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114th Congress   }                                       {      Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2nd Session     }                                       {     114-482

======================================================================
 
                    GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY ACT OF 2015

                                _______
                                

 April 12, 2016.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Royce, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1567]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Foreign Affairs, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 1567) to authorize a comprehensive, strategic 
approach for United States foreign assistance to developing 
countries to reduce global poverty and hunger, achieve food 
security and improved nutrition, promote inclusive, sustainable 
agricultural-led economic growth, improve nutritional outcomes, 
especially for women and children, build resilience among 
vulnerable populations, and for other purposes, having 
considered the same, reports favorably thereon with an 
amendment and recommends that the bill as amended do pass.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
The Amendment....................................................     2
Summary and Purpose..............................................     5
Background and Need for the Legislation..........................     6
Hearings.........................................................     9
Committee Consideration..........................................    11
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................    11
New Budget Authority, Tax Expenditures, and Federal Mandates.....    11
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................    12
Directed Rule Making.............................................    13
Non-Duplication of Federal Programs..............................    13
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................    13
Congressional Accountability Act.................................    13
New Advisory Committees..........................................    13
Earmark Identification...........................................    14
Constitutional Authority Statement...............................    14
Section-by-Section Analysis......................................    14

                             The Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Global Food Security Act of 2015''.

SEC. 2. STATEMENT OF POLICY OBJECTIVES; SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  (a) Statement of Policy Objectives.--It is in the national security 
interest of the United States to promote global food security, 
resilience, and nutrition, consistent with national food security 
investment plans, which is reinforced through programs, activities, and 
initiatives that--
          (1) accelerate inclusive, agricultural-led economic growth 
        that reduces global poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, 
        particularly among women and children;
          (2) increase the productivity, incomes, and livelihoods of 
        small-scale producers, especially women, by working across 
        agricultural value chains, enhancing local capacity to manage 
        agricultural resources effectively, and expanding producer 
        access to local and international markets;
          (3) build resilience to food shocks among vulnerable 
        populations and households while reducing reliance upon 
        emergency food assistance;
          (4) create an enabling environment for agricultural growth 
        and investment, including through the promotion of secure and 
        transparent property rights;
          (5) improve the nutritional status of women and children, 
        with a focus on reducing child stunting, including through the 
        promotion of highly nutritious foods, diet diversification, and 
        nutritional behaviors that improve maternal and child health;
          (6) align with and leverage broader United States strategies 
        and investments in trade, economic growth, science and 
        technology, maternal and child health, nutrition, and water, 
        sanitation, and hygiene;
          (7) continue to strengthen partnerships between United 
        States-based universities and institutions in target countries 
        and communities that build agricultural capacity; and
          (8) ensure the effective use of United States taxpayer 
        dollars to further these objectives.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of the Congress that the 
President, in providing assistance to implement the Global Food 
Security Strategy, should--
          (1) coordinate, through a whole-of-government approach, the 
        efforts of relevant Federal departments and agencies to 
        implement the Global Food Security Strategy; and
          (2) utilize open and streamlined solicitations to allow for 
        the participation of a wide range of implementing partners 
        through the most appropriate procurement mechanisms, which may 
        include grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and other 
        instruments as necessary and appropriate.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Agriculture.--The term ``agriculture'' means crops, 
        livestock, fisheries, and forestries.
          (2) Appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
                  (A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;
                  (B) the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and 
                Forestry of the Senate;
                  (C) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
                  (D) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
                Representatives;
                  (E) the Committee on Agriculture of the House of 
                Representatives; and
                  (F) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
                Representatives.
          (3) Feed the future innovation labs.--The term ``Feed the 
        Future Innovation Labs'' means research partnerships led by 
        United States universities that advance solutions to reduce 
        global hunger, poverty, and malnutrition.
          (4) Food and nutrition security.--The term ``food and 
        nutrition security'' means access to, and availability, 
        utilization, and stability of, sufficient food to meet caloric 
        and nutritional needs for an active and healthy life.
          (5) Global food security strategy.--The term ``Global Food 
        Security Strategy'' means the strategy developed and 
        implemented pursuant to section 4(a).
          (6) Malnutrition.--The term ``malnutrition'' means poor 
        nutritional status caused by nutritional deficiency or excess.
          (7) Relevant federal departments and agencies.--The term 
        ``relevant Federal departments and agencies'' means the United 
        States Agency for International Development, the Department of 
        Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Department of 
        State, the Department of the Treasury, the Millennium Challenge 
        Corporation, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the 
        Peace Corps, the Office of the United States Trade 
        Representative, the United States African Development 
        Foundation, the United States Geological Survey, and any other 
        department or agency specified by the President for purposes of 
        this section.
          (8) Resilience.--The term ``resilience'' means the ability of 
        people, households, communities, countries, and systems to 
        mitigate, adapt to, and recover from shocks and stresses to 
        food security in a manner that reduces chronic vulnerability 
        and facilitates inclusive growth.
          (9) Small-scale producer.--The term ``small-scale producer'' 
        means farmers, pastoralists, foresters, and fishers that have a 
        low-asset base and limited resources, including land, capital, 
        skills and labor, and, in the case of farmers, typically farm 
        on fewer than 5 hectares of land.
          (10) Sustainable.--The term ``sustainable'' means the ability 
        of a target country, community, implementing partner, or 
        intended beneficiary to maintain, over time, the programs 
        authorized and outcomes achieved pursuant to this Act.
          (11) Target country.--The term ``target country'' means a 
        developing country that is selected to participate in 
        agriculture and nutrition security programs under the Global 
        Food Security Strategy pursuant to the selection criteria 
        described in section 4(a)(2), including criteria such as the 
        potential for agriculture-led economic growth, government 
        commitment to agricultural investment and policy reform, 
        opportunities for partnerships and regional synergies, the 
        level of need, and resource availability.

SEC. 4. COMPREHENSIVE GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY.

  (a) Strategy.--The President shall coordinate the development and 
implementation of a United States whole-of-government strategy to 
accomplish the policy objectives set forth in section 2(a), which 
shall--
          (1) set specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, 
        timetables, performance metrics, and monitoring and evaluation 
        plans that reflect international best practices relating to 
        transparency, accountability, food and nutrition security, and 
        agriculture-led economic growth, consistent with the policy 
        objectives described in section 2(a);
          (2) establish clear and transparent selection criteria for 
        target countries, communities, regions, and intended 
        beneficiaries of assistance;
          (3) support and be aligned with country-owned agriculture, 
        nutrition, and food security policy and investment plans 
        developed with input from relevant governmental and 
        nongovernmental sectors within target countries and 
        communities, regional bodies, and representatives of the 
        private sector, agricultural producers, including women and 
        small-scale producers, international and local civil society 
        organizations, faith-based organizations, agricultural research 
        and academic institutions, and farmers, as appropriate;
          (4) support inclusive agricultural value chain development, 
        with small-scale producers, especially women, gaining greater 
        access to the inputs, skills, resource management capacity, 
        networking, bargaining power, financing, and market linkages 
        needed to sustain their long-term economic prosperity;
          (5) support improvement of the nutritional status of women 
        and children, particularly during the critical first 1,000-day 
        window until a child reaches 2 years of age and with a focus on 
        reducing child stunting, through nutrition-specific and 
        nutrition-sensitive programs, including related water, 
        sanitation, and hygiene programs;
          (6) facilitate communication and collaboration, as 
        appropriate, among local stakeholders in support of a multi-
        sectoral approach to food and nutrition security, to include 
        analysis of the multiple underlying causes of malnutrition, 
        including lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, 
        and hygiene;
          (7) support the long-term success of programs by building the 
        capacity of local organizations and institutions in target 
        countries and communities;
          (8) integrate resilience and nutrition strategies into food 
        security programs, such that chronically vulnerable populations 
        are better able to build safety nets, secure livelihoods, 
        access markets, and access opportunities for longer-term 
        economic growth;
          (9) develop community and producer resilience to natural 
        disasters, emergencies, and natural occurrences that adversely 
        impact agricultural yield;
          (10) harness science, technology, and innovation, including 
        the research conducted at Feed the Future Innovation Labs, or 
        any successor entities, throughout the United States;
          (11) integrate agricultural development activities among food 
        insecure populations living in proximity to designated national 
        parks or wildlife areas into wildlife conservation efforts, as 
        necessary and appropriate;
          (12) leverage resources and expertise through partnerships 
        with the private sector, farm organizations, cooperatives, 
        civil society, faith-based organizations, and agricultural 
        research and academic institutions;
          (13) support collaboration, as appropriate, between United 
        States universities and public and private institutions in 
        target countries and communities to promote agricultural 
        development and innovation;
          (14) seek to ensure that target countries and communities 
        respect and promote land tenure rights of local communities, 
        particularly those of women and small-scale producers; and
          (15) include criteria and methodologies for graduating target 
        countries and communities from assistance provided to implement 
        the Global Food Security Strategy as such countries and 
        communities meet the progress benchmarks identified pursuant to 
        section 6(b)(4).
  (b) Coordination.--The President shall coordinate, through a whole-
of-government approach, the efforts of relevant Federal departments and 
agencies in the implementation of the Global Food Security Strategy 
by--
          (1) establishing monitoring and evaluation systems, 
        coherence, and coordination across relevant Federal departments 
        and agencies; and
          (2) establishing platforms for regular consultation and 
        collaboration with key stakeholders, including--
                  (A) national and local governments;
                  (B) multilateral institutions;
                  (C) private voluntary organizations;
                  (D) cooperatives;
                  (E) the private sector;
                  (F) local nongovernmental and civil society 
                organizations;
                  (G) faith-based organizations;
                  (H) congressional committees; and
                  (I) other stakeholders, as appropriate.
  (c) Strategy Submission.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than October 1, 2016, the 
        President, in consultation with the head of each relevant 
        Federal department and agency, shall submit to the appropriate 
        congressional committees the Global Food Security Strategy 
        required under this section that provides a detailed 
        description of how the United States intends to advance the 
        objectives set forth in section 2(a) and the agency-specific 
        plans described in paragraph (2).
          (2) Agency-specific plans.--The Global Food Security Strategy 
        shall include specific implementation plans from each relevant 
        Federal department and agency that describes--
                  (A) the anticipated contributions of the department 
                or agency, including technical, financial, and in-kind 
                contributions, to implement the Global Food Security 
                Strategy; and
                  (B) the efforts of the department or agency to ensure 
                that the activities and programs carried out pursuant 
                to the strategy are designed to achieve maximum impact 
                and long-term sustainability.

SEC. 5. ASSISTANCE TO IMPLEMENT THE GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY.

  (a) Food Shortages.--The President is authorized to carry out 
activities pursuant to section 103, section 103A, title XII of chapter 
2 of part I, and chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a, 2151a-1, 2220a et seq., and 2346 et seq.) to 
prevent or address food shortages notwithstanding any other provision 
of law.
  (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the 
United States Agency for International Development $1,000,600,000 for 
fiscal year 2016 to carry out those portions of the Global Food 
Security Strategy that relate to the Department of State and the United 
States Agency for International Development, respectively.
  (c) Monitoring and Evaluation.--The President shall seek to ensure 
that assistance to implement the Global Food Security Strategy is 
provided under established parameters for a rigorous accountability 
system to monitor and evaluate progress and impact of the strategy, 
including by reporting to the appropriate congressional committees and 
the public on an annual basis.

SEC. 6. REPORT.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 1 year after the date of the 
submission of the strategy required under section 4(c), the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that 
describes the status of the implementation of the Global Food Security 
Strategy.
  (b) Content.--The report required under subsection (a) shall--
          (1) contain a summary of the Global Food Security Strategy as 
        an appendix;
          (2) identify any substantial changes made in the Global Food 
        Security Strategy during the preceding calendar year;
          (3) describe the progress made in implementing the Global 
        Food Security Strategy;
          (4) identify the indicators used to establish benchmarks and 
        measure results over time, as well as the mechanisms for 
        reporting such results in an open and transparent manner;
          (5) describe related strategies and benchmarks for graduating 
        target countries and communities from assistance provided under 
        the Global Food Security Strategy over time, including by 
        building resilience, reducing risk, and enhancing the 
        sustainability of outcomes from United States investments in 
        agriculture and nutrition security;
          (6) contain a transparent, open, and detailed accounting of 
        spending by relevant Federal departments and agencies to 
        implement the Global Food Security Strategy, including by 
        listing all implementing partners and, to the extent 
        practicable, describing their activities;
          (7) describe how the Global Food Security Strategy relates to 
        other United States food security and development assistance 
        programs on the continuum from emergency food aid through 
        sustainable, agriculture-led economic growth;
          (8) describe the contributions of the Global Food Security 
        Strategy to, and assess the impact of, broader international 
        food and nutrition security assistance programs, including 
        progress in the promotion of land tenure rights, creating 
        economic opportunities for women and small-scale producers, and 
        stimulating agriculture-led economic growth in target countries 
        and communities;
          (9) assess efforts to coordinate United States international 
        food security and nutrition programs, activities, and 
        initiatives with--
                  (A) other bilateral donors;
                  (B) international and multilateral organizations;
                  (C) international financial institutions;
                  (D) target country governments;
                  (E) international and local private voluntary, 
                nongovernmental, faith-based organizations, and civil 
                society organizations; and
                  (F) other stakeholders;
          (10) assess United States Government-facilitated private 
        investment in related sectors and the impact of private sector 
        investment in target countries and communities;
          (11) identify any United States legal or regulatory 
        impediments that could obstruct the effective implementation of 
        the programming referred to in paragraphs (7) and (8);
          (12) contain a clear gender analysis of programming, to 
        inform project-level activities, that includes established 
        disaggregated gender indicators to better analyze outcomes for 
        food productivity, income growth, control of assets, equity in 
        access to inputs, jobs and markets, and nutrition; and
          (13) incorporate a plan for regularly reviewing and updating 
        strategies, partnerships, and programs and sharing lessons 
        learned with a wide range of stakeholders in an open, 
        transparent manner.
  (c) Public Availability of Information.--The information referred to 
in subsection (b) shall be made available on the public website of the 
United States Agency for International Development in an open, machine 
readable format, in a timely manner.

                          Summary and Purpose

    H.R. 1567, the Global Food Security Act, establishes 
priorities for and enhances the transparency of U.S. foreign 
assistance programs, authorized pursuant to Chapter 1 of Part 1 
of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, to reduce poverty and 
hunger in developing countries through activities that: 
Accelerate agriculture-led economic growth; enhance food and 
nutrition security; build resilience while reducing long-term 
dependence upon aid; create an enabling environment for 
investment and trade; and advance related U.S. economic, 
diplomatic, global health, and national security interests. The 
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 
leads implementation of related programs under a Presidential 
initiative called ``Feed the Future,'' which is funded through 
annual appropriations for Development Assistance (DA) and 
Economic Support Funds (ESF) and leverages the expertise of 
various stakeholders. While the existing program has achieved 
important successes, there is room for greater congressional 
oversight and programmatic improvements. H.R. 1567 thus 
provides a framework for the prioritization, coordination, 
implementation, and oversight of future U.S. foreign assistance 
investments in this vital international development sector.
    H.R. 1567 affirms that it is in the national security 
interest of the United States to promote global food and 
nutrition security through a strategy, to be known as the 
Global Food Security Strategy (GFSS), that aims to catalyze 
economic growth and reduce poverty by: Increasing the 
productivity, incomes, and livelihoods of small holder farmers; 
promoting land tenure and property rights; building resilience 
and local capacity; breaking down the barriers to investment 
and trade; improving nutrition among women and children; and 
ensuring the effective use of U.S. taxpayer dollars toward 
these ends. The GFSS will draw upon the expertise of various 
stakeholders and be aligned with USAID's Country Development 
Cooperation Strategy for each target country. With improved 
strategic planning and coordination, the GFSS will leverage and 
complement--rather than duplicate--investments in food and 
nutrition security made by the target countries themselves, the 
United States, other donors, and the private sector, including 
in the areas of governance, global health, trade capacity 
building, resource management, science and technology, maternal 
and child health, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH).
    H.R. 1567 authorizes $1,000,600,000 in Fiscal Year 2016 
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations 
for the U.S. Department of State and USAID to carry out these 
programs, which is equal to the FY 2015 enacted level and $99.4 
million below the FY 2014 enacted level.
    Finally, the bill enacts authorizing language that has been 
carried in annual appropriations bills since FY 2009, which 
enables the President, notwithstanding any other provision of 
law, to provide assistance to prevent and address food 
shortages pursuant to the authorities provided by the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961.

                Background and Need for the Legislation

    Conflict, hunger, and economic exclusion have proven to be 
a highly combustible mix that directly threatens the national 
security interests of the United States. Today, a record 60 
million people are displaced by conflict, nearly 800 million 
people face chronic hunger, and countless would-be 
entrepreneurs--particularly women--are denied access to 
economic opportunity. From 2007 through 2008, unprecedented 
spikes in the price of staple foods across the globe drove an 
estimated 150 million people into poverty, sparked riots in 30 
countries, and destabilized parts of Africa, South Asia, Latin 
America, and the Middle East. In 2010, popular uprisings driven 
in part by economic exclusion and fueled by rising food prices 
erupted across the Middle East, resulting in the ouster of four 
sitting heads of state, the political collapse of Libya, deeper 
insecurity across the Maghreb (including a coup in Mali), and 
ongoing civil wars in Syria and Yemen. Some predict that this 
situation will only worsen, and more countries will be thrown 
into chaos, as population growth pushes food prices up and 
availability down.
    Food and nutrition insecurity also directly impact global 
health and economic growth. Malnutrition is the single greatest 
contributor to under-five mortality rates in the developing 
world and is responsible for roughly half of all child deaths 
worldwide. Malnutrition makes mothers and children particularly 
vulnerable to malaria and opportunistic infections, and may 
increase the risk of HIV infection. The prevalence of food and 
nutrition insecurity thus undermines major U.S. investments in 
global health which, in Fiscal Year 2015 alone, amounted to 
nearly $8.9 billion (excluding emergency funding for Ebola). 
Moreover, stunting, a manifestation of severe malnutrition, 
results in both physical and cognitive impairments that have 
life-long consequences. According to the World Health 
Organization, for every 1 percent in reduced physical growth 
(height), a ``stunted'' person will experience a 1.38 percent 
decrease in productivity. According to the World Bank, that 
lost productivity costs developing countries up to 3 percent of 
their annual GDP and reduces the lifelong earning potential of 
affected children by 10 percent.
    Experience shows that countries that are well governed and 
embrace inclusive, pro-growth policies tend to be healthier, 
more stable, and better trade partners. The United States, 
through the work of USAID and the authorities of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961, has for more than 50 years worked to 
reduce poverty and support the growth of more stable, 
democratic societies in the developing world. Unfortunately, 
the results of these investments have been mixed and the 
obstacles to growth remain substantial.
    Since its creation in 1961, USAID has been encumbered by an 
ever-growing number of competing priorities and objectives--
some self-imposed, others imposed by Presidential initiatives 
and congressional directives--that have diminished its ability 
to focus on achieving measurable results. Yet, particularly 
following the creation of the Millennium Challenge Corporation 
(MCC) in 2004, USAID has undertaken efforts to become more 
strategic and effective. Included among these efforts are: (1) 
a commitment to greater transparency, accountability, and 
results; (2) a commitment to country ``ownership,'' including 
participation from local civil society and the private sector, 
in the design and execution of foreign assistance programming; 
(3) the building of partnerships with the private sector to 
leverage resources and amplify results; (4) a renewed focus on 
activities that have the greatest potential to reduce poverty 
through market-based economic growth; and (5) the recognition 
that, in much of the developing world, growth will be driven by 
small holder farmers. H.R. 1567 establishes these principles 
and best practices as priorities for U.S. foreign assistance 
development and economic growth programs.
Legislative History
    Since 2002, and particularly in the wake of the food riots 
of 2007-2008, USAID has placed renewed emphasis on agriculture 
as an engine for economic growth and security in the developing 
world. National security concerns led the administration of 
President George W. Bush to seek to strengthen near- and 
longer-term food security as a means to foster greater 
political stability across the globe that would, in turn, lead 
to economic growth and a reduction in hunger and extreme 
poverty. The administration began allocating increasing levels 
of development assistance to boost productivity in vulnerable 
countries, connect small holder farmer to markets, strengthen 
supply chains, and promote market-based principles for 
agriculture-led development and trade.
    Food-insecure countries in Africa received particular 
attention. In 2002, President Bush worked with African leaders 
to launch the Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (IEHA), which 
was funded through development assistance, and implemented 
through USAID. At the same time, the MCC began making 
substantial investments in agriculture-led economic growth 
programs, particularly in Africa. However, neither MCC nor the 
Peace Corps and the U.S.-African Development Foundation, which 
had been making their own investments in food and nutrition 
security for decades, were brought into the IEHA coordination 
and implementation framework.
    Building upon the foundation laid by the Bush 
administration, in 2009 President Barack Obama joined other 
world leaders at the G8 Summit in L'Aquila, Italy, to reiterate 
the U.S. commitment to international food security. He devoted 
additional USAID resources beyond those allocated during the 
previous administration, rebranded the IEHA as ``Feed the 
Future,'' and expanded the scope beyond the core group of 
countries in Africa. Today, the $1,006,000,000 Feed the Future 
program, coordinated by USAID, works to reduce poverty and 
improve food and nutrition security in 19 focus countries by 
taking a market-based approach to agricultural development, 
promoting country ownership, and leveraging partnerships with 
key stakeholders, including the private sector. It also serves 
as an interagency coordination mechanism so that the 11 Federal 
departments and agencies implementing related programs can 
improve strategic planning, reduce duplication and waste, and 
better capture and share lessons learned.
    The United States Congress has followed these developments 
closely and has provided substantial levels of assistance (in 
the form of annual appropriations), but has never authorized a 
comprehensive, transparent approach to reducing poverty and 
enhancing food and nutrition security in vulnerable developing 
countries. H.R. 1567 would better enable Congress to conduct 
effective oversight of such programs and ensure that U.S. 
foreign assistance is being delivered in the most efficient and 
effective manner possible.
    Bipartisan efforts to enact a Global Food Security Act were 
launched in earnest during the 110th Congress. On May 14, 2008, 
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (SFRC) convened a 
hearing entitled, ``Responding to the Global Food Crisis,'' 
which addressed the need to establish a long-term development 
strategy for food security. The hearing was followed by 
introduction of S. 3529, the Global Food Security Act of 2008, 
on September 22, 2008, which was referred to SFRC.
    During the 111th Congress, S. 384, the Global Food Security 
Act of 2009, was introduced on February 5, 2009, referred to 
SFRC, debated during a hearing entitled, ``Promoting Global 
Food Security: Next Steps for Congress and the Administration'' 
on April 22, 2010, and reported out of committee on May 13, 
2009. In the House, H.R. 3077 was introduced on June 26, 2009, 
referred solely to the House Foreign Affairs Committee (HFAC), 
and debated during hearings entitled, ``A Call to Action on 
Food Security: The Administration's Global Strategy'' (held on 
October 29, 2009) and ``Oversight of the Feed the Future 
Initiative'' (held on July 10, 2010). Discussions continued 
during the 112th Congress and on November 28, 2012, SFRC 
convened a hearing entitled, ``Evaluating Current U.S. Global 
Food Security Efforts and Determining Future U.S. Leadership 
Opportunities.''
    During the 113th Congress, the Global Food Security Act 
took the form of H.R. 2822 (introduced on July 30, 2013, and 
referred solely to HFAC), H.R. 5656 (introduced on September 
18, 2014, and referred solely to HFAC), and S. 2909 (introduced 
on September 18, 2014, and referred to SFRC). H.R. 5656, as 
amended, was ordered favorably reported by HFAC on November 20, 
2014, and was passed by the House of Representatives on 
December 10, 2014. The U.S. Senate did not act on H.R. 5656 
before the end of the year.
    After several months of consultations with the 
administration and key stakeholders, a substantially similar 
text was introduced as H.R. 1567 on March 24, 2015, referred 
solely to HFAC, and ordered favorably reported on April 23, 
2015.

                                Hearings

    Over the past 2 years, the committee has continued its 
active oversight of U.S. development, economic, and global 
health assistance programs, including 13 hearings related to 
the content of H.R. 1567:
    October 7, 2015, hearing before the full committee on 
``Reforming Food Aid: Desperate Need to Do Better'' (Hon. Dan 
Glickman, Vice President and Executive Director, Aspen 
Institute Congressional Program, former Secretary, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture; Hon. Rajiv Shah, Senior Advisor 
Chicago Council on Global Affairs, former Administrator, USAID; 
Christopher B. Barrett, Ph.D., David J. Nolan Director, Stephen 
B. and Janice G. Ashley Professor, Charles H. Dyson School of 
Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University; Rev. 
David Beckmann, President, Bread for the World);
    October 7, 2015, hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, 
Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International 
Organizations on ``Food Security and Nutrition Programs in 
Africa'' (Carolyn Woo, Ph.D., President and CEO, Catholic 
Relief Services; Mr. David Hong, Director of Global Policy, One 
Acre Fund; Mr. Roger Thurow, Senior Fellow, Global Agriculture 
and Food, The Chicago Council on Global Affairs);
    July 9, 2015, hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, 
Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International 
Organizations on ``Africa's Displaced People'' (Catherine 
Wiesner, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Bureau of 
Population, Refugees, and Migration, U.S. Department of State; 
Thomas H. Staal, Acting Assistant Administrator, Bureau for 
Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance, USAID; John 
Stauffer, President, The America Team for Displaced Eritreans; 
Ann Hollingsworth, Senior Advocate for Government Relations, 
Refugees International; Natalie Eisenbarth, Policy & Advocacy 
Officer, International Rescue Committee);
    June 16, 2015, hearing before the Subcommittee on Europe, 
Eurasia, and Emerging Threats on ``Reviewing the 
Administration's FY 2016 Budget Request for Europe and 
Eurasia'' (Alina Romanowski, Coordinator of U.S. Assistance to 
Europe and Eurasia, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 
U.S. Department of State; Susan Fritz, Acting Assistant 
Administrator, Europe and Eurasia Bureau, USAID; Daniel 
Rosenblum, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Central Asia, Bureau 
of South and Central Asian Affairs, U.S. Department of State; 
Hon. Jonathan Stivers, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for 
Asia, USAID);
    May 20, 2015, hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and 
the Pacific on ``Everest Trembled: Lessons Learned from the 
Nepal Earthquake Response'' (Hon. Nisha Desai Biswal, Assistant 
Secretary, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs, U.S. 
Department of State; Thomas H. Staal, Acting Assistant 
Administrator, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian 
Assistance, USAID; Hon. Jonathan Stivers, Assistant 
Administrator, Bureau for Asia, USAID; Anne A. Witkowsky, 
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Stability and 
Humanitarian Affairs, U.S. Department of Defense);
    April 30, 2015, hearing before the Subcommittee on the 
Western Hemisphere, ``Migration Crisis: Oversight of the 
Administration's Proposed $1 Billion Request for Central 
America'' (Scott Hamilton, Central America Director, Bureau of 
Western Hemisphere Affairs, U.S. Department of State; Hon. 
William R. Brownfield, Assistant Secretary, Bureau of 
International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. 
Department of State; Paloma Adams-Allen, Deputy Assistant 
Administrator, Latin America and the Caribbean Bureau, USAID; 
Hon. Alan D. Bersin, Assistant Secretary and Chief Diplomatic 
Officer, Office of Policy, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Lieutenant General Kenneth E. Tovo, USA, Military 
Deputy Commander, U.S. Southern Command, U.S. Department of 
Defense);
    April 23, 2015, hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and 
the Pacific on ``The U.S. Rebalance in East Asia: Budget 
Priorities for FY 2016'' (Hon. Daniel R. Russel, Assistant 
Secretary, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, U.S. 
Department of State; Hon. Jonathan Stivers, Assistant 
Administrator, Bureau for Asia, USAID);
    March 17, 2015, hearing before the full committee on ``The 
FY 2016 Budget Request: Assessing U.S. Foreign Assistance 
Effectiveness'' (Hon. Alfonso E. Lenhardt, Acting 
Administrator, USAID; Hon. Dana J. Hyde, CEO, Millennium 
Challenge Corporation);
    May 20, 2014, hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and 
the Pacific on ``Resourcing the Pivot to Asia: East Asia and 
the Pacific FY 2015 Budget Priorities'' (Hon. Daniel R. Russel, 
Assistant Secretary, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, 
U.S. Department of State; Denise Rollins, Acting Assistant 
Administrator, Bureau for Asia, USAID);
    April 30, 2014, hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and 
the Pacific on ``Assessing U.S. Foreign Assistance Priorities 
in South Asia'' (Hon. Nisha Biswal, Assistant Secretary, Bureau 
of South and Central Asian Affairs, U.S. Department of State; 
Denise Rollins, Acting Assistant Secretary, Bureau for Asia, 
USAID);
    April 9, 2014, hearing before the full committee on ``U.S. 
Foreign Assistance in FY 2015: What Are the Priorities, How 
Effective?'' (Hon. Rajiv Shah, Administrator, USAID);
    April 9, 2014, hearing before the Subcommittee on the 
Western Hemisphere on ``Advancing U.S. Interests in the Western 
Hemisphere: The FY 2015 Foreign Affairs Budget'' (Hon. Roberta 
S. Jacobson, Assistant Secretary, Bureau for Western Hemisphere 
Affairs, U.S. Department of State; Elizabeth Hogan, Acting 
Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Latin America and the 
Caribbean, USAID); and
    March 25, 2014, hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, 
Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International 
Organizations on ``The First One Thousand Days: Development Aid 
Programs to Bolster Health and Nutrition'' (Tjada D'Oyen 
McKenna, Acting Assistant to the Administrator in the Bureau 
for Food Security, USAID; Lisa Bos, Senior Policy Advisor for 
Health, Education, and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, World 
Vision; Henry Perry, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Associate, Health 
Systems Program, Department of International Health, Bloomberg 
School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University; Carolyn 
Wetzel Chen, Chief Grant Development Officer, Food for the 
Hungry, Inc.; Sophia Aguirre, Ph.D., Chair, Integral Economic 
Development Management Program, Catholic University of America; 
and Mehret Mandefro, M.D., Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, 
Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington 
University).

                        Committee Consideration

    On April 23, 2015, the Foreign Affairs Committee marked up 
H.R. 1567 pursuant to notice, in open session. The chairman 
obtained unanimous consent to consider the bill en bloc with 
Smith 91, an amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by 
Rep. Smith, and Poe 122, an amendment to Smith 91 offered by 
Rep. Poe. The items considered en bloc were agreed to by voice 
vote. The committee ordered H.R. 1567, as amended, favorably 
reported by unanimous consent.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the committee reports that 
findings and recommendations of the committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of House Rule X, are 
incorporated in the descriptive portions of this report, 
particularly in the ``Background and Need for the Legislation'' 
and ``Section-by-Section Analysis'' sections.

      New Budget Authority, Tax Expenditures, and Federal Mandates

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of House Rule XIII and 
the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (P.L. 104-4), the committee 
adopts as its own the estimate of new budget authority, 
entitlement authority, tax expenditure or revenues, and Federal 
mandates contained in the cost estimate prepared by the 
Director of the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, April 27, 2015.

Hon. Edward R. Royce, Chairman,
Committee on Foreign Affairs,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1567, the Global 
Food Security Act of 2015.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Sunita 
D'Monte, who can be reached at 226-2840.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                  Director.
Enclosure

cc:
        Honorable Eliot L. Engel
        Ranking Member
H.R. 1567--Global Food Security Act of 2015.
    As ordered reported by the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs on April 23, 2015
    H.R. 1567 would require the President to develop and 
implement a strategy to improve global food security. In 
carrying out that strategy, the Administration would provide 
assistance to developing countries to reduce chronic hunger and 
poverty, support economic growth by expanding agricultural 
output, and improve nutrition, especially among women and 
children. The strategy would be similar to the Administration's 
ongoing global food security initiative called Feed the Future. 
The bill also would require the Administration to submit a 
detailed progress report to the Congress.
    H.R. 1567 would authorize appropriations of slightly more 
than $1 billion in 2016 for programs at the Department of State 
and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to 
implement the strategy. The Department of State and USAID 
together plan to use roughly $1 billion of their 2015 
appropriation for similar purposes. Based on the historical 
spending patterns of similar assistance programs, CBO estimates 
that implementing the bill would cost $905 million over the 
2016-2020 period, assuming appropriation of the specified 
amounts. (Most of the remainder would be spent in subsequent 
years.) Based on information from USAID, CBO estimates that 
other federal entities involved in implementing the strategy 
would not require additional appropriations for that purpose. 
Enacting H.R. 1567 would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    The estimated budgetary impact of H.R. 1567 is shown in the 
following table. The costs of this legislation fall primarily 
within budget function 150 (international affairs).

                                     By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            2016     2017     2018     2019     2020   2016-2020
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
Authorization Level                                         1,001        0        0        0        0     1,001
Estimated Outlays                                               5      250      350      250       50       905
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    H.R. 1567 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Sunita D'Monte. 
The estimate was approved by H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                          Directed Rule Making

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of House Rule XIII, as modified by 
section 3(i) of H. Res. 5 during the 114th Congress, the 
committee notes that H.R. 1567 contains no directed rule-making 
provisions.

                  Non-Duplication of Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of House Rule XIII, as modified by 
section 3(g)(2) of H. Res. 5 during the 114th Congress, the 
committee states that no provision of this bill establishes or 
reauthorizes a program of the Federal Government known to be 
duplicative of another Federal program, a program that was 
included in any report from the Government Accountability 
Office to Congress pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-
139, or a program related to a program identified in the most 
recent Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    H.R. 1567 is intended to reduce hunger and poverty in 
developing countries by supporting activities that will 
accelerate economic growth, enhance food and nutrition 
security, and ensure the effective use of U.S. taxpayer dollars 
toward that end. To achieve these goals, the Act requires the 
President to develop a food and nutrition security strategy 
that leverages the expertise of various stakeholders, 
strengthens strategic planning and implementation, focuses on 
results, and promotes efficiency, accountability, and learning. 
The Act includes robust monitoring and evaluation requirements, 
which will enable Congress to conduct effective oversight of 
performance and results.


                    Congressional Accountability Act

    H.R. 1567 does not apply to terms and conditions of 
employment or to access to public services or accommodations 
within the Legislative Branch.

                        New Advisory Committees

    H.R. 1567 does not establish or authorize any new advisory 
committees.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 1567 contains no congressional earmarks, limited tax 
benefits, or limited tariff benefits as described in clauses 
9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of House Rule XXI.

                   Constitutional Authority Statement

    Pursuant to clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the committee finds the authority for 
this legislation in article I, section 8 of the Constitution.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis

    Section 1 states the bill's short title: The Global Food 
Security Act of 2015.
    Section 2 states policy objectives and expresses the Sense 
of Congress that it is in the national security interest of the 
United States to promote global food and nutrition security 
through programs, activities, and initiatives that: Accelerate 
agriculture-led economic growth and poverty reduction; increase 
productivity, incomes, and livelihoods for small-scale 
producers; build resilience to sudden food shortages; improve 
the nutritional status of women and children; and ensure 
effective use of U.S. taxpayer dollars.
    Section 3 defines various terms including, appropriate 
congressional committees; Federal departments and agencies; 
Feed the Future Innovation Labs; food and nutrition security; 
target countries; and related technical terms.
    Section 4 requires the President to develop and implement a 
comprehensive global food security strategy to accomplish the 
objectives outlined above. Specifically, the strategy will: Be 
aligned with a country developed approach with input from 
diverse interests; maximize resources and expertise through 
partnerships with U.S. entities in the private, public, 
academic, and NGO communities; and include clear criteria for 
measuring success and ensuring sustainability. The President 
must then coordinate, through a whole-of-government approach, 
the efforts of relevant departments and agencies in carrying 
out the Global Food Security Strategy, including the 
development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.
    The President must provide the strategy and specific agency 
implementation plans to the appropriate congressional 
committees by October 1, 2016.
    Section 5 authorizes the President, notwithstanding any 
other provision of law, to provide assistance to carry out 
programs to prevent and address food shortages pursuant to the 
relevant authorities under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
    It requires rigorous monitoring and evaluation and 
authorizes $1,000,600,000 for FY 2016 to carry out the Global 
Food Security Strategy. The authorization is equal to the FY 
2015 enacted level and $99.4 million below the FY 2014 enacted 
level.
    Section 6 requires a report, which shall be made publicly 
available and include: A summary of the strategy and any 
changes made over the preceding year; an assessment of progress 
made under the strategy; a description of the indicators used 
to measure success and strategies for graduating target 
countries from U.S. assistance; a detailed accounting of each 
implementing agency's contributions; an explanation of how the 
strategy relates to other U.S. food security and development 
assistance programs; an assessment of donor coordination; 
identification of potential challenges to implementing the 
strategy; gender analysis; and plans for updating the strategy 
and sharing lessons learned.

                                  [all]