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                                                      Calendar No. 233
114th Congress   }                                      {       Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session     }                                      {      114-144                                                                
_______________________________________________________________________


        BREAST CANCER RESEARCH STAMP REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2015

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND

                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                              to accompany

                                S. 1170

          TO AMEND TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE, TO EXTEND THE
AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE TO ISSUE A SEMIPOSTAL TO 
                     RAISE FUNDS FOR BREAST CANCER
                    RESEARCH, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]


               September 17, 2015.--Ordered to be printed
                                   ______

                         U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 

49-010                         WASHINGTON : 2015               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona                 THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  JON TESTER, Montana
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             TAMMY BALDWIN, Wisconsin
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             HEIDI HEITKAMP, North Dakota
KELLY AYOTTE, New Hampshire          CORY A. BOOKER, New Jersey
JONI ERNST, Iowa                     GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
BEN SASSE, Nebraska

                    Keith B. Ashdown, Staff Director
                  Christopher R. Hixon, Chief Counsel
       Patrick J. Bailey, Chief Counsel for Governmental Affairs
Gabrielle D'Adamo Singer, Deputy Chief Counsel for Governmental Affairs
            Jennifer L. Scheaffer, Professional Staff Member
              Gabrielle A. Batkin, Minority Staff Director
           John P. Kilvington, Minority Deputy Staff Director
               Mary Beth Schultz, Minority Chief Counsel
       John A. Kane, Minority Senior Governmental Affairs Advisor
    S. Alexander Fiske, Minority U.S. Postal Service Office of the 
                       Inspector General Detailee
 Bruce R. Marsh, Minority U.S. Postal Service Office of the Inspector 
                            General Detailee
                     Laura W. Kilbride, Chief Clerk
                     












                     
                                                      Calendar No. 233
114th Congress   }                                      {       Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session     }                                      {      114-144

======================================================================



 
        BREAST CANCER RESEARCH STAMP REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2015

                                _______
                                

               September 17, 2015.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Johnson, from the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
                    Affairs, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 1170]

    The Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs, to which was referred the bill (S. 1170) to amend 
title 39, United States Code, to extend the authority of the 
United States Postal Service to issue a semipostal to raise 
funds for breast cancer research, and for other purposes, 
having considered the same, reports favorably thereon without 
amendment and recommends that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
  I. Purpose and Summary..............................................1
 II. Background and Need for the Legislation..........................2
III. Legislative History..............................................3
 IV. Section-by-Section Analysis......................................3
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................3
 VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................4
VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............5

                         I. Purpose and Summary

    S. 1170, the Breast Cancer Research Reauthorization Act of 
2015, extends the Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act, passed in 1997. 
The Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act authorized a special first-
class mail postage stamp to raise funds for breast cancer 
research efforts. Under the program, purchasers pay a surcharge 
of not less than 15 percent above the regular rate for a stamp. 
The United States Postal Service (the Postal Service) remits 
the extra funds (minus the cost of running the program) for 
breast cancer research. The authorities under the Stamp Out 
Breast Cancer Act are set to expire on December 31, 2015; S. 
1170 would extend them through December 31, 2019.

              II. Background and the Need for Legislation

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women 
(after skin cancer) and kills more women than any cancer other 
than that of the lung.\1\ One in eight women in the United 
States will develop breast cancer over the course of their 
lifetime.\2\ The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that 
approximately 232,300 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed 
in the United States annually.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of 
Health, National Cancer Institute. Report to Congress: Use of Funds 
Received for Semipostal Stamp for Breast Cancer Research, Fiscal Year 
2010 (Jan. 2011), http://obf.cancer.gov/contribute/
BCStampReportFY2010.pdf.
    \2\SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Breast Cancer, National Cancer Institute, 
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, http://
seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html (last visited Aug. 17, 
2015).
    \3\National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. 
Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/breast.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    To supplement federal and private funding for breast cancer 
research, Congress in 1997 passed the Stamp Out Breast Cancer 
Act, authorizing a special postage stamp to increase public 
awareness of the disease and allow the public to participate 
directly in raising funds for such research.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\Pub. L. No. 105-41. 111 Stat. 1119 (Aug. 13, 1997) (codified as 
39 U.S.C. Sec. 414).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act requires the Postal Service 
to establish a special rate of postage for a first-class mail 
stamp, the Breast Cancer Research Semipostal (BCRS) to support 
breast cancer research.\5\ The Postal Service is required to 
sell the BCRS as an alternative to the regular first-class rate 
of postage, and postal patrons may choose to purchase it at the 
higher price.\6\ After deducting its reasonable costs incurred 
for making the BCRS available, the Postal Service is required 
to remit the remaining proceeds from the sale to the National 
Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense (DOD) 
for breast cancer research.\7\ Under the Act, seventy percent 
of the net proceeds go to NIH, with the remaining thirty 
percent to DOD's medical research program.\8\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\39 U.S.C. Sec. 414(a), (b).
    \6\Id. at Sec. 414(b).
    \7\Id. at Sec. 414(c).
    \8\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    From its first issuance in July 1998 through May 2015, the 
BCRS has raised nearly eighty-one million dollars for breast 
cancer research.\9\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \9\Information provided by the United States Postal Service to 
Committee staff.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has reported 
that the Breast Cancer Research stamp has been an effective 
fundraiser, with funds raised through sales of the stamp 
contributing to key insights and approaches for the treatment 
of breast cancer.\10\ For example, NIH has used the proceeds to 
support research into which patients may be most likely to 
benefit from chemotherapy, and DOD has used its share of the 
proceeds from the BCRS to fund Synergistic Idea Awards, a 
program that promotes new ideas and collaborations by funding 
innovative, high-risk, high-reward breast cancer research 
projects involving two researchers working together.\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\U.S. Gov't Accountability Office, GAO-08-45, U.S. Postal 
Service: Agencies Distribute Fund-Raising Stamp Proceeds and Improve 
Reporting 15 (Oct. 2007), available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/
d0845.pdf.
    \11\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    S. 1170 would extend the authorities in the Stamp Out 
Breast Cancer Act through the end of 2019. Additionally, S. 
1170 clarifies that the proceeds obtained by NIH and DOD must 
be used for breast cancer research.
    The BCRS is supported by the American Cancer Society and 
the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, as well as by 
postal consumers who have contributed to strong annual sales of 
the stamp. The Committee also recognizes that with 23 
cosponsors, the BCRS has broad, bipartisan support in the 
United States Senate.

                        III. Legislative History

    S. 1170 was introduced on April 30, 2015, by Senators 
Dianne Feinstein and Michael B. Enzi. Since introduction of S. 
1170, Senators Kelly Ayotte, Tammy Baldwin, John Barrasso, Roy 
Blunt, Barbara Boxer, Sherrod Brown, Robert P. Casey, Jr., Thad 
Cochran, Christopher A. Coons, Richard Durbin, Lindsey Graham, 
Chuck Grassley, Orrin G. Hatch, Mazie K. Hirono, Amy Klobuchar, 
Robert Menendez, Harry Reid, Brian Schatz, Charles E. Schumer, 
Jeanne Shaheen, Debbie Stabenow, and Jon Tester have joined as 
cosponsors. The bill was referred to the Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs.
    The Committee considered the bill at a business meeting on 
July 29, 2015. The Committee ordered the bill reported 
favorably by voice vote, en bloc, and without amendment. 
Senators Johnson, Portman, Lankford, Ernst, Sasse, Carper, 
Baldwin, Heitkamp, and Peters were present for the vote.

        IV. Section-by-Section Analysis of the Bill, as Reported


Section 1. Short title

    This section provides the bill's short title, the ``Breast 
Cancer Research Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2015''.

Section 2. Extension of postage stamp for breast cancer research

    This section extends the United States Postal Service's 
authority to issue the Breast Cancer Research Stamp for an 
additional four years.

Section 3. Ensuring that funds generated by special postage stamp sales 
        are used for breast cancer research

    This section specifies that any funds generated by stamp 
sales that an agency receives from the Postal Service must be 
used for breast cancer research.

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to the requirements of paragraph 11(b) of rule 
XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee has 
considered the regulatory impact of this bill and determined 
that the bill will have no regulatory impact within the meaning 
of the rules. The Committee agrees with the Congressional 
Budget Office's statement that the bill contains no 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would impose no costs 
on state, local, or tribal governments.

             VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                                September 14, 2015.
Hon. Ron Johnson, Chairman,
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 
        Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 1170, the Breast 
Cancer Research Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2015.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Mark 
Grabowicz.
            Sincerely,
                                                        Keith Hall.
    Enclosure.

S. 1170--Breast Cancer Research Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2015

    Summary: The Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act (Public Law 105-
41) authorized a special postage stamp for first-class mail. 
The price of this stamp is 60 cents, 11 cents above the current 
rate of 49 cents. The authority to issue the stamp expires on 
December 31, 2015. After accounting for the Postal Service's 
administrative costs, amounts above the regular postal rate 
collected from sales of the special stamp are transferred to 
the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of 
Defense (DoD) to spend on breast cancer research. S. 1170 would 
extend this program until December 31, 2019.
    CBO estimates that enacting S. 1170 would result in a net 
reduction in direct spending of $1 million over the 2016-2020 
period, but those savings would be offset by increased direct 
spending in 2021 and 2022. Thus, under the bill there would be 
no net effect on direct spending over the 2016-2025 period. 
Pay-as-you-go procedures apply because enacting the legislation 
would affect direct spending. Enacting the legislation would 
not affect revenues.
    S. 1170 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated Cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of S. 1170 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget functions 050 
(national defense), 370 (commerce and housing credit), and 550 
(health).
    Basis of estimate: Extending the authority to issue the 
special breast cancer stamp would generate additional 
offsetting receipts that could be spent without further 
appropriation for research on the disease. The amounts 
collected and transferred by the Postal Service would be direct 
spending but are classified as ``off-budget.'' The amounts 
received and subsequently spent by NIH and DoD also would be 
direct spending and are classified as ``on-budget.'' The 
budgetary effects in individual years and in each category 
would vary because of the timing of such collections and 
spending, but CBO estimates that enacting this bill would have 
no net effect on the unified budget over the 2016-2025 period.
    Based on sales of the special breast cancer stamp in recent 
years, CBO estimates that enacting S. 1170 would generate 
collections above the regular postage rate of roughly $6 
million over the next five years. After covering its 
administrative costs (less than $100,000 in total over the 
period), the Postal Service would transfer those collections to 
NIH and DoD in May and November of each year. In fiscal year 
2016, for example, the Postal Service would transfer about $0.5 
million to NIH and DoD.
    Those transfers from the Postal Service would increase NIH 
and DoD collections by about $6.3 million over the 2016-2020 
period. Because spending of those collections would lag behind 
the amounts collected by several months, we estimate that the 
NIH and DoD accounts would show net outlay reductions totaling 
$1 million over the 2016-2020 period and a corresponding 
increase in outlays from 2021 through 2022. CBO estimates that 
enacting S. 1170 would have no net impact on the unified budget 
(including on-budget and off-budget effects) over the 2016-2025 
period.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go 
Act of 2010 establishes budget-reporting and enforcement 
procedures for legislation affecting direct spending or 
revenues. The net changes in outlays that are subject to those 
pay-as-you-go procedures are shown in the following table. Only 
on-budget changes to outlays or revenues are subject to pay-as-
you-go procedures. Enacting S. 1170 would affect on-budget 
direct spending by NIH and DoD.

 CBO ESTIMATE OF PAY-AS-YOU-GO EFFECTS FOR S. 1170 AS ORDERED REPORTED BY THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS ON JULY 29,
                                                                          2015
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     2016    2017    2018    2019    2020    2021    2022    2023    2024    2025   2016-2020  2016-2025
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  NET INCREASE OR DECREASE (-) IN THE ON-BUDGET DEFICIT
 
Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Impact....................       0      -1       0       0       0       1       0       0       0       0        -1          0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: S. 1170 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would not affect the budgets of state, 
local, or tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Mark Grabowicz; Impact 
on state, local, and tribal governments: Melissa Merrell; 
Impact on the private sector: Logan Smith.
    Estimate approved by: H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

       VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
S. 1170 as reported are shown as follows (existing law proposed 
to be omitted is enclosed in brackets, new matter is printed in 
italic, and existing law in which no change is proposed is 
shown in roman):

TITLE 39--POSTAL SERVICE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


PART I--GENERAL

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER 4--GENERAL AUTHORITY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 414. SPECIAL POSTAGE STAMPS.

    (a) * * *
    (b) * * *
    (c)(1) Of the amounts becoming available for breast cancer 
research pursuant to this section, the Postal Service shall 
pay--
          (A) 70 percent to the National Institutes of Health; 
        and
          (B) the remainder to the Department of Defense.
    Payments under this paragraph to an agency shall be made 
under such arrangements as the Postal Service shall by mutual 
agreement with such agency establish in order to carry out the 
purposes of this section, except that, under those 
arrangements, payments to such agency shall be made at least 
twice a year. An agency that receives amounts from the Postal 
Service under this paragraph shall use the amounts for breast 
cancer research.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (h) This section shall cease to be effective after December 
31, [2015] 2019.

                                  [all]