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114th Congress     }                                    {       Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session       }                                    {      114-146
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                                         


          TSUNAMI WARNING, EDUCATION, AND RESEARCH ACT OF 2015

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

           COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

                                   on

                                H.R. 34

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]


               September 22, 2015.--Ordered to be printed
                                   ______

                         U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 

49-010                         WASHINGTON : 2015               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
       SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
                    one hundred fourteenth congress
                             first session

                   JOHN THUNE, South Dakota, Chairman
 ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi         BILL NELSON, Florida
 ROY BLUNT, Missouri                  MARIA CANTWELL, Washington
 MARCO RUBIO, Florida                 CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri
 KELLY AYOTTE, New Hampshire          AMY KLOBUCHAR, Minnesota
 TED CRUZ, Texas                      RICHARD BLUMENTHAL, Connecticut
 DEB FISCHER, Nebraska                BRIAN SCHATZ, Hawaii
 JERRY MORAN, Kansas                  ED MARKEY, Massachusetts
 DAN SULLIVAN, Alaska                 CORY BOOKER, New Jersey
 RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin               TOM UDALL, New Mexico
 DEAN HELLER, Nevada                  JOE MANCHIN, West Virginia
 CORY GARDNER, Colorado               GARY PETERS, Michigan
 STEVE DAINES, Montana
                    David Schwietert, Staff Director
                   Nick Rossi, Deputy Staff Director
                    Rebecca Seidel, General Counsel
                 Kim Lipsky, Democratic Staff Director
           Christopher Day, Democratic Deputy Staff Director
                 Clint Odom, Democratic General Counsel
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                                                      Calendar No. 237
114th Congress     }                                    {       Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session       }                                    {      114-146

======================================================================



 
          TSUNAMI WARNING, EDUCATION, AND RESEARCH ACT OF 2015

                                _______
                                

               September 22, 2015.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Thune, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany H.R. 34]

    The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to 
which was referred the bill (H.R. 34) to authorize and 
strengthen the tsunami detection, forecast, warning, research, 
and mitigation program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, and for other purposes, having considered the 
same, reports favorably thereon with an amendment (in the 
nature of a substitute) and recommends that the bill (as 
amended) do pass.

                          Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of H.R. 34, the Tsunami Warning, Education, and 
Research Act of 2015, is to reauthorize the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Tsunami Forecasting and 
Warning Program, create standardization across the program, 
improve research, and foster increased communication with 
emergency managers and local weather forecast offices to 
disseminate appropriate tsunami warnings.

                          Background and Needs

    A tsunami is a set of ocean waves caused by abrupt movement 
of the ocean floor, initiated by earthquakes, volcanic 
eruption, meteor strikes, or underwater landslides that can 
have devastating impacts to coastlines and coastal communities, 
sometimes within minutes of a disturbance.\1\ Tsunami waves can 
hit coastlines near where they are generated, or they can 
travel for thousands of miles, at speeds up to 600 miles per 
hour\2\ and impact areas far from the location of the 
disturbance. Because disturbances are all unique, the resulting 
tsunami waves are also unique in height and direction, making 
timely forecasting difficult.\3\ The size and power of a 
tsunami is dependent on a number of variables including the 
height of the water column above the disturbance and the shape 
of the seafloor and shoreline where the waves reach land.\4\ 
Currently the uses of real-time, deep ocean detectors that can 
directly detect tsunami waves and data from seismic gauges 
combined with models are essential for early detection. These 
relatively recent developments, in conjunction with continuing 
community education, have been shown to reduce the loss of 
life.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\``The Tsunami Story,'' National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, accessed March 18, 2015, at http://
www.tsunami.noaa.gov/tsunami_story.html.
    \2\U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, Tsunami Preparedness Act, report to accompany S. 50, 
109th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 109-59 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2004), pp. 
1-6.
    \3\``The Tsunami Story,'' National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, accessed March 18, 2015, at http://
www.tsunami.noaa.gov/tsunami_story.html.
    \4\U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, Tsunami Preparedness Act, report to accompany S. 50, 
109th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 109-59 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2004), pp. 
1-6.
    \5\``The Tsunami Story,'' National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, accessed March 18, 2015, at http://
www.tsunami.noaa.gov/tsunami_story.html.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake that struck on December 
26, 2004, with a magnitude of 9.2, created a catastrophic 
tsunami throughout the Indian Ocean region.\6\ The earthquake 
was the third largest in the world since 1900, and the 
resulting tsunami killed more people than any other tsunami in 
recorded history, with 227,989 dead or missing and an estimated 
$10 billion in losses.\7\ A panel of experts surveyed almost 
all of the Indian Ocean region countries affected by the 
tsunami to measure the runup height, which is the difference 
between the elevation of maximum tsunami inundation and the sea 
level at the time of the tsunami.\8\ Along the northwest coast 
of Sumatra, runup heights were measured at 65-131 feet with a 
maximum of 167 feet.\9\ Scientists assessed the damage from the 
tsunami disaster and found that few, if any, systems existed in 
the Indian Ocean to monitor tsunami dangers.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\CRS Report RL32739, Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early 
Warning Systems, by Wayne Morrissey.
    \7\National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National 
Geophysical Data Centers, ``December 26, 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia 
Earthquake and Tsunami - Tenth Anniversary Update,'' accessed March 18, 
2014, at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/data/publications/
2004_1226.pdf.
    \8\Ibid.
    \9\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In the wake of such a disaster, Congress began to discuss 
the circumstance surrounding the Indian Ocean tsunami and the 
international capabilities for tsunami detection and warning. 
In 2006, Congress passed the Tsunami Warning and Education Act 
(P.L. 109-424) that directed the Administrator of NOAA to 
operate a tsunami detection, forecasting, and warning program 
for the Pacific and Arctic Ocean regions and for the Atlantic 
Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico region. The 
legislation also directed NOAA to establish a tsunami hazard 
mitigation program to improve preparedness of at-risk areas in 
the United States.
    On Friday, March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake 
struck off Japan's northeast coast triggering a devastating 
tsunami in parts of the coastal regions of Japan closest to the 
earthquake. The tsunami traveled across the Pacific Ocean and 
triggered tsunami warnings for coastal areas of Hawaii, Guam, 
the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, American Samoa, 
Alaska, and California.\10\ According to the International 
Tsunami Information Center, which operates under the 
International Oceanographic Commission (IOC), the Japan 
Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued a tsunami warning three 
minutes after the earthquake hit, and the first tsunami wave 
reached the Japan coastline about 15 minutes after.\11\ 
However, the magnitude of the quake and estimated tsunami 
heights in the initial warning were significantly 
underestimated.\12\ The massive tsunami, with a measured runup 
height of up to 52 feet that struck Japanese coastal areas, 
caused severe damage with the number of deaths and missing 
people reaching around 20,000.\13\ The IOC has noted that the 
warning systems in place identified the location of the 
earthquake to allow for early warnings, however, an evaluation 
of the system a few years after the event has identified a 
series of lessons learned to improve the JMA's tsunami warning 
system.\14\ The JMA has since placed high priority on education 
and awareness efforts, in addition to some changes in the 
warning system to use qualitative expressions such as High and 
Huge, which correspond to quantitative measurements of 
estimated wave heights over 9 feet and over 16 feet, 
respectively.\15\ The JMA has also enhanced the observation 
facilities with satellite-link telecommunication equipment as 
backup and has installed three Deep-ocean Assessment and 
Reporting of Tsunami (DART ) buoys off the Pacific coast of the 
Tohoku district.\16\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\CRS Report R41686, U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview, by 
Peter Folger.
    \11\Ibid.
    \12\Japan Meteorological Agency, ``Lessons learned from the tsunami 
disaster caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and 
improvements in JMA's tsunami warning system,'' accessed March 19, 
2015, at http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/eqev/data/en/tsunami/
LessonsLearned_Improvements_brochure.pdf.
    \13\Ibid.
    \14\Ibid.
    \15\Ibid.
    \16\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Scientists at NOAA's tsunami warning centers were analyzing 
seismic data and running models as the events unfolded 
following the earthquake near Japan. Using sea-level 
measurements from the DART  buoys and tide gauges, they were 
able to refine predictions as the tsunami approached, and had 
the benefit of time to respond.\17\ The warnings and alerts 
NOAA was able to provide enabled identification of at-risk 
areas, evacuations, and road closures. Boats along the West 
Coast were moved out to open water to minimize damage.\18\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \17\National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ``Japan's 
`harbor wave' - The tsunami one year later,'' accessed March 19, 2015, 
at http://www.noaa.gov/features/03_protecting/
japantsunami_oneyearlater.html.
    \18\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    To provide the earliest possible alert, initial warnings 
are normally based on seismic data alone.\19\ Based on maps the 
U.S. Geological Survey released in 2008, more weight was given 
to the probability of a catastrophic magnitude 9.0 earthquake 
occurring along the Cascadia subduction zone, which has the 
potential to generate a destructive tsunami along the coast of 
Washington, Oregon, and northern California. These waves could 
reach the coast of Oregon and Washington in less than an hour, 
possibly in tens of minutes.\20\ In addition, massive submarine 
landslides and strong earthquakes have historically occurred 
along the Puerto Rican Trench creating the potential for a 
destructive tsunami along the Atlantic and Caribbean 
Basins.\21\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \19\CRS Report R41686, U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview, by 
Peter Folger.
    \20\CRS Report RL33861, Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and 
Research, by Peter Folger.
    \21\CRS Report RL34506, Tsunamis Detection and Warnings for the 
United States, by Wayne Morrissey.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) operates two tsunami 
warning centers responsible for monitoring Earth's oceans for 
earthquakes and tsunamis. The centers, which are staffed 24 
hours a day, 7 days a week, forecast tsunami impacts and issue 
alerts to emergency managers and the public. The Pacific 
Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) is located in Hawaii and serves 
Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific territories and is the primary 
international warning center for both the Pacific Ocean and 
Caribbean Basin.\22\ The PTWC was established in 1949 in 
response to the 1946 tsunami generated in the Aleutian Islands 
that devastated Hilo, Hawaii almost five hours later killing 
more than 150 people, injuring at least 161 others, and causing 
approximately $25 million in damages.\23\ The National Tsunami 
Warning Center (NTWC) is located in Alaska and serves Canada, 
Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and all U.S. coastal States, 
except Hawaii. The NTWC was established in 1967 a few years 
after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake struck Alaska and caused 
localized tsunami damages.\24\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \22\CRS Report R41686, U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview, by 
Peter Folger.
    \23\G.A. Macdonald, F.P. Shepard, and D.C. Cox, ``The tsunami of 
April 1, 1946, in the Hawaiian Islands,'' Pacific Science (January 
1947), pp. 21-37.
    \24\CRS Report R41686, U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview, by 
Peter Folger.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Scientists at both warning centers monitor seismic data, 
sea level gauges, and data buoys 24 hours a day to determine 
whether a tsunami has been generated and where it might hit 
land.\25\ In the event that either tsunami center is disabled 
or otherwise unable to issue any of its critical products, the 
other tsunami center has authority and capability to issues 
warnings for all areas covered by the Tsunami Forecasting and 
Warning Program and can thus act as backup.\26\ In addition, 
the proximity of the tsunami warning center location has no 
effect on the speed of the warning. Initial warning times are 
fully dependent on how quickly seismic wave analyses can be 
performed and the seismic sensing density near the location of 
the event.\27\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \25\U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, Tsunami Preparedness Act, report to accompany S. 50, 
109th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 109-59 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2004), pp. 
1-6.
    \26\National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National 
Weather Service Instruction 10-701, March 28, 2012, p. 7, at http://
www.nws.noaa.gov/directives/sym/pd01007001curr.pdf.
    \27\Email correspondence with Matthew Borgia, NOAA Congressional 
Liaison for Weather, and NOAA Tsunami Program Director, March 24, 2015.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The three main categories funded within NOAA's Tsunami 
Forecasting and Warning Program are warning, mitigation, and 
research. The warning component captures activities of the 
tsunami warning centers and DART  network; mitigation is 
captured in the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program 
(NTHMP) which works with States and emergency managers to 
assist with planning and developing coastal inundation maps; 
and research is mostly conducted by the Pacific Marine 
Environmental Laboratory and the National Buoy Center.\28\ 
After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, funding increased from 
around $27 million in fiscal year (FY) 2005 to $42 million in 
FY 2009.\29\ The program received $26.4 million in FY 2013, 
$31.3 million in FY 2014, and $31.4 million in FY 2015. The FY 
2016 President's Budget proposes top-line tsunami program 
funding at $25.4 million. For FY 2016 NOAA proposes a decrease 
of $6 million from FY 2015 enacted to terminate the NWS 
contribution toward the NTHMP grant program. Through the NTHMP, 
this grant program supports local education, awareness, and 
inundation and evacuation map development.\30\ NOAA is not 
seeking to terminate the NTHMP and will continue to fund 
critical tsunami program components.\31\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \28\CRS Report R41686, U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview, by 
Peter Folger.
    \29\Ibid.
    \30\National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FY 2016 
Congressional Budget Justification. Accessed March 20, 2015 at http://
www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/nbo/fy16_bluebook/
NOAA_FY16_CJ_508compliant_v2.pdf.
    \31\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The PTWC and NTWC monitor coastal water-level data through 
both tide-level gauges and data from NOAA's DART  network of 
buoys.\32\ Since the Sumatra tsunami of December 2004, NOAA has 
made significant upgrades to the U.S. tsunami warning system, 
to include: installing 49 new or upgraded tide gauges; 
installing or upgrading 8 seismic stations; and expanding the 
network of DART  buoys from 6 to 39. The original array of 6 
DART  buoys were exclusively in the eastern Pacific, and now 
the array of 39 expands from the western Pacific to the 
Atlantic, located at sites with a history of generating 
tsunamis.\33\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \32\CRS Report R41686, U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview, by 
Peter Folger.
    \33\National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ``NOAA 
Launches Final Two Buoys to Complete U.S. Tsunami Warning System,'' 
press release, March 10, 2008, at http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/
stories2008/20080310_buoy.html.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Summary of Provisions

    H.R. 34 (as amended) would reauthorize, enhance, and 
modernize NOAA's Tsunami Forecasting and Warning Program. The 
bill would require the program, to the degree practicable, to 
maintain not less than 80 percent of the DART  buoy array in 
operational status. The program would enhance and modernize the 
current tsunami system and develop uniform standards and 
guidelines for mapping, modeling, education and outreach. 
Additionally, the Tsunami Warning Centers areas of 
responsibility are geographically defined. The centers would be 
required to establish uniform operating procedures, including 
software applications, checklists, and products. Supercomputing 
resources would be available to run computer models needed for 
the tsunami warning system.
     H.R. 34 would also require the Administrator of NOAA to 
work with the Federal Emergency Management Agency to conduct 
community-based tsunami hazard mitigation to improve readiness 
and resiliency. Not later than one year after enactment, a 
report would be required to be submitted to Congress that 
addresses national efforts in effect on the day before the date 
of enactment of this Act that support rapid emergency response 
following a tsunami event in the United States.

                          Legislative History

    H.R. 34 was introduced in the House of Representatives by 
Representative Bonamici. The House of Representatives passed 
H.R. 34 by voice vote on January 7, 2015. On January 8, 2015, 
it was received in the Senate, read twice, and referred to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. On February 
26, 2015, the Committee met in open Executive Session and, by a 
voice vote, ordered H.R. 34 reported with an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute.
    Changes in the substitute included requirements for at 
least 80 percent of the DART  buoy array to be operational, for 
tsunami warning centers to use data from the NOAA Integrated 
Ocean Observing System, for use of the NWS's existing mass 
communication tools to deliver tsunami warnings, and several 
modifications to the NTHMP. The Committee supported the 
substitute amendment that maintained congressional notification 
requirements, as well as the NTHMP's ability to provide maps of 
evacuation areas and evacuation routes that had been eliminated 
in the House-passed bill. In addition, it eliminated a 
requirement that NOAA conduct a pilot project for near field 
tsunami forecast development.
    The substitute incorporated an amendment from Senator 
Schatz, which would expand the types of data the Tsunami 
Forecasting and Warning Program should include in model 
validation, allow the NTHMP to provide assistance for 
evaluating the effect of tsunami currents on the foundations of 
closely-spaced, coastal high-rise structures, encourage the 
colocation of tsunami sensors on marine telecommunications 
cables, and allow for the formation of regional coastal risk 
management coalitions of Federal, State, local, and tribal 
governments, community groups, academic institutions, and non-
governmental groups.

                            Estimated Costs

    In accordance with paragraph 11(a) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate and section 403 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee provides the 
following cost estimate, prepared by the Congressional Budget 
Office:

H.R. 34--Tsunami Warning, Education, and Research Act of 2015

    Summary: H.R. 34 would amend and reauthorize the Tsunami 
Warning and Education Act. The bill would authorize 
appropriations totaling $162 million over the 2016-2021 period 
for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 
to carry out activities under that act. Based on information 
from NOAA and assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, 
CBO estimates that implementing the legislation would cost $121 
million over the 2016-2020 period and $41 million after 2020. 
Because enacting H.R. 34 would not affect direct spending or 
revenues, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    H.R. 34 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 34 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 300 
(natural resources and environment).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                            2016     2017     2018     2019     2020   2016-2020
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Authorization Level.....................................       27       27       27       27       27       135
Estimated Outlays.......................................       18       23       26       27       27       121
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
legislation will be enacted near the end of 2015 and that the 
authorized amounts will be appropriated for each fiscal year. 
Estimated outlays are based on historical spending patterns for 
similar activities.
    H.R. 34 would authorize the appropriation of $27 million a 
year over the 2016-2021 period for NOAA to maintain tsunami 
warning centers, support efforts by local governments to 
mitigate the effects of tsunamis, and fund research related to 
tsunamis. In 2015, NOAA received appropriations totaling $31 
million to carry out those activities. Based on information 
provided by the agency, CEO estimates that implementing the 
bill would cost $121 million over the 2016-2020 period and $41 
million after 2020, assuming appropriation of the authorized 
amounts.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 34 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA. Coastal state, local, and tribal governments 
could benefit from programs and assistance authorized in the 
bill. Any costs they incur, including matching contributions, 
would result from participation in voluntary federal programs.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Jeff LaFave; Impact on 
state, local, and tribal governments: Jon Sperl; Impact on the 
private sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: Theresa Gullo, Assistant Director for 
Budget Analysis.

                           Regulatory Impact

    In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the 
following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the 
legislation, as reported:

                       number of persons covered

    The reported bill would reauthorize a national tsunami 
warning system within NOAA. It does not authorize any new 
regulations and therefore will not subject any individuals or 
businesses to new regulations.

                            economic impact

    H.R. 34 would authorize appropriations of $27 million for 
the program for each of the fiscal years 2016 through 2021.

                                privacy

    The bill would not impact the personal privacy of 
individuals.

                               paperwork

    The reported bill would not increase paperwork requirements 
for the private sector. The bill would require a number of 
reports from the Federal Government. No later than 180 days 
after enactment, the Administrator of NOAA would be required to 
submit to Congress a report on authorities and activities that 
are needed for the TsunamiReady Program to be accredited by the 
Emergency Management Accreditation Program. No later than one 
year after enactment, the Administrator of NOAA would be 
required to submit a report to Congress on the implementation 
of this Act. Not less frequently than once every four years, 
the Administrator of NOAA would be required to submit to 
Congress a report on the findings and recommendations from the 
Tsunami Science and Technology Advisory Panel.
    In addition, the Administrator of NOAA and the Secretary of 
Homeland Security in coordination with the Director of the U.S. 
Geological Survey, Administrator of NOAA of the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency, the Chief of the National Guard 
Bureau, and the heads of other Federal agencies considered 
appropriate, would submit a report to Congress on the national 
efforts in effect on the day before the date of enactment of 
this Act that support rapid emergency response following a 
tsunami event in the United States.
    The Administrator of NOAA would be required to notify 
Congress within 90 days of a significant tsunami warning and 
include brief information on the accuracy of the model used, 
the specific equipment that detected the incidents (and any 
equipment that did not detect the incident due to malfunction 
or otherwise), and the effectiveness of the warning 
communication. Lastly, the Administrator of NOAA would be 
required to develop uniform operational procedures for the 
tsunami warning centers.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    In compliance with paragraph 4(b) of rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides that no 
provisions contained in the bill, as reported, meet the 
definition of congressionally directed spending items under the 
rule.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title.

    This section would designate the short title of this bill 
as the ``Tsunami Warning, Education, and Research Act of 
2015.''

Section 2. Reference to the Tsunami Warning and Education Act.

    Amendments to this Act would be considered to be made to 
the Tsunami Warning and Education Act (33 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.).

Section 3. Expansion of purpose of the Tsunami Warning and Education 
        Act.

    This section would amend section 3 of the Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act (33 U.S.C. 3202) to add language to enhance 
and modernize the existing Tsunami Warning System in order to 
increase accuracy of forecasts, warnings, and reduce false 
alarms by incorporating and improving research, outreach, and 
mitigation. It also would require the development of uniform 
standards and guidelines for mapping, modeling, education and 
outreach, and efforts to improve detection, warning, and 
recovery.

Section 4. Modification of tsunami forecasting and warning program.

    This section would amend section 4 of the Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act (33 U.S.C. 3203) by defining the Tsunami 
Warning Centers. The NTWC, located in Alaska, is primarily 
responsible for Alaska and the continental United States. The 
PTWC, located in Hawaii, is primarily responsible for Hawaii, 
the Caribbean, and other areas of the Pacific not covered by 
the NTWC. The Administrator of NOAA also would be required to 
support any additional forecast and warning centers determined 
by the NWS to be necessary.
    The tsunami warning centers are responsible for 
continuously monitoring data, evaluating events that have the 
potential to generate a tsunami, utilizing a range of models 
for prediction, disseminating forecasts, coordinating and 
sharing information with emergency management officials, and 
making data available to the public. The Administrator of NOAA 
would need to ensure that resources are available to fulfill 
the obligations of this Act, to include supercomputing 
resources to run rapid models needed for warnings. To the 
degree practicable, NOAA is to maintain not less than 80 
percent of the DART  buoy array at operational capacity. The 
warning centers would need to maintain fail-safe warning 
capabilities and perform back-up for each other.
    The Administrator of NOAA would be required to develop 
uniform operational procedures for the centers that would 
include use of software applications, checklists, decision 
support tools, and tsunami warning products; and guidelines and 
metrics for evaluating and improving tsunami forecast models 
would be required to be distributed.
    The Administrator of NOAA would be required to notify 
Congress within 90 days of a significant tsunami warning and 
include brief information on the accuracy of the model used, 
the specific equipment that detected the incidents (and any 
equipment that did not detect the incident due to malfunction 
or otherwise), and the effectiveness of the warning 
communication. A significant tsunami warning is considered a 
warning of a tsunami that has the potential to endanger life or 
cause extensive property damage.

Section 5. Modification of national tsunami hazard mitigation program.

    This section would amend section 5 of the Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act (33 U.S.C. 3204) to require the Administrator 
of NOAA to work with the Federal Emergency Management Agency to 
conduct community-based tsunami hazard mitigation to improve 
readiness and resiliency. Components of the program would 
include assistance to States; evacuation planning, including 
maps of evacuation areas and routes; promotion of tsunami 
warning and mitigation measures; and dissemination of 
guidelines and standards for mapping products, inundation 
models, and effective emergency exercises. At-risk communities 
where models indicate timely evacuation is not probable, 
technical assistance should be used for vertical evacuation 
structure planning. In coordination with the U.S. Coast Guard, 
guidance should be established for at-risk ports and harbors. 
Social science research should also be incorporated into 
community readiness and resiliency.
    In addition to the activities outlined above, the program 
could include: risk management training for local officials; 
intergovernmental tsunami response exercise planning; risk 
notification systems that coordinate and build upon existing 
systems and engage government, business, nongovernmental 
organization, and the media.
    The requirements above would be maintained with the 
assistance of a coordinating committee established by the 
Administrator of NOAA. The committee would be composed of 
members from State representatives in at-risk areas and 
representatives of Federal, State, tribal, territorial, and 
local governments. This committee would be required to provide 
feedback on how funds should be prioritized, and provide 
recommendations to the Administrator of NOAA on how to improve 
and advance the TsunamiReady Program. Section 14 of the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 14) would not apply to 
this committee.
    This section also would specify that no new regulatory 
authority for any Federal agency is being established. No later 
than 180 days after enactment, the Administrator of NOAA would 
be required to submit to Congress a report on authorities and 
activities that are needed for the TsunamiReady Program to be 
accredited by the Emergency Management Accreditation Program.

Section 6. Modification of tsunami research program.

    This section would amend section 6 of the Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act (33 U.S.C. 3205) to require the research 
programs to consider other appropriate research to mitigate the 
impacts of a tsunami and to develop the technical basis for 
validating tsunami maps, numerical models, digital elevation 
models, and forecasts. Social science should be considered when 
assessing community warning, education, and evacuation 
materials. Coordination of research to operations should be 
done with the NWS.

Section 7. Global tsunami warning and mitigation network.

    This section would amend section 7 of the Tsunami Warning 
and Education Act (33 U.S.C. 3206) to require NOAA to provide 
technical assistance and training to the Intergovernmental 
Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Education, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the World Meteorological 
Organization of the United Nations, and other international 
entities as part of the efforts to enhance and develop global 
tsunami forecasts and warnings. In cooperation with the 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the Administrator 
of NOAA may operate an International Tsunami Information Center 
to improve tsunami preparedness for all Pacific Ocean nations 
participating in the International Tsunami Warning System of 
the Pacific.

Section 8. Tsunami science and technology advisory panel.

    This section would designate the Tsunami Science and 
Technology Advisory Panel composed of no fewer than seven 
members selected by the Administrator of NOAA to provide advice 
on tsunami science, technology, and regional preparedness. Not 
less frequently than once every four years, the Administrator 
of NOAA would be required to submit to Congress a report on the 
findings and recommendations from the advisory panel.

Section 9. Reports.

    The Administrator of NOAA would be required to submit a 
report to Congress on the implementation of this Act, no later 
than one year after enactment.
    In addition, the Administrator of NOAA and the Secretary of 
Homeland Security in coordination with the Director of the U.S. 
Geological Survey, Administrator of the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, and 
the heads of other Federal agencies considered appropriate, 
would be required to submit a report to Congress on the 
national efforts in effect on the day before the date of 
enactment of this Act that support rapid emergency response 
following a tsunami event in the United States.

Section 10. Authorization of appropriations.

    This section would amend section 9 (33 U.S.C. 3207) of the 
Tsunami Warning and Education Act to authorize $27,000,000 for 
each of fiscal years 2016 through 2021. The legislation would 
direct 27 percent of appropriated funds be used on State-level 
activities under the NHMP, consistent with current practice. In 
addition, not less than eight percent would be for the Tsunami 
Research Program.

Section 11. Outreach responsibilities.

    The Administrator of NOAA would be required to develop and 
carry out formal outreach activities to improve tsunami 
education and awareness, which may include coordination with 
local Weather Forecast Offices.

Section 12. Repeal of duplicate provisions of law.

    The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management 
Reauthorization Act of 2006 (Public Law 109--479) would be 
amended by striking title VIII relating to a tsunami 
forecasting and warning program.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
material is printed in italic, existing law in which no change 
is proposed is shown in roman):

                    TSUNAMI WARNING AND EDUCATION ACT


             [Public Law 109--424; 33 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.]

SEC. 3. PURPOSES.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3202]

  The purposes of this Act are--
          (1) to improve tsunami detection, forecasting, 
        warnings, research, notification, outreach, and 
        mitigation to protect life and property in the United 
        States;
          [(2) to enhance and modernize the existing Pacific 
        Tsunami Warning System to increase coverage, reduce 
        false alarms, and increase the accuracy of forecasts 
        and warnings, and to expand detection and warning 
        systems to include other vulnerable States and United 
        States territories, including the Atlantic Ocean, 
        Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico areas;]
          (2) to enhance and modernize the existing United 
        States Tsunami Warning System to increase the accuracy 
        of forecasts and warnings, to ensure full coverage of 
        tsunami threats to the United States with a network of 
        detection assets, and to reduce false alarms;
          [(3) to improve mapping, modeling, research, and 
        assessment efforts to improve tsunami detection, 
        forecasting, warnings, notification, outreach, 
        mitigation, response, and recovery;]
          (3) to improve and develop standards and guidelines 
        for mapping, modeling, and assessment efforts to 
        improve tsunami detection, forecasting, warnings, 
        notification, mitigation, resiliency, response, 
        outreach, and recovery;
          (4) to improve research efforts related to improving 
        tsunami detection, forecasting, warnings, notification, 
        mitigation, resiliency, response, outreach, and 
        recovery;
          [(4)] (5) to improve [and increase], increase, and 
        develop uniform standards and guidelines for education 
        and outreach activities and ensure that those receiving 
        tsunami warnings and the at-risk public know what to do 
        when a tsunami is approaching, including the warning 
        signs of locally generated tsunami;
          [(5)] (6) to provide technical and other assistance 
        to speed international efforts to establish regional 
        tsunami warning systems in vulnerable areas worldwide[, 
        including the Indian Ocean; and];
          (7) to foster resilient communities in the face of 
        tsunami and other similar coastal hazards; and
          [(6)] (8) to improve Federal, State, and 
        international coordination for detection, warnings, and 
        outreach for tsunami and other coastal impacts.

SEC. 4. TSUNAMI FORECASTING AND WARNING PROGRAM.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3203]

  (a) In General.--The Administrator, through the National 
Weather Service and in consultation with other relevant 
Administration offices, shall operate a program to provide 
tsunami detection, forecasting, and warnings for the Pacific 
and Arctic Ocean regions and for the [Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean 
Sea, and Gulf of Mexico region] Atlantic Ocean region, 
including the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
  (b) Components.--The program under this section shall--
          (1) include the tsunami warning centers [established] 
        supported or maintained under subsection (d);
          (2) to the degree practicable, maintain not less than 
        80 percent of the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting 
        of Tsunamis buoy array at operational capacity to 
        optimize data reliability;
          [(2)] (3) utilize and maintain an array of robust 
        tsunami detection technologies;
          [(3)] (4) maintain detection equipment in operational 
        condition to fulfill the detection, forecasting, and 
        warning requirements of this Act;
          [(4) provide tsunami forecasting capability based on 
        models and measurements, including tsunami inundation 
        models and maps for use in increasing the preparedness 
        of communities, including through the TsunamiReady 
        program;]
          (5) provide tsunami forecasting capability based on 
        models and measurements, including tsunami inundation 
        models and maps for use in increasing the preparedness 
        of communities and safeguarding port and harbor 
        operations, that incorporate inputs, including--
                  (A) the United States and global ocean and 
                coastal observing system;
                  (B) the global Earth observing system;
                  (C) the global seismic network;
                  (D) the Advanced National Seismic system;
                  (E) tsunami model validation using historical 
                and paleotsunami data;
                  (F) digital elevation models and bathymetry; 
                and
                  (G) newly developing tsunami detection 
                methodologies using satellites and airborne 
                remote sensing;
          [(5)] (6) maintain data quality and management 
        systems to support the requirements of the program;
          [(6)] (7) include a cooperative effort among the 
        Administration, the United States Geological Survey, 
        and the National Science Foundation under which the 
        Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation 
        shall provide rapid and reliable seismic information to 
        the Administration from international and domestic 
        seismic networks;
          (8) include a cooperative effort among the 
        Administration, the United States Geological Survey, 
        and the National Science Foundation under which the 
        Director of the United States Geological Survey and the 
        Director of the National Science Foundation shall--
                  (A) provide rapid and reliable seismic 
                information to the Administrator from 
                international and domestic seismic networks; 
                and
                  (B) support seismic stations installed before 
                the date of the enactment of the Tsunami 
                Warning, Education, and Research Act of 2015 to 
                supplement coverage in areas of sparse 
                instrumentation;
          [(7)] (9) provide a capability for the dissemination 
        of warnings, including graphical warning products, to 
        at-risk States, territories, and tsunami communities 
        through rapid and reliable notification to government 
        officials and the public, including utilization of and 
        coordination with existing Federal warning systems, 
        including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration Weather Radio All Hazards Program  and 
        Wireless Emergency Alerts;
          [(8)] (10) provide and allow, as practicable, for 
        integration of tsunami detection technologies with 
        other environmental observing technologies and 
        commercial and Federal undersea communications cables; 
        and
          [(9)] (11) include any technology the Administrator 
        considers appropriate to fulfill the objectives of the 
        program under this section.
  [(c) System Areas.--The program under this section shall 
operate--
          [(1) a Pacific tsunami warning system capable of 
        forecasting tsunami anywhere in the Pacific and Arctic 
        Ocean regions and providing adequate warnings; and
          [(2) an Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of 
        Mexico tsunami warning system capable of forecasting 
        tsunami and providing adequate warnings in areas of the 
        Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico that 
        are determined--
                  [(A) to be geologically active, or to have 
                significant potential for geological activity; 
                and
                  [(B) to pose significant risks of tsunami for 
                States along the coastal areas of the Atlantic 
                Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico.]
  (c) Tsunami Warning System.--The program under this section 
shall operate a tsunami warning system that--
          (1) is capable of forecasting tsunami, including 
        forecasting tsunami arrival time and inundation 
        estimates, anywhere in the Pacific and Arctic Ocean 
        regions and providing adequate warnings;
          (2) is capable of forecasting and providing adequate 
        warnings, including tsunami arrival time and inundation 
        models where applicable, in areas of the Atlantic 
        Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, 
        that are determined--
                  (A) to be geologically active, or to have 
                significant potential for geological activity; 
                and
                  (B) to pose significant risks of tsunami for 
                States along the coastal areas of the Atlantic 
                Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico; and
          (3) supports other international tsunami forecasting 
        and warning efforts.
  [(d) Tsunami Warning Centers.--
          [(1) In general.--The Administrator, through the 
        National Weather Service, shall maintain or establish--
                  [(A) a Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in 
                Hawaii;
                  [(B) a West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning 
                Center in Alaska; and
                  [(C) any additional forecast and warning 
                centers determined by the National Weather 
                Service to be necessary.
          [(2) Responsibilities.--The responsibilities of each 
        tsunami warning center shall include--
                  [(A) continuously monitoring data from 
                seismological, deep ocean, and tidal monitoring 
                stations;
                  [(B) evaluating earthquakes that have the 
                potential to generate tsunami;
                  [(C) evaluating deep ocean buoy data and 
                tidal monitoring stations for indications of 
                tsunami resulting from earthquakes and other 
                sources;
                  [(D) disseminating forecasts and tsunami 
                warning bulletins to Federal, State, and local 
                government officials and the public;
                  [(E) coordinating with the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program described in section 5 to 
                ensure ongoing sharing of information between 
                forecasters and emergency management officials; 
                and
                  [(F) making data gathered under this Act and 
                post-warning analyses conducted by the National 
                Weather Service or other relevant 
                Administration offices available to 
                researchers.]
  (d) Tsunami Warning Centers.--
          (1) In general.--The Administrator shall support or 
        maintain centers to support the tsunami warning system 
        required by subsection (c). The Centers shall include--
                  (A) the National Tsunami Warning Center, 
                located in Alaska, which is primarily 
                responsible for Alaska and the continental 
                United States;
                  (B) the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, 
                located in Hawaii, which is primarily 
                responsible for Hawaii, the Caribbean, and 
                other areas of the Pacific not covered by the 
                National Center; and
                  (C) any additional forecast and warning 
                centers determined by the National Weather 
                Service to be necessary.
          (2) Responsibilities.--The responsibilities of the 
        centers supported or maintained pursuant to paragraph 
        (1) shall include the following:
                  (A) Continuously monitoring data from 
                seismological, deep ocean, coastal sea level, 
                and tidal monitoring stations and other data 
                sources as may be developed and deployed.
                  (B) Evaluating earthquakes, landslides, and 
                volcanic eruptions that have the potential to 
                generate tsunami.
                  (C) Evaluating deep ocean buoy data and tidal 
                monitoring stations for indications of tsunami 
                resulting from earthquakes and other sources.
                  (D) To the extent practicable, utilizing a 
                range of models, including ensemble models, to 
                predict tsunami, including arrival times, 
                flooding estimates, coastal and harbor 
                currents, and duration.
                  (E) Using data from the Integrated Ocean 
                Observing System of the Administration in 
                coordination with regional associations to 
                calculate new inundation estimates and 
                periodically update existing inundation 
                estimates.
                  (F) Ensuring supercomputing resources of the 
                National Centers for Environmental Prediction 
                are available to run, as rapidly as possible, 
                such computer models as are needed for purposes 
                of the tsunami warning system operated pursuant 
                to subsection (c).
                  (G) Disseminating forecasts and tsunami 
                warning bulletins to Federal, State, tribal, 
                and local government officials and the public.
                  (H) Coordinating with the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program conducted under section 5 to 
                ensure ongoing sharing of information between 
                forecasters and emergency management officials.
                  (I) Evaluating and recommending procedures 
                for ports and harbors at risk of tsunami 
                inundation, including review of readiness, 
                response, and communication strategies to 
                ensure coordination and data sharing with the 
                Coast Guard.
                  (J) Making data gathered under this Act and 
                post-warning analyses conducted by the National 
                Weather Service or other relevant 
                Administration offices available to the public.
                  (K) Integrating and modernizing the program 
                operated under this section with advances in 
                tsunami science to improve performance without 
                compromising service.
          (3) Fail-safe warning capability.--The tsunami 
        warning centers supported or maintained pursuant to 
        paragraph (1) shall maintain a fail-safe warning 
        capability and perform back-up duties for each other.
          (4) Coordination with national weather service.--The 
        Administrator shall coordinate with the forecast 
        offices of the National Weather Service, the centers 
        supported or maintained pursuant to paragraph (1), and 
        such program offices of the Administration as the 
        Administrator or the coordinating committee consider 
        appropriate to ensure that regional and local forecast 
        offices--
                  (A) have the technical knowledge and 
                capability to disseminate tsunami warnings for 
                the communities they serve;
                  (B) leverage connections with local emergency 
                management officials for optimally 
                disseminating tsunami warnings and forecasts; 
                and
                  (C) implement mass communication tools in 
                effect on the day before the date of the 
                enactment of the Tsunami Warning, Education, 
                and Research Act of 2015 used by the National 
                Weather Service on such date and newer mass 
                communication technologies as they are 
                developed as a part of the Weather-Ready Nation 
                program of the Administration, or otherwise, 
                for the purpose of timely and effective 
                delivery of tsunami warnings.
          (5) Uniform operating procedures.--The Administrator 
        shall--
                  (A) develop uniform operational procedures 
                for the centers supported or maintained 
                pursuant to paragraph (1), including the use of 
                software applications, checklists, decision 
                support tools, and tsunami warning products 
                that have been standardized across the program 
                supported under this section;
                  (B) ensure that processes and products of the 
                warning system operated pursuant to subsection 
                (c)--
                          (i) reflect industry best practices 
                        when practicable;
                          (ii) conform to the maximum extent 
                        practicable with internationally 
                        recognized standards for information 
                        technology; and
                          (iii) conform to the maximum extent 
                        practicable with other warning products 
                        and practices of the National Weather 
                        Service;
                  (C) ensure that future adjustments to 
                operational protocols, processes, and warning 
                products--
                          (i) are made consistently across the 
                        warning system operated pursuant to 
                        subsection (c); and
                          (ii) are applied in a uniform manner 
                        across such warning system;
                  (D) establish a systematic method for 
                information technology product development to 
                improve long-term technology planning efforts; 
                and
                  (E) disseminate guidelines and metrics for 
                evaluating and improving tsunami forecast 
                models.
          (6) Available resources.--The Administrator, through 
        the National Weather Service, shall ensure that 
        resources are available to fulfill the obligations of 
        this Act. This includes ensuring supercomputing 
        resources are available to run such computer models as 
        are needed for purposes of the tsunami warning system 
        operated pursuant to subsection (c).
  [(e) Transfer of Technology; Maintenance and Upgrades.--
          [(1) In general.--In carrying out this section, the 
        National Weather Service, in consultation with other 
        relevant Administration offices, shall--
                  [(A) develop requirements for the equipment 
                used to forecast tsunami, which shall include 
                provisions for multipurpose detection 
                platforms, reliability and performance metrics, 
                and to the maximum extent practicable how the 
                equipment will be integrated with other United 
                States and global ocean and coastal observation 
                systems, the global earth observing system of 
                systems, global seismic networks, and the 
                Advanced National Seismic System;
                  [(B) develop and execute a plan for the 
                transfer of technology from ongoing research 
                described in section 6 into the program under 
                this section; and
                  [(C) ensure that maintaining operational 
                tsunami detection equipment is the highest 
                priority within the program carried out under 
                this Act.
          [(2) Report to congress.--
                  [(A) Not later than 1 year after the date of 
                enactment of this Act, the National Weather 
                Service, in consultation with other relevant 
                Administration offices, shall transmit to 
                Congress a report on how the tsunami forecast 
                system under this section will be integrated 
                with other United States and global ocean and 
                coastal observation systems, the global earth 
                observing system of systems, global seismic 
                networks, and the Advanced National Seismic 
                System.
                  [(B) Not later than 3 years after the date of 
                enactment of this Act, the National Weather 
                Service, in consultation with other relevant 
                Administration offices, shall transmit a report 
                to Congress on how technology developed under 
                section 6 is being transferred into the program 
                under this section.]
  (e) Transfer of Technology; Maintenance and Upgrades.--In 
carrying out this section, the Administrator shall--
          (1) develop requirements for the equipment used to 
        forecast tsunami, including--
                  (A) provisions for multipurpose detection 
                platforms;
                  (B) reliability and performance metrics; and
                  (C) to the maximum extent practicable, 
                requirements for the integration of equipment 
                with other United States and global ocean and 
                coastal observation systems, the global Earth 
                observing system of systems, the global seismic 
                networks, and the Advanced National Seismic 
                System;
          (2) develop and execute a plan for the transfer of 
        technology from ongoing research conducted as part of 
        the program supported or maintained under section 6 
        into the program under this section; and
          (3) ensure that the Administration's operational 
        tsunami detection equipment is properly maintained.
  [(f) Federal Cooperation.--When deploying and maintaining 
tsunami detection technologies, the Administrator shall seek 
the assistance and assets of other appropriate Federal 
agencies.]
  (f) Federal Cooperation.--When deploying and maintaining 
tsunami detection technologies under the program under this 
section, the Administrator shall--
          (1) identify which assets of other Federal agencies 
        are necessary to support such program; and
          (2) work with each agency identified under paragraph 
        (1)--
                  (A) to acquire the agency's assistance; and
                  (B) to prioritize the necessary assets.
  [(g) Annual Equipment Certification.--At the same time 
Congress receives the budget justification documents in support 
of the President's annual budget request for each fiscal year, 
the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
Science of the House of Representatives a certification that--
          [(1) identifies the tsunami detection equipment 
        deployed pursuant to this Act, as of December 31 of the 
        preceding calendar year;
          [(2) certifies which equipment is operational as of 
        December 31 of the preceding calendar year;
          [(3) in the case of any piece of such equipment that 
        is not operational as of such date, identifies that 
        equipment and describes the mitigation strategy that is 
        in place--
                  [(A) to repair or replace that piece of 
                equipment within a reasonable period of time; 
                or
                  [(B) to otherwise ensure adequate tsunami 
                detection coverage;
          [(4) identifies any equipment that is being developed 
        or constructed to carry out this Act but which has not 
        yet been deployed, if the Administration has entered 
        into a contract for that equipment prior to December 31 
        of the preceding calendar year, and provides a schedule 
        for the deployment of that equipment; and
          [(5) certifies that the Administrator expects the 
        equipment described in paragraph (4) to meet the 
        requirements, cost, and schedule provided in that 
        contract.]
  [(h)](g) Congressional Notifications.--[The Administrator]
          (1)  In general._ The Administrator shall notify the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
        the Senate and the Committee on Science of the House of 
        Representatives within 30 days of--
                  [(1)] (A) impaired regional forecasting 
                capabilities due to equipment or system 
                failures; [and]
                  [(2)] (B) significant contractor failures or 
                delays in completing work associated with the 
                tsunami forecasting and warning system[.]; and
                  (C) the occurrence of a significant tsunami 
                warning.
          (2) Contents.--In a case in which notice is submitted 
        under paragraph (1) within 90 days of a significant 
        tsunami warning described in subparagraph (C) of such 
        paragraph, such notice shall include brief information 
        and analysis of--
                  (A) the accuracy of the tsunami model used;
                  (B) the specific deep ocean or other 
                monitoring equipment that detected the 
                incident, as well as the deep ocean or other 
                monitoring equipment that did not detect the 
                incident due to malfunction or otherwise;
                  (C) the effectiveness of the warning 
                communication procedures including the 
                integration of warnings with State, territory, 
                local, and tribal partners in the affected area 
                under the jurisdiction of the National Weather 
                Service; and
                  (D) such other findings as the Administrator 
                considers appropriate.
  [(i) Report.--Not later than January 31, 2010, the 
Comptroller General of the United States shall transmit a 
report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science of 
the House of Representatives that--
          [(1) evaluates the current status of the tsunami 
        detection, forecasting, and warning system and the 
        tsunami hazard mitigation program established under 
        this Act, including progress toward tsunami inundation 
        mapping of all coastal areas vulnerable to tsunami and 
        whether there has been any degradation of services as a 
        result of the expansion of the program;
          [(2) evaluates the National Weather Service's ability 
        to achieve continued improvements in the delivery of 
        tsunami detection, forecasting, and warning services by 
        assessing policies and plans for the evolution of 
        modernization systems, models, and computational 
        abilities (including the adoption of new technologies); 
        and
          [(3) lists the contributions of funding or other 
        resources to the program by other Federal agencies, 
        particularly agencies participating in the program.
  [(j) External Review.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to review the 
tsunami detection, forecast, and warning program established 
under this Act to assess further modernization and coverage 
needs, as well as long-term operational reliability issues, 
taking into account measures implemented under this Act. The 
review shall also include an assessment of how well the 
forecast equipment has been integrated into other United States 
and global ocean and coastal observation systems and the global 
earth observing system of systems. Not later than 2 years after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
transmit a report containing the National Academy of Sciences' 
recommendations, the Administrator's responses to the 
recommendations, including those where the Administrator 
disagrees with the Academy, a timetable to implement the 
accepted recommendations, and the cost of implementing all the 
Academy's recommendations, to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
Science of the House of Representatives.
  [(k) Report.--Not later than 3 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall establish a 
process for monitoring and certifying contractor performance in 
carrying out the requirements of any contract to construct or 
deploy tsunami detection equipment, including procedures and 
penalties to be imposed in cases of significant contractor 
failure or negligence.]

SEC. 5. NATIONAL TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION PROGRAM.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3204]

  [(a) In General.--The Administrator, through the National 
Weather Service and in consultation with other relevant 
Administration offices, shall conduct a community-based tsunami 
hazard mitigation program to improve tsunami preparedness of 
at-risk areas in the United States and its territories.
  [(b) Coordinating Committee.--In conducting the program under 
this section, the Administrator shall establish a coordinating 
committee comprising representatives of Federal, State, local, 
and tribal government officials. The Administrator may 
establish subcommittees to address region-specific issues. The 
committee shall--
          [(1) recommend how funds appropriated for carrying 
        out the program under this section will be allocated;
          [(2) ensure that areas described in section 4(c) in 
        the United States and its territories can have the 
        opportunity to participate in the program;
          [(3) provide recommendations to the National Weather 
        Service on how to improve the TsunamiReady program, 
        particularly on ways to make communities more tsunami 
        resilient through the use of inundation maps and other 
        mitigation practices; and
          [(4) ensure that all components of the program are 
        integrated with ongoing hazard warning and risk 
        management activities, emergency response plans, and 
        mitigation programs in affected areas, including 
        integrating information to assist in tsunami evacuation 
        route planning.
  [(c) Program Components.--The program under this section 
shall--
          [(1) use inundation models that meet a standard of 
        accuracy defined by the Administration to improve the 
        quality and extent of inundation mapping, including 
        assessment of vulnerable inner coastal and nearshore 
        areas, in a coordinated and standardized fashion to 
        maximize resources and the utility of data collected;
          [(2) promote and improve community outreach and 
        education networks and programs to ensure community 
        readiness, including the development of comprehensive 
        coastal risk and vulnerability assessment training and 
        decision support tools, implementation of technical 
        training and public education programs, and providing 
        for certification of prepared communities;
          [(3) integrate tsunami preparedness and mitigation 
        programs into ongoing hazard warning and risk 
        management activities, emergency response plans, and 
        mitigation programs in affected areas, including 
        integrating information to assist in tsunami evacuation 
        route planning;
          [(4) promote the adoption of tsunami warning and 
        mitigation measures by Federal, State, tribal, and 
        local governments and nongovernmental entities, 
        including educational programs to discourage 
        development in high-risk areas; and
          [(5) provide for periodic external review of the 
        program.
  [(d) Savings Clause.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to require a change in the chair of any existing 
tsunami hazard mitigation program subcommittee.]
  (a) Program Required.--The Administrator shall, in 
consultation with the Administrator of the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency and the heads of such other agencies as the 
Administrator considers relevant, conduct a community-based 
tsunami hazard mitigation program to improve tsunami 
preparedness and resiliency of at-risk areas in the United 
States and the territories of the United States.
  (b) Program Components.--The Program conducted pursuant to 
subsection (a) shall include the following:
          (1) Technical and financial assistance to coastal 
        States, territories, tribes, and local governments to 
        develop and implement activities under this section.
          (2) Integration of tsunami preparedness and 
        mitigation programs into ongoing State-based hazard 
        warning, resilience planning, and risk management 
        activities, including predisaster planning, emergency 
        response, evacuation planning, disaster recovery, 
        hazard mitigation, and community development and 
        redevelopment planning programs in affected areas.
          (3) Activities to promote the adoption of tsunami 
        resilience, preparedness, warning, and mitigation 
        measures by Federal, State, territorial, tribal, and 
        local governments and nongovernmental entities, 
        including educational and risk communication programs 
        to discourage development in high-risk areas.
          (4) Activities to support the development of regional 
        tsunami hazard and risk assessments. Such regional risk 
        assessments may include the following:
                  (A) The sources, sizes, and other relevant 
                historical data of tsunami in the region, 
                including paleotsunami data.
                  (B) Inundation models and maps of critical 
                infrastructure and socioeconomic vulnerability 
                in areas subject to tsunami inundation.
                  (C) Maps of evacuation areas and evacuation 
                routes, including, when appropriate, traffic 
                studies that evaluate the viability of 
                evacuation routes.
                  (D) Evaluations of the size of populations 
                that will require evacuation, including 
                populations with special evacuation needs.
                  (E) Evaluations and technical assistance for 
                vertical evacuation structure planning for 
                communities where models indicate limited or no 
                ability for timely evacuation, especially in 
                areas at risk of near shore generated tsunami.
                  (F) Evaluation of at-risk ports and harbors.
                  (G) Evaluation of the effect of tsunami 
                currents on the foundations of closely-spaced, 
                coastal high-rise structures.
          (5) Activities to promote preparedness in at-risk 
        ports and harbors, including the following:
                  (A) Evaluation and recommendation of 
                procedures for ports and harbors in the event 
                of a distant or near-field tsunami.
                  (B) A review of readiness, response, and 
                communication strategies to ensure coordination 
                and data sharing with the Coast Guard.
          (6) Activities to support the development of 
        community-based outreach and education programs to 
        ensure community readiness and resilience, including 
        the following:
                  (A) The development, implementation, and 
                assessment of technical training and public 
                education programs, including education 
                programs that address unique characteristics of 
                distant and near-field tsunami.
                  (B) The development of decision support 
                tools.
                  (C) The incorporation of social science 
                research into community readiness and 
                resilience efforts.
                  (D) The development of evidence-based 
                education guidelines.
          (7) Dissemination of guidelines and standards for 
        community planning, education, and training products, 
        programs, and tools, including--
                  (A) standards for--
                          (i) mapping products;
                          (ii) inundation models; and
                          (iii) effective emergency exercises; 
                        and
                  (B) recommended guidance for at-risk port and 
                harbor tsunami warning, evacuation, and 
                response procedures in coordination with the 
                Coast Guard.
  (c) Authorized Activities.--In addition to activities 
conducted under subsection (b), the program conducted pursuant 
to subsection (a) may include the following:
          (1) Multidisciplinary vulnerability assessment 
        research, education, and training to help integrate 
        risk management and resilience objectives with 
        community development planning and policies.
          (2) Risk management training for local officials and 
        community organizations to enhance understanding and 
        preparedness.
          (3) Interagency, Federal, State, tribal, and 
        territorial intergovernmental tsunami response exercise 
        planning and implementation in high risk areas.
          (4) Development of practical applications for 
        existing or emerging technologies, such as modeling, 
        remote sensing, geospatial technology, engineering, and 
        observing systems, including the integration of tsunami 
        sensors into Federal and commercial submarine 
        telecommunication cables if practicable.
          (5) Risk management, risk assessment, and resilience 
        data and information services, including--
                  (A) access to data and products derived from 
                observing and detection systems; and
                  (B) development and maintenance of new 
                integrated data products to support risk 
                management, risk assessment, and resilience 
                programs.
          (6) Risk notification systems that coordinate with 
        and build upon existing systems and actively engage 
        decisionmakers, State, local, tribal, and territorial 
        governments and agencies, business communities, 
        nongovernmental organizations, and the media.
          (7) Formation of regional coastal risk management 
        coalitions of Federal, State, local and tribal 
        governments, community groups, academic institutions, 
        and non-governmental groups to advance the goals of 
        this section for communities facing common coastal 
        hazards and risks. Such coalitions may enter into an 
        agreement with an organization described in section 
        501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to 
        establish a nonprofit foundation in order to accept 
        gifts and donations to support of the goals of this 
        section.
  (d) Coordinating Committee.--
          (1) In general.--The Administrator shall maintain a 
        coordinating committee to assist the Administrator in 
        the conduct of the program required by subsection (a).
          (2) Composition.--The coordinating committee shall be 
        composed of members as follows:
                  (A) Representatives of States and territories 
                most at risk from tsunami, including Alaska, 
                Washington, Oregon, California, Hawaii, Puerto 
                Rico, Guam and American Samoa.
                  (B) Such other members as the Administrator 
                considers appropriate to represent Federal, 
                State, tribal, territorial, and local 
                governments.
          (3) Subcommittees.--The Administrator may approve the 
        formation of subcommittees to address specific program 
        components or regional issues.
          (4) Responsibilities.--The coordinating committee 
        shall--
                  (A) provide feedback on how funds should be 
                prioritized to carry out the program required 
                by subsection (a);
                  (B) ensure that areas described in section 
                4(c) in the United States and its territories 
                have the opportunity to participate in the 
                program;
                  (C) provide recommendations to the 
                Administrator on how to improve and 
                continuously advance the TsunamiReady program 
                of the National Weather Service, particularly 
                on ways to make communities more tsunami 
                resilient through the use of inundation maps 
                and models and other hazard mitigation 
                practices;
                  (D) ensure that all components of the program 
                required by subsection (a) are integrated with 
                ongoing State based hazard warning, risk 
                management, and resilience activities, 
                including--
                          (i) integrating activities with 
                        emergency response plans, disaster 
                        recovery, hazard mitigation, and 
                        community development programs in 
                        affected areas; and
                          (ii) integrating information to 
                        assist in tsunami evacuation route 
                        planning.
          (5) Exemption from faca termination requirement.--
        Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 
        U.S.C. App. 14) shall not apply to the committee 
        established and maintained pursuant to paragraph (1).
  (e) No Preemption With Respect to Designation of At-risk 
Areas.--The establishment of national standards for inundation 
models under this section shall not prevent States, 
territories, tribes, and local governments from designating 
additional areas as being at risk based on knowledge of local 
conditions.
  (f) No New Regulatory Authority.--Nothing in this Act may be 
construed as establishing new regulatory authority for any 
Federal agency.

SEC. 6. TSUNAMI RESEARCH PROGRAM.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3205]

  [The Administrator shall, in consultation with other agencies 
and academic institutions, and with the coordinating committee 
established under section 5(b), establish or maintain]
  (a)  In General._ The Administrator shall, in consultation 
with such other Federal agencies, State, tribal, and 
territorial governments, and academic institutions as the 
Administrator considers appropriate, the coordinating committee 
under section 5(d), and the panel under section 8(a), support 
or maintain a tsunami research program to develop detection, 
forecast, communication, and mitigation science and technology, 
including advanced sensing techniques, information and 
communication technology, data collection, analysis, [and 
assessment for tsunami tracking and numerical forecast 
modeling. Such research program shall--] assessment for tsunami 
tracking and numerical forecast modeling, and standards 
development.
  (b)  Responsibilities._ The research program supported or 
maintained pursuant to subsection (a) shall--
          [(1) consider other appropriate research to mitigate 
        the impact of tsunami;]
          (1) consider other appropriate and cost effective 
        research to mitigate the impact of tsunami, including 
        the improvement of near-field and distant tsunami 
        detection and forecasting capabilities, which may 
        include use of a new generation of the Deep-ocean 
        Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis array, integration 
        of tsunami sensors into commercial and Federal 
        telecommunications cables, and other real-time tsunami 
        monitoring systems and supercomputer capacity of the 
        Administration to develop a rapid tsunami forecast for 
        all United States coastlines;
          (2) coordinate with the National Weather Service on 
        technology to be transferred to operations;
          (3) [include] conduct social science research to 
        develop and assess community warning, education, and 
        evacuation materials; [and]
          (4) develop the technical basis for validation of 
        tsunami maps, numerical tsunami models, digital 
        elevation models, and forecasts; and
          [(4)] (5) ensure that research and findings are 
        available [to the scientific community] to the public.

SEC. 7. GLOBAL TSUNAMI WARNING AND MITIGATION NETWORK.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3206]

  [(a) International Tsunami Warning System.--The 
Administrator, through the National Weather Service and in 
consultation with other relevant Administration offices, in 
coordination with other members of the United States 
Interagency Committee of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation 
Program, shall provide technical assistance and training to the 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the World 
Meteorological Organization, and other international entities, 
as part of international efforts to develop a fully functional 
global tsunami forecast and warning system comprising regional 
tsunami warning networks, modeled on the International Tsunami 
Warning System of the Pacific.]
  (a) Support for Development of an International Tsunami 
Warning System.--The Administrator shall, in coordination with 
the Secretary of State and in consultation with such other 
agencies as the Administrator considers relevant, provide 
technical assistance and training to the Intergovernmental 
Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the World Meteorological 
Organization of the United Nations, and such other 
international entities as the Administrator considers 
appropriate, as part of the international efforts to develop a 
fully functional global tsunami forecast and warning system 
comprised of regional tsunami warning networks.
  (b) International Tsunami Information Center.--The 
Administrator, through the National Weather Service and in 
consultation with other relevant Administration offices, in 
cooperation with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic 
Commission, [shall] may operate an International Tsunami 
Information Center to improve tsunami preparedness for all 
Pacific Ocean nations participating in the International 
Tsunami Warning System of the Pacific, and may also provide 
such assistance to other nations participating in a global 
tsunami warning system established through the 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. As part of its 
responsibilities around the world, the Center shall--
          (1) monitor international tsunami warning activities 
        around the world;
          (2) assist member states in establishing national 
        warning systems, and make information available on 
        current technologies for tsunami warning systems;
          (3) maintain a library of materials to promulgate 
        knowledge about tsunami in general and for use by the 
        scientific community; and
          (4) disseminate information, including educational 
        materials and research reports.
  (c) Detection Equipment; Technical Advice and Training.--In 
carrying out this section, the National Weather Service--
          (1) shall give priority to assisting nations in 
        identifying vulnerable coastal areas, creating 
        inundation maps, obtaining or designing real-time 
        detection and reporting equipment, and [establishing] 
        supporting communication and warning networks and 
        contact points in each vulnerable nation;
          (2) may [establish] support a process for transfer of 
        detection and communication technology to affected 
        nations for the purposes of [establishing] supporting 
        the international tsunami warning system; and
          (3) shall provide technical and other assistance to 
        support international tsunami programs.
  (d) Data-sharing Requirement.--The National Weather Service, 
when deciding to provide assistance under this section, may 
take into consideration the data sharing policies and practices 
of nations proposed to receive such assistance, with a goal to 
encourage all nations to support full and open exchange of 
data.

SEC. 8. TSUNAMI SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ADVISORY PANEL.

  (a) Designation.--The Administrator shall designate an 
existing working group within the Science Advisory Board of the 
Administration to serve as the Tsunami Science and Technology 
Advisory Panel to provide advice to the Administrator on 
matters regarding tsunami science, technology, and regional 
preparedness.
  (b) Membership.--
          (1) Composition.--The working group designated under 
        subsection (a) shall be composed of no fewer than 7 
        members selected by the Administrator from among 
        individuals from academia or State agencies who have 
        academic or practical expertise in physical sciences, 
        social sciences, information technology, coastal 
        resilience, emergency management, or such other 
        disciplines as the Administrator considers appropriate.
          (2) Federal employment.--No member of the working 
        group designated pursuant to subsection (a) may be a 
        Federal employee.
  (c) Responsibilities.--Not less frequently than once every 4 
years, the working group designated under subsection (a) 
shall--
          (1) review the activities of the Administration, and 
        other Federal activities as appropriate, relating to 
        tsunami research, detection, forecasting, warning, 
        mitigation, resiliency, and preparation; and
          (2) submit to the Administrator and such others as 
        the Administrator considers appropriate--
                  (A) the findings of the working group with 
                respect to the most recent review conducted 
                pursuant to paragraph (1); and
                  (B) such recommendations for legislative or 
                administrative action as the working group 
                considers appropriate to improve Federal 
                tsunami research, detection, forecasting, 
                warning, mitigation, resiliency, and 
                preparation.
  (d) Reports to Congress.--Not less frequently than once every 
4 years, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives a report on the findings and recommendations 
received by the Administrator under subsection (c)(2).

SEC. [8.]9. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3207]

  There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator 
to carry out this Act--
          (1) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which--
                  (A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 5; and
                  (B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 5;
          (2) $26,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which--
                  (A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 5; and
                  (B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 6;
          (3) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which--
                  (A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 5; and
                  (B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 6;
          (4) $28,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, of which--
                  (A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 5; and
                  (B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 6; [and]
          (5) $29,000,000 for fiscal year 2012, of which--
                  (A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 5; and
                  (B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 6[.]; and
          (6) $27,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2016 through 
        2021, of which--
                  (A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated for each fiscal year shall be for 
                activities conducted at the State level under 
                the tsunami hazard mitigation program under 
                section 5; and
                  (B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 6.

 MAGNUSON-STEVENS FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT REAUTHORITZATION 
                              ACT OF 2006


             TITLE VIII - TSUNAMI WARNING AND EDUCATION\1\

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Duplicative law at title VIII of the Maguson-Stevens Fishery 
Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006 (Public Law 
109--479; 120 Stat. 3653) would be repealed by section 12(a) of the 
bill. Section 12(b) of the bill would provide that nothing in section 
12 of the bill shall not be construed to repeal, or affect in any way, 
Public Law 109--424.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                 [Public Law 109--479; 120 Stat. 3653]

[SEC. 801. SHORT TITLE.

  [This title may be cited as the ``Tsunami Warning and 
Education Act''.]

[SEC. 802. DEFINITIONS.

  [In this title:
          [(1) The term ``Administration'' means the National 
        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
          [(2) The term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration.]

[SEC. 803. PURPOSES.

  [The purposes of this title are--
          [(1) to improve tsunami detection, forecasting, 
        warnings, notification, outreach, and mitigation to 
        protect life and property in the United States;
          [(2) to enhance and modernize the existing Pacific 
        Tsunami Warning System to increase coverage, reduce 
        false alarms, and increase the accuracy of forecasts 
        and warnings, and to expand detection and warning 
        systems to include other vulnerable States and United 
        States territories, including the Atlantic Ocean, 
        Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico areas;
          [(3) to improve mapping, modeling, research, and 
        assessment efforts to improve tsunami detection, 
        forecasting, warnings, notification, outreach, 
        mitigation, response, and recovery;
          [(4) to improve and increase education and outreach 
        activities and ensure that those receiving tsunami 
        warnings and the at-risk public know what to do when a 
        tsunami is approaching;
          [(5) to provide technical and other assistance to 
        speed international efforts to establish regional 
        tsunami warning systems in vulnerable areas worldwide, 
        including the Indian Ocean; and
          [(6) to improve Federal, State, and international 
        coordination for detection, warnings, and outreach for 
        tsunami and other coastal impacts.]

[SEC. 804. TSUNAMI FORECASTING AND WARNING PROGRAM.

  [(a) In General.--The Administrator, through the National 
Weather Service and in consultation with other relevant 
Administration offices, shall operate a program to provide 
tsunami detection, forecasting, and warnings for the Pacific 
and Arctic Ocean regions and for the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean 
Sea, and Gulf of Mexico region.
  [(b) Components.--The program under this section shall--
          [(1) include the tsunami warning centers established 
        under subsection (d);
          [(2) utilize and maintain an array of robust tsunami 
        detection technologies;
          [(3) maintain detection equipment in operational 
        condition to fulfill the detection, forecasting, and 
        warning requirements of this title;
          [(4) provide tsunami forecasting capability based on 
        models and measurements, including tsunami inundation 
        models and maps for use in increasing the preparedness 
        of communities, including through the TsunamiReady 
        program;
          [(5) maintain data quality and management systems to 
        support the requirements of the program;
          [(6) include a cooperative effort among the 
        Administration, the United States Geological Survey, 
        and the National Science Foundation under which the 
        Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation 
        shall provide rapid and reliable seismic information to 
        the Administration from international and domestic 
        seismic networks;
          [(7) provide a capability for the dissemination of 
        warnings to at-risk States and tsunami communities 
        through rapid and reliable notification to government 
        officials and the public, including utilization of and 
        coordination with existing Federal warning systems, 
        including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration Weather Radio All Hazards Program;
          [(8) allow, as practicable, for integration of 
        tsunami detection technologies with other environmental 
        observing technologies; and
          [(9) include any technology the Administrator 
        considers appropriate to fulfill the objectives of the 
        program under this section.
  [(c) System Areas.--The program under this section shall 
operate--
          [(1) a Pacific tsunami warning system capable of 
        forecasting tsunami anywhere in the Pacific and Arctic 
        Ocean regions and providing adequate warnings; and
          [(2) an Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of 
        Mexico tsunami warning system capable of forecasting 
        tsunami and providing adequate warnings in areas of the 
        Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico that 
        are determined--
                  [(A) to be geologically active, or to have 
                significant potential for geological activity; 
                and
                  [(B) to pose significant risks of tsunami for 
                States along the coastal areas of the Atlantic 
                Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico.
  [(d) Tsunami Warning Centers.--
          [(1) In general.--The Administrator, through the 
        National Weather Service, shall maintain or establish--
                  [(A) a Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in 
                Hawaii;
                  [(B) a West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning 
                Center in Alaska; and
                  [(C) any additional forecast and warning 
                centers determined by the National Weather 
                Service to be necessary.
          [(2) Responsibilities.--The responsibilities of each 
        tsunami warning center shall include--
                  [(A) continuously monitoring data from 
                seismological, deep ocean, and tidal monitoring 
                stations;
                  [(B) evaluating earthquakes that have the 
                potential to generate tsunami;
                  [(C) evaluating deep ocean buoy data and 
                tidal monitoring stations for indications of 
                tsunami resulting from earthquakes and other 
                sources;
                  [(D) disseminating forecasts and tsunami 
                warning bulletins to Federal, State, and local 
                government officials and the public;
                  [(E) coordinating with the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program described in section 805 to 
                ensure ongoing sharing of information between 
                forecasters and emergency management officials; 
                and
                  [(F) making data gathered under this title 
                and post-warning analyses conducted by the 
                National Weather Service or other relevant 
                Administration offices available to 
                researchers.
  [(e) Transfer of Technology; Maintenance and Upgrades.--
          [(1) In general.--In carrying out this section, the 
        National Weather Service, in consultation with other 
        relevant Administration offices, shall--
                  [(A) develop requirements for the equipment 
                used to forecast tsunami, which shall include 
                provisions for multipurpose detection 
                platforms, reliability and performance metrics, 
                and to the maximum extent practicable how the 
                equipment will be integrated with other United 
                States and global ocean and coastal observation 
                systems, the global earth observing system of 
                systems, global seismic networks, and the 
                Advanced National Seismic System;
                  [(B) develop and execute a plan for the 
                transfer of technology from ongoing research 
                described in section 806 into the program under 
                this section; and
                  [(C) ensure that maintaining operational 
                tsunami detection equipment is the highest 
                priority within the program carried out under 
                this title.
          [(2) Report to congress.--
                  [(A) Not later than 1 year after the date of 
                enactment of this title, the National Weather 
                Service, in consultation with other relevant 
                Administration offices, shall transmit to 
                Congress a report on how the tsunami forecast 
                system under this section will be integrated 
                with other United States and global ocean and 
                coastal observation systems, the global earth 
                observing system of systems, global seismic 
                networks, and the Advanced National Seismic 
                System.
                  [(B) Not later than 3 years after the date of 
                enactment of this title, the National Weather 
                Service, in consultation with other relevant 
                Administration offices, shall transmit a report 
                to Congress on how technology developed under 
                section 806 is being transferred into the 
                program under this section.
  [(f) Federal Cooperation.--When deploying and maintaining 
tsunami detection technologies, the Administrator shall seek 
the assistance and assets of other appropriate Federal 
agencies.
  [(g) Annual Equipment Certification.--At the same time 
Congress receives the budget justification documents in support 
of the President's annual budget request for each fiscal year, 
the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
Science of the House of Representatives a certification that--
          [(1) identifies the tsunami detection equipment 
        deployed pursuant to this title, as of December 31 of 
        the preceding calendar year;
          [(2) certifies which equipment is operational as of 
        December 31 of the preceding calendar year;
          [(3) in the case of any piece of such equipment that 
        is not operational as of such date, identifies that 
        equipment and describes the mitigation strategy that is 
        in place--
                  [(A) to repair or replace that piece of 
                equipment within a reasonable period of time; 
                or
                  [(B) to otherwise ensure adequate tsunami 
                detection coverage;
          [(4) identifies any equipment that is being developed 
        or constructed to carry out this title but which has 
        not yet been deployed, if the Administration has 
        entered into a contract for that equipment prior to 
        December 31 of the preceding calendar year, and 
        provides a schedule for the deployment of that 
        equipment; and
          [(5) certifies that the Administrator expects the 
        equipment described in paragraph (4) to meet the 
        requirements, cost, and schedule provided in that 
        contract.
  [(h) Congressional Notifications.--
                  [(1) impaired regional forecasting 
                capabilities due to equipment or system 
                failures; and
                  [(2) significant contractor failures or 
                delays in completing work associated with the 
                tsunami forecasting and warning system.
  [(i) Report.--Not later than January 31, 2010, the 
Comptroller General of the United States shall transmit a 
report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science of 
the House of Representatives that--
          [(1) evaluates the current status of the tsunami 
        detection, forecasting, and warning system and the 
        tsunami hazard mitigation program established under 
        this title, including progress toward tsunami 
        inundation mapping of all coastal areas vulnerable to 
        tsunami and whether there has been any degradation of 
        services as a result of the expansion of the program;
          [(2) evaluates the National Weather Service's ability 
        to achieve continued improvements in the delivery of 
        tsunami detection, forecasting, and warning services by 
        assessing policies and plans for the evolution of 
        modernization systems, models, and computational 
        abilities (including the adoption of new technologies); 
        and
          [(3) lists the contributions of funding or other 
        resources to the program by other Federal agencies, 
        particularly agencies participating in the program.
  [(j) External Review.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to review the 
tsunami detection, forecast, and warning program established 
under this title to assess further modernization and coverage 
needs, as well as long-term operational reliability issues, 
taking into account measures implemented under this title. The 
review shall also include an assessment of how well the 
forecast equipment has been integrated into other United States 
and global ocean and coastal observation systems and the global 
earth observing system of systems. Not later than 2 years after 
the date of enactment of this title, the Administrator shall 
transmit a report containing the National Academy of Sciences' 
recommendations, the Administrator's responses to the 
recommendations, including those where the Administrator 
disagrees with the Academy, a timetable to implement the 
accepted recommendations, and the cost of implementing all the 
Academy's recommendations, to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
Science of the House of Representatives.
  [(k) Report.--Not later than 3 months after the date of 
enactment of this title, the Administrator shall establish a 
process for monitoring and certifying contractor performance in 
carrying out the requirements of any contract to construct or 
deploy tsunami detection equipment, including procedures and 
penalties to be imposed in cases of significant contractor 
failure or negligence.]

[SEC. 805. NATIONAL TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION PROGRAM.

  [(a) In General.--The Administrator, through the National 
Weather Service and in consultation with other relevant 
Administration offices, shall conduct a community-based tsunami 
hazard mitigation program to improve tsunami preparedness of 
at-risk areas in the United States and its territories.
  [(b) Coordinating Committee.--In conducting the program under 
this section, the Administrator shall establish a coordinating 
committee comprising representatives of Federal, State, local, 
and tribal government officials. The Administrator may 
establish subcommittees to address region-specific issues. The 
committee shall--
          [(1) recommend how funds appropriated for carrying 
        out the program under this section will be allocated;
          [(2) ensure that areas described in section 804(c) in 
        the United States and its territories can have the 
        opportunity to participate in the program;
          [(3) provide recommendations to the National Weather 
        Service on how to improve the TsunamiReady program, 
        particularly on ways to make communities more tsunami 
        resilient through the use of inundation maps and other 
        mitigation practices; and
          [(4) ensure that all components of the program are 
        integrated with ongoing hazard warning and risk 
        management activities, emergency response plans, and 
        mitigation programs in affected areas, including 
        integrating information to assist in tsunami evacuation 
        route planning.
  [(c) Program Components.--The program under this section 
shall--
          [(1) use inundation models that meet a standard of 
        accuracy defined by the Administration to improve the 
        quality and extent of inundation mapping, including 
        assessment of vulnerable inner coastal and nearshore 
        areas, in a coordinated and standardized fashion to 
        maximize resources and the utility of data collected;
          [(2) promote and improve community outreach and 
        education networks and programs to ensure community 
        readiness, including the development of comprehensive 
        coastal risk and vulnerability assessment training and 
        decision support tools, implementation of technical 
        training and public education programs, and providing 
        for certification of prepared communities;
          [(3) integrate tsunami preparedness and mitigation 
        programs into ongoing hazard warning and risk 
        management activities, emergency response plans, and 
        mitigation programs in affected areas, including 
        integrating information to assist in tsunami evacuation 
        route planning;
          [(4) promote the adoption of tsunami warning and 
        mitigation measures by Federal, State, tribal, and 
        local governments and nongovernmental entities, 
        including educational programs to discourage 
        development in high-risk areas; and
          [(5) provide for periodic external review of the 
        program.
  [(d) Savings Clause.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to require a change in the chair of any existing 
tsunami hazard mitigation program subcommittee.]

[SEC. 806. TSUNAMI RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  [The Administrator shall, in consultation with other agencies 
and academic institutions, and with the coordinating committee 
established under section 805(b), establish or maintain a 
tsunami research program to develop detection, forecast, 
communication, and mitigation science and technology, including 
advanced sensing techniques, information and communication 
technology, data collection, analysis, and assessment for 
tsunami tracking and numerical forecast modeling. Such research 
program shall--
          [(1) consider other appropriate research to mitigate 
        the impact of tsunami;
          [(2) coordinate with the National Weather Service on 
        technology to be transferred to operations;
          [(3) include social science research to develop and 
        assess community warning, education, and evacuation 
        materials; and
          [(4) ensure that research and findings are available 
        to the scientific community.]

[SEC. 807. GLOBAL TSUNAMI WARNING AND MITIGATION NETWORK.

  [(a) International Tsunami Warning System.--The 
Administrator, through the National Weather Service and in 
consultation with other relevant Administration offices, in 
coordination with other members of the United States 
Interagency Committee of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation 
Program, shall provide technical assistance and training to the 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the World 
Meteorological Organization, and other international entities, 
as part of international efforts to develop a fully functional 
global tsunami forecast and warning system comprising regional 
tsunami warning networks, modeled on the International Tsunami 
Warning System of the Pacific.
  [(b) International Tsunami Information Center.--The 
Administrator, through the National Weather Service and in 
consultation with other relevant Administration offices, in 
cooperation with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic 
Commission, shall operate an International Tsunami Information 
Center to improve tsunami preparedness for all Pacific Ocean 
nations participating in the International Tsunami Warning 
System of the Pacific, and may also provide such assistance to 
other nations participating in a global tsunami warning system 
established through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic 
Commission. As part of its responsibilities around the world, 
the Center shall--
          [(1) monitor international tsunami warning activities 
        around the world;
          [(2) assist member states in establishing national 
        warning systems, and make information available on 
        current technologies for tsunami warning systems;
          [(3) maintain a library of materials to promulgate 
        knowledge about tsunami in general and for use by the 
        scientific community; and
          [(4) disseminate information, including educational 
        materials and research reports.
  [(c) Detection Equipment; Technical Advice and Training.--In 
carrying out this section, the National Weather Service--
          [(1) shall give priority to assisting nations in 
        identifying vulnerable coastal areas, creating 
        inundation maps, obtaining or designing real-time 
        detection and reporting equipment, and establishing 
        communication and warning networks and contact points 
        in each vulnerable nation;
          [(2) may establish a process for transfer of 
        detection and communication technology to affected 
        nations for the purposes of establishing the 
        international tsunami warning system; and
          [(3) shall provide technical and other assistance to 
        support international tsunami programs.
  [(d) Data-sharing Requirement.--The National Weather Service, 
when deciding to provide assistance under this section, may 
take into consideration the data sharing policies and practices 
of nations proposed to receive such assistance, with a goal to 
encourage all nations to support full and open exchange of 
data.]

[SEC. 8. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  [There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator 
to carry out this title--
          [(1) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which--
                  [(A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 805; and
                  [(B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 806;
          [(2) $26,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which--
                  [(A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 805; and
                  [(B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 806;
          [(3) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which--
                  [(A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 805; and
                  [(B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 806;
          [(4) $28,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, of which--
                  [(A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 805; and
                  [(B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 806; and
          [(5) $29,000,000 for fiscal year 2012, of which--
                  [(A) not less than 27 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami hazard 
                mitigation program under section 805; and
                  [(B) not less than 8 percent of the amount 
                appropriated shall be for the tsunami research 
                program under section 806.]

                                  [all]