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114th Congress    }                                      {      Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session       }                                      {     114-681

======================================================================



 
                   ELECTRICITY STORAGE INNOVATION ACT

                                _______
                                

 July 11, 2016.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 5640]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 5640) to provide for the 
establishment at the Department of Energy of an Electricity 
Storage Basic Research Initiative, having considered the same, 
report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that 
the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................     3
Section-by-Section...............................................     5
Explanation of Amendments........................................     5
Committee Consideration..........................................     5
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................     5
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................     5
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............     5
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................     6
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................     6
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................     6
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................     6
Earmark Identification...........................................     6
New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures........................     6
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................     6
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill as Reported.............     6
Additional Views.................................................    10

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Electricity Storage Innovation Act''.

SEC. 2. ELECTRICITY STORAGE BASIC RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  (a) Amendment.--Section 975 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 
U.S.C. 16315) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 975. ELECTRICITY STORAGE BASIC RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  ``(a) Initiative.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a research 
        initiative, to be known as the Electricity Storage Basic 
        Research Initiative, to expand theoretical and fundamental 
        knowledge to control, store, and convert electrical energy to 
        chemical energy and the inverse. This initiative shall support 
        scientific inquiry into the practical understanding of chemical 
        and physical processes that occur within systems involving 
        crystalline and amorphous solids, polymers, and organic and 
        aqueous liquids.
          ``(2) Leveraging.--The Secretary shall leverage expertise and 
        resources from the Basic Energy Sciences Program, Advanced 
        Scientific Computing Research Program, and Biological and 
        Environmental Research Program within the Office of Science, 
        and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, as 
        provided under subsections (b), (c), and (d).
          ``(3) Teams.--The Secretary shall organize activities under 
        the Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative to include 
        multidisciplinary teams leveraging expertise from the National 
        Laboratories, universities, and the private sector to the 
        extent practicable. These multidisciplinary teams shall pursue 
        aggressive, milestone-driven basic research goals. The 
        Secretary shall provide sufficient resources for those teams to 
        achieve those goals over a period of time to be determined by 
        the Secretary.
          ``(4) Additional activities.--The Secretary is authorized to 
        organize additional activities under this subsection through 
        Energy Frontier Research Centers, Energy Innovation Hubs, or 
        other organizational structures.
  ``(b) Multivalent Systems.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall, as part of the 
        Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative, carry out a 
        program to support research needed to bridge scientific 
        barriers and discover knowledge relevant to multivalent ion 
        materials in electric energy storage systems. In carrying out 
        activities under this subsection, the Director of the Office of 
        Basic Energy Sciences shall investigate electrochemical 
        properties and the dynamics of materials, including charge 
        transfer phenomena and mass transport in materials. The 
        Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 
        shall support translational research, development, and 
        validation of physical concepts developed under this 
        subsection.
          ``(2) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review the 
        program activities under this subsection to determine the 
        achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(3) Authorization of appropriations.--
                  ``(A) Authorization.--Subject to subsection (e), 
                there are authorized for carrying out activities under 
                this subsection for each of fiscal years 2017 through 
                2020--
                          ``(i) $50,000,000 from funds within the Basic 
                        Energy Sciences Program account; and
                          ``(ii) $25,000,000 from funds within the 
                        Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy account.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds authorized under this 
                subsection may be obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.
  ``(c) Electrochemistry Modeling and Simulation.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall, as part of the 
        Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative, carry out a 
        program to support research to model and simulate organic 
        electrolytes, including their static and dynamic 
        electrochemical behavior and phenomena at the molecular and 
        atomic level in monovalent and multivalent systems. In carrying 
        out activities under this subsection, the Director of the 
        Office of Basic Energy Sciences shall, in coordination with the 
        Associate Director of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, 
        support the development of high performance computational tools 
        through a joint development process to maximize the 
        effectiveness of current and projected high performance 
        computing systems. The Assistant Secretary for Energy 
        Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
        research, development, and validation of physical concepts 
        developed under this subsection.
          ``(2) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review the 
        program activities under this subsection to determine the 
        achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(3) Authorization of appropriations.--
                  ``(A) Authorization.--Subject to subsection (e), 
                there are authorized for carrying out activities under 
                this subsection for each of fiscal years 2017 through 
                2020--
                          ``(i) $30,000,000 from funds within the Basic 
                        Energy Sciences Program and Advanced Scientific 
                        Computing Research Program accounts; and
                          ``(ii) $15,000,000 from funds within the 
                        Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy account.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds authorized under this 
                subsection may be obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.
  ``(d) Mesoscale Electrochemistry.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall, as part of the 
        Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative, carry out a 
        program to support research needed to reveal electrochemistry 
        in confined mesoscale spaces, including scientific discoveries 
        relevant to bio-electrochemistry and electrochemical energy 
        conversion and storage in confined spaces and the dynamics of 
        these phenomena. In carrying out activities under this 
        subsection, the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences 
        and the Associate Director of Biological and Environmental 
        Research shall investigate phenomena of mesoscale 
        electrochemical confinement for the purpose of replicating and 
        controlling new electrochemical behavior. The Assistant 
        Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall 
        support translational research, development, and validation of 
        physical concepts developed under this subsection.
          ``(2) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review the 
        program activities under this subsection to determine the 
        achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(3) Authorization of appropriations.--
                  ``(A) Authorization.--Subject to subsection (e), 
                there are authorized for carrying out activities under 
                this subsection for each of fiscal years 2017 through 
                2020--
                          ``(i) $20,000,000 from funds within the Basic 
                        Energy Sciences Program and the Biological and 
                        Environmental Research Program accounts; and
                          ``(ii) $10,000,000 from funds within the 
                        Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy account.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds authorized under this 
                subsection may be obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.
  ``(e) Funding.--No additional funds are authorized to be appropriated 
under this section. This section shall be carried out using funds 
otherwise authorized by law.''.
  (b) Table of Contents Amendment.--The item relating to section 975 in 
the table of contents of such Act is amended to read as follows:

``Sec. 975. Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative.''.

                     Committee Statement and Views


                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    This legislation replaces Section 975 (Solid State 
Lighting) of Title IX of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 
U.S.C. 16315) with new policy direction and program authority 
for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science. 
Section 975 will now direct DOE to prioritize basic research in 
chemistry and materials science relevant to advanced 
electricity storage systems by establishing an electricity 
storage basic research initiative.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    On June 15, 2016, the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology held a hearing entitled, 
``Innovation in Solar Fuels, Electricity Storage, and Advanced 
Materials,'' which explored opportunities in basic and early 
stage research for experimental solar fuels systems.
    On June 17, 2015, the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology held a hearing titled 
``Department of Energy Oversight: Energy Innovation Hubs,'' 
which scrutinized the effectiveness of the DOE's model for 
energy innovation through the leveraging of expertise from the 
DOE laboratories, universities, and the private sector.
    On May 1, 2015, the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology held a hearing entitled, 
``Innovations in Battery Storage for Renewable Energy,'' which 
explored the state of large-scale battery storage and key 
technology breakthroughs achieved through research at the 
national labs and the Department of Energy, and how innovative 
energy storage companies use basic science research to develop 
and move breakthrough battery storage technology to the energy 
market.
    On January 28, 2015, the Energy Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology held a hearing 
entitled, ``Supercomputing and American Technology 
Leadership,'' which addressed the impact of accelerating 
research and development through high performance computational 
modeling and simulation.

                            COMMITTEE VIEWS

    Under this Act, the DOE will organize its basic research 
efforts to advance fundamental scientific knowledge relevant to 
transformative electricity storage concepts under the new 
Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative (the Initiative). 
The Initiative provides direction for the DOE Office of Science 
to concentrate its approach to electrochemistry through basic 
research carried out by multidisciplinary teams. The Initiative 
may leverage established organizational structures, including 
energy frontier research centers and DOE's Energy Innovation 
Hub on energy storage, known as the Joint Center for Energy 
Storage Research. The Committee encourages DOE to consider new 
mechanisms to efficiently make accessible the milestone driven 
research that will result from this initiative in order to most 
effectively engage with the research community.
    DOE will carry out a coordinated effort for electrochemical 
modeling and simulation making use of the most advanced high 
performance computational systems. The Committee encourages DOE 
to incorporate this effort into the Exascale Computing 
Initiative in order to accelerate the development of exascale 
architectures in the United States. The Committee also 
encourages DOE to leverage its experience from the Energy 
Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation, known as the 
Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors.
    The Initiative also provides authority for a seamless 
transition from basic research to applied research and 
development. Once the Office of Science makes the determination 
that its work has met the objectives and bounds of its basic 
research mission, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
Energy is authorized to carry out the necessary translational 
research to validate and demonstrate the concepts envisioned by 
the research teams supported by the Office of Science to the 
private sector and other interested stakeholders.

                           Section-by-Section


Sec. 1. Short title

    The short title of this legislation is ``Electricity 
Storage Innovation Act.''

Sec. 2. Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative

    This section amends Section 975 of the Energy Policy Act of 
2005 by striking outdated program direction and replacing it. 
This section also establishes an Electricity Storage Basic 
Research Initiative that will support basic and early stage 
research to advance fundamental scientific knowledge relevant 
to experimental electricity storage systems. This section also 
provides statutory direction and authorizes appropriations for 
the Secretary of Energy to leverage expertise from the Office 
of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 
to carry out research activities. No new or additional funds 
are authorized as all activities under this section are to be 
carried out using existing funding. Also no funds authorized 
under this section are to be used for commercialization 
activities.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    The Committee agreed by voice vote to an amendment that 
explicitly makes clear that the DOE may organize activities 
under the Initiative through energy innovation hubs.

                        Committee Consideration

    On July 7, 2016, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, H.R. 5640, as amended, by 
voice vote, a quorum being present.

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill directs DOE to prioritize basic research in chemistry 
and materials science relevant to advanced electricity storage 
systems by establishing an electricity storage basic research 
initiative. As such this bill does not relate to employment or 
access to public services and accommodations.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    H.R. 5640, the Electricity Storage Innovation Act, would 
direct DOE to prioritize basic research in chemistry and 
materials science relevant to advanced electricity storage 
systems by establishing an electricity storage basic research 
initiative.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 5640 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that enacting H.R. 5640 does not 
direct the completion of any specific rule makings within the 
meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not establish 
or authorize the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b).

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandate Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 5640 does not include any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of rule XXI.

               New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures

    Clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives is inapplicable because this legislation does 
not provide new budgetary authority or increased tax 
expenditures.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(3) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, an estimate 
and comparison prepared by the Director of Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 was not submitted to the Committee before the filing of 
the report.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                       ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Energy 
Policy Act of 2005''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is 
as follows:

     * * * * * * *

                   TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

     * * * * * * *

                           Subtitle G--Science

     * * * * * * *
[Sec. 975. Solid state lighting.]
Sec. 975. Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle G--Science

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 975. SOLID STATE LIGHTING.

  [The Secretary shall conduct a program of fundamental 
research on solid state lighting in support of the Next 
Generation Lighting Initiative carried out under section 912.]

SEC. 975. ELECTRICITY STORAGE BASIC RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  (a) Initiative.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
        research initiative, to be known as the Electricity 
        Storage Basic Research Initiative, to expand 
        theoretical and fundamental knowledge to control, 
        store, and convert electrical energy to chemical energy 
        and the inverse. This initiative shall support 
        scientific inquiry into the practical understanding of 
        chemical and physical processes that occur within 
        systems involving crystalline and amorphous solids, 
        polymers, and organic and aqueous liquids.
          (2) Leveraging.--The Secretary shall leverage 
        expertise and resources from the Basic Energy Sciences 
        Program, Advanced Scientific Computing Research 
        Program, and Biological and Environmental Research 
        Program within the Office of Science, and the Office of 
        Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, as provided 
        under subsections (b), (c), and (d).
          (3) Teams.--The Secretary shall organize activities 
        under the Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative 
        to include multidisciplinary teams leveraging expertise 
        from the National Laboratories, universities, and the 
        private sector to the extent practicable. These 
        multidisciplinary teams shall pursue aggressive, 
        milestone-driven basic research goals. The Secretary 
        shall provide sufficient resources for those teams to 
        achieve those goals over a period of time to be 
        determined by the Secretary.
          (4) Additional activities.--The Secretary is 
        authorized to organize additional activities under this 
        subsection through Energy Frontier Research Centers, 
        Energy Innovation Hubs, or other organizational 
        structures.
  (b) Multivalent Systems.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall, as part of the 
        Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative, carry 
        out a program to support research needed to bridge 
        scientific barriers and discover knowledge relevant to 
        multivalent ion materials in electric energy storage 
        systems. In carrying out activities under this 
        subsection, the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
        Sciences shall investigate electrochemical properties 
        and the dynamics of materials, including charge 
        transfer phenomena and mass transport in materials. The 
        Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
        Energy shall support translational research, 
        development, and validation of physical concepts 
        developed under this subsection.
          (2) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        the program activities under this subsection to 
        determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          (3) Authorization of appropriations.--
                  (A) Authorization.--Subject to subsection 
                (e), there are authorized for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection for each of 
                fiscal years 2017 through 2020--
                          (i) $50,000,000 from funds within the 
                        Basic Energy Sciences Program account; 
                        and
                          (ii) $25,000,000 from funds within 
                        the Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
                        Energy account.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds authorized under 
                this subsection may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy 
                technology.
  (c) Electrochemistry Modeling and Simulation.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall, as part of the 
        Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative, carry 
        out a program to support research to model and simulate 
        organic electrolytes, including their static and 
        dynamic electrochemical behavior and phenomena at the 
        molecular and atomic level in monovalent and 
        multivalent systems. In carrying out activities under 
        this subsection, the Director of the Office of Basic 
        Energy Sciences shall, in coordination with the 
        Associate Director of Advanced Scientific Computing 
        Research, support the development of high performance 
        computational tools through a joint development process 
        to maximize the effectiveness of current and projected 
        high performance computing systems. The Assistant 
        Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 
        shall support translational research, development, and 
        validation of physical concepts developed under this 
        subsection.
          (2) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        the program activities under this subsection to 
        determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          (3) Authorization of appropriations.--
                  (A) Authorization.--Subject to subsection 
                (e), there are authorized for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection for each of 
                fiscal years 2017 through 2020--
                          (i) $30,000,000 from funds within the 
                        Basic Energy Sciences Program and 
                        Advanced Scientific Computing Research 
                        Program accounts; and
                          (ii) $15,000,000 from funds within 
                        the Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
                        Energy account.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds authorized under 
                this subsection may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy 
                technology.
  (d) Mesoscale Electrochemistry.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall, as part of the 
        Electricity Storage Basic Research Initiative, carry 
        out a program to support research needed to reveal 
        electrochemistry in confined mesoscale spaces, 
        including scientific discoveries relevant to bio-
        electrochemistry and electrochemical energy conversion 
        and storage in confined spaces and the dynamics of 
        these phenomena. In carrying out activities under this 
        subsection, the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
        Sciences and the Associate Director of Biological and 
        Environmental Research shall investigate phenomena of 
        mesoscale electrochemical confinement for the purpose 
        of replicating and controlling new electrochemical 
        behavior. The Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency 
        and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
        research, development, and validation of physical 
        concepts developed under this subsection.
          (2) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        the program activities under this subsection to 
        determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          (3) Authorization of appropriations.--
                  (A) Authorization.--Subject to subsection 
                (e), there are authorized for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection for each of 
                fiscal years 2017 through 2020--
                          (i) $20,000,000 from funds within the 
                        Basic Energy Sciences Program and the 
                        Biological and Environmental Research 
                        Program accounts; and
                          (ii) $10,000,000 from funds within 
                        the Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
                        Energy account.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds authorized under 
                this subsection may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy 
                technology.
  (e) Funding.--No additional funds are authorized to be 
appropriated under this section. This section shall be carried 
out using funds otherwise authorized by law.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS

    Last month this Committee held what I thought was a 
worthwhile hearing that helped illuminate the importance of 
strengthening our support for research in solar fuels. This is 
clearly the aim of the Electricity Storage Innovation Act, and 
I appreciate that the Majority is attempting to advance 
technologies that could go a long way to improving our energy 
security and to addressing the serious threat of climate 
change.
    However, I am concerned about what may be some of the 
unintended consequences of the language in this bill, and the 
Department of Energy echoed these concerns to Majority and 
Minority Committee staff this week. DOE noted that labeling 
research as either ``basic'' or ``applied'' in legislation 
could be problematic given that the distinction can be unclear 
and subjective, and the activities described in this bill can 
easily be considered ``applied'' research given current 
guidance by the Office of Management and Budget. So language 
attempting to restrict the initiatives authorized in this bill 
to ``basic'' research activities could create an inherent 
conflict in their implementation.
    I would note that at that hearing last month, I actually 
asked the witnesses about whether it is realistic to assert--
and attempt to build policy around--a separation between basic 
and applied research. All of the witnesses agreed that such a 
division is nonexistent, and policymakers should not try to 
divide these two categories of research or pit them against one 
another.
           Dr. Nathan Lewis said, ``To the extent that 
        the use-inspired fundamental research has an outlet 
        into practical implementation, there should be no 
        boundary.''
           Dr. Daniel Hallinan agreed and said, ``The 
        questions that we need to answer are well-defined by 
        the applied side and then we can approach them from a 
        fundamental perspective . . . There is not really a 
        clear line between basic and applied.''
           Dr. Daniel Scherson said, ``10% of the cost 
        of an actual battery goes into materials and 90% into 
        manufacturing, so you know we have to be able to bridge 
        the gap between what we regard as fundamental research 
        and applied research. I'm afraid companies may not want 
        to take the risk.''
           And Dr. Collin Broholm noted the example of 
        the legendary Bell Labs, a model for research that the 
        private sector no longer supports, saying, ``Those who 
        are working in the discovery realm need to have the 
        ability to view some of the challenges that exist in 
        the real world as well so this artificial barrier is in 
        fact very unfortunate.''
    So given the expert testimony from Majority and Minority 
witnesses that we received on this issue just a few weeks ago 
as well as the constructive guidance that the Department 
provided to us this week on this bill, I hope we can all agree 
that such labels aren't helpful--and can be harmful. Rather, 
our goal is to guide and support energy research that the 
private sector is unlikely or unwilling to pursue at a 
sufficient pace to meet national economic, environmental, and 
energy security needs. Any arbitrary barrier to that goal, even 
if it's well-intentioned, is a step in the wrong direction.
                                                       Mark Takano.

                                  [all]