accomplishments stimulate our economy and keep the United 
States globally competitive.
    There is strong, bipartisan support for NASA's unique role, 
and the Manager's Amendment offered today reflects this. Mr. 
Palazzo and Ms. Edwards deserve much credit for producing a 
bipartisan bill.
    The Manager's amendment increases the use of the 
International Space Station for science research, encourages 
commercial use of space, protects us from the effects of solar 
flares, helps remove orbital debris, and supports the 
development of a new space telescope that will detect Earth-
sized planets. The American people largely support space 
exploration and NASA. This support is reflected in Congress as 
well on both sides of the Capitol and on both sides of the 
aisle.
    Lastly, we are at this point thanks to the persistence over 
many days of our very able staff members. On the Republican 
side they include Tom Hammond, Allison Rose-Sonnesyn, Jared 
Stout, and Gabriella Ra'anan, and on the Democratic side, Pam 
Whitney and Allen Li. This was obviously a team effort and is 
very much appreciated by Members of the Committee.
    I encourage Members to vote for the Manager's amendment 
when we get to it and to support the final bill, and then it is 
on to the House Floor.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Smith follows:]

             Prepared Statement of Chairman Lamar S. Smith

    Good morning. Thank you all for being here for today's mark-up of 
H.R. 4412, the NASA Authorization Act of 2014.
    There is a reason why the National Air and Space Museum is the most 
visited museum in America. Space exploration captures the imagination 
of people around the world and encourages future generations to dream 
big, work hard and shoot for the stars.
    NASA has accomplished some of the most awe-inspiring and 
technologically advanced space initiatives in the history of humankind.
    Throughout its history, our space program has set goals that 
required vision and offered challenges that have led to innovation and 
the development of new technologies.New technologies give us new 
discoveries about the universe and hope that we can find solutions to 
problems here on Earth.
    Space exploration is an investment in our nation's future-often the 
distant future. And many technologies that Americans use on a daily 
basis were born out of NASA research. These include heart rate 
monitors, athletic shoes, air and water purifiers, cordless tools, and 
laptop computers. They improve Americans' quality of life and save 
lives. Today's bill ensures that NASA will continue to innovate and 
inspire.
    The scientists, engineers and astronauts who find creative and new 
solutions to the challenges of exploring the universe serve as role 
models for our students. They motivate young people to study science, 
math, engineering and computer science.
    Even if not all of these students become astronauts, the skills and 
knowledge they learn can be applied to make technological breakthroughs 
in other fields. These accomplishments stimulate our economy and keep 
the United States globally competitive.
    There is strong, bipartisan support for NASA's unique role, and the 
Manager's amendment offered today reflects this. Mr. Palazzo and Ms. 
Edwards deserve much credit for producing a bipartisan bill.
    The Manager's amendment increases the use of the International 
Space Station for science research, encourages commercial use of space, 
protects us from the effects of solar flares, helps remove orbital 
debris, and supports the development of a new space telescope that will 
detect Earth-sized planets.
    The American people largely support space exploration and NASA. 
This support is reflected in Congress as well--on both sides of the 
Capitol and on both sides of the aisle.
    Lastly, we are at this point thanks to the persistence over many 
days of very able staff members. On the Republican side they include 
Tom Hammond, Allison Rose-Sonnesyn, Jared Stout, and Gabriella Ra'anan. 
And on the Democrats side, Pam Whitney and Allen Li.
    This was obviously a team effort and is very much appreciated by 
Members of this Committee.
    I encourage Members to vote for the Manager's amendment and to 
support the final bill. And then it's on to the House floor.

    Chairman Smith. That concludes my opening statement, and I 
will recognize the ranking member, Ms. Johnson, the gentlewoman 
from Texas, for hers.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I will try 
to be relatively brief in my opening remarks so that we can 
quickly move to the consideration of the Manager's Amendment, 
at which time I will have a few additional comments.
    I have made no secret of the fact that I consider NASA to 
be a key element of our Nation's research and development 
enterprise. NASA drives technological innovation and scientific 
advancement. It is also a very positive symbol throughout the 
world of American ingenuity and our can-do spirit. Finally, 
NASA has long been a source of inspiration to our young people, 
firing them up to pursue the STEM disciplines that will be 
critical to our future competitiveness.
    That is why I consider reauthorizing NASA to be one of our 
Committee's most significant legislative responsibilities, and 
that is why I am pleased that after some initial missteps, this 
Committee is addressing that responsibility with a good 
bipartisan bill, something that has long been a hallmark of 
this Committee.
    The bill before us with its accompanying Manager's 
Amendment has many good features, and I will not attempt to 
discuss all of them. Instead I would just note several key 
elements of the bill and the Manager's Amendment.
    First, it makes clear that NASA is and should remain a 
multi-mission agency with a balanced portfolio of programs in 
space and Earth science, aeronautics, and human spaceflight and 
exploration. It provides a challenging goal for the Nation's 
human exploration program and supports the development of the 
SLS and Orion vehicles needed to carry out that program.
    H.R. 4412 and its Manager's amendment contain provisions 
that will help promote productive Earth and space science, 
fundamental space life and physical sciences, International 
Space Station research, aeronautics research, and space 
technology development. There are also provisions to help 
strengthen NASA's education and public outreach activities. 
Finally, there are a number of ``good government'' provisions 
to ensure that the taxpayer dollars invested in NASA are used 
effectively.
    Mr. Chairman, this bill and the Manager's Amendment are by 
no means perfect. For example, I remain disappointed that it 
was not possible to provide funding guidance to NASA for Fiscal 
Year 2015 and beyond, because I think that as authorizers we 
need to provide the funding required to carry out the important 
tasks we have given the agency. However, I do believe that the 
bill as amended by the Manager's Amendment is a good bill, and 
it is worth support.
    Before I close, I would like to express my appreciation to 
Ms. Edwards and our staff for working with me to ensure that we 
would have a good bill coming out of today's markup, and I 
would like to thank you, Chairman Smith, and Space Subcommittee 
Chairman Palazzo and their staff for their willingness to work 
cooperatively with us so that we could attain the positive 
outcome that I anticipate in today's markup.
    And with that, I urge support for H.R. 4412 as amended by 
the Manager's amendment, and I yield back the balance of my 
time.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]

       Prepared Statement of Ranking Member Eddie Bernice Johnson

    Thank you Mr. Chairman. I will be relatively brief in my opening 
remarks so that we can move quickly to consideration of the Manager's 
Amendment, at which time I will have a few additional comments.
    I have made no secret of the fact that I consider NASA to be a key 
element of our nation's research and development enterprise. NASA 
drives technological innovation and scientific advancement.
    It is also a very positive symbol throughout the world of American 
ingenuity and our ``can do'' spirit. Finally, NASA has long been a 
source of inspiration to our young people, firing them up to pursue the 
STEM disciplines that will be critical to our future competitiveness.
    That is why I consider reauthorizing NASA to be one of our 
Committee's most significant legislative responsibilities. And that is 
why I am pleased that after some initial missteps, this Committee is 
addressing that responsibility with a good bipartisan bill--something 
that has long been a hallmark of this Committee.
    The bill before us with its accompanying Manager's Amendment has 
many good features. I will not attempt to discuss all of them now. 
Instead I would just note several key elements of the bill and 
Manager's amendment. First, it makes clear that NASA is and should 
remain a multi-mission agency, with a balanced portfolio of programs in 
space and Earth science, aeronautics, and human space flight and 
exploration. It provides a challenging goal for the nation's human 
exploration program and supports the development of the SLS and Orion 
vehicles needed to carry out that program.
    H.R. 4412 and its Manager's amendment contain provisions that will 
help promote productive Earth and space science, fundamental space life 
and physical sciences, International Space Station research, 
aeronautics research, and space technology development. There are also 
provisions to help strengthen NASA's education and public outreach 
activities.
    Finally, there are a number of ``good government'' provisions to 
ensure that the taxpayer dollars invested in NASA are used effectively.
    Mr. Chairman, this bill and Manager's Amendment are by no means 
perfect. For example, I remain disappointed that it was not possible to 
provide funding guidance to NASA for Fiscal Year 2015 and beyond, 
because I think that as authorizers we need to provide the funding 
required to carry out the important tasks we have given the agency. 
However, I do believe that the bill as amended by the Manager's 
Amendment is a good bill, and it is one I can support.
    Before I close, I would like to express my appreciation to Ms. 
Edwards and our staff for working with me to ensure that we would have 
a good bill coming out of today's markup. And I would like to thank 
Chairman Smith and Space Subcommittee Chairman Palazzo and their staff 
for their willingness to work cooperatively with us so that we could 
attain the positive outcome I anticipate at today's markup.
    With that, I urge support for H.R. 4412 as amended by the Manager's 
amendment, and I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Johnson, and let me thank 
you for your comments as well as for your essential role in 
getting us to the point we are now with a bipartisan NASA 
bill.H.R. 4412
    Chairman Smith. Pursuant to notice, I now call up H.R. 
4412, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2014, which was introduced by 
Representative Palazzo and amended by the Subcommittee on 
Space, and the clerk will report the bill.
    The Clerk. H.R. 4412, as amended by the Subcommittee on 
Space on April 9----
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the bill will be 
considered as read.
    [H.R. 4412 appears in Appendix I]
    Chairman Smith. The gentleman from Mississippi, the 
Chairman of the Space Subcommittee, is recognized for his 
statement.
    Mr. Palazzo. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    The bill before us today is the result of weeks of 
negotiations between the minority and majority. Certainly, this 
legislation is not perfect but it is a good-faith effort on 
both sides to commit to a bipartisan deal.
    As was said at the Subcommittee markup three weeks ago, the 
Ranking Member and I anticipated there would be additional 
changes to the bill moving forward. Over these last few weeks, 
we have continued to work with our friends on the other side of 
the aisle to come to an agreement on several outstanding items. 
The Manager's Amendment being offered today encompasses nearly 
all of those items.
    As the bill is written, it sets NASA on a path to landing 
humans on Mars with the creation of a human exploration 
roadmap. This roadmap is critical to the future of human 
exploration for the United States and ensures there is a plan 
and structure in place that will span several Administrations 
and elections. It is a fiscally responsible and technically 
feasible blueprint. Both the Space Launch System and Orion crew 
capsule are reaffirmed in the bill, consistent with the NASA 
Authorization Act of 2010, which laid out very clear guidelines 
and direction for the development of these systems.
    This bill authorizes ample funding for the Commercial Crew 
program to ensure safe and on-time development of domestic 
access to the International Space Station. There are also 
oversight provisions to ensure transparency in the contracts 
and processes used to develop these systems.
    This agreement represents an understanding that both our 
Commercial Crew partners and those developing SLS and Orion 
have a crucial role to play in ending our reliance on Russian 
rockets.
    The science title of the bill emphasizes the importance of 
completing and launching the James Webb Space Telescope in 
2018, which will build on the work of its Hubble predecessor 
while expanding our view into the universe.
    The bill reaffirms Congress's commitment to the first A in 
NASA, the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The agency 
has a proud history of infusing critical, fundamental, new 
knowledge and technologies into the aerospace sector, and H.R. 
4412 directs NASA to create research and development roadmaps 
for the agency's work on unmanned aerial systems, hypersonics, 
supersonics and rotocraft.
    In an ongoing effort to keep NASA's limited budgets focused 
to support the agency's primary missions, the bill directs that 
any transfer of additional responsibilities to NASA should be 
accompanied by additional resources. NASA is the only agency 
tasked with space exploration, and its budgets must reflect 
space exploration as a priority, yet the President's budget 
request again transfers responsibility for developing 
instruments for climate research from NOAA to NASA without 
providing additional resources to NASA to pay for such 
responsibilities.
    Finally, this Committee has made multiple requests for more 
information on a proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission, or ARM. 
These are reasonable requests, especially in light of the 
considerable concerns that have been expressed in the 
scientific community and by NASA's own advisory groups. To 
date, NASA has failed to provide a budget profile, program 
office or schedule. This bill directs NASA to provide these key 
details about this mission.
    I want to again thank Ms. Edwards, her staff, and of 
course, the majority and minority Committee staff for their 
tireless efforts to pull this bill together. I am proud that at 
the end of the day, we are able to put our names on a 
bipartisan bill.
    I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Palazzo.
    The gentlewoman from Maryland, Ms. Edwards, the Ranking 
Member of the Space Subcommittee, is recognized for her 
statement.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, and I am 
really pleased to be able to join my colleague, Mr. Palazzo, in 
introducing our Manager's Amendment today. It was jointly 
agreed to by Mr. Palazzo, Chairman Smith and Ranking Member 
Johnson and myself along with our Committee. It is an amendment 
that enhances substantially the Subcommittee-passed bill.
    Mr. Chairman, as I indicated previously, due to time 
constraints, the Subcommittee-passed bill didn't reflect all of 
the good work that both sides have been doing to reach common 
ground. In fact, we knew we had work to do. Subsequent to the 
Subcommittee markup, our staffs have continued to work 
diligently on a number of areas, and today's markup is proof of 
that hard work. In fact, it is proof of teamwork.
    Provisions in the Manager's Amendment include direction to 
NASA that it continue carrying out a balanced Earth Science 
program that includes Earth science research, Earth systematic 
missions, competitive venture-class missions, other missions 
and data analyses, mission operations, technology development 
and applied sciences consistent with the recommendations and 
priorities established in the National Academies' Earth Science 
Decadal Survey, having NASA continue its education and outreach 
efforts to increase student interest and participation in STEM 
education, improve public literacy in STEM, provide curriculum 
support materials and create support opportunities for 
professional development for STEM teachers. NASA is among the 
best in STEM education and outreach, and the provisions of the 
Manager's Amendment underscore that point.
    The National Academies are engaged to provide a 
comprehensive study that reviews current and planned ground-
based and space-based space weather monitoring requirements and 
capabilities, identifies gaps and identifies options for a 
robust and resilient capability. A NASA plan on its potential 
use of operational commercial reusable suborbital flight 
vehicles for carrying out scientific and engineering 
investigations and educational activities, and the development 
of a strategic plan for carrying out competitive, peer-
reviewed, fundamental space life science and physical sciences 
and related technology research, among other activities, again, 
consistent with the priorities in the National Academies' 
Decadal Survey and a report describing NASA's activities, tools 
and techniques associated with the goal of servicing satellites 
using robotic spacecraft.
    NASA is soliciting and reviewing in collaboration with 
other relevant Federal agencies, concepts and technological 
options for removing orbital debris from low-Earth orbit.
    As you can see, the areas addressed in the Manager's 
Amendment are far-reaching and are reflective of hard work by 
staff on both sides of the aisle. Today we should be proud to 
have reached common ground for the full Committee markup. We 
are light years from where we began in 2013.
    Mr. Chairman, I am really appreciative of the spirit of 
cooperation and can-do attitude that Members and staff on both 
sides have exhibited throughout the drafting process, often 
giving up our own individual pet projects or ideas for the 
whole, and I am grateful to you, to Ranking Member Johnson and 
Chairman Palazzo for your unwavering commitment to bring this 
bipartisan legislation to a close. I echo the chairman's thanks 
to our respective staff on the majority and the minority--Chris 
Shank, Tom Hammond, Jared Stout, Allison Rose-Sonnesyn and 
Gabriella Ra'anan--and to the personal staff of Mr. Palazzo--
Megan Mitchell--and from our team on the minority--Dick 
Oherman, Pam Whitney, Allen Li--and my personal staff, Anne 
Nelson. And let me say also to all of our Members, I think each 
one of us on both sides of the aisle will have something to 
hang our hats on in support of this NASA authorization, and I 
thank you for the opportunity to work on it.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Edwards.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Edwards follows:]

   Prepared Statement of Subcommittee on Space Ranking Member Donna 
                                Edwards

    Mr. Chairman, it has been said that a Nation's greatness is 
embodied in its space program.
    In these uncertain times, we are fortunate to have the talented and 
dedicated men and women who make up the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration as well as its partners in private industry and 
researchers in academia.
    Despite challenging funding levels over the past few years, they 
have continued to persevere.
    Even in these challenging times, NASA's accomplishments in human 
spaceflight, space science, aeronautics research, and space technology 
are the envy of other nations and a source of inspiration for all our 
citizens.
    Congress can help NASA to maintain its position of preeminence.
    Indeed, Congress has a critical role in providing not only the 
resources needed to meet the expectations of a multi-mission agency, 
but also in establishing a clear vision for NASA.
    We took an important first step in our Subcommittee markup three 
weeks ago.
    I am proud of the Subcommittee-passed 2014 Authorization Act, 
particularly the provision requiring NASA to develop a Human 
Exploration Roadmap, a Roadmap that will enable the agency to define 
the specific capabilities and technologies needed to extend human 
presence to the surface of Mars, and the sets and sequences of missions 
required to demonstrate such capabilities and technologies.
    Mr. Chairman, I was pleased that we achieved that markup milestone 
in a bipartisan manner with legislation covering a sizeable amount of 
NASA's roles and responsibilities. Moreover, I indicated that I was 
fully aware that we still had more work to do in a number of important 
areas.
    I look forward to continuing our work on this authorization in a 
bipartisan fashion at today's Full Committee markup.

    If there is no further discussion on the bill, we will now 
go to amendments on the bill, and the bill is open for that 
purpose. The first amendment on the roster is an amendment 
offered by Ms. Edwards and Mr. Palazzo, and the clerk will 
report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 4412 offered by Ms. Edwards of 
Maryland and Mr. Palazzo of Mississippi, amendment number 002. 
Page 14, line 2, strike ``is to enable''----
    [The amendment of Ms. Edwards and Mr. Palazzo appears in 
Appendix I]
    Chairman Smith. Without objection, the amendment will be 
considered as read, and the gentlewoman from Maryland, Ms. 
Edwards, is recognized first to explain the amendment.
    Ms. Edwards. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    As you could hear from my statement, there are many things 
that we can point to in the amendment that really clear up some 
of the issues that we were working on from the Subcommittee 
markup. We were able to incorporate, you can see in the 
Manager's Amendment, some ideas that actually had come and been 
approved earlier by both Republican Members and Democrats, and 
we incorporated those into the Manager's Amendment, and so with 
that, I would conclude my statement because I think it is time 
to move forward with the markup.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Ms. Edwards.
    The gentleman from Mississippi, Mr. Palazzo.
    Mr. Palazzo. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    I want to echo the words of Ms. Edwards, the Ranking Member 
of the Space Subcommittee. This truly is a bipartisan 
agreement. We can all be proud of the great work of the 
Subcommittee and full Committee has done to be inclusive of 
Members on both sides of the aisle.
    The Manager's Amendment before us today includes those 
outstanding items that were unresolved prior to the 
Subcommittee markup three weeks ago. Since that time, Chairman 
Smith and I have been working with the Ranking Members to come 
to an agreement on what additional provisions could be compiled 
into the Manager's Amendment.
    In compiling this amendment, we were very careful to ensure 
that the spirit of the bipartisan Subcommittee bill was not 
compromised. The various provisions contained in the Manager's 
Amendment were meticulously discussed before they were included 
in our agreement.
    The Manager's Amendment continues to build on the 
Subcommittee's work to provide for a human exploration roadmap. 
NASA has put forth several items proposed as a roadmap. In 
fact, I believe NASA is holding an open forum today describing 
NASA's human exploration path to Mars.
    Unfortunately, many questions remain unanswered regarding 
NASA's way forward for deep space exploration. As of today, 
NASA has not provided the specific set of capabilities and 
technologies required to support a manned mission to Mars nor 
have they identified the mission sets necessary to demonstrate 
the proficiency of these capabilities. Congress is still 
waiting to hear how NASA would stage intermediate destinations, 
Mars mission risk areas and potential risk mitigation 
approaches.
    Additionally, NASA has not described the process for 
involving the fully integrated Orion crew capsule with the 
Space Launch System. And finally, there is currently no 
framework for international cooperation or the potential risks 
posed by relying on international partners for items on the 
critical path of development. In short, for all of NASA's 
rhetoric about a roadmap, to date, we have seen very little 
substance to back it up.
    This amendment includes important language on the 
development of next-generation liquid rocket engines. This 
provision will ensure that any next-generation liquid rocket 
engine developed for national security purposes takes into 
consideration the objectives of the Civil Space program as much 
as possible.
    The United States already has a diverse portfolio of 
engines that reduce risk and ensure access to space. This 
language will provide for greater coordination on any new 
developments so that it will meet both national security and 
civil space needs.
    While the base bill includes a section on relief from new 
onerous termination liability requirements, this amendment 
includes a provision to ensure timely notification to Congress 
should the Administration plan to cancel a program covered by 
the bill. The relief from termination liability costs will 
allow hundreds of millions of dollars to be freed up from 
bureaucracy and applied directly to program development work.
    Orbital debris continues to pose serious risks to the 
operational space capabilities of the United States. In the 
NASA Authorization Act of 2010, Congress directed the 
Administration to coordinate with countries within the 
interagency Space Debris Coordination Committee to mitigate the 
effects and growth of orbital debris. However, the status of 
this coordination is unknown. The Manager's Amendment requires 
NASA to produce a report on these coordination efforts and a 
strategy to mitigate orbital debris.
    The road to this agreement was not easy, and we still have 
work to do before a final product is done with the Senate. We 
are well on our way.
    There are most certainly things from both sides that did 
not make it into this amendment. I know that I would have 
preferred a little bit more direction in the exploration 
sections and more oversight of the progress of SLS Orion 
development to make sure the Administration is on track.
    And with that, I would like to once again, for the third 
time, thank Chairman Smith, Ms. Edwards and Ms. Johnson for 
their efforts in pulling together this agreement as well as all 
of our staff who labored over this bill, Megan Mitchell, who 
has faithfully advised me throughout the process, Rebecca 
Rounds, legal extern on space, Subcommittee staff Tom Hammond, 
Jared Stout, Allison Rose-Sonnesyn, Anne Nelson on Ms. Edwards' 
staff, and minority staffers Pam Whitney and Allen Li.
    I look forward to continuing our work to pass this bill on 
the House Floor, and I am proud that we are able to put our 
names on a bipartisan bill for the sake of our Nation's space 
program, national pride and our national security.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I yield back.
    Chairman Smith. Thank you, Mr. Palazzo.
    Let me make an offer to the Members, and it is this. Both 
the Ranking Member and I are willing to put into the record our 
statements on the Manager's Amendment. I know there are two 
Members, Ms. Esty, Mr. Kennedy, and perhaps others who have 
amendments that they were going to perhaps offer and withdraw. 
Let me say that the prospects of those being included on the 
House Floor are exceedingly great if they don't offer those 
amendments now, and I happen to agree with the substance of 
both, by the way, and I think they are good amendments and good 
improvements to the bill, but I would also like to finish up so 
we don't have to come back after the next series of votes. Ms. 
Esty, is that agreeable with you and Mr. Kennedy?
    Ms. Esty. Yes.
    Chairman Smith. I thank you both in that regard.
    In that case, there are no further amendments and a 
reporting quorum being present, the question--oh, excuse me.
    With no further discussion on the amendment, the question 
is on agreeing to the amendment offered by Ms. Edwards and Mr. 
Palazzo.
    All in favor, say aye.
    All those opposed, say no.
    The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to.
    Since there are no further amendments, and a reporting 
quorum being present, the question is on the bill H.R. 4412 as 
amended.
    Those in favor, say aye.
    Opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it and the bill as amended is ordered 
reported favorably.
    Before I conclude with some boilerplate language, let me 
thank all Members for being here and for all being a part of a 
very successful markup and helping us advance a very, very 
important bill.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid on the 
table, and I move that the bill H.R. 4412 as amended, be 
favorably reported to the House and staff be authorized to make 
any necessary technical and conforming changes, and without 
objection, so ordered.
    Without any further business, we stand adjourned, and 
again, thanks to all the Members who are here today.
    [Whereupon, at 1:55 p.m., the Committee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix I

                              ----------                              


             H.R. 4412, THE NASA AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014

                Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendments

                            Amendment Roster





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                     Section-by-Section Analysis of

     H.R. 4412, THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
   AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2014, AS AMENDED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE

Section 1. Short Title; Table of Contents.

    This Act may be cited as the ``National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2014.''

Section 2. Definitions.

    This section provides relevant definitions within the Act.
                TITLE I-AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal Year 2014.

    This section authorizes NASA at levels in line with the 
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76).
                      TITLE II-HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT
                         Subtitle A-Exploration

Sec. 201. Space Exploration Policy.

    Section 201 states that exploration deeper into the solar system 
shall be a core mission of NASA. It further states that it is the 
policy of the United States that the goal of NASA's exploration program 
to successfully conduct a crewed mission to the surface of Mars to 
begin human exploration of that planet. This section adds relevant 
definitions to title 51 and also adds language to title 42 regarding 
the acceleration of development of capabilities to enable a human 
exploration mission to the surface of Mars and beyond through the 
prioritization of those technologies and capabilities best suited for 
such a mission in accordance with the Exploration Roadmap under title 
51. This section states that non-United States human space flight 
capabilities should only be used as a contingency when no domestic 
commercial or public-private partnership provider that meets NASA's 
safety requirements is available.

Sec. 202. Stepping Stone Approach to Exploration.

    This section requires the development of a Mars Human Exploration 
Roadmap defining the capabilities and technologies necessary to extend 
human presence to the surface of Mars. This section establishes 
requirements for the content of the roadmap. The roadmap must be 
transmitted to Congress, updated no less frequently than every two 
years, and include addenda from the NASA Advisory Council and Aerospace 
Safety Advisory Panel, each with a statement of review.

Sec. 203. Space Launch System.

    Section 203 contains findings regarding the importance of the SLS 
and describes its intended uses. It includes a sense of Congress 
stating that the President's budget requests for the Space Launch 
System and Orion multipurpose crew vehicle development, test, and 
operational phases should strive to accurately reflect the resource 
requirements of each of those phases. This section requires the 
Administrator to make expeditious development, test, and achievement of 
operational readiness of the Space Launch System and the Orion crew 
capsule the highest priority of the exploration program. It requires a 
Government Accountability Office review of NASA's acquisition of ground 
systems in support of the Space Launch System, and establishes 
requirements for the review. This section requires the Administrator to 
report on the effort and budget required to enable and utilize a cargo 
variant of the SLS configuration. This section further requires NASA to 
conduct a competition among students in elementary and secondary 
schools to name the elements of NASA's exploration program. Section 203 
requires a report to Congress describing the estimated cost of an 
advanced booster for SLS, detailing changes in development costs that 
may result from conducting a competition for an advanced booster, and 
outlining potential schedule delay resulting from a competition. It 
directs NASA to conduct a competition for an advanced booster if the 
Associate Administrator reports the results would be cost reductions 
and no adverse schedule impact in the required report.

Sec. 204. Orion Crew Capsule.

    Section 204 states that Orion must meet the practical needs and the 
minimum capability requirements described in law. It requires a report 
to Congress detailing the components and systems of Orion that ensure 
it is in compliance with the law and the expected date that Orion will 
be available to transport crew and cargo to the ISS, as well as 
certification that the requirements of the law will be met in time for 
the first crewed test flight in the year 2021.

Sec. 205. Space Radiation.

    This section requires the Administrator to develop a space 
radiation mitigation and management strategy and implementation plan. 
The strategy and plan must be submitted to Congress. The Administrator, 
in consultation with the heads of other agencies, must assess the 
national capabilities for carrying out critical ground-based research 
on space radiation biology.

Sec. 206. Planetary Protection for Human Exploration Missions.

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies for a study to explore the planetary protection 
ramifications of future missions by astronauts. The study must be 
submitted to Congress.
                      Subtitle B-Space Operations

Sec. 211. International Space Station (ISS).

    This section states that the ISS shall have two primary objectives: 
supporting the goal established in Section 201 of this Act and pursuing 
a research program that advances knowledge and provides benefits to the 
Nation. It shall continue to be the policy of the United States, in 
consultation with its international partners in the ISS program, to 
support full and complete utilization of the ISS. Section 211 states 
that the ISS shall be utilized to the maximum extent practicable for 
the development of capabilities and technologies needed for the future 
of human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. This section requires the 
Administrator to take all necessary steps to support the operation and 
full utilization of the ISS and seek to minimize the operating costs of 
the ISS. It further states that reliance on foreign carriers for crew 
and cargo is unacceptable and the Nation's human space flight program 
must acquire the capability to launch American astronauts on American 
rockets from American soil as soon as possible. It reaffirms Congress' 
commitment to the development of a commercially developed launch and 
delivery system to the ISS for crew missions. This section reaffirms 
that NASA shall make use of the United States' commercially provided 
ISS crew transfer and crew rescue services to the maximum extent 
practicable. Section 211 reaffirms that the Orion crew capsule shall 
provide an alternative means to deliver crew and cargo to the 
International Space Station, in the event other vehicles are unable to 
perform that function. It also reaffirms that NASA shall pursue means 
to maximize ISS logistics capabilities, reduce risks to ISS systems 
sustainability, and minimize United States operations costs relating to 
the ISS. This section amends the law to state that it is the policy of 
the United States to maintain an uninterrupted capability for human 
space flight and operations in low-Earth orbit and beyond as an 
essential instrument of national security and the capability to ensure 
continued United States participation and leadership in the exploration 
and utilization of space. This section requires the Administrator to 
submit a report to Congress on the feasibility of extending the 
operation of the ISS and also requires the Director of OSTP to develop 
and transmit to Congress a strategic plan for conducting research in 
the physical and life sciences and related technologies on the ISS 
through at least 2020. Finally, this section requires the Comptroller 
General to submit a report to Congress on the progress of the chosen 
not-for-profit entity for management of the National Laboratory.

Sec. 212. Commercial Crew Program.

    Section 212 states it is the sense of Congress that United States 
commercially-provided crew transportation systems offer the potential 
of serving as the primary means of transporting American astronauts to 
and from the ISS and serving as ISS emergency crew rescue vehicles. It 
is the sense of Congress that credibility in the Administration's 
budgetary estimates for the Commercial Crew Program can be enhanced by 
an independently developed cost estimate. This section states that the 
objective of the Commercial Crew Program shall be to assist the 
development of at least one crew transportation system to carry NASA 
astronauts safely, reliably, and affordably to and from the ISS and to 
serve as an emergency crew rescue vehicle as soon as practicable under 
the funding levels authorized in this Act. This section requires NASA 
to take steps established by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board 
to ensure safety. It requires the Administrator to strive through the 
competitive selection process, to minimize the Program's lifecycle cost 
to NASA. Section 212 requires the Administrator to ensure that every 
crew transportation services provider has provided evidence-based 
support for their costs and schedule. This section requires the 
Administrator to arrange for the initiation of an Independent Cost and 
Schedule Estimate, to be provided to Congress, which meets specified 
requirements. This section also requires the Administrator to transmit 
an implementation plan based on the estimate with four distinct options 
for the final stage of the Commercial Crew program: a strategy that 
assumes an appropriation of $600 million over three years; a strategy 
that assumes an appropriation of $700 million over three years; a 
strategy that assumes an appropriation of $800 million over three 
years; and a strategy that has yet to be considered previously, but 
that NASA believes could ensure the flight readiness date of 2017 for 
at least one provider or decrease the program cost. Each strategy shall 
include the contracting instruments NASA will employ to acquire the 
services in each phase of development or acquisition and the number of 
commercial providers NASA will include in the program.
                           TITLE III-SCIENCE
                           Subtitle A-General

Sec. 301. Science Portfolio.

    Section 301 amends the law to state that a balanced and adequately 
funded set of activities contributes to a robust and productive science 
program that serves as a catalyst for innovation and discovery. This 
section states that unless otherwise directed by Congress, NASA shall 
take into account the current decadal surveys from the National 
Academies when submitting the President's budget request to Congress.

Sec. 302. Radioisotope Power Systems.

    This section requires the Administrator to conduct and transmit to 
Congress an analysis of NASA requirements for radioisotope power system 
material needed to carry out high priority robotic missions in the 
solar system and other surface exploration activities beyond low-Earth 
orbit, as well as the risks to NASA missions in meeting those 
requirements due to a lack of adequate domestic production of 
radioisotope power system material.

Sec. 303. Congressional Declaration of Policy and Purpose.

    This section amends current law to add the search for life's 
origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe to the list 
of objectives of NASA's activities.
                        Subtitle B-Astrophysics

Sec. 311. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that the Administrator shall ensure to the 
maximum extent practicable a steady cadence of large, medium, and small 
missions when following the guidance provided by the decadal surveys.

Sec. 312. Extrasolar Planet Exploration Strategy.

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies to develop a strategy for the study and exploration 
of extrasolar planets that would provide a foundation for NASA 
roadmaps, strategic plans, and activities related to exoplanet research 
and exploration.

Sec. 313. James Webb Space Telescope.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that the James 
Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program will revolutionize our 
understanding of star and planet formation and how galaxies evolved and 
advance the search for the origins of the universe; the JWST program 
will enable American scientists to maintain their leadership in 
astrophysics and other disciplines; the JWST program is making steady 
progress towards a lunch in 2018; the on-time and on-budget delivery of 
JWST is a high congressional priority; and maintaining this progress 
will require the Administrator to ensure that integrated testing is 
appropriately timed and sufficiently comprehensive to enable potential 
issues to be identified and addressed early enough to handle within 
JWST's development schedule.

Sec. 314. National Reconnaissance Office Telescope Donation

    This section requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
NASA's plan for developing the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 
including a plan for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 2.4, 
which includes the donated 2.4-meter aperture National Reconnaissance 
Office telescope.
                      Subtitle C-Planetary Science

Sec. 321. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that when following the guidance provided by 
the decadal surveys, the Administrator shall ensure to the greatest 
extent practicable that NASA carries out a balanced set of programs in 
accordance with the priorities established in the most recent decadal 
survey, including: a Discovery-class mission at least once every 24 
months; a New Frontiers-class mission at least once every 60 months; 
and a Flagship-class mission at least once per decadal survey period, 
starting with a Europa mission with a goal of launching by 2021.

Sec. 322. Near Earth Objects.

    This section requires the Administrator to continue to detect, 
track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristic of near-
Earth objects equal to or greater than 140 meters in diameter in order 
to assess the threat of such near-Earth objects to Earth. It shall be 
the goal of the Survey to achieve 90 percent completion of its near-
Earth object catalogue by 2020. Section 322 reaffirms the policy in 
title 51 relating to detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and 
characterizing asteroids and comets. This section requires the Office 
of Science and Technology Policy to transmit to Congress an initial 
report that provides the following: recommendations and a proposed 
budget to carry out the Survey program; an analysis of possible options 
NASA could employ to divert an object on a likely collision course with 
Earth; and a description of the status of efforts to coordinate and 
cooperate with other countries to discover hazardous asteroids and 
comets, plan a mitigation strategy, and implement that strategy. It 
further requires the Administrator to transmit an annual report that 
provides a summary of all activities and expenditures taken with 
regards to the Survey since the enactment of this act. This section 
requires a technical and scientific assessment of the capabilities and 
resources to accelerate the Survey and expand NASA's Near-Earth Object 
program to include detection, tracking, cataloging, and characterizing 
potentially hazardous near-Earth objects less than 140 meters in 
diameter.

Sec. 323. Near-Earth Object Public-Private Partnerships.

    This section states it is the sense of Congress that NASA should 
seek to leverage the capabilities of private sector and philanthropic 
organizations in carrying out the Near-Earth Object Survey program in 
order to meet the goal of the Survey program. It requires the 
Administrator to transmit a report to Congress describing how the 
Administration can expand collaborative partnerships to detect, 
catalogue, and categorize near-Earth asteroids.

Sec. 324. Astrobiology Strategy.

    This section would require the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies to develop a science strategy for astrobiology to be 
used in planning and funding research and other activities and 
initiatives in the field of astrobiology. This section would also 
require the Administrator to transmit a report containing the strategy 
to Congress.

Sec. 325. Astrobiology Public-Private Partnerships.

    This section requires a report to Congress describing how NASA can 
expand collaborative public-private partnerships to study life's 
origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe.

Sec. 326. Assessment of Mars Architecture.

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academies to assess NASA's revised post-2016 Mars exploration 
architecture and its responsiveness to the National Academies' 
planetary science decadal surveys and other relevant National Academies 
Mars-related reports; the long-term goals of NASA's Mars Exploration 
Program and the program's ability to optimize the science return; the 
Mars architecture's relationship to Mars-related activities to be 
undertaken by agencies and organizations outside of the United States; 
and the extent to which the Mars architecture represents a reasonably 
balanced mission portfolio. The results of the assessment must be 
transmitted to Congress.
                        Subtitle D-Heliophysics

Sec. 331. Decadal Cadence.

    This section states that the Administrator shall ensure to the 
extent practicable a steady cadence of large, medium, and small 
heliophysics missions when following the guidance provided by the 
decadal surveys.
                        Subtitle E-Earth Science

Sec. 341. Reimbursement for Additional Responsibilities.

    This section states it is the sense of Congress that NASA is being 
asked to undertake important Earth science activities in an environment 
of increasingly constrained fiscal resources, and that any transfer of 
additional responsibilities to NASA should be accompanied by the 
provision of additional resources to allow NASA to carry out the 
increased responsibilities without adversely impacting its 
implementation of its existing Earth science programs and priorities.
                          TITLE IV-AERONAUTICS

Sec. 401. Sense of Congress.

    Section 401 states that it is the sense of Congress that a robust 
aeronautics research portfolio will help maintain the United States' 
status as a leader in aviation, enhance the competitiveness of the 
United States in the world economy, and improve the quality of life of 
all citizens. It further states that aeronautics research is essential 
to NASA's mission and should be supported and that the Administrator 
should coordinate with other stakeholders to minimize duplication and 
leverage resources. This section states that carrying aeronautics 
research to a level of maturity that allows NASA's research results to 
be transitioned to the users is critical to their eventual adoption.

Sec. 402. Aeronautics Research Goals.

    This section instructs the Administrator to ensure that NASA 
maintains a strong aeronautics research portfolio, ranging from 
fundamental research through integrated systems research, with specific 
research goals including: enhance airspace operations and safety; 
improve air vehicle performance; strengthen aviation safety; and 
demonstrate concepts at the system level.

Sec. 403. Unmanned Aerial Systems Research and Development.

    This section requires the Administrator to direct research and 
technological development to facilitate the safe integration of 
unmanned aerial systems into the National Airspace System. It requires 
the Administrator to update and transmit to Congress a roadmap for 
unmanned aerial systems research and development. This section requires 
that operational flight data from specified cooperative agreements be 
made available to NASA and the FAA for the development of regulatory 
standards.

Sec. 404. Research Program on Composite Materials Used In Aeronautics.

    Section 404 requires the Administrator to continue NASA's 
cooperative research program with industry to identify and demonstrate 
more effective and safe ways of developing, manufacturing, and 
maintaining composite materials. This section states that the 
Administrator, in overseeing NASA's work on composite materials, shall 
consult with relevant Federal agencies and partners in industry to 
accelerate safe development and certification processes for new 
composite materials and design methods while maintaining rigorous 
inspection of new composite materials. It requires the Administrator to 
transmit to Congress a report detailing the work of NASA on new 
composite materials and the coordination efforts among agencies.

Sec. 405. Hypersonic Research.

    This section requires the Administrator to develop and transmit to 
Congress a roadmap for hypersonic aircraft research.

Sec. 406. Supersonic Research.

    This section contains findings regarding the importance of 
supersonic overland flight and continuing NASA's research program in 
supersonic flight. It requires the Administrator to develop and 
transmit to Congress a roadmap for supersonic aeronautics research and 
development with the goal of developing and demonstrating, in a 
relevant environment, airframe and propulsion technologies to minimize 
the environmental impact of supersonic overland flight in an efficient 
and economical manner.

Sec. 407. Research on NextGen Airspace Management Concepts And Tools.

    This section requires the Administrator, in consultation with the 
relevant federal agencies, to review NASA's research and development 
activities in support of NextGen and make any necessary adjustments to 
NASA's research and development activities in support of NextGen. It 
also requires the Administrator to report to Congress regarding the 
progress of NASA's research and development activities in support of 
the NextGen airspace management modernization initiative, including 
details of technology transfer to other agencies, consultation with 
other agencies, and any adjustments made to research activities.

Sec. 408. Rotorcraft Research.

    This section requires the Administrator to prepare and transmit to 
Congress a plan for research relating to rotorcraft and other runway-
independent air vehicles. The plan must include specific goals for the 
research, a timeline for implementation, metrics for success, and 
guidelines for collaboration and coordination with industry and other 
Federal agencies.

Sec. 409. Transformative Aeronautics Research.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that the 
Administrator should encourage investigations into the early-stage 
advance of new processes, novel concepts, and innovative technology 
that have the potential to meet national aeronautics needs.

Sec. 410. Study of United States Leadership in Aeronautics Research.

    This section requires the Administrator to enter into an 
arrangement with the National Academies for a study to assess the 
position of the United States in civil aeronautics research compared to 
the rest of the world. This section establishes requirements for the 
study. The study must be transmitted to Congress.
                        TITLE V-SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 501. Sense of Congress.

    This section contains a sense of Congress regarding the importance 
of space technology.

Sec. 502. Space Technology Program.

    Section 502 creates a Space Technology Program to pursue the 
development of technologies that enable exploration of the solar system 
or advanced space science through various elements of NASA. This 
section also states that the Administrator shall organize and manage 
NASA's Small Business Innovation Research program and Small Business 
Technology Transfer program within the Space Technology Program. 
Additionally, this section requires the Administrator to certify that 
no project within the Space Technology Program is also under 
development in any established mission directorate. It requires the 
Administrator to ensure that NASA's work in space technology is fully 
coordinated, aligned, and leveraged within NASA. Work being conducted 
by the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate in support 
of advanced space technologies and systems focusing on human space 
exploration should continue. This section requires a report to Congress 
comparing NASA's space technology investments with the high-priority 
technology areas identified by the National Academies in the National 
Research Council's report on NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. It 
requires an annual submission with the budget for each fiscal year 
describing the rationale for assigning organizational responsibility 
for, in the year prior to the budget fiscal year, each initiated 
project, program, and mission focused on research and development of 
advanced technologies for human space exploration.

Sec. 503. Utilization of the International Space Station for Technology 
                    Demonstrations.

    This section requires the Administrator to utilize the ISS and 
commercial services for Space Technology Demonstration missions in low-
Earth orbit wherever it is practical and cost effective to do so.
                       TITLE VI-Other Provisions

Sec. 601. Asteroid Retrieval Mission.

    This section requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
the proposed Asteroid Retrieval Mission including a detailed budget 
profile; a detailed technical plan; a description of the technologies 
and capabilities anticipated to be gained that will enable future 
missions to Mars that could not be gained by lunar missions; a 
description of the technologies and capabilities anticipated to be 
gained from the proposed mission that will enable future planetary 
defense missions; and a review by the Small Bodies Assessment Group and 
the NASA Advisory Council. This section requires a report conducted by 
an independent, private systems engineering and technical assistance 
organization analyzing the proposal for a Mars Flyby human spaceflight 
mission to be launched in 2021. The report must be transmitted to 
Congress.

Sec. 602 . Termination Liability.

    This section directs that funds set aside for contract termination 
liability shall be utilized for development work.

Sec. 603. Baseline and Cost Controls.

    This section amends requirements associated with Baseline and Cost 
Controls to make the reporting more timely.

Sec. 604. Project and Program Reserves.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that the 
judicious use of program and project reserves provides NASA managers 
with the flexibility needed to manage projects and programs to ensure 
that the impacts of contingencies can be mitigated. It requires the 
Administrator to report to Congress on NASA's criteria for establishing 
the amount of reserves at the project and program levels; how such 
criteria relate to NASA's policy of budgeting at a 70 percent 
confidence level; and NASA's criteria for waiving the policy of 
budgeting at a 70 percent confidence level, and strategies for 
controlling costs when a waiver is granted.

Sec. 605. Independent Reviews.

    This section requires the Administrator to report to Congress on 
NASA's procedure for independent reviews of projects and programs at 
lifecycle milestones and how NASA ensures the independence of the 
individuals conducting those reviews as well as the independence of 
internal and external entities that conduct review of projects and 
programs at lifecycle milestones.

Sec. 606. Commercial Technology Transfer Program.

    This section adds ``protecting national security'' to the 
considerations used to evaluate when to transfer technology.

Sec. 607. NASA Advisory Council

    This section requires the Administrator to contract with the 
National Academy of Public Administration for an assessment of the 
effectiveness of the NASA Advisory Council, any organizational or other 
issues that the Academy determines need to be addressed, and any 
recommendations for improving the Council's effectiveness. It amends 
current law to state that in the performance of its functions, the 
Administrator is authorized to appoint such advisory committees as may 
be appropriate for purposes of consultation and advice to the 
Administration and Congress. The inclusion of ``Congress'' will sunset 
on September 30, 2014.

Sec. 608. Cost Estimation.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that realistic 
cost estimating is important to the success of major development 
projects, and that it is important that NASA continue its efforts to 
develop and implement guidance in establishing realistic cost 
estimates. It requires the Administrator to provide guidance on when an 
Independent Cost Assessment should be used and the criteria to be used 
to make such a determination to program and projects. This section 
requires a report to Congress on the implementation of more effective 
cost estimation practices.

Sec. 609. Avoiding Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major NASA 
                    Acquisition Programs.

    This section requires the Administrator to revise the NASA 
Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to provide uniform 
guidance and recommend revised requirements for organizational 
conflicts of interest by contractors in major acquisition programs in 
order to address specified concerns.

Sec. 610. Facilities and Infrastructure.

    This section states that it is the sense of Congress that NASA must 
reverse the deteriorating condition of its facilities and 
infrastructure; NASA has a role in providing laboratory capabilities to 
industry participants that are economically viable as commercial 
entities and thus are not available elsewhere; NASA should seek to 
establish strategic partnerships with other Federal agencies, academic 
institutions, and industry, as appropriate; and decisions on whether to 
dispose of, maintain, or modernize existing facilities must be made in 
the context of meeting future NASA and other Federal agencies' 
laboratory needs, including those required to meet the activities 
supporting the Roadmap required by Sec 202. It further states that it 
is the policy of the United States that NASA maintain reliable and 
efficient facilities and that decisions on whether to dispose of, 
maintain, or modernize existing facilities be made in the context of 
meeting future NASA needs. This section requires the Administrator to 
develop a plan that has the goal of positioning NASA to have the 
facilities, laboratories, tools, and approaches necessary to address 
future NASA requirements. It requires the Administrator to establish 
and make publically available a policy that guides the agency's use of 
existing authorities to out-grant, lease, excess to the General 
Services Administration, sell, decommission, demolish, or otherwise 
transfer property, facilities, or infrastructure. This section requires 
the Administrator to establish a capital fund for the modernization of 
facilities and laboratories.

Sec. 611. Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts.

    This section requires NASA to revise the NASA Supplement for the 
Federal Acquisition Regulation to address the detection and avoidance 
of counterfeit electronic parts. The revised regulations must provide 
that contractors who supply electronic parts or products including 
electronic parts are responsible for detecting and avoiding the use or 
inclusion of counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit parts 
in such products, and for any corrective actions that may be required 
to remedy the use of such parts. The costs of counterfeit electronic 
parts and the cost of corrective action are not allowable costs under 
Agency contracts except under specified exemptions. It sets 
requirements for acquisition of electronic parts by NASA contractors 
and subcontractors to ensure authenticity. This section requires that 
any contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware of a possible 
counterfeit part must notify NASA within 30 calendar days.

Sec. 612. Space Act Agreements.

    This section sets the following conditions for Space Act 
Agreements: funds provided by the government under a funded Space Act 
Agreement should not exceed the total amount provided by other parties 
to the agreement or other transaction; a Space Act Agreement may be 
used only when the use of a standard contract, grant, or cooperative 
agreement is not feasible or appropriate; Space Act Agreements must be 
available for public notice and comment prior to agreement; the 
Administrator shall publically disclose on NASA's website and make 
available in a searchable format all Space Act Agreements with 
appropriate redactions for proprietary information in a timely manner; 
and the Administrator must submit to Congress an annual report on the 
use of Space Act Agreement authority by NASA during the previous fiscal 
year. The report must include a list of anticipated agreements for the 
upcoming fiscal year. The report must also include a discussion of the 
benefits NASA has accumulated by using Space Act Agreements.

                               Amendments

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                            Amendment Roster

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