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114th Congress}                                       { Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session   }                                       { 114-522

======================================================================
 
      SCHOLARSHIPS FOR OPPORTUNITY AND RESULTS REAUTHORIZATION ACT

                                _______
                                

 April 25, 2016.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Chaffetz, from the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                             MINORITY VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 4901]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 4901) to reauthorize the 
Scholarships for Opportunity and Results Act, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon 
without amendment and recommend that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................     2
Section-by-Section...............................................    10
Explanation of Amendments........................................    13
Committee Consideration..........................................    13
Roll Call Votes..................................................    13
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................    13
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................    14
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............    14
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    14
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    14
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................    14
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................    14
Earmark Identification...........................................    14
Committee Estimate...............................................    14
Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate...    14
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............    16
Minority Views...................................................    35

                     Committee Statement and Views


                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The Scholarships for Opportunity and Results (SOAR) 
Reauthorization Act gives families in the District of Columbia 
(DC) choice in their children's education. The bill continues 
the three-sector approach to education in the District of 
Columbia by authorizing $60 million in annual funding, equally 
distributed to District of Columbia public schools, public 
charter schools, and the Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP). 
The OSP gives children of low-income families in the District 
of Columbia access to a quality education through scholarships 
to attend private schools.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    H.R. 4901 reauthorizes the three-sector approach to 
education in the District of Columbia.\1\ Since 2004, students 
in the District of Columbia have had greater access to a 
quality education, and the SOAR Reauthorization Act would allow 
this trend to continue.
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    \1\The three-sector approach was part of the D.C. School Choice 
Incentive Act in P.L. 108-99 and was later formalized through the 
enactment of the Scholarship for Opportunity and Results Act of 2011 in 
P.L. 112-10.
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Helping the District Maintain Educational Improvements

    The District of Columbia's public education system has 
experienced improvements in recent years, with particularly 
positive outcomes appearing in the 2015 school year. 
Specifically, from the 2014 school year to the 2015 school 
year, the graduation rate for DC public schools increased from 
58 percent to 64 percent.\2\ While this gain is welcome, there 
is still room for further improvement to help ensure children 
in the District have access to a quality education.
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    \2\District of Columbia Office of the State Superintendent of 
Educ., DC 2014 Adjusted Cohort 4-Year Graduation Rate, available at 
http://osse.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/osse/publication/
attachments/Adjusted%20Cohort%20Graduation%20Rate%20Overview%202013-
14.pdf; See also District of Columbia Office of the State 
Superintendent of Educ. available at http://osse.dc.gov/sites/default/
files/dc/sites/osse/publication/attachments/
Adjusted%20Cohort%20Graduation%20Rate%20Overview%202014-15.pdf 
(hereinafter ``DC 2015 Adjusted Cohort 4-Year Graduation Rate'').
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    A key pillar of the SOAR Act is the authorization of funds 
for public education within the District of Columbia. H.R. 4901 
reauthorizes the SOAR Act for another five years, providing 
$300 million in additional funding to support education in the 
District of Columbia over this timeframe. The $300 million 
authorized by H.R. 4901 is divided equally among DC public 
schools, DC public charter schools, and the OSP. The OSP does 
not take any money away from public schools or public charter 
schools within the District. Rather, DC public schools and DC 
public charter schools benefit from additional funding that 
would otherwise not be available to support education within 
the District of Columbia. These funding streams are dedicated 
to improving public schools and public charter schools. It has 
become increasingly clear in recent years that the District of 
Columbia benefits from a strong network of public charter 
schools that provide meaningful alternatives to families that 
would otherwise be assigned to low-performing public schools. 
H.R. 4901 ensures that DC public charter schools receive 
funding for continued improvement, strengthening educational 
options for District children.
    While much work remains to be done for DC public schools, 
the most recent graduation rate demonstrates the progress being 
made. As a March 2016 letter from DC Mayor Muriel Bowser and a 
majority of the DC Council described, ``These [SOAR Act] funds 
are critical to the gains that the District's public education 
system has seen in recent years.''\3\
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    \3\Letter from Muriel Bowser, Mayor, District of Columbia, Phil 
Mendelson, Chairman, District of Columbia Council, et al., to Mitch 
McConnell, Maj. Leader, U.S. Sen., Harry Reid, Min. Leader, U.S. Sen., 
Paul Ryan, Speaker, U.S. H.R., Nancy Pelosi, Min. Leader, U.S. H.R. 
(Mar. 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In that same letter, the Mayor and Councilmember signees 
urge congressional leadership to reauthorize the SOAR Act, 
noting ``SOAR Act funding for [DC Public Schools] has been used 
to support initiatives that reward and increase retention of 
high performing teachers and principals. The funds also help 
attract more high quality teachers and principals to DCPS and 
to improve the efficiency with which schools are run.''\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\Id.
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    In addition to the importance of the public school funding 
streams for these improvements, evidence suggests the OSP could 
have positive impacts on public schools, as the OSP prompted 
public school principals within the District to implement 
changes to retain students who might pursue the OSP or private 
school education. According to a 2010 U.S. Department of 
Education study of the OSP, 28 percent of public school 
principals indicated that they made changes to their operations 
in an effort to keep students from leaving public school for 
the OSP or a private school.\5\ As the District continues to 
make gains in and through its public schools, H.R. 4901 further 
supports those efforts. This legislation is strongly supported 
within the District government, as evidenced by the letter from 
the DC Mayor and a majority of Councilmembers requesting 
Congress reauthorize the SOAR Act.
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    \5\Patrick Wolf et al., Evaluation of the DC Opportunity 
Scholarship Program: Final Report, U.S. Dep't of Educ., Inst. of Educ. 
Sciences, Nat'l Center for Educ. Evaluation & Regional Assistance, at 
67, (June 2010) (NCEE 2010-4018) (hereinafter ``Wolf et al., 2010'').
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The Opportunity Scholarship Program is Working and Helping Families

    In 2003, when the OSP was developed as part of the DC 
Parental Choice Incentive Act of 2003, DC public school 
students had the lowest test scores in the nation.\6\ In the 
decade since, DC public schools have shown improvement in many 
areas; however, DC public school students continue to test well 
below national averages, with scores that remain at or near the 
bottom of the United States.\7\ While it is important to 
support the continued progress of DC public education, families 
in the District deserve strong educational options, options 
which are made available through the OSP.
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    \6\Nat'l Center for Educ. Statistics, Digest of Education 
Statistics, Table 222.60 (2013), Table 222.50 (2013), Table 221.60 
(2013), Table 221.40 (2013), available at https://nces.ed.gov/
programs/digest/2013menu_tables.asp.
    \7\Nat'l Center for Educ. Statistics, National Assessment of 
Education Progress (NAEP), The Nation's Report Card, DC 2015, 4th Grade 
Reading State Snapshot Report available at http://nces.ed.gov/
nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2015/pdf/2016008DC4 (last 
visited April 20, 2016) (hereafter ``DC 4th grade 2015 Reading State 
Snapshot Report.''); See also Nat'l Center for Educ. Statistics, NAEP, 
The Nation's Report Card, DC 2015, 4th Grade Mathematics State Snapshot 
available at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/
stt2015/
pdf/2016009DC4.pdf (last visited April 20, 2016) (hereafter ``DC 2015 
4th Grade Math State Snapshot Report''); See also Nat'l Center for 
Educ. Statistics, NAEP, The Nation's Report Card, DC 2015, 8th Grade 
Reading State Snapshot available at http://nces.ed.gov/
nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2015/pdf/2016008DC8.pdf (last 
visited April 20, 2016) (hereafter ``DC 8th grade 2015 Reading State 
Snapshot Report''); See also Nat'l Center for Educ. Statistics, NAEP, 
The Nation's Report Card, DC 2015, 8th Grade Mathematics State Snapshot 
available at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/
stt2015/pdf/
2016009DC8.pdf (last visited April 20, 2016) (hereafter ``DC 8th grade 
2015 Math State Snapshot Report'').
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    In 2015, DC eighth graders had the lowest average math and 
reading scores of any state.\8\ In math, 49 percent of students 
scored below basic, compared to the national average of 30 
percent.\9\ In reading, 44 percent of students scored below a 
basic level, compared to the national average of 25 
percent.\10\ In 2015, DC fourth graders remain at or near the 
bottom of scores in the country.\11\ Among DC fourth graders, 
31 percent of students tested below a basic level in math, 
compared to the national average of 19 percent.\12\ In reading, 
44 percent of students tested below a basic level, compared to 
the national average of 32 percent.\13\
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    \8\DC 8th grade 2015 Reading State Snapshot Report, supra note 7; 
DC 8th grade 2015 Math State Snapshot Report, supra note 7.
    \9\DC 8th grade 2015 Math State Snapshot Report, supra note 7.
    \10\DC 8th grade 2015 Reading State Snapshot Report, supra note 7.
    \11\DC 4th grade 2015 Math State Snapshot Report, supra note 7; DC 
4th grade 2015 Reading State Snapshot Report, supra note 7.
    \12\DC 4th grade 2015 Math State Snapshot Report, supra note 7.
    \13\DC 4th grade 2015 Reading State Snapshot Report, supra note 7.
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    Conversely, there is convincing evidence to demonstrate OSP 
students are seeing improved achievement against non-OSP 
students in reading. The 2009 U.S. Department of Education 
evaluation found that after three years, OSP students scored 
significantly higher in reading achievement, a difference 
equivalent to three or four months of additional learning.\14\ 
The final evaluation spanning 2004-2009 could not conclusively 
report on increased reading achievement, because the 
achievement over four years was only statistically significant 
at the 94 percent confidence level, and not the 95 percent 
confidence level included in the report.\15\ Dr. Patrick Wolf, 
the leading researcher on the study, indicated that this was 
the result of the sample having changed; as students graduated, 
the researchers had a smaller, different group of students for 
the fourth-year study.\16\
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    \14\Wolf et al., 2010, supra note 5, at 36-41.
    \15\Id., at 35-37, Table 3-2 and Figure 3-1 (June 2010) (NCEE 2010-
4018).
    \16\H. Comm. on Oversight & Gov't Reform, Hearing on D.C. 
Opportunity Scholarship Program: Making the American Dream Possible, 
114th Cong. (May 14, 2015) (statement of Dr. Patrick Wolf, Professor 
and 21st Century Chair in School Choice at the College of Educ. & 
Health Professions at the University of Arkansas); See also Wolf et 
al., 2010, supra note 5, at 37, footnote 39.
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    Additionally, the OSP has resulted in a meaningful impact 
on graduation rates. Despite the recent improvement in 
graduation rates for DC public schools, OSP students graduate 
high school at a much higher rate. During the 2014-2015 school 
year, OSP students had a graduation rate of 90 percent, while 
DC public school students had a graduation rate of 64 
percent.\17\ OSP students graduated well above the national 
average of 82 percent.\18\ Students from low-achieving schools 
in particular appear to be benefiting from the OSP, as students 
in low-achieving schools that used an OSP scholarship increased 
their graduation rate from 66 percent to 79 percent, compared 
to students in low-achieving schools that applied but did not 
receive an OSP scholarship.\19\ Of the 2014-2015 OSP 
population, 98.1 percent would have otherwise attended a school 
formerly designated as in need of improvement without the 
program.\20\ Further, in 2014, the OSP saw 98 percent of its 
graduating students enroll in a two- or four-year college, with 
an 88 percent enrollment rate in 2015.\21\
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    \17\D.C. Children and Youth Investment Trust Corporation , D.C. 
Opportunity Scholarship Program 2014-2015 Program Summary, available at 
http://dcscholarships.org/elements/file/OSP/SY%2016-17%20Documents/
DC%20OSP%20Program%20Summary%20-%20SY%202014-15.pdf (last visited April 
20, 2016) (hereinafter ``OSP 2014-2015 Program Summary''); See also DC 
2015 Adjusted Cohort 4-Year Graduation Rate.
    \18\Nat'l Center for Educ. Statistics, Common Core of Data, Public 
high school 4-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) for the 
United States, the 50 states, and the District of Columbia: School Year 
2013-2014. This is the latest data available by NCES.
    \19\Wolf et al., 2010, supra note 5, at 41.
    \20\OSP 2014-2015 Program Summary, supra note 17.
    \21\D.C. Children and Youth Investment Trust Corporation, D.C. 
Opportunity Scholarship Program 2013-2014 Program Summary, available at 
http://dcscholarships.org/elements/file/OSP/SY%2016-17%20Documents/
2014_06_03%20DC%20OSP%20Program%20Summary.pdf (last visited April 20, 
2016); See also OSP 2014-2015 Program Summary, supra note 17.
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    The OSP is positioning students in the District of Columbia 
for academic success that will continue to benefit them for the 
rest of their lives. According to the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, in 2015, high school graduates had a median weekly 
income that was $185 higher than those without a diploma.\22\ 
This number is even higher for those with some college 
experience, and for those with a bachelor's degree, their 
median weekly earnings were more than twice that of those 
without a high school diploma.\23\ Additionally, in 2015, the 
unemployment rate was 33 percent lower for those with a high 
school diploma than for those without.\24\ For those with a 
bachelor's degree, the unemployment rate was 65 percent lower 
than for those without a high school diploma.\25\ A study 
conducted by Dr. Wolf and Dr. Michael McShane found that for 
every dollar spent on the program, the OSP produces $2.62, or a 
162 percent return on investment.\26\ Simply put, OSP is a 
cost-effective program.
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    \22\U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections 2015, 
available at http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm (last visited 
April 20, 2016).
    \23\Id.
    \24\Id.
    \25\Id.
    \26\Patrick J. Wolf and Michael McShane, Is the Juice Worth the 
Squeeze? A Benefit/Cost Analysis of the District of Columbia 
Opportunity Scholarship Program, Education Finance and Policy (Winter 
2013), 8(1), at 74-99.
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    OSP parents report that the schools they are choosing for 
their children are safer than the alternative public 
school.\27\ Parents also exhibited greater satisfaction with 
their child's school as a result of the OSP.\28\ According to 
an April 2016 report published by the Institute of Education 
Sciences examining the OSP, parents indicated greater 
satisfaction for private schools than for public schools.\29\ 
Parents applying to the OSP were surveyed at the time of 
application about their satisfaction levels with their child's 
current school. 93 percent of parents of private-school 
students gave their current school a grade of an A or B, while 
only 55 percent of public school parents did the same.\30\ Put 
differently, 44 percent of public school parents applying for 
the OSP gave their child's current school a grade of a C, D, or 
F; only eight percent of private school parents rated their 
child's current school as a C or lower.\31\ The strong 
satisfaction with private schools helps explain the strong 
support for the OSP within the District which is further 
demonstrated by 74 percent of OSP parents and the community 
supporting the continuation of the program.\32\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \27\Wolf et al., 2010, supra note 5, at 43-46.
    \28\Id.
    \29\U.S. Dep't of Educ., Inst. of Educ. Sciences, Nat'l Center for 
Educ. Evaluation & Regional Assistance, Applying to the DC Opportunity 
Scholarship Program: How do Parents Rate their Children's Current 
Schools at Time of Application and what do they Want in New Schools?, 
at 4 (Apr. 2016) (NCEE Evaluation Brief) (hereinafter ``NCEE Evaluation 
Brief, April 2016'').
    \30\Id.
    \31\Id. The percentages do not sum to 100 due to rounding.
    \32\Lester & Associates, The District of Columbia Citywide Survey, 
Feb. 2011, Question 25.
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    According to an April 2016 Institute of Education Sciences 
report, parents of private school students indicated the least 
amount of dissatisfaction with their child's school across each 
of the 12 categories measured.\33\ In each category, the 
dissatisfaction with public schools was at least 15 percentage 
points greater than the dissatisfaction with private 
schools.\34\ With respect to ``academic quality'', the top 
priority for parents choosing a new school, parents of public 
school students registered dissatisfaction at 42 percent 
compared to the six percent registered by parents of private 
school students.\35\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \33\NCEE Evaluation Brief, April 2016, supra note 29, at 8.
    \34\Id.
    \35\Id, at 8 and 10.
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Positive Changes for the OSP

    The OSP is contributing to the success of students in the 
District and the satisfaction of parents with their child's 
education. As a result of the demonstrated success of the OSP, 
H.R. 4901 revises the structure for evaluating the program. 
Beginning in 2003, the D.C. Parental Choice Incentive Act, and 
the subsequent SOAR Act, required the OSP to be evaluated using 
the strongest possible research design. To fulfill this 
requirement, the U.S. Secretary of Education utilized a 
randomized control evaluation, creating a lottery system where 
some student applicants received scholarships, while other 
student applicants were placed in a ``control group'' and did 
not receive a scholarship. The current method of evaluation 
limits participation in the program, and excludes students from 
receiving a scholarship to complete the evaluation. Given the 
documented success of the program, H.R. 4901 shifts the OSP 
evaluation to a new standard that will still rigorously measure 
student achievement, but not deny scholarships to certain 
students through the use of a control group.
    To ensure the new evaluation method is rigorous, H.R. 4901 
requires the use of a quasi-experimental research design 
evaluation. This evaluation compares the academic achievement 
of OSP students to the academic achievement of a comparison 
group of students with similar backgrounds in District of 
Columbia public schools. The study is to continue evaluating 
students who received a scholarship and were previously studied 
under the former evaluation. The evaluation is not a 
descriptive analysis, nor does it compare OSP students to their 
own performance over time, but rather is an evaluation of OSP 
student achievement compared to DC public school student 
achievement, comparing students from similar backgrounds. The 
study should be designed to meet the U.S. Department of 
Education's What Works ClearinghouseTM standards for 
a ``qualified quasi-experimental design'' and therefore permit 
evaluators to draw causal conclusions about the program, with 
the reservations typical of such non-experimental analyses.\36\
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    \36\What Works Clearinghouse, Designing Quasi-Experiments: Meeting 
What Works Clearinghouse Standards Without Random Assignment, Webinar 
Transcript, Mar. 3, 2015, available at http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
multimedia/qedwebinar/wwc_webinar_qed_030315.pdf.
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    The legislation also addresses prior concerns over 
administration of the OSP. Two previously published Government 
Accountability Office reports cited concerns with the OSP 
administrator's internal controls, including policies and 
procedures for financial management; The Washington Post also 
conducted an investigation in 2012 which highlighted similar 
concerns.\37\ These reports also noted that the OSP 
administrator did not maintain complete information about OSP 
schools' accreditation, which serves as a means of 
accountability and oversight.\38\ H.R. 4901 responds to these 
recommendations by requiring the OSP Administrator to utilize 
internal fiscal and quality controls, and also by requiring OSP 
participating schools to become accredited.
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    \37\Gov't Accountability Office, District of Columbia Opportunity 
Scholarship Program: Additional Policies and Procedures Would Improve 
Internal Controls and Program Operations, at 20 (Nov. 2007) (GAO-08-9); 
see also Gov't Accountability Office, District of Columbia Opportunity 
Scholarship Program: Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in 
Administration and Oversight, at 19 (Sept. 2013) (GAO-13-805); see also 
Lyndsey Layton and Emma Brown, Quality Controls Lacking for D.C. 
Schools Accepting Federal Vouchers, Wash. Post, Nov. 17, 2012.
    \38\Id.
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    These controls include a requirement that the administrator 
of the OSP report on how it will ensure the financial viability 
of OSP participating schools with an OSP population that is 85 
percent or greater of the total number of students enrolled at 
the school. With respect to accreditation, the bill contains 
accreditation requirements that all schools must be accredited 
within four years of enactment of the Consolidated 
Appropriations Act, 2016.\39\ These changes will address 
quality control concerns, and help ensure students in the 
District of Columbia receive the high standard education they 
deserve.
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    \39\The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 contained 
accreditation provisions requiring OSP participating schools become 
accredited. However, concerns arose over the way the language was 
drafted over the possibility that schools could participate in the 
program without ever becoming fully accredited. Out of an abundance of 
caution, H.R. 4901 repeals the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 
language (Division E, Sec. 817) and replaces it with clearer language 
ensuring accreditation. Because the original accreditation language 
(which required OSP participating, unaccredited schools and 
unaccredited schools who want to participate in the OSP begin seeking 
accreditation within a year of enactment) took effect upon enactment of 
the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016, the accreditation language 
in H.R. 4901 is tied to this original enactment date to maintain the 
five year accreditation timeline originally envisioned and enacted 
through the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The legislation also requires that criminal background 
checks be conducted on school employees who have direct, 
unsupervised interaction with students, and that at OSP 
participating schools, teachers of core subject matter 
(mathematics; science; and English, reading, or language arts) 
have a baccalaureate or equivalent degree.
    H.R. 4901 makes clear that students who are eligible for 
the OSP may not be prevented from participating in the program 
based on the type of school the student previously attended, 
whether a student was previously awarded a scholarship that 
remains unused, and/or whether the student was a member of the 
previous control group used in the Institute of Education 
Sciences study. The U.S. Department of Education has not 
allowed otherwise eligible students to participate in the OSP 
for these reasons; the Department claims the SOAR Act's 
direction to the Department to ``target resources to students 
and families that lack the financial resources to take 
advantage of available educational options'' allows it to 
exclude these eligible students from participating in the 
program.\40\ This new language prevents the Department from 
continuing this practice of shutting eligible students out of 
the program.
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    \40\Letter from Nadya Chinoy Dabby, Asst. Deputy Sec. for 
Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Dep't. of Educ., to Jason Chaffetz, 
Chairman, H. Comm. on Oversight & Gov't. Reform, (Mar. 2, 2016) 
(hereinafter ``Letter from Nadya Chinoy Dabby''); See also Pub. L. No. 
112-10, Division C, Sec. 3006 (2).
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    This legislation also clarifies that funds which have been 
appropriated to the OSP but have not been used must be made 
available to the administrator of the OSP to grant scholarships 
and execute the administrative functions of the program. 
Currently, the U.S. Department of Education does not allow the 
administrator of the OSP access to funds which have been 
appropriated to the OSP but remain unexpended from previous 
fiscal years, claiming the Department must maintain those funds 
to ensure current students can stay in the OSP in the event 
that Congress does not appropriate funding to the program in 
the future.\41\ Historically, in the one period when Congress 
did not allow for new enrollment in the OSP, it still 
appropriated funding to the OSP so currently enrolled students 
could continue their education on a scholarship, as was done 
through appropriations for Fiscal Year 2009.\42\ Thus, the 
Department's concerns are unfounded and H.R. 4901 ensures the 
administrator has access to the carryover funds to provide OSP 
scholarships to as many eligible students as possible.
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    \41\Letter from Nadya Chinoy Dabby.
    \42\Pub. L. No. 111-117, Division C, Title IV.
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    All of these changes serve to enhance the OSP. H.R. 4901 
provides greater oversight and transparency of the program 
while ensuring students are able to participate in the OSP and 
the program administrator has access to the resources which 
Congress has appropriated to it.

Reauthorizing SOAR

    In October 2015, the House passed H.R. 10 in an effort to 
reauthorize the SOAR Act. Subsequently, the text of that 
legislation was used as the base text for negotiations between 
the House and the Senate, where a bipartisan, bicameral 
agreement was reached to make a handful of changes (as 
highlighted by this report) to the legislation. While these 
changes were not substantial, but rather served to further the 
intent of H.R. 10, the importance of this legislation merited 
its reconsideration before the Committee as a new bill, 
providing the opportunity for members to comment and vote on 
the legislation. For that reason, Chairman Jason Chaffetz (R-
UT) introduced the revised text as H.R. 4901.
    Just as H.R. 10 before it, H.R. 4901 reauthorizes the 
three-sector approach which means improved educational outcomes 
for District of Columbia students.
    Educational choice is aimed at bringing about improvements 
across all schools. H.R. 4901 means a continued emphasis on 
educational quality across District of Columbia schools. Simply 
put, the SOAR Reauthorization Act brings opportunity to those 
most in need.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    The DC OSP was first created as part of H.R. 2556, the D.C. 
Parental Choice Incentive Act, sponsored by Rep. Tom Davis (R-
VA), which was favorably reported by the Committee on 
Government Reform by a 22-21 vote on July 10, 2003. The 
legislation was subsequently incorporated into H.R. 2673, the 
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004 (P.L. 108-199). 
Appropriations for the program were authorized through FY2008.
    The Omnibus Appropriation Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8) specified 
that the use of any funds in any act for Opportunity 
Scholarships after the 2009-2010 school year be available only 
upon reauthorization of the program and the adoption of 
legislation by the District of Columbia approving such 
reauthorization. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 
(P.L. 111-117) eliminated this restriction on funding, 
allocating $13.2 million for Opportunity Scholarships to 
students who received scholarships in the 2009-2010 school 
year.
    During the 112th Congress, Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) 
introduced H.R. 471, the Scholarships for Opportunity and 
Results (SOAR) Act, on January 26, 2011 to reauthorize the DC 
OSP. The bill was referred to the Committee on Oversight and 
Government Reform. The companion bill, S.206, was introduced on 
January 26, 2011 by Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT). The bill 
was referred to the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs Committee, which held a hearing on February 16, 2011.
    The Subcommittee on Health Care, D.C., Census, and National 
Archives of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform 
held a hearing on the DC OSP and H.R. 471 on March 1, 2011. The 
Committee favorably reported the legislation by a 21-14 vote on 
March 10, 2011. H.R. 471 passed the House on March 30, 2011, by 
a record vote of 225-195. The legislation was subsequently 
incorporated into H.R. 1473, the Department of Defense and 
Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, (P.L. 112-10). 
Appropriations for the program were authorized through FY 2016.
    Representative Trey Gowdy (R-SC) introduced H.R. 3237, the 
SOAR Technical Corrections Act on October 18, 2011. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on Oversight and Government 
Reform, and the Committee then reported the legislation 
favorably by voice vote on November 3, 2011. H.R. 3237 was 
signed into law on February 1, 2012 (P.L. 112-92).
    On May 14, 2015, the Committee on Oversight and Government 
Reform held a field hearing at Archbishop Carroll High School, 
a participating DC OSP school, to examine the reauthorization 
of DC OSP.
    After the field hearing, Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) 
introduced H.R. 10, the Scholarships for Opportunity and 
Results (SOAR) Reauthorization Act on October 5, 2015. 
Representatives Jason Chaffetz (R-UT), John Kline (R-MN), 
Daniel Lipinski (R-IL), Todd Rokita (R-IN), Rodney 
Frelinghuysen (R-NJ), and Luke Messer (R-IN) were original co-
sponsors.
    On October 9, 2015, the Committee on Oversight and 
Government Reform ordered H.R. 10 favorably reported, as 
amended, by a recorded vote of 16-14. Representative Rod Blum 
(R-IA), a cosponsor of H.R.10, was detained voting in another 
Committee. Had Representative Blum been present for the vote, 
he would have voted in favor of reporting the bill, as amended. 
H.R. 10 passed the House on October 21, 2015, by a record vote 
of 240-191.
    Representative Jason Chaffetz (R-UT) introduced H.R. 4901, 
the Scholarships for Opportunity and Results (SOAR) 
Reauthorization Act on April 12, 2016. The bill was referred to 
the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, and the 
Committee then favorably reported the legislation by voice vote 
on April 14, 2016.

                           Section-by-Section


Section 1. Short title; References in act

    Designates the short title of the bill as the ``SOAR 
Reauthorization Act''.
    Makes clear any amendment or repeal cited within the Act is 
in reference to the Scholarships for Opportunity and Results 
Act (division C of Public Law 112-10; sec. 38-1853.01 et. Seq., 
D.C. Official Code).

Section 2. Repeal

    Repeals section 817 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 
2016 (P.L. 114-113). Any provision of law amended or repealed 
by such section is restored.

Section 3. Purposes

    Strikes section 3002 (sec. 38-1853.02, D.C. Official Code). 
Amends sec. 3003 (sec. 38-1853.03, D.C. Official Code). The 
purpose of this bill is to continue to provide educational 
opportunities for the children of low-income parents within the 
District of Columbia.

Section 4. Prohibiting imposition of limits on types of eligible 
        students participating in the program

    Amends section 3004(a) (sec. 38-1853.04(a), D.C. Official 
Code). Makes clear the U.S. Secretary of the Department of 
Education (Secretary) may not limit an otherwise eligible 
student from participating in the OSP based on the type of 
school the student previously attended, whether or not the 
student previously received a scholarship (including whether an 
eligible student was previously awarded a scholarship and did 
not use the scholarship), or whether the student was a member 
of the evaluation ``control group'' that previously prohibited 
them from participating in OSP.
    If more students enter the OSP than the program can 
support, the program administrator must conduct a random 
selection process that gives weight to priorities in section 
3006.

Section 5. Requiring eligible entities to utilize internal fiscal and 
        quality controls

    Amends section 3005(b)(1) (sec. 38-1853.05(b)(1), D.C. 
Official Code). Makes clear that a participating school may not 
be required to submit to more than one site visit per school 
year.
    Requires the administering entity to ensure the financial 
viability of participating schools with an OSP population of 85 
percent or greater. The entity administering the OSP must have 
proper fiscal and quality controls in place as a condition to 
managing the scholarship program.

Section 6. Clarification of priorities for awarding scholarships to 
        eligible students

    Amends Section 3006(1) (sec. 38-1853.06(1), D.C. Official 
Code) to remove the terminology ``school identified for 
improvement, corrective action, or restructuring'' and replaces 
it with ``school identified as one of the lowest-performing 
schools under the District of Columbia's accountability 
system''.

Section 7. Modification of requirements for participating schools and 
        eligible entities

    Amends section 3007(a)(4) (sec. 38-1853.07(a)(4), D.C. 
Official Code). Requires a teacher at an OSP participating 
school who teaches core subject matter to OSP participating 
students to have a baccalaureate or equivalent degree.
    Requires school employees with direct, unsupervised 
interaction with students to have criminal background checks.
    Requires participating schools to comply with requests for 
data pursuant to the statutory reporting requirements in Sec. 
3010 of P.L. 112-10.
    Further amends section 3007(a) (sec. 38-1853.07(a), D.C. 
Official Code). Requires all OSP participating schools to be 
accredited, or in the process of seeking accreditation. Current 
OSP participating, unaccredited schools have one year from the 
date of enactment of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 
(Public Law 114-113) to begin seeking accreditation and five 
years from the date of enactment of Consolidated Appropriations 
Act, 2016 (Public Law 114-113) to become accredited. New 
schools may participate in the OSP if they are accredited 
before beginning participation. Within five years after the 
date of enactment of the SOAR Reauthorization Act, all 
participating schools must provide the OSP administrator with a 
certificate of full accreditation.
    Requires the eligible entity to help parents of an OSP 
participating student find another participating school in the 
event that such student attends an OSP participating school 
that fails to meet the accreditation requirements.
    Makes clear students who were previously awarded an 
opportunity scholarship in any previous year are to be treated 
as renewal students and not new applicants, regardless of when 
the scholarship was awarded and whether it was used.
    Requires the Secretary to make any remaining available 
funds appropriated for the OSP available to the entity 
administering the OSP, including funds appropriated before the 
enactment of the SOAR Reauthorization Act and any funds 
appropriated on or after enactment of such act. If the eligible 
entity chooses to use these funds, the funds shall be used to 
award new scholarships to students, of which not more than five 
percent of unexpended funds may be used for administrative 
costs, parental assistance, and tutoring. The amount made 
available for administrative costs, parental assistance, and 
tutoring is in addition to funds already set aside for those 
purposes pursuant to the SOAR Reauthorization Act.
    Section 3007 (sec. 38-1853.07, D.C. Official Code) is 
further amended by repealing the previous language on 
administrative expenses and parental assistance and replacing 
it with an authorization of $2 million annually in appropriated 
funds to carry out administrative functions and provide 
parental education and assistance. These responsibilities 
include: conducting site visits to the schools; conducting a 
study on the barriers OSP participating students face in 
gaining admission to the school of their first choice; 
providing parents information on supplemental financial aid and 
funds to assist parents in meeting expenses that would 
otherwise preclude the student's participation; and 
streamlining the application.
    Amends section 3007(c) (sec. 38-1853.07(c), D.C. Official 
Code) to conform to the changes made in Section 6 of this Act.

Section 8. Program evaluation

    Amends section 3009(a) (sec. 38-1853.09(a), D.C. Official 
Code). Requires the Mayor of DC and Secretary to have the 
Institute of Education Sciences (IES), within the Department of 
Education, annually evaluate the OSP, and agree to monitor and 
evaluate D.C. public schools and public charter schools' use of 
funds. These evaluations are to be made public.
    Requires the Secretary to ensure that the annual OSP 
evaluation uses a quasi-experimental research design that does 
not require a control group that would prohibit eligible 
students from entering the OSP and to disseminate information 
on the impact of the program.
    Makes clear IES will assess participating students in 
grades 3 through 8 and one grade in high school and that the 
evaluation shall measures student achievement of participating 
students who use an opportunity scholarship. IES will work with 
eligible entities to ensure parents of participating students 
agree to participate in the evaluations.
    Requires the following issues be evaluated by IES: a 
comparison of academic achievement of OSP participating 
students with similar backgrounds in D.C. public schools; the 
success of expanding choice options for parents and increasing 
satisfaction of parents and students with their choice; reasons 
for participating in the program; a comparison of retention, 
graduation, college admission, college persistence, and college 
graduation rates of OSP participating students with those in 
the D.C. public school comparison group (a similar comparison 
of college enrollment, persistence, and graduation rates for 
students who participated in the OSP in certain years compared 
to students who entered the OSP lottery but were not selected); 
school safety; an assessment of student achievement at OSP 
participating schools with 85 percent or greater enrollment of 
OSP participating students; and other issues the Secretary 
deems appropriate.
    The bill provides protections for the personally 
identifiable information of students.
    The evaluation conducted under the previous authorizations 
of the SOAR Act will be terminated, but the Secretary will 
continue to monitor and evaluate students who were evaluated 
under the most recent evaluation prior to the date of enactment 
of this Act.

Section 9. Funding for District of Columbia public schools and public 
        charter schools

    The Secretary may withhold funds from the Mayor if the 
Mayor fails to comply with any of the requirements, and 
reasonable notice was given as well as the opportunity for a 
hearing.
    The Secretary may direct funds to the Office of the State 
Superintendent of Education of the District of Columbia (OSSE), 
and OSSE may transfer funds to subgrantees that are DC public 
charter schools, public charter school networks, nonprofits 
that support DC public charters, or networks of schools.
    Requires the Mayor to make all necessary DC public and 
public charter school information available to IES for the 
purposes of carrying out the evaluation.

Section 10. Revision of current memorandum of understanding

    The Mayor and Secretary will revise their memorandum of 
understanding to reflect the amendments within this Act, the 
need to ensure that participating schools meet fire code 
standards and maintain certificates of occupancy, and to ensure 
that DC public and public charter schools meet the requirements 
to provide information necessary to carry out evaluations.

Section 11. Definitions

    Defines ``core subject matter'' and redesignates certain 
paragraphs.

Section 12. Extension of authorization of appropriations

    Amends section 3014 (sec. 38-1853.14, D.C. Official Code) 
to extend the authorization through September 30, 2021. Makes 
clear that amounts appropriated, including amounts appropriated 
before the date of enactment of this Act, are to remain 
available until expended.

Section 12. Effective date

    The amendments in the Act apply beginning the 2017-2018 
school year and each succeeding school year.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    No amendments to H.R. 4901 were offered or adopted during 
Full Committee consideration of the bill.

                        Committee Consideration

    On March 14, 2016, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, H.R. 4901, by voice vote, 
a quorum being present.

                            Roll Call Votes

    No roll call votes were requested or conducted during Full 
Committee consideration of H.R. 4901.

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill reauthorizes the Scholarships for Opportunity and 
Results Act. As such this bill does not relate to employment or 
access to public services and accommodations.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee's performance 
goal or objective of this bill is to reauthorize the 
Scholarships for Opportunity and Results Act.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of this bill establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that enacting this bill does not 
direct the completion of any specific rule makings within the 
meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not establish 
or authorize the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b).

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandate Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    This bill does not include any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of rule XXI.

                           Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs that would be incurred in carrying out 
this bill. However, clause 3(d)(2)(B) of that Rule provides 
that this requirement does not apply when the Committee has 
included in its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the 
bill prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974.

     Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has received 
the following cost estimate for this bill from the Director of 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                                    April 21, 2016.
Hon. Jason Chaffetz,
Chairman, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 4901, the 
Scholarships for Opportunity and Results Reauthorization Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Leah 
Koestner.
            Sincerely,
                                                        Keith Hall.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 4901--Scholarships for Opportunity and Results Reauthorization Act

    Summary: H.R. 4901 would amend and reauthorize the 
Scholarships for Opportunity and Results Act and would 
authorize the appropriation of $60 million for each of fiscal 
years 2017 through 2021. CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 4901 
would cost $300 million over the 2017-2021 period, assuming 
appropriation of the authorized amounts.
    Enacting H.R. 4901 would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply to 
this legislation.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 4901 would not increase 
net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2027.
    H.R. 4901 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). 
Any costs to the District of Columbia would be incurred 
voluntarily and would result from complying with conditions of 
assistance.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of H.R. 4901 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 500 
(education, training, employment, and social services).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                            2017     2018     2019     2020     2021   2017-2021
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Authorization Level.....................................       60       60       60       60       60       300
Estimated Outlays.......................................       60       60       60       60       60       300
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: H.R. 4901 would authorize the 
appropriation of $60 million for each of fiscal years 2017 
through 2021. The program is currently authorized through 
fiscal year 2016 at $60 million annually. In fiscal year 2016, 
the Congress appropriated $45 million for this program.
    The bill would direct the funds to be divided equally for 
the following three purposes:
           To provide scholarships for private-school 
        tuition to parents of students who reside in the 
        District of Columbia and to meet certain criteria under 
        the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program;
           To improve public education in the District 
        of Columbia; and
           To improve and expand quality public charter 
        schools in the District of Columbia.
    Based on historical spending patterns for this program and 
assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO projects 
that enacting the bill would cost $300 million over the 2017-
2021 period.
    Pay-as-you-go considerations: None.
    Increase in long-term net direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 4901 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2027.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 4901 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA. An educational entity of the District of 
Columbia may voluntarily choose to apply to the Department of 
Education to distribute grants through the School Choice 
Program, but any associated costs to the District would be 
incurred voluntarily and would result from complying with 
conditions of assistance. If low-income students choose to 
attend private schools, the District of Columbia school system 
could lose federal grants based on the number of low-income 
students in the system.
    Previous CBO estimates: On October 16, 2015, CBO 
transmitted an estimate for H.R. 10, the Scholarships for 
Opportunity and Results Reauthorization Act, as ordered 
reported by the House Committee on Oversight and Government 
Reform on October 9, 2015. The two pieces of legislation are 
similar but CBO's estimate of the budgetary effects of H.R. 
4901 includes an additional year.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Leah Koestner; Impact 
on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Jon Sperl; Impact on 
the Private Sector: Paige Piper/Bach.
    Estimate approved by: H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

        SECTION 817 OF THE CONSOLIDATED APPROPRIATIONS ACT, 2016

  [Sec. 817. (a) This section may be cited as the ``D.C. 
Opportunity Scholarship Program School Certification 
Requirements Act''.
  [(b) Section 3007(a) of the Scholarships for Opportunity and 
Results Act (Public Law 112-10; 125 Stat. 203) is amended--
          [(1) in paragraph (4)--
                  [(A) in subparagraph (E), by striking ``and'' 
                after the semicolon;
                  [(B) in subparagraph (F), by striking the 
                period at the end and inserting a semicolon; 
                and
                  [(C) by adding at the end the following:
                  [``(G)(i) is provisionally or fully 
                accredited by a national or regional 
                accrediting agency that is recognized in the 
                District of Columbia School Reform Act of 1995 
                (sec. 38-1802.02(16)(A)-(G), D.C. Official 
                Code) or any other accrediting body deemed 
                appropriate by the Office of the State 
                Superintendent for Schools for the purposes of 
                accrediting an elementary or secondary school; 
                or
                          [``(ii) in the case of a school that 
                        is a participating school as of the day 
                        before the date of enactment of the 
                        D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program 
                        School Certification Requirements Act 
                        and, as of such day, does not meet the 
                        requirements of clause (i)--
                                  [``(I) by not later than 1 
                                year after such date of 
                                enactment, is pursuing 
                                accreditation by a national or 
                                regional accrediting agency 
                                recognized in the District of 
                                Columbia School Reform Act of 
                                1995 (sec. 38-1802.02(16)(A)-
                                (G), D.C. Official Code) or any 
                                other accrediting body deemed 
                                appropriate by the Office of 
                                the State Superintendent for 
                                Schools for the purposes of 
                                accrediting an elementary or 
                                secondary school; and
                                  [``(II) by not later than 5 
                                years after such date of 
                                enactment, is provisionally or 
                                fully accredited by such 
                                accrediting agency, except that 
                                an eligible entity may grant 
                                not more than one 1-year 
                                extension to meet this 
                                requirement for each 
                                participating school that 
                                provides evidence to the 
                                eligible entity from such 
                                accrediting agency that the 
                                school's application for 
                                accreditation is in process and 
                                the school will be awarded 
                                accreditation before the end of 
                                the 1-year extension period;
                  [``(H) conducts criminal background checks on 
                school employees who have direct and 
                unsupervised interaction with students; and
                  [``(I) complies with all requests for data 
                and information regarding the reporting 
                requirements described in section 3010.''; and
          [(2) by adding at the end the following:
          [``(5) New participating schools.--If a school is not 
        a participating school as of the date of enactment of 
        the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program School 
        Certification Requirements Act, the school shall not 
        become a participating school and none of the funds 
        provided under this division for opportunity 
        scholarships may be used by an eligible student to 
        enroll in that school unless the school--
                  [``(A) is actively pursuing provisional or 
                full accreditation by a national or regional 
                accrediting agency that is recognized in the 
                District of Columbia School Reform Act of 1995 
                (sec. 38-1802.02(16)(A)-(G), D.C. Official 
                Code) or any other accrediting body deemed 
                appropriate by the Office of the State 
                Superintendent for Schools for the purposes of 
                accrediting an elementary or secondary school; 
                and
                  [``(B) meets all of the other requirements 
                for participating schools under this Act.
          [``(6) Enrolling in another school.--An eligible 
        entity shall assist the parents of a participating 
        eligible student in identifying, applying to, and 
        enrolling in an another participating school for which 
        opportunity scholarship funds may be used, if--
                  [``(A) such student is enrolled in a 
                participating private school and may no longer 
                use opportunity scholarship funds for 
                enrollment in that participating private school 
                because such school fails to meet a requirement 
                under paragraph 4, or any other requirement of 
                this Act; or
                  [``(B) a participating eligible student is 
                enrolled in a school that ceases to be a 
                participating school.''.
  [(c) Report to Eligible Entities.--Section 3010 of the 
Scholarships for Opportunity and Results Act (Public Law 112-
10; 125 Stat. 203) is further amended--
          [(1) by redesignating subsection (d) as subsection 
        (e); and
          [(2) by inserting after subsection (c) the following:
  [``(d) Reports to Eligible Entities.--The eligible entity 
receiving funds under section 3004(a) shall ensure that each 
participating school under this division submits to the 
eligible entity beginning not later than 5 years after the date 
of the enactment of the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program 
School Certification Requirements Act, a certification that the 
school has been awarded provisional or full accreditation, or 
has been granted an extension by the eligible entity in 
accordance with section 3007(a)(4)(G).''.
  [(d) Unless specifically provided otherwise, this section, 
and the amendments made by this section, shall take effect 1 
year after the date of enactment of this Act.]
                              ----------                              


              SCHOLARSHIPS FOR OPPORTUNITY AND RESULTS ACT



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
DIVISION C--SCHOLARSHIPS FOR OPPORTUNITY AND RESULTS ACT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 3003. PURPOSE.

  The purpose of this division is to provide low-income parents 
residing in the District of Columbia, [particularly parents of 
students who attend elementary schools or secondary schools 
implementing comprehensive support and improvement activities 
or targeted support and improvement activities under section 
1111(d) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 
with] particularly parents of students who attend an elementary 
school or secondary school identified as one of the lowest-
performing schools under the District of Columbia's 
accountability system, with expanded opportunities for 
enrolling their children in other schools in the District of 
Columbia, at least until the public schools in the District of 
Columbia have adequately addressed shortfalls in health, 
safety, and security, and the students in the District of 
Columbia public schools are testing in mathematics and reading 
at or above the national average.

SEC. 3004. GENERAL AUTHORITY.

  (a) Opportunity Scholarships.--
          (1) In general.--From funds appropriated under 
        section 3014(a)(1), the Secretary shall award grants on 
        a competitive basis to eligible entities with approved 
        applications under section 3005 to carry out a program 
        to provide eligible students with expanded school 
        choice opportunities. The Secretary may award a single 
        grant or multiple grants, depending on the quality of 
        applications submitted and the priorities of this 
        division.
          (2) Duration of grants.--The Secretary may make 
        grants under this subsection for a period of not more 
        than 5 years.
          (3) Prohibiting imposition of limits on eligible 
        students participating in the program.--
                  (A) In general.--In carrying out the program 
                under this division, the Secretary may not 
                limit the number of eligible students receiving 
                scholarships under section 3007(a), and may not 
                prevent otherwise eligible students from 
                participating in the program under this 
                division, based on any of the following:
                          (i) The type of school the student 
                        previously attended.
                          (ii) Whether or not the student 
                        previously received a scholarship or 
                        participated in the program, including 
                        whether an eligible student was awarded 
                        a scholarship in any previous year but 
                        has not used the scholarship, 
                        regardless of the number of years of 
                        nonuse.
                          (iii) Whether or not the student was 
                        a member of the control group used by 
                        the Institute of Education Sciences to 
                        carry out previous evaluations of the 
                        program under section 3009.
                  (B) Rule of construction.--Nothing in 
                subparagraph (A) may be construed to waive the 
                requirement under section 3005(b)(1)(B) that 
                the eligible entity carrying out the program 
                under this Act must carry out a random 
                selection process, which gives weight to the 
                priorities described in section 3006, if more 
                eligible students seek admission in the program 
                than the program can accommodate.
  (b) DC Public Schools and Charter Schools.--From funds 
appropriated under paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 3014(a), 
the Secretary shall provide funds to the Mayor of the District 
of Columbia, if the Mayor agrees to the requirements described 
in section 3011(a), for--
          (1) the District of Columbia public schools to 
        improve public education in the District of Columbia; 
        and
          (2) the District of Columbia public charter schools 
        to improve and expand quality public charter schools in 
        the District of Columbia.

SEC. 3005. APPLICATIONS.

  (a) In General.--In order to receive a grant under section 
3004(a), an eligible entity shall submit an application to the 
Secretary at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such 
information as the Secretary may require.
  (b) Contents.--The Secretary may not approve the request of 
an eligible entity for a grant under section 3004(a) unless the 
entity's application includes--
          (1) a detailed description of--
                  (A) how the entity will address the 
                priorities described in section 3006;
                  (B) how the entity will ensure that if more 
                eligible students seek admission in the program 
                of the entity than the program can accommodate, 
                eligible students are selected for admission 
                through a random selection process which gives 
                weight to the priorities described in section 
                3006;
                  (C) how the entity will ensure that if more 
                participating eligible students seek admission 
                to a participating school than the school can 
                accommodate, participating eligible students 
                are selected for admission through a random 
                selection process;
                  (D) how the entity will notify parents of 
                eligible students of the expanded choice 
                opportunities in order to allow the parents to 
                make informed decisions;
                  (E) the activities that the entity will carry 
                out to provide parents of eligible students 
                with expanded choice opportunities through the 
                awarding of scholarships under section 3007(a);
                  (F) how the entity will determine the amount 
                that will be provided to parents under section 
                3007(a)(2) for the payment of tuition, fees, 
                and transportation expenses, if any;
                  (G) how the entity will seek out private 
                elementary schools and secondary schools in the 
                District of Columbia to participate in the 
                program;
                  (H) how the entity will ensure that each 
                participating school will meet the reporting 
                and other program requirements under this 
                division;
                  (I) how the entity will ensure that 
                participating schools submit to site visits by 
                the entity as determined to be necessary by the 
                entity[, except that a participating school may 
                not be required to submit to more than 1 site 
                visit per school year];
                  (J) how the entity will ensure that 
                participating schools are financially 
                responsible and will use the funds received 
                under section 3007 effectively;
                  (K) how the entity will ensure the financial 
                viability of participating schools in which 85 
                percent or more of the total number of students 
                enrolled at the school are participating 
                eligible students that receive and use an 
                opportunity scholarship;
                  [(K)] (L) how the entity will address the 
                renewal of scholarships to participating 
                eligible students, including continued 
                eligibility; [and]
                  [(L)] (M) how the entity will ensure that a 
                majority of its voting board members or 
                governing organization are residents of the 
                District of Columbia; and
                  (N) how the eligible entity will ensure that 
                it--
                          (i) utilizes internal fiscal and 
                        quality controls; and
                          (ii) complies with applicable 
                        financial reporting requirements and 
                        the requirements of this division; and
          (2) an assurance that the entity will comply with all 
        requests regarding any evaluation carried out under 
        section 3009(a).

SEC. 3006. PRIORITIES.

  In awarding grants under section 3004(a), the Secretary shall 
give priority to applications from eligible entities that will 
most effectively--
          (1) in awarding scholarships under section 3007(a), 
        give priority to--
                  (A) eligible students who, in the school year 
                preceding the school year for which the 
                eligible students are seeking a scholarship, 
                [attended an elementary school or secondary 
                school implementing comprehensive support and 
                improvement activities or targeted support and 
                improvement activities under section 1111(d) of 
                the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
                1965;] attended an elementary school or 
                secondary school identified as one of the 
                lowest-performing schools under the District of 
                Columbia's accountability system; and
                  [(B) students who have been awarded a 
                scholarship in a preceding year under this 
                division or the DC School Choice Incentive Act 
                of 2003 (sec. 38-1851.01 et seq., D.C. Official 
                Code), as such Act was in effect on the day 
                before the date of the enactment of this 
                division, but who have not used the 
                scholarship, including eligible students who 
                were provided notification of selection for a 
                scholarship for school year 2009-2010, which 
                was later rescinded in accordance with 
                direction from the Secretary of Education; and]
                  [(C)] (B) students whose household includes a 
                sibling or other child who is already 
                participating in the program of the eligible 
                entity under this division, regardless of 
                whether such students have, in the past, been 
                assigned as members of a control study group 
                for the purposes of an evaluation under section 
                3009(a)[;] or whether such students have, in 
                the past, attended a private school;
          (2) target resources to students and families that 
        lack the financial resources to take advantage of 
        available educational options; and
          (3) provide students and families with the widest 
        range of educational options.

SEC. 3007. USE OF FUNDS.

  (a) Opportunity Scholarships.--
          (1) In general.--Subject to [paragraphs (2) and (3)] 
        paragraphs (2), (3), and (5), an eligible entity 
        receiving a grant under section 3004(a) shall use the 
        grant funds to provide eligible students with 
        scholarships to pay the tuition, fees, and 
        transportation expenses, if any, to enable the eligible 
        students to attend the District of Columbia private 
        elementary school or secondary school of their choice 
        beginning in school year 2011-2012. Each such eligible 
        entity shall ensure that the amount of any tuition or 
        fees charged by a school participating in such entity's 
        program under this division to an eligible student 
        participating in the program does not exceed the amount 
        of tuition or fees that the school charges to students 
        who do not participate in the program.
          (2) Payments to parents.--An eligible entity 
        receiving a grant under section 3004(a) shall make 
        scholarship payments under the entity's program under 
        this division to the parent of the eligible student 
        participating in the program, in a manner which ensures 
        that such payments will be used for the payment of 
        tuition, fees, and transportation expenses (if any), in 
        accordance with this division.
          (3) Amount of assistance.--
                  (A) Varying amounts permitted.--Subject to 
                the other requirements of this section, an 
                eligible entity receiving a grant under section 
                3004(a) may award scholarships in larger 
                amounts to those eligible students with the 
                greatest need.
                  (B) Annual limit on amount.--
                          (i) Limit for school year 2011-
                        2012.--The amount of assistance 
                        provided to any eligible student by an 
                        eligible entity under the entity's 
                        program under this division for school 
                        year 2011-2012 may not exceed--
                                  (I) $8,000 for attendance in 
                                kindergarten through grade 8; 
                                and
                                  (II) $12,000 for attendance 
                                in grades 9 through 12.
                          (ii) Cumulative inflation 
                        adjustment.--Beginning with school year 
                        2012-2013, the Secretary shall adjust 
                        the maximum amounts of assistance 
                        described in clause (i) for inflation, 
                        as measured by the percentage increase, 
                        if any, from the preceding fiscal year 
                        in the Consumer Price Index for All 
                        Urban Consumers, published by the 
                        Bureau of Labor Statistics of the 
                        Department of Labor.
          (4) Participating school requirements.--None of the 
        funds provided under this division for opportunity 
        scholarships may be used by an eligible student to 
        enroll in a participating private school unless the 
        participating school--
                  (A) has and maintains a valid certificate of 
                occupancy issued by the District of Columbia;
                  (B) makes readily available to all 
                prospective students information on its school 
                accreditation;
                  (C) in the case of a school that has been 
                operating for 5 years or less, submits to the 
                eligible entity administering the program proof 
                of adequate financial resources reflecting the 
                financial sustainability of the school and the 
                school's ability to be in operation through the 
                school year;
                  (D) agrees to submit to site visits as 
                determined to be necessary by the eligible 
                entity pursuant to section 3005(b)(1)(I);
                  (E) has financial systems, controls, 
                policies, and procedures to ensure that funds 
                are used according to this division; [and]
                  [(F) ensures that, with respect to core 
                academic subjects (as such term was defined in 
                section 9101(11) of the Elementary and 
                Secondary Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801(11)) on 
                the day before the date of enactment of the 
                Every Student Succeeds Act), participating 
                students are taught by a teacher who has a 
                baccalaureate degree or equivalent degree, 
                whether such degree was awarded in or outside 
                of the United States.]
                  (F) ensures that, with respect to core 
                subject matter, participating students are 
                taught by a teacher who has a baccalaureate 
                degree or equivalent degree, whether such 
                degree was awarded in or outside of the United 
                States;
                  (G) conducts criminal background checks on 
                school employees who have direct and 
                unsupervised interaction with students; and
                  (H) complies with all requests for data and 
                information regarding the reporting 
                requirements described in section 3010.
          (5) Accreditation requirements.--
                  (A) In general.--None of the funds provided 
                under this division for opportunity 
                scholarships may be used by a participating 
                eligible student to enroll in a participating 
                private school unless the school--
                          (i) in the case of a school that is a 
                        participating school as of the date of 
                        enactment of the SOAR Reauthorization 
                        Act--
                                  (I) is fully accredited by an 
                                accrediting body described in 
                                any of subparagraphs (A) 
                                through (G) of section 2202(16) 
                                of the District of Columbia 
                                School Reform Act of 1995 
                                (Public Law 104-134; sec. 38-
                                1802.02(16)(A)-(G), D.C. 
                                Official Code); or
                                  (II) if such participating 
                                school does not meet the 
                                requirements of subclause (I)--
                                          (aa) not later than 1 
                                        year after the date of 
                                        enactment of the 
                                        Consolidated 
                                        Appropriations Act, 
                                        2016 (Public Law 114-
                                        113), the school is 
                                        pursuing full 
                                        accreditation by an 
                                        accrediting body 
                                        described in subclause 
                                        (I); and
                                          (bb) is fully 
                                        accredited by such an 
                                        accrediting body not 
                                        later than 5 years 
                                        after the date on which 
                                        that school began the 
                                        process of pursuing 
                                        full accreditation in 
                                        accordance with item 
                                        (aa); and
                          (ii) in the case of a school that is 
                        not a participating school as of the 
                        date of enactment of the SOAR 
                        Reauthorization Act, is fully 
                        accredited by an accrediting body 
                        described in clause (i)(I) before 
                        becoming a participating school under 
                        this division.
                  (B) Reports to eligible entity.--Not later 
                than 5 years after the date of enactment of the 
                SOAR Reauthorization Act, each participating 
                school shall submit to the eligible entity a 
                certification that the school has been fully 
                accredited in accordance with subparagraph (A).
                  (C) Assisting students in enrolling in other 
                schools.--If a participating school fails to 
                meet the requirements of this paragraph, the 
                eligible entity shall assist the parents of the 
                participating eligible students who attend the 
                school in identifying, applying to, and 
                enrolling in another participating school under 
                this division.
          (6) Treatment of students awarded a scholarship in a 
        previous year.--An eligible entity shall treat a 
        participating eligible student who was awarded an 
        opportunity scholarship in any previous year and who 
        has not used the scholarship as a renewal student and 
        not as a new applicant, without regard as to--
                  (A) whether the eligible student has used the 
                scholarship; and
                  (B) the year in which the scholarship was 
                previously awarded.
  [(b) Administrative Expenses.--An eligible entity receiving a 
grant under section 3004(a) may use not more than 3 percent of 
the amount provided under the grant each year for the 
administrative expenses of carrying out its program under this 
division during the year, including--
          [(1) determining the eligibility of students to 
        participate;
          [(2) selecting eligible students to receive 
        scholarships;
          [(3) determining the amount of scholarships and 
        issuing the scholarships to eligible students;
          [(4) compiling and maintaining financial and 
        programmatic records; and
          [(5) conducting site visits as described in section 
        3005(b)(1)(I).
  [(c) Parental Assistance.--An eligible entity receiving a 
grant under section 3004(a) may use not more than 2 percent of 
the amount provided under the grant each year for the expenses 
of educating parents about the entity's program under this 
division, and assisting parents through the application 
process, under this division, including--
          [(1) providing information about the program and the 
        participating schools to parents of eligible students;
          [(2) providing funds to assist parents of students in 
        meeting expenses that might otherwise preclude the 
        participation of eligible students in the program; and
          [(3) streamlining the application process for 
        parents.]
  (b) Administrative Expenses and Parental Assistance.--The 
Secretary shall make $2,000,000 of the amount made available 
under section 3014(a)(1) for each fiscal year available to 
eligible entities receiving a grant under section 3004(a) to 
cover the following expenses:
          (1) The administrative expenses of carrying out its 
        program under this division during the year, 
        including--
                  (A) determining the eligibility of students 
                to participate;
                  (B) selecting the eligible students to 
                receive scholarships;
                  (C) determining the amount of the 
                scholarships and issuing the scholarships to 
                eligible students;
                  (D) compiling and maintaining financial and 
                programmatic records;
                  (E) conducting site visits as described in 
                section 3005(b)(1)(I); and
                  (F)(i) conducting a study, including a survey 
                of participating parents, on any barriers for 
                participating eligible students in gaining 
                admission to, or attending, the participating 
                school that is their first choice; and
                  (ii) not later than the end of the first full 
                fiscal year after the date of enactment of the 
                SOAR Reauthorization Act, submitting a report 
                to Congress that contains the results of such 
                study.
          (2) The expenses of educating parents about the 
        eligible entity's program under this division, and 
        assisting parents through the application process under 
        this division, including--
                  (A) providing information about the program 
                and the participating schools to parents of 
                eligible students, including information on 
                supplemental financial aid that may be 
                available at participating schools;
                  (B) providing funds to assist parents of 
                students in meeting expenses that might 
                otherwise preclude the participation of 
                eligible students in the program; and
                  (C) streamlining the application process for 
                parents.
  [(d)] (c) Student Academic Assistance.--An eligible entity 
receiving a grant under section 3004(a) may use not more than 1 
percent of the amount provided under the grant each year for 
expenses to provide tutoring services to participating eligible 
students that need additional academic assistance. If there are 
insufficient funds to provide tutoring services to all such 
students in a year, the eligible entity shall give priority in 
such year to students who [previously attended an elementary 
school or secondary school that was implementing comprehensive 
support and improvement activities or targeted support and 
improvement activities under section 1111(d) of the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act of 1965.] previously attended an 
elementary school or secondary school identified as one of the 
lowest-performing schools under the District of Columbia's 
accountability system.
   (d) Requiring Use of Funds Remaining Unobligated From 
Previous Fiscal Years.--
          (1) In general.--To the extent that any funds 
        appropriated for the opportunity scholarship program 
        under this division for any fiscal year remain 
        available for subsequent fiscal years under section 
        3014(c), the Secretary shall make such funds available 
        to eligible entities receiving grants under section 
        3004(a) for the uses described in paragraph (2)--
                  (A) in the case of any remaining funds that 
                were appropriated before the date of enactment 
                of the SOAR Reauthorization Act, beginning on 
                the date of enactment of such Act; and
                  (B) in the case of any remaining funds 
                appropriated on or after the date of enactment 
                of such Act, by the first day of the first 
                subsequent fiscal year.
          (2) Use of funds.--If an eligible entity to which the 
        Secretary provided additional funds under paragraph (1) 
        elects to use such funds during a fiscal year, the 
        eligible entity shall use--
                  (A) not less than 95 percent of such 
                additional funds to provide additional 
                scholarships for eligible students under 
                section 3007(a), or to increase the amount of 
                the scholarships, during such year; and
                  (B) not more than a total of 5 percent of 
                such additional funds for administrative 
                expenses, parental assistance, or tutoring, as 
                described in subsections (b) and (c), during 
                such year.
          (3) Special rule.--Any amounts made available for 
        administrative expenses, parental assistance, or 
        tutoring under paragraph (2)(B) shall be in addition to 
        any other amounts made available for such purposes in 
        accordance with subsections (b) and (c).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 3009. EVALUATIONS.

  [(a) In General.--
          [(1) Duties of the secretary and the mayor.--The 
        Secretary and the Mayor of the District of Columbia 
        shall--
                  [(A) jointly enter into an agreement with the 
                Institute of Education Sciences of the 
                Department of Education to evaluate annually 
                the performance of students who received 
                scholarships under the 5-year program under 
                this division;
                  [(B) jointly enter into an agreement to 
                monitor and evaluate the use of funds 
                authorized and appropriated for the District of 
                Columbia public schools and the District of 
                Columbia public charter schools under this 
                division; and
                  [(C) make the evaluations described in 
                subparagraphs (A) and (B) public in accordance 
                with subsection (c).
          [(2) Duties of the secretary.--The Secretary, through 
        a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement, shall--
                  [(A) ensure that the evaluation under 
                paragraph (1)(A)--
                          [(i) is conducted using the strongest 
                        possible research design for 
                        determining the effectiveness of the 
                        opportunity scholarship program under 
                        this division; and
                          [(ii) addresses the issues described 
                        in paragraph (4); and
                  [(B) disseminate information on the impact of 
                the program--
                          [(i) in increasing the academic 
                        growth and achievement of participating 
                        eligible students; and
                          [(ii) on students and schools in the 
                        District of Columbia.
          [(3) Duties of the institute of education sciences.--
        The Institute of Education Sciences of the Department 
        of Education shall--
                  [(A) use a grade appropriate, nationally 
                norm-referenced standardized test each school 
                year to assess participating eligible students 
                in a manner consistent with section 3008(h);
                  [(B) measure the academic achievement of all 
                participating eligible students; and
                  [(C) work with the eligible entities to 
                ensure that the parents of each student who 
                applies for a scholarship under this division 
                (regardless of whether the student receives the 
                scholarship) and the parents of each student 
                participating in the scholarship program under 
                this division, agree that the student will 
                participate, if requested by the Institute of 
                Education Sciences, in the measurements given 
                annually by the Institute of Educational 
                Sciences for the period for which the student 
                applied for or received the scholarship, 
                respectively, except that nothing in this 
                subparagraph shall affect a student's priority 
                for an opportunity scholarship as provided 
                under section 3006.
          [(4) Issues to be evaluated.--The issues to be 
        evaluated under paragraph (1)(A) shall include the 
        following:
                  [(A) A comparison of the academic growth and 
                achievement of participating eligible students 
                in the measurements described in paragraph (3) 
                to the academic growth and achievement of the 
                eligible students in the same grades who sought 
                to participate in the scholarship program under 
                this division but were not selected.
                  [(B) The success of the program in expanding 
                choice options for parents of participating 
                eligible students, improving parental and 
                student satisfaction of such parents and 
                students, respectively, and increasing parental 
                involvement of such parents in the education of 
                their children.
                  [(C) The reasons parents of participating 
                eligible students choose for their children to 
                participate in the program, including important 
                characteristics for selecting schools.
                  [(D) A comparison of the retention rates, 
                high school graduation rates, and college 
                admission rates of participating eligible 
                students with the retention rates, high school 
                graduation rates, and college admission rates 
                of students of similar backgrounds who do not 
                participate in such program.
                  [(E) A comparison of the safety of the 
                schools attended by participating eligible 
                students and the schools in the District of 
                Columbia attended by students who do not 
                participate in the program, based on the 
                perceptions of the students and parents.
                  [(F) Such other issues with respect to 
                participating eligible students as the 
                Secretary considers appropriate for inclusion 
                in the evaluation, such as the impact of the 
                program on public elementary schools and 
                secondary schools in the District of Columbia.
                  [(G) An analysis of the issues described in 
                subparagraphs (A) through (F) by applying such 
                subparagraphs by substituting ``the subgroup of 
                participating eligible students who have used 
                each opportunity scholarship awarded to such 
                students under this division to attend a 
                participating school'' for ``participating 
                eligible students'' each place such term 
                appears.
          [(5) Prohibition.--Personally identifiable 
        information regarding the results of the measurements 
        used for the evaluations may not be disclosed, except 
        to the parents of the student to whom the information 
        relates.]
  (a) In General.--
          (1) Duties of the secretary and the mayor.--The 
        Secretary and the Mayor of the District of Columbia 
        shall--
                  (A) jointly enter into an agreement with the 
                Institute of Education Sciences of the 
                Department of Education to evaluate annually 
                the opportunity scholarship program under this 
                division;
                  (B) jointly enter into an agreement to 
                monitor and evaluate the use of funds 
                authorized and appropriated for the District of 
                Columbia public schools and the District of 
                Columbia public charter schools under this 
                division; and
                  (C) make the evaluations described in 
                subparagraphs (A) and (B) public in accordance 
                with subsection (c).
          (2) Duties of the secretary.--The Secretary, through 
        a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement, shall--
                  (A) ensure that the evaluation under 
                paragraph (1)(A)--
                          (i) is conducted using an acceptable 
                        quasi-experimental research design for 
                        determining the effectiveness of the 
                        opportunity scholarship program under 
                        this division that does not use a 
                        control study group consisting of 
                        students who applied for but did not 
                        receive opportunity scholarships; and
                          (ii) addresses the issues described 
                        in paragraph (4); and
                  (B) disseminate information on the impact of 
                the program--
                          (i) in increasing academic 
                        achievement and educational attainment 
                        of participating eligible students who 
                        use an opportunity scholarship; and
                          (ii) on students and schools in the 
                        District of Columbia.
          (3) Duties of the institute of education sciences.--
        The Institute of Education Sciences of the Department 
        of Education shall--
                  (A) assess participating eligible students 
                who use an opportunity scholarship in each of 
                grades 3 through 8, as well as one of the 
                grades at the high school level, by supervising 
                the administration of the same reading and 
                mathematics assessment used by the District of 
                Columbia public schools to comply with section 
                1111(b) of the Elementary and Secondary 
                Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311(b));
                  (B) measure the academic achievement of all 
                participating eligible students who use an 
                opportunity scholarship in the grades described 
                in subparagraph (A); and
                  (C) work with eligible entities receiving a 
                grant under this division to ensure that the 
                parents of each student who is a participating 
                eligible student that uses an opportunity 
                scholarship agrees to permit their child to 
                participate in the evaluations and assessments 
                carried out by the Institute of Education 
                Sciences under this subsection.
          (4) Issues to be evaluated.--The issues to be 
        evaluated under paragraph (1)(A) shall include the 
        following:
                  (A) A comparison of the academic achievement 
                of participating eligible students who use an 
                opportunity scholarship on the measurements 
                described in paragraph (3)(B) to the academic 
                achievement of a comparison group of students 
                with similar backgrounds in the District of 
                Columbia public schools.
                  (B) The success of the program under this 
                division in expanding choice options for 
                parents of participating eligible students and 
                increasing the satisfaction of such parents and 
                students with their choice.
                  (C) The reasons parents of participating 
                eligible students choose for their children to 
                participate in the program, including important 
                characteristics for selecting schools.
                  (D) A comparison of the retention rates, high 
                school graduation rates, college enrollment 
                rates, college persistence rates, and college 
                graduation rates of participating eligible 
                students who use an opportunity scholarship 
                with the rates of students in the comparison 
                group described in subparagraph (A).
                  (E) A comparison of the college enrollment 
                rates, college persistence rates, and college 
                graduation rates of students who participated 
                in the program in 2004, 2005, 2011, 2012, 2013, 
                2014, and 2015 as the result of winning the 
                Opportunity Scholarship Program lottery with 
                such enrollment, persistence, and graduation 
                rates for students who entered but did not win 
                such lottery in those years and who, as a 
                result, served as the control group for 
                previous evaluations of the program under this 
                division. Nothing in this subparagraph may be 
                construed to waive section 3004(a)(3)(A)(iii) 
                with respect to any such student.
                  (F) A comparison of the safety of the schools 
                attended by participating eligible students who 
                use an opportunity scholarship and the schools 
                in the District of Columbia attended by 
                students in the comparison group described in 
                subparagraph (A), based on the perceptions of 
                the students and parents.
                  (G) An assessment of student academic 
                achievement at participating schools in which 
                85 percent of the total number of students 
                enrolled at the school are participating 
                eligible students who receive and use an 
                opportunity scholarship.
                  (H) Such other issues with respect to 
                participating eligible students who use an 
                opportunity scholarship as the Secretary 
                considers appropriate for inclusion in the 
                evaluation, such as the impact of the program 
                on public elementary schools and secondary 
                schools in the District of Columbia.
          (5) Prohibiting disclosure of personal information.--
                  (A) In general.--Any disclosure of personally 
                identifiable information obtained under this 
                division shall be in compliance with section 
                444 of the General Education Provisions Act 
                (commonly known as the ``Family Educational 
                Rights and Privacy Act of 1974'') (20 U.S.C. 
                1232g).
                  (B) Students not attending public schools.--
                With respect to any student who is not 
                attending a public elementary school or 
                secondary school, personally identifiable 
                information obtained under this division shall 
                only be disclosed to--
                          (i) individuals carrying out the 
                        evaluation described in paragraph 
                        (1)(A) for such student;
                          (ii) the group of individuals 
                        providing information for carrying out 
                        the evaluation of such student; and
                          (iii) the parents of such student.
  (b) Reports.--The Secretary shall submit to the Committees on 
Appropriations, Education and the Workforce, and Oversight and 
Government Reform of the House of Representatives and the 
Committees on Appropriations, Health, Education, Labor, and 
Pensions, and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the 
Senate--
          (1) annual interim reports, not later than April 1 of 
        the year following the year of the date of enactment of 
        this division, and each subsequent year through the 
        year in which the final report is submitted under 
        paragraph (2), on the progress and preliminary results 
        of the evaluation of the opportunity scholarship 
        program funded under this division; and
          (2) a final report, not later than 1 year after the 
        final year for which a grant is made under section 
        3004(a), on the results of the evaluation of the 
        program.
  (c) Public Availability.--All reports and underlying data 
gathered pursuant to this section shall be made available to 
the public upon request, in a timely manner following 
submission of the applicable report under subsection (b), 
except that personally identifiable information shall not be 
disclosed or made available to the public.
  (d) Limit on Amount Expended.--The amount expended by the 
Secretary to carry out this section for any fiscal year may not 
exceed 5 percent of the total amount appropriated under section 
3014(a)(1) for the fiscal year.

SEC. 3010. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.

  (a) Activities Reports.--Each eligible entity receiving funds 
under section 3004(a) during a year shall submit a report to 
the Secretary not later than July 30 of the following year 
regarding the activities carried out with the funds during the 
preceding year.
  (b) Achievement Reports.--
          (1) In general.--In addition to the reports required 
        under subsection (a), each eligible entity receiving 
        funds under section 3004(a) shall, not later than 
        September 1 of the year during which the second school 
        year of the entity's program is completed and each of 
        the next 2 years thereafter, submit to the Secretary a 
        report, including any pertinent data collected in the 
        preceding 2 school years, concerning--
                  (A) the academic growth and achievement of 
                students participating in the program;
                  (B) the high school graduation and college 
                admission rates of students who participate in 
                the program, where appropriate; and
                  (C) parental satisfaction with the program.
          (2) Prohibiting disclosure of personal information.--
        No report under this subsection may contain any 
        personally identifiable information.
  (c) Reports to Parents.--
          (1) In general.--Each eligible entity receiving funds 
        under section 3004(a) shall ensure that each school 
        participating in the entity's program under this 
        division during a school year reports at least once 
        during the year to the parents of each of the school's 
        students who are participating in the program on--
                  (A) the student's academic achievement, as 
                measured by a comparison with the aggregate 
                academic achievement of other participating 
                students at the student's school in the same 
                grade or level, as appropriate, and the 
                aggregate academic achievement of the student's 
                peers at the student's school in the same grade 
                or level, as appropriate;
                  (B) the safety of the school, including the 
                incidence of school violence, student 
                suspensions, and student expulsions; and
                  (C) the accreditation status of the school.
          (2) Prohibiting disclosure of personal information.--
        No report under this subsection may contain any 
        personally identifiable information, except as to the 
        student who is the subject of the report to that 
        student's parent.
  [(d) Reports to Eligible Entities.--The eligible entity 
receiving funds under section 3004(a) shall ensure that each 
participating school under this division submits to the 
eligible entity beginning not later than 5 years after the date 
of the enactment of the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program 
School Certification Requirements Act, a certification that the 
school has been awarded provisional or full accreditation, or 
has been granted an extension by the eligible entity in 
accordance with section 3007(a)(4)(G).]
  [(e)] (d) Report to Congress.--Not later than 6 months after 
the first appropriation of funds under section 3014, and each 
succeeding year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the 
Committees on Appropriations, Education and the Workforce, and 
Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives 
and the Committees on Appropriations, Health, Education, Labor, 
and Pensions, and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of 
the Senate, an annual report on the findings of the reports 
submitted under subsections (a) and (b).

SEC. 3011. DC PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND DC PUBLIC CHARTER SCHOOLS.

  (a) Condition of Receipt of Funds.--As a condition of 
receiving funds under this division on behalf of the District 
of Columbia public schools and the District of Columbia public 
charter schools, the Mayor shall agree to carry out the 
following:
          [(1) Information requests.--Ensure that all the 
        District of Columbia public schools and the District of 
        Columbia public charter schools comply with all 
        reasonable requests for information for purposes of the 
        evaluation under section 3009(a).]
          (1) Information necessary to carry out evaluations.--
        Ensure that all District of Columbia public schools and 
        District of Columbia public charter schools make 
        available to the Institute of Education Sciences of the 
        Department of Education all of the information the 
        Institute requires to carry out the assessments and 
        perform the evaluations required under section 3009(a).
          (2) Agreement with the secretary.--Enter into the 
        agreement described in section 3009(a)(1)(B) to monitor 
        and evaluate the use of funds authorized and 
        appropriated for the District of Columbia public 
        schools and the District of Columbia public charter 
        schools under this division.
          (3) Submission of report.--Not later than 6 months 
        after the first appropriation of funds under section 
        3014, and each succeeding year thereafter, submit to 
        the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on 
        Education and the Workforce, and the Committee on 
        Oversight and Government Reform of the House of 
        Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations, 
        the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and 
        Pensions, and the Committee on Homeland Security and 
        Governmental Affairs of the Senate, information on--
                  (A) how the funds authorized and appropriated 
                under this division for the District of 
                Columbia public schools and the District of 
                Columbia public charter schools were used in 
                the preceding school year; and
                  (B) how such funds are contributing to 
                student achievement.
  [(b) Enforcement.--If, after reasonable notice and an 
opportunity for a hearing for the Mayor, the Secretary 
determines that the Mayor has not been in compliance with 1 or 
more of the requirements described in subsection (a), the 
Secretary may withhold from the Mayor, in whole or in part, 
further funds under this division for the District of Columbia 
public schools and the District of Columbia public charter 
schools.]
  (b) Enforcement.--If, after reasonable notice and an 
opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary determines that the 
Mayor has failed to comply with any of the requirements of 
subsection (a), the Secretary may withhold from the Mayor, in 
whole or in part--
          (1) the funds otherwise authorized to be appropriated 
        under section 3014(a)(2), if the failure to comply 
        relates to the District of Columbia public schools;
          (2) the funds otherwise authorized to be appropriated 
        under section 3014(a)(3), if the failure to comply 
        relates to the District of Columbia public charter 
        schools; or
          (3) the funds otherwise authorized to be appropriated 
        under both paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 3014(a), 
        if the failure relates to both the District of Columbia 
        public schools and the District of Columbia public 
        charter schools.
  (c) Specific Rules Regarding Funds Provided for Support of 
Public Charter Schools.--The following rules shall apply with 
respect to the funds provided under this division for the 
support of District of Columbia public charter schools:
          (1) The Secretary may direct the funds provided for 
        any fiscal year, or any portion thereof, to the Office 
        of the State Superintendent of Education of the 
        District of Columbia.
          (2) The Office of the State Superintendent of 
        Education of the District of Columbia may transfer the 
        funds to subgrantees that are--
                  (A) specific District of Columbia public 
                charter schools or networks of such schools; or
                  (B) District of Columbia-based nonprofit 
                organizations with experience in successfully 
                providing support or assistance to District of 
                Columbia public charter schools or networks of 
                such schools.
          (3) The funds provided under this division for the 
        support of District of Columbia public charter schools 
        shall be available to any District of Columbia public 
        charter school in good standing with the District of 
        Columbia Charter School Board, and the Office of the 
        State Superintendent of Education of the District of 
        Columbia and the District of Columbia Charter School 
        Board may not restrict the availability of such funds 
        to certain types of schools on the basis of the 
        school's location, governing body, or the school's 
        facilities.
  [(c)] (d) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section 
shall be construed to reduce, or otherwise affect, funding 
provided under this division for the opportunity scholarship 
program under this division.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 3013. DEFINITIONS.

  As used in this division:
          (1) Core subject matter.--The term ``core subject 
        matter'' means--
                  (A) mathematics;
                  (B) science; and
                  (C) English, reading, or language arts.
          [(1)] (2) Elementary school.--The term ``elementary 
        school'' means an institutional day or residential 
        school, including a public elementary charter school, 
        that provides elementary education, as determined under 
        District of Columbia law.
          [(2)] (3) Eligible entity.--The term ``eligible 
        entity'' means any of the following:
                  (A) A nonprofit organization.
                  (B) A consortium of nonprofit organizations.
          [(3) ] (4) Eligible student.--The term ``eligible 
        student'' means a student who is a resident of the 
        District of Columbia and comes from a household--
                  (A) receiving assistance under the 
                supplemental nutrition assistance program 
                established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 
                2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.); or
                  (B) whose income does not exceed--
                          (i) 185 percent of the poverty line; 
                        or
                          (ii) in the case of a household with 
                        a student participating in the 
                        opportunity scholarship program in the 
                        preceding year under this division or 
                        the DC School Choice Incentive Act of 
                        2003 (sec. 38-1851.01 et seq., D.C. 
                        Official Code), as such Act was in 
                        effect on the day before the date of 
                        enactment of this division, 300 percent 
                        of the poverty line.
          [(4)] (5) Mayor.--The term ``Mayor'' means the Mayor 
        of the District of Columbia.
          [(5)] (6) Parent.--The term ``parent'' has the 
        meaning given that term in section 8101 of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
          [(6)] (7) Participating eligible student.--The term 
        ``participating eligible student'' means an eligible 
        student awarded an opportunity scholarship under this 
        division, without regard to whether the student uses 
        the scholarship to attend a participating school.
          [(7)] (8) Participating school.--The term 
        ``participating school'' means a private elementary 
        school or secondary school participating in the 
        opportunity scholarship program of an eligible entity 
        under this division.
          [(8)] (9) Poverty line.--The term ``poverty line'' 
        has the meaning given that term in section 8101 of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
          [(9)] (10) Secondary school.--The term ``secondary 
        school'' means an institutional day or residential 
        school, including a public secondary charter school, 
        that provides secondary education, as determined under 
        District of Columbia law, except that the term does not 
        include any education beyond grade 12.
          [(10)] (11) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means 
        the Secretary of Education.

SEC. 3014. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
$60,000,000 for fiscal year 2012 [and for each of the 4 
succeeding fiscal years] and for each fiscal year through 
fiscal year 2021, of which--
          (1) one-third shall be made available to carry out 
        the opportunity scholarship program under this division 
        for each fiscal year;
          (2) one-third shall be made available to carry out 
        section 3004(b)(1) for each fiscal year; and
          (3) one-third shall be made available to carry out 
        section 3004(b)(2) for each fiscal year.
  (b) Apportionment.--If the total amount of funds appropriated 
under subsection (a) for a fiscal year does not equal 
$60,000,000, the funds shall be apportioned in the manner 
described in subsection (a) for such fiscal year.
  (c) Availability.--Amounts appropriated under subsection 
(a)(1), including amounts appropriated and available under such 
subsection before the date of enactment of the SOAR 
Reauthorization Act, shall remain available until expended.

                             MINORITY VIEWS

    The Committee's consideration of H.R. 4901 may be 
unprecedented. In October 2015, the Committee and the House 
passed H.R. 10, which was substantially similar to H.R. 4901. 
The Senate has not acted on H.R. 10 or the Senate companion 
bill, S. 2171. We have never seen the Committee take action a 
second time in the same Congress on a bill that the House has 
already passed, but that has received no action in the Senate.
    We are particularly perplexed by the Committee's 
consideration of the bill in light of the Majority's effort to 
include it in a House fiscal year 2017 appropriations bill.\1\ 
Legislating on an appropriations bill violates House rules and 
cedes this Committee's authorizing jurisdiction.\2\ We object 
to this request and urge regular order, which in this case 
would be to await Senate action, if any, on H.R. 10 or S. 2171.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Letter from Chairman Jason Chaffetz, House Committee on 
Oversight and Government Reform, and 19 other Members to the House 
Appropriations Committee (Mar. 17, 2016).
    \2\Rule XXI, Clause 2.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    We oppose H.R. 4901 for the same reasons we opposed H.R. 
10: the District of Columbia voucher program has failed to 
improve academic achievement; D.C. has a robust public school 
choice system; and the program exempts students from the 
protection of federal civil rights laws.
    According to a Department of Education study mandated by 
statute, the program has not improved academic achievement, as 
measured by math and reading test scores, and has had ``no 
significant impacts'' on the academic achievement of students 
from the lowest performing public schools.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education, 
Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final Report 
(June 2010).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Previous authorizations of the program mandated an 
evaluation of its effectiveness. The authorizations required 
``the strongest possible research design for determining the 
effectiveness of the . . . program,'' and the evaluation 
utilized the gold standard of scientific research, a randomized 
controlled trial.
    H.R. 4901 abandons this commitment to rigorous evaluation. 
It requires that an evaluation be ``conducted using an 
acceptable quasi-experimental research design,'' and it 
expressly prohibits a randomized controlled trial. According to 
evaluators of the program, a randomized controlled trial ``is 
especially important in the context of school choice because 
families wanting to apply for a choice program may have 
educational goals and aspirations that differ from the average 
family.''\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education, 
Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: An Early Look at 
Applicants and Participating Schools Under the SOAR Act (Oct. 2014).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The District has a robust public school choice system in 
which 45% of public school students attend charter schools,\5\ 
and 75% of public school students attends out-of-boundary 
public schools.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\D.C. Public Charter School Board, Facts and Figures: Market 
Share (online at www.depcsb.org/facts-and-figures-market-share) 
accessed April 19, 2016).
    \6\Very Few D.C. Students Attend Assigned Schools, Data Show, 
Washington Post (Feb. 19, 2014) (online at www.washingtonpost.com/
blogs/local/wp/2014/02/19/very-few-d-c-students-attend-assigned-
schools-data-show).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The D.C. voucher program was the first federal elementary 
and secondary private school voucher program in the country, 
and it remains the only such program. Congress has repeatedly 
rejected efforts to create a national voucher program. Last 
year, both the House and Senate considered several national 
voucher amendments during reauthorization of the Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act, but none passed.
    The D.C. voucher program has never been authorized through 
regular order. When Congress first created the program in 2004, 
and then reauthorized it in 2011, it did so by adding voucher 
bills as riders to appropriations bills.\7\ The Senate has 
never passed a stand-alone D.C. voucher bill.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations 
Act, 2011, Pub. L. No. 112-10, and Consolidated Appropriations Act, 
2004, Pub. L. No. 108-199.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In a letter to Congress on March 7, 2016, D.C. Mayor Muriel 
Bowser and 8 of 13 D.C. Council Members did not support the 
voucher program itself, but rather supported the bill because 
it reauthorizes D.C. public and charter school funding.\8\ 
These officials recognize that Republicans have conditioned 
reauthorization of public and charter school funding on 
reauthorization of the voucher program funding.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\Letter from Mayor Muriel Bowser, District of Columbia, et al. to 
House and Senate Leadership (Mar. 7, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    We acknowledge the D.C. government's concern about losing 
public and charter school funding, which has been part of 
D.C.'s education budget for a decade. During creation of the 
voucher program, Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton, with the 
assistance of the Archbishop of Washington, insisted that 
public and charter school funding be provided in conjunction 
with voucher program funding.
    Finally, the program exempts students from the protection 
of federal civil rights laws that apply to public schools and 
federally funded programs, including Title IV and VI of the 
Civil Rights Act of 1964; Title IX of the Education Amendments 
Act of 1972; the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974; 
the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; and the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Under the program, the federal 
funding is considered assistance to the student and not to the 
school. Students should not have to give up the protection of 
federal civil rights laws to participate in a federal program.
                                   Elijah E. Cummings.
                                   Eleanor Holmes Norton.
                                   Gerald E. Connolly.

                                  [all]