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115th Congress    }                                  {        Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session       }                                  {       115-1025

======================================================================



 
                 PROTECTING VETERANS CREDIT ACT OF 2018

                                _______
                                

 November 14, 2018.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Hensarling, from the Committee on Financial Services, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 2683]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Financial Services, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 2683) to amend the Fair Credit Reporting Act to 
delay the inclusion in consumer credit reports and to establish 
requirements for debt collectors with respect to medical debt 
information of veterans due to inappropriate or delayed billing 
payments or reimbursements from the Department of Veterans 
Affairs, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that 
the bill as amended do pass.
    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 
2018''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSE.

  The purpose of this Act is to rectify problematic reporting of 
medical debt included in a consumer report of a veteran due to 
inappropriate or delayed payment for hospital care, medical services, 
or extended care services provided in a non-Department of Veterans 
Affairs facility under the laws administered by the Secretary of 
Veterans Affairs.

SEC. 3. AMENDMENTS TO FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT.

  (a) Veteran's Medical Debt Defined.--Section 603 of the Fair Credit 
Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
  ``(z) Veteran.--The term `veteran' has the meaning given the term in 
section 101 of title 38, United States Code.
  ``(aa) Veteran's Medical Debt.--The term `veteran's medical debt'--
          ``(1) means a medical collection debt of a veteran owed to an 
        eligible non-Department of Veterans Affairs health care 
        provider that was submitted to the Department for payment for 
        health care authorized by the Department of Veterans Affairs; 
        and
          ``(2) includes medical collection debt that the Department of 
        Veterans Affairs has wrongfully charged a veteran.''.
  (b) Exclusion for Veteran's Medical Debt.--Section 605(a) of the Fair 
Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681c(a)) is amended by adding at the 
end the following:
          ``(7) Any information related to a veteran's medical debt if 
        the date on which the hospital care, medical services, or 
        extended care services was rendered relating to the debt 
        antedates the report by less than one year if the consumer 
        reporting agency has actual knowledge that the information is 
        related to a veteran's medical debt and the consumer reporting 
        agency is in compliance with its obligation under section 4(e) 
        of the Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 2018.
          ``(8) Any information related to a fully paid or settled 
        veteran's medical debt that had been characterized as 
        delinquent, charged off, or in collection if the consumer 
        reporting agency has actual knowledge that the information is 
        related to a veteran's medical debt and the consumer reporting 
        agency is in compliance with its obligation under section 4(e) 
        of the Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 2018.''.
  (c) Update to Summary of Rights.--Section 609(c)(1)(B) of the Fair 
Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681g(c)(1)(B)) is amended--
          (1) in clause (v), by striking ``and'' at the end;
          (2) in clause (vi), by striking the period and inserting ``; 
        and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following:
                          ``(vii) the right of a veteran to dispute the 
                        inclusion of veteran's medical debt under 
                        section 611.''.
  (d) Removal of Veteran's Medical Debt From Consumer Report.--Section 
611 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681i) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)(1)(A), by inserting ``and except as 
        provided in subsection (g)'' after ``subsection (f)''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(g) Dispute Process for Veteran's Medical Debt.--
          ``(1) In general.--With respect to a veteran's medical debt, 
        the veteran may submit a notice described in paragraph (2), 
        proof of liability of the Department of Veterans Affairs for 
        payment of that debt, or documentation that the Department of 
        Veterans Affairs is in the process of making payment for 
        authorized hospital care, medical services, or extended care 
        services rendered to a consumer reporting agency or a reseller 
        to dispute the inclusion of that debt on a consumer report of 
        the veteran.
          ``(2) Notification to veteran.--The Department of Veterans 
        Affairs shall submit to a veteran, not later than 30 days after 
        the Department of Veterans Affairs assumes such liability, a 
        written notice that the Department of Veterans Affairs has 
        assumed liability for part or all of a veteran's medical debt.
          ``(3) Deletion of information from file.--If a consumer 
        reporting agency receives notice, proof of liability, or 
        documentation under paragraph (1), the consumer reporting 
        agency, not later than 30 days after receipt, and free of 
        charge to the veteran, shall delete all information relating to 
        the veteran's medical debt from the file of the veteran and 
        notify the furnisher and the veteran of that deletion.''.

SEC. 4. VERIFICATION OF VETERAN'S MEDICAL DEBT.

  (a) Definitions.--For purposes of this section--
          (1) the term ``consumer reporting agency'' means a consumer 
        reporting agency described in section 603(p) or 603(x) of the 
        Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a); and
          (2) the terms ``veteran'' and ``veteran's medical debt'' have 
        the meanings given those terms in section 603 of the Fair 
        Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a), as added by section 
        3(a) of this Act.
  (b) Establishment.--Not later than one year after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall 
establish a database to allow consumer reporting agencies to verify 
whether a debt furnished to a consumer reporting agency is a veteran's 
medical debt.
  (c) Database Features.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall 
        ensure that the database established under subsection (b), to 
        the extent permitted by law, provides consumer reporting 
        agencies with--
                  (A) sufficiently detailed and specific information to 
                verify whether a debt being furnished to the consumer 
                reporting agency is a veteran's medical debt;
                  (B) access to verification information in a secure 
                electronic format;
                  (C) timely access to verification information; and
                  (D) any other features that would promote the 
                efficient, timely, and secure delivery of information 
                that consumer reporting agencies could use to verify 
                whether a debt is a veteran's medical debt.
          (2) Security and confidentiality.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that, in maintaining and allowing access to the database 
        established under subsection (b), the security and 
        confidentiality of nonpublic personal information is 
        maintained.
  (d) Stakeholder Input.--Prior to establishing the database for 
verification under subsection (b), the Secretary of Veterans Affairs 
shall publish in the Federal Register a notice and request for comment 
that solicits input from the public.
  (e) Verification.--Provided the database established under subsection 
(b) is fully functional and the data available to consumer reporting 
agencies, a consumer reporting agency shall use the database as a means 
to identify a veteran's medical debt pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (8) 
of section 605(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 
1681c(a)), as added by section (3)(b) of this Act.

SEC. 5. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  The amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date that is 
one year after the date of enactment of this Act.

                          Purpose and Summary

    Introduced by Representative John Delaney on May 25, 2017, 
H.R. 2683, the ``Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 2017'' 
amends the Fair Credit Reporting Act to exclude from a 
consumer's credit report information related to:
          (1) Certain medical debt incurred by a veteran if the 
        hospital care or medical services relating to the debt 
        predates the credit report by less than one year; and
          (2) A fully paid or settled veteran's medical debt 
        that had been characterized as delinquent, charged off, 
        or in collection.
    The legislation also establishes a dispute process for 
consumer reporting agencies with respect to such veterans' 
medical debt.

                  Background and Need for Legislation

    In response to wait time manipulation allegations and 
access issues at many Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) 
hospitals,\1\ Congress passed, and President Obama signed into 
law, the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 
2014 (VACAA) [P.L. 113-146]. The VACAA created a temporary 
program called the Veterans Choice Program (VCP) which allows 
the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to provide health care 
services to veterans outside of Department of Veterans Affairs 
(VA) facilities. Generally, all medical care and services 
(including inpatient, outpatient, pharmacy, and ancillary 
services) are provided through the VCP.
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    \1\https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/wp/2017/01/11/
after-scandal-phoenix-va-still-troubled-by-long-waits-for-medical-care-
investigators-say/?utm_term=.caf00fa5a08a
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    The VCP was intended to circumvent VA mismanagement, 
including long wait times and substandard care at certain VA 
hospitals, while simultaneously increasing access to quality 
health care for veterans. However, the VACAA required the VA to 
be the primary payer for care for veterans with nonservice-
connected conditions. Previously, the VA was the secondary 
payer for care provided for a nonservice-connected disability 
if the veteran had another health-insurance plan. This change 
arose because some veterans had to pay higher out-of-pocket 
costs under VCP than under other non-VA care statutory 
authorities.
    As a result of poor coordination related to the billing of 
veteran's health insurance for non-service connected care, the 
VA and/or VA contractors neglected pay the bills owed in the 
name of the veteran to the private health care provider after 
the veteran received authorization for care in a timely manner. 
Now veterans are experiencing debt collection issues because of 
inappropriate or delayed VCP billing. As a result, a number of 
veterans have had medical debts incorrectly reported as unpaid 
to credit reporting agencies. These inaccuracies make credit 
more expensive and less accessible for veteran participating in 
the VCP.
    There is no commitment more important to our country than 
the solemn vow our nation has made to the men and women in our 
armed forces. Veterans should receive timely and effective 
healthcare as a matter of course. But they should also not have 
to worry about damage to their credit scores and future plans 
to build their lives after their military service to the United 
States. If the VA needs time to resolve billing issues with 
private health care providers, it should not come at the 
expense of our veterans' credit, especially for debts that are 
beyond their control. H.R. 2683 seeks to alleviate this problem 
and creates a one-year grace period on the negative reporting 
of medical debt for any veteran utilizing the VCF. The VA and 
its contractors should make every effort to pay their bills on 
time, but in the absence of an effective and accountable 
accounts payable system, this bill eliminates the threat of 
unnecessary financial harm to our veterans.

                                Hearings

    The Committee on Financial Services' Subcommittee on 
Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit held a hearing 
examining matters relating to H.R. 2683 on January 9, 2018.

                        Committee Consideration

    The Committee on Financial Services met in open session on 
March 21, 2018, and ordered H.R. 2683 to be reported favorably 
by a recorded vote of 59 yeas to 0 nays (Record vote no. FC-
165), a quorum being present.

                            Committee Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee to list the record votes 
on the motion to report legislation and amendments thereto. The 
sole recorded vote was on a motion by Chairman Hensarling to 
report the bill favorably to the House without amendment. The 
motion was agreed to by a recorded vote of 59 yeas to 0 nays 
(Record vote no. FC-165), a quorum being present.





[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]








                      Committee Oversight Findings

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the findings and recommendations of 
the Committee based on oversight activities under clause 
2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
are incorporated in the descriptive portions of this report.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee states that H.R. 2683 
will ensure that veterans are not held responsible for 
inaccurate medical debts wrongly listed in their name.

   New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee adopts as its 
own the estimate of new budget authority, entitlement 
authority, or tax expenditures or revenues contained in the 
cost estimate prepared by the Director of the Congressional 
Budget Office pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974.

                 Congressional Budget Office Estimates

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the following is the cost estimate 
provided by the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, March 28, 2018.
Hon. Jeb Hensarling,
Chairman, Committee on Financial Services,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 2683, the 
Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 2018.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Stephen 
Rabent.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 2683--Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 2018

    Summary: H.R. 2683 would require consumer reporting 
agencies to verify whether medical debt attributed to a veteran 
is in fact the responsibility of the Department of Veterans 
Affairs (VA) and require VA to establish a database of 
information on veterans' medical debt.
    CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost $15 
million over the 2019-2022 period, assuming appropriation of 
the estimated amounts.
    In addition, CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 2683 would 
increase direct spending by $2 million over the 2019-2027 
period for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to 
update its rules and expand its supervision of consumer 
reporting agencies. Because enacting the bill would affect 
direct spending, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. Enacting the 
bill would not affect revenues.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 2683 would not increase 
net direct spending by more than $2.5 billion or on-budget 
deficits by more than $5 billion in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    H.R. 2683 contains no intergovernmental mandates as defined 
in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    The bill would impose a private-sector mandate by requiring 
credit-reporting agencies to exclude some medical debt incurred 
by veterans from their credit reports. CBO estimates that the 
incremental cost to comply with the mandate would be minimal 
and would fall well below the annual threshold established in 
UMRA for private-sector mandates ($156 million in 2017, 
adjusted for inflation).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of H.R. 2683 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of the legislation fall within budget functions 370 
(advancement of commerce) and 700 (veterans benefits and 
services).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
                                                                2018    2019    2020    2021    2022   2018-2022
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Estimated Authorization Level................................       0       5       5       3       3        16
Estimated Outlays............................................       0       4       5       3       3        15
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CBO also estimates that enacting H.R. 2683 would increase direct spending by the Consumer Financial Protection
  Bureau by less than $500,000 in each year over 2018-2027 period. Those costs would total $1 million over the
  2018-2022 period and $2 million over the 2018-2027 period.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
2683 will be enacted near the end of 2018, that the estimated 
amounts will be appropriated each year, and that outlays will 
follow historical spending patterns for the affected agencies.

Spending subject to appropriation

    H.R. 2683 would modify the Fair Credit Reporting Act by 
requiring consumer reporting agencies to verify whether medical 
debt attributed to a veteran is the responsibility of VA. Not 
later than one year after enactment, VA would be required to 
establish a database to provide those agencies with timely 
access to information on veterans' medical debt that is related 
to care authorized or provided by VA.
    Using information from VA, CBO estimates that establishing 
such a database would cost $9 million over the 2019-2020 period 
and that providing ongoing technical support would cost $6 
million over the 2021-2022 period. As a result, CBO estimates 
that implementing the bill would cost $15 million over the 
2019-2022 period; such spending would be subject to the 
availability of appropriated funds.

Direct spending

    The CFPB generally has the authority to issue regulations 
under the Fair Credit Reporting Act and has the authority to 
supervise consumer reporting agencies. Using information from 
the CFPB, CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 2683 would cost 
$2 million over the 2019-2027 period for the agency to update 
its rules and expand its supervision of credit-reporting 
agencies.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go 
Act of 2010 establishes budget-reporting and enforcement 
procedures for legislation affecting direct spending or 
revenues. CBO estimates that enacting the bill would increase 
direct spending by $2 million over the 2018-2027 period. 
Enacting the bill would not affect revenues.
    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 2683 would not increase net direct 
spending by more than $2.5 billion or on-budget deficits by 
more than $5 billion in any of the four consecutive 10-year 
periods beginning in 2028.
    Mandates: H.R. 2683 contains no intergovernmental mandates 
as defined in UMRA.
    The bill would impose a private-sector mandate by requiring 
credit-reporting agencies to exclude some medical debt incurred 
by veterans from their credit reports. Such medical debt would 
not be allowed to be included in a credit report until one year 
had passed from the time the medical service had been provided. 
Credit-reporting agencies already have a six-month waiting 
period to report medical debt for any person. Therefore, CBO 
estimates that the incremental cost to comply with the mandate 
would be minimal and would fall well below the annual threshold 
established in UMRA for private-sector mandates ($156 million 
in 2017, adjusted for inflation).
    Previous CBO estimate: On March 5, 2018, CBO transmitted a 
cost estimate for S. 2155, the Economic Growth, Regulatory 
Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, as reported by the Senate 
Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs on December 
18, 2017. Provisions in S. 2155 are similar to H.R. 2863 and 
CBO's estimates of the budgetary effects of those provisions 
are the same.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Stephen Rabent 
(Consumer Financial Protection Bureau) and Ann Futrell 
(Department of Veterans Affairs); Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate approved by: H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                       Federal Mandates Statement

    This information is provided in accordance with section 423 
of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995.
    The Committee has determined that the bill does not contain 
Federal mandates on the private sector. The Committee has 
determined that the bill does not impose a Federal 
intergovernmental mandate on State, local, or tribal 
governments.

                      Advisory Committee Statement

    No advisory committees within the meaning of section 5(b) 
of the Federal Advisory Committee Act were created by this 
legislation.

                  Applicability to Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of the section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act.

                         Earmark Identification

    With respect to clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee has carefully reviewed 
the provisions of the bill and states that the provisions of 
the bill do not contain any congressional earmarks, limited tax 
benefits, or limited tariff benefits within the meaning of the 
rule.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(5) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee states that no 
provision of the bill establishes or reauthorizes: (1) a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program; (2) a program included in any report 
from the Government Accountability Office to Congress pursuant 
to section 21 of Public Law 111-139; or (3) a program related 
to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of Federal 
Domestic Assistance, published pursuant to the Federal Program 
Information Act (Pub. L. No. 95-220, as amended by Pub. L. No. 
98-169).

                   Disclosure of Directed Rulemaking

    Pursuant to section 3(i) of H. Res. 5, (115th Congress), 
the following statement is made concerning directed 
rulemakings: The Committee estimates that the bill requires no 
directed rulemakings within the meaning of such section.

             Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation


Section 1. Short title

    This section cites H.R. 2683 as the ``Protecting Veterans 
Credit Act of 2017.''

Section 2. Purpose

    This section describes the purposes of this Act.

Section 3. Amendments to Fair Credit Reporting Act

    This section amends the Fair Credit Reporting Act to 
exclude from consumer report information related to:
          (1) Certain medical debt incurred by a veteran if the 
        hospital care or medical services relating to the debt 
        predates the credit report by less than one year; and
          (2) A fully paid or settled veteran's medical debt 
        that had been characterized as delinquent, charged off, 
        or in collection.
    It also establishes a dispute process for consumer 
reporting agencies with respect to such veterans' medical debt.
    This section creates a mechanism to aid the consumer 
reporting agency in complying with requirements to exclude 
certain medical debts from a consumer report, as there is no 
current system in place or service that would allow the 
consumer reporting agency to certify that an individual is a 
veteran, or certify that a debt question is related to the 
specific program.
    To accomplish this, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs is 
required to establish a database to allow consumer reporting 
agencies to verify whether a debt furnished to them is a 
veteran's medical debt.
    In addition, this section excludes from consumer report 
information: (1) a veteran's medical debt if the hospital care 
or medical services relating to the debt antedates the credit 
report by less than one year; and (2) a fully paid or settled 
veteran's medical debt that had been characterized as 
delinquent, charged off, or in collection. That information can 
be excluded if the consumer reporting agency has ``actual 
knowledge that the information is related to a veteran's 
medical debt and the consumer reporting agency is in compliance 
with its obligation under section 4(e) of the Protecting 
Veterans Credit Act of 2018.''

Section 4. Effective date

    This section establishes an effective date that is 90 days 
after the date of enactment of this Act.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                       FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT


TITLE VI--CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTING

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 603. Definitions and rules of construction

  (a) Definitions and rules of construction set forth in this 
section are applicable for the purposes of this title.
  (b) The term ``person'' means any individual, partnership, 
corporation, trust, estate, cooperative, association, 
government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other 
entity.
  (c) The term ``consumer'' means an individual.
  (d) Consumer Report.--
          (1) In general.--The term ``consumer report'' means 
        any written, oral, or other communication of any 
        information by a consumer reporting agency bearing on a 
        consumer's credit worthiness, credit standing, credit 
        capacity, character, general reputation, personal 
        characteristics, or mode of living which is used or 
        expected to be used or collected in whole or in part 
        for the purpose of serving as a factor in establishing 
        the consumer's eligibility for--
                  (A) credit or insurance to be used primarily 
                for personal, family, or household purposes;
                  (B) employment purposes; or
                  (C) any other purpose authorized under 
                section 604.
          (2) Exclusions.--Except as provided in paragraph (3), 
        the term ``consumer report'' does not include--
                  (A) subject to section 624, any--
                          (i) report containing information 
                        solely as to transactions or 
                        experiences between the consumer and 
                        the person making the report;
                          (ii) communication of that 
                        information among persons related by 
                        common ownership or affiliated by 
                        corporate control; or
                          (iii) communication of other 
                        information among persons related by 
                        common ownership or affiliated by 
                        corporate control, if it is clearly and 
                        conspicuously disclosed to the consumer 
                        that the information may be 
                        communicated among such persons and the 
                        consumer is given the opportunity, 
                        before the time that the information is 
                        initially communicated, to direct that 
                        such information not be communicated 
                        among such persons;
                  (B) any authorization or approval of a 
                specific extension of credit directly or 
                indirectly by the issuer of a credit card or 
                similar device;
                  (C) any report in which a person who has been 
                requested by a third party to make a specific 
                extension of credit directly or indirectly to a 
                consumer conveys his or her decision with 
                respect to such request, if the third party 
                advises the consumer of the name and address of 
                the person to whom the request was made, and 
                such person makes the disclosures to the 
                consumer required under section 615; or
                  (D) a communication described in subsection 
                (o) or (x).
          (3) Restriction on sharing of medical information.--
        Except for information or any communication of 
        information disclosed as provided in section 604(g)(3), 
        the exclusions in paragraph (2) shall not apply with 
        respect to information disclosed to any person related 
        by common ownership or affiliated by corporate control, 
        if the information is--
                  (A) medical information;
                  (B) an individualized list or description 
                based on the payment transactions of the 
                consumer for medical products or services; or
                  (C) an aggregate list of identified consumers 
                based on payment transactions for medical 
                products or services.
  (e) The term ``investigative consumer report'' means a 
consumer report or portion thereof in which information on a 
consumer's character, general reputation, personal 
characteristics, or mode of living is obtained through personal 
interviews with neighbors, friends, or associates of the 
consumer reported on or with others with whom he is acquainted 
or who may have knowledge concerning any such items of 
information. However, such information shall not include 
specific factual information on a consumer's credit record 
obtained directly from a creditor of the consumer or from a 
consumer reporting agency when such information was obtained 
directly from a creditor of the consumer or from the consumer.
  (f) The term ``consumer reporting agency'' means any person 
which, for monetary fees, dues, or on a cooperative nonprofit 
basis, regularly engages in whole or in part in the practice of 
assembling or evaluating consumer credit information or other 
information on consumers for the purpose of furnishing consumer 
reports to third parties, and which uses any means or facility 
of interstate commerce for the purpose of preparing or 
furnishing consumer reports.
  (g) The term ``file'', when used in connection with 
information on any consumer, means all of the information on 
that consumer recorded and retained by a consumer reporting 
agency regardless of how the information is stored.
  (h) The term ``employment purposes'' when used in connection 
with a consumer report means a report used for the purpose of 
evaluating a consumer for employment, promotion, reassignment 
or retention as an employee.
  (i) Medical Information.--The term ``medical information''--
          (1) means information or data, whether oral or 
        recorded, in any form or medium, created by or derived 
        from a health care provider or the consumer, that 
        relates to--
                  (A) the past, present, or future physical, 
                mental, or behavioral health or condition of an 
                individual;
                  (B) the provision of health care to an 
                individual; or
                  (C) the payment for the provision of health 
                care to an individual.
          (2) does not include the age or gender of a consumer, 
        demographic information about the consumer, including a 
        consumer's residence address or e-mail address, or any 
        other information about a consumer that does not relate 
        to the physical, mental, or behavioral health or 
        condition of a consumer, including the existence or 
        value of any insurance policy.
  (j) Definitions Relating to Child Support Obligations.--
          (1) Overdue support.--The term ``overdue support'' 
        has the meaning given to such term in section 466(e) of 
        the Social Security Act.
          (2) State or local child support enforcement 
        agency.--The term ``State or local child support 
        enforcement agency'' means a State or local agency 
        which administers a State or local program for 
        establishing and enforcing child support obligations.
  (k) Adverse Action.--
          (1) Actions included.--The term ``adverse action''--
                  (A) has the same meaning as in section 
                701(d)(6) of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act; 
                and
                  (B) means--
                          (i) a denial or cancellation of, an 
                        increase in any charge for, or a 
                        reduction or other adverse or 
                        unfavorable change in the terms of 
                        coverage or amount of, any insurance, 
                        existing or applied for, in connection 
                        with the underwriting of insurance;
                          (ii) a denial of employment or any 
                        other decision for employment purposes 
                        that adversely affects any current or 
                        prospective employee;
                          (iii) a denial or cancellation of, an 
                        increase in any charge for, or any 
                        other adverse or unfavorable change in 
                        the terms of, any license or benefit 
                        described in section 604(a)(3)(D); and
                          (iv) an action taken or determination 
                        that is--
                                  (I) made in connection with 
                                an application that was made 
                                by, or a transaction that was 
                                initiated by, any consumer, or 
                                in connection with a review of 
                                an account under section 
                                604(a)(3)(F)(ii); and
                                  (II) adverse to the interests 
                                of the consumer.
          (2) Applicable findings, decisions, commentary, and 
        orders.--For purposes of any determination of whether 
        an action is an adverse action under paragraph (1)(A), 
        all appropriate final findings, decisions, commentary, 
        and orders issued under section 701(d)(6) of the Equal 
        Credit Opportunity Act by the Bureau or any court shall 
        apply.
  (l) Firm Offer of Credit or Insurance.--The term ``firm offer 
of credit or insurance'' means any offer of credit or insurance 
to a consumer that will be honored if the consumer is 
determined, based on information in a consumer report on the 
consumer, to meet the specific criteria used to select the 
consumer for the offer, except that the offer may be further 
conditioned on one or more of the following:
          (1) The consumer being determined, based on 
        information in the consumer's application for the 
        credit or insurance, to meet specific criteria bearing 
        on credit worthiness or insurability, as applicable, 
        that are established--
                  (A) before selection of the consumer for the 
                offer; and
                  (B) for the purpose of determining whether to 
                extend credit or insurance pursuant to the 
                offer.
          (2) Verification--
                  (A) that the consumer continues to meet the 
                specific criteria used to select the consumer 
                for the offer, by using information in a 
                consumer report on the consumer, information in 
                the consumer's application for the credit or 
                insurance, or other information bearing on the 
                credit worthiness or insurability of the 
                consumer; or
                  (B) of the information in the consumer's 
                application for the credit or insurance, to 
                determine that the consumer meets the specific 
                criteria bearing on credit worthiness or 
                insurability.
          (3) The consumer furnishing any collateral that is a 
        requirement for the extension of the credit or 
        insurance that was--
                  (A) established before selection of the 
                consumer for the offer of credit or insurance; 
                and
                  (B) disclosed to the consumer in the offer of 
                credit or insurance.
  (m) Credit or Insurance Transaction That Is Not Initiated by 
the Consumer.--The term ``credit or insurance transaction that 
is not initiated by the consumer'' does not include the use of 
a consumer report by a person with which the consumer has an 
account or insurance policy, for purposes of--
          (1) reviewing the account or insurance policy; or
          (2) collecting the account.
  (n) State.--The term ``State'' means any State, the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and any 
territory or possession of the United States.
  (o) Excluded Communications.--A communication is described in 
this subsection if it is a communication--
          (1) that, but for subsection (d)(2)(D), would be an 
        investigative consumer report;
          (2) that is made to a prospective employer for the 
        purpose of--
                  (A) procuring an employee for the employer; 
                or
                  (B) procuring an opportunity for a natural 
                person to work for the employer;
          (3) that is made by a person who regularly performs 
        such procurement;
          (4) that is not used by any person for any purpose 
        other than a purpose described in subparagraph (A) or 
        (B) of paragraph (2); and
          (5) with respect to which--
                  (A) the consumer who is the subject of the 
                communication--
                          (i) consents orally or in writing to 
                        the nature and scope of the 
                        communication, before the collection of 
                        any information for the purpose of 
                        making the communication;
                          (ii) consents orally or in writing to 
                        the making of the communication to a 
                        prospective employer, before the making 
                        of the communication; and
                          (iii) in the case of consent under 
                        clause (i) or (ii) given orally, is 
                        provided written confirmation of that 
                        consent by the person making the 
                        communication, not later than 3 
                        business days after the receipt of the 
                        consent by that person;
                  (B) the person who makes the communication 
                does not, for the purpose of making the 
                communication, make any inquiry that if made by 
                a prospective employer of the consumer who is 
                the subject of the communication would violate 
                any applicable Federal or State equal 
                employment opportunity law or regulation; and
                  (C) the person who makes the communication--
                          (i) discloses in writing to the 
                        consumer who is the subject of the 
                        communication, not later than 5 
                        business days after receiving any 
                        request from the consumer for such 
                        disclosure, the nature and substance of 
                        all information in the consumer's file 
                        at the time of the request, except that 
                        the sources of any information that is 
                        acquired solely for use in making the 
                        communication and is actually used for 
                        no other purpose, need not be disclosed 
                        other than under appropriate discovery 
                        procedures in any court of competent 
                        jurisdiction in which an action is 
                        brought; and
                          (ii) notifies the consumer who is the 
                        subject of the communication, in 
                        writing, of the consumer's right to 
                        request the information described in 
                        clause (i).
  (p) Consumer Reporting Agency That Compiles and Maintains 
Files on Consumers on a Nationwide Basis.--The term ``consumer 
reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers 
on a nationwide basis'' means a consumer reporting agency that 
regularly engages in the practice of assembling or evaluating, 
and maintaining, for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports 
to third parties bearing on a consumer's credit worthiness, 
credit standing, or credit capacity, each of the following 
regarding consumers residing nationwide:
          (1) Public record information.
          (2) Credit account information from persons who 
        furnish that information regularly and in the ordinary 
        course of business.
  (q) Definitions Relating to Fraud Alerts.--
          (1) Active duty military consumer.--The term ``active 
        duty military consumer'' means a consumer in military 
        service who--
                  (A) is on active duty (as defined in section 
                101(d)(1) of title 10, United States Code) or 
                is a reservist performing duty under a call or 
                order to active duty under a provision of law 
                referred to in section 101(a)(13) of title 10, 
                United States Code; and
                  (B) is assigned to service away from the 
                usual duty station of the consumer.
          (2) Fraud alert; active duty alert.--The terms 
        ``fraud alert'' and ``active duty alert'' mean a 
        statement in the file of a consumer that--
                  (A) notifies all prospective users of a 
                consumer report relating to the consumer that 
                the consumer may be a victim of fraud, 
                including identity theft, or is an active duty 
                military consumer, as applicable; and
                  (B) is presented in a manner that facilitates 
                a clear and conspicuous view of the statement 
                described in subparagraph (A) by any person 
                requesting such consumer report.
          (3) Identity theft.--The term ``identity theft'' 
        means a fraud committed using the identifying 
        information of another person, subject to such further 
        definition as the Bureau may prescribe, by regulation.
          (4) Identity theft report.--The term ``identity theft 
        report'' has the meaning given that term by rule of the 
        Bureau, and means, at a minimum, a report--
                  (A) that alleges an identity theft;
                  (B) that is a copy of an official, valid 
                report filed by a consumer with an appropriate 
                Federal, State, or local law enforcement 
                agency, including the United States Postal 
                Inspection Service, or such other government 
                agency deemed appropriate by the Bureau; and
                  (C) the filing of which subjects the person 
                filing the report to criminal penalties 
                relating to the filing of false information if, 
                in fact, the information in the report is 
                false.
          (5) New credit plan.--The term ``new credit plan'' 
        means a new account under an open end credit plan (as 
        defined in section 103(i) of the Truth in Lending Act) 
        or a new credit transaction not under an open end 
        credit plan.
  (r) Credit and Debit Related Terms--
          (1) Card issuer.--The term ``card issuer'' means--
                  (A) a credit card issuer, in the case of a 
                credit card; and
                  (B) a debit card issuer, in the case of a 
                debit card.
          (2) Credit card.--The term ``credit card'' has the 
        same meaning as in section 103 of the Truth in Lending 
        Act.
          (3) Debit card.--The term ``debit card'' means any 
        card issued by a financial institution to a consumer 
        for use in initiating an electronic fund transfer from 
        the account of the consumer at such financial 
        institution, for the purpose of transferring money 
        between accounts or obtaining money, property, labor, 
        or services.
          (4) Account and electronic fund transfer.--The terms 
        ``account'' and ``electronic fund transfer'' have the 
        same meanings as in section 903 of the Electronic Fund 
        Transfer Act.
          (5) Credit and creditor.--The terms ``credit'' and 
        ``creditor'' have the same meanings as in section 702 
        of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act.
  (s) Federal Banking Agency.--The term ``Federal banking 
agency'' has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal 
Deposit Insurance Act.
  (t) Financial Institution.--The term ``financial 
institution'' means a State or National bank, a State or 
Federal savings and loan association, a mutual savings bank, a 
State or Federal credit union, or any other person that, 
directly or indirectly, holds a transaction account (as defined 
in section 19(b) of the Federal Reserve Act) belonging to a 
consumer.
  (u) Reseller.--The term ``reseller'' means a consumer 
reporting agency that--
          (1) assembles and merges information contained in the 
        database of another consumer reporting agency or 
        multiple consumer reporting agencies concerning any 
        consumer for purposes of furnishing such information to 
        any third party, to the extent of such activities; and
          (2) does not maintain a database of the assembled or 
        merged information from which new consumer reports are 
        produced.
  (v) Commission.--The term ``Commission'' means the Bureau.
  (w) The term ``Bureau'' means the Bureau of Consumer 
Financial Protection.
  (x) Nationwide Specialty Consumer Reporting Agency.--The term 
``nationwide specialty consumer reporting agency'' means a 
consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on 
consumers on a nationwide basis relating to--
          (1) medical records or payments;
          (2) residential or tenant history;
          (3) check writing history;
          (4) employment history; or
          (5) insurance claims.
  (y) Exclusion of Certain Communications for Employee 
Investigations.--
          (1) Communications described in this subsection.--A 
        communication is described in this subsection if--
                  (A) but for subsection (d)(2)(D), the 
                communication would be a consumer report;
                  (B) the communication is made to an employer 
                in connection with an investigation of--
                          (i) suspected misconduct relating to 
                        employment; or
                          (ii) compliance with Federal, State, 
                        or local laws and regulations, the 
                        rules of a self-regulatory 
                        organization, or any preexisting 
                        written policies of the employer;
                  (C) the communication is not made for the 
                purpose of investigating a consumer's credit 
                worthiness, credit standing, or credit 
                capacity; and
                  (D) the communication is not provided to any 
                person except--
                          (i) to the employer or an agent of 
                        the employer;
                          (ii) to any Federal or State officer, 
                        agency, or department, or any officer, 
                        agency, or department of a unit of 
                        general local government;
                          (iii) to any self-regulatory 
                        organization with regulatory authority 
                        over the activities of the employer or 
                        employee;
                          (iv) as otherwise required by law; or
                          (v) pursuant to section 608.
          (2) Subsequent disclosure.--After taking any adverse 
        action based in whole or in part on a communication 
        described in paragraph (1), the employer shall disclose 
        to the consumer a summary containing the nature and 
        substance of the communication upon which the adverse 
        action is based, except that the sources of information 
        acquired solely for use in preparing what would be but 
        for subsection (d)(2)(D) an investigative consumer 
        report need not be disclosed.
          (3) Self-regulatory organization defined.--For 
        purposes of this subsection, the term ``self-regulatory 
        organization'' includes any self-regulatory 
        organization (as defined in section 3(a)(26) of the 
        Securities Exchange Act of 1934), any entity 
        established under title I of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 
        2002, any board of trade designated by the Commodity 
        Futures Trading Commission, and any futures association 
        registered with such Commission.
  (z) Veteran.--The term ``veteran'' has the meaning given the 
term in section 101 of title 38, United States Code.
  (aa) Veteran's Medical Debt.--The term ``veteran's medical 
debt''--
          (1) means a medical collection debt of a veteran owed 
        to an eligible non-Department of Veterans Affairs 
        health care provider that was submitted to the 
        Department for payment for health care authorized by 
        the Department of Veterans Affairs; and
          (2) includes medical collection debt that the 
        Department of Veterans Affairs has wrongfully charged a 
        veteran.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 605. Requirements relating to information contained in consumer 
                    reports

  (a) Information Excluded From Consumer Reports.--Except as 
authorized under subsection (b), no consumer reporting agency 
may make any consumer report containing any of the following 
items of information:
          (1) Cases under title 11 of the United States Code or 
        under the Bankruptcy Act that, from the date of entry 
        of the order for relief or the date of adjudication, as 
        the case may be, antedate the report by more than 10 
        years.
          (2) Civil suits, civil judgments, and records of 
        arrest that, from date of entry, antedate the report by 
        more than seven years or until the governing statute of 
        limitations has expired, whichever is the longer 
        period.
          (3) Paid tax liens which, from date of payment, 
        antedate the report by more than seven years.
          (4) Accounts placed for collection or charged to 
        profit and loss which antedate the report by more than 
        seven years.
          (5) Any other adverse item of information, other than 
        records of convictions of crimes which antedates the 
        report by more than seven years.
          (6) The name, address, and telephone number of any 
        medical information furnisher that has notified the 
        agency of its status, unless--
                  (A) such name, address, and telephone number 
                are restricted or reported using codes that do 
                not identify, or provide information sufficient 
                to infer, the specific provider or the nature 
                of such services, products, or devices to a 
                person other than the consumer; or
                  (B) the report is being provided to an 
                insurance company for a purpose relating to 
                engaging in the business of insurance other 
                than property and casualty insurance.
          (7) Any information related to a veteran's medical 
        debt if the date on which the hospital care, medical 
        services, or extended care services was rendered 
        relating to the debt antedates the report by less than 
        one year if the consumer reporting agency has actual 
        knowledge that the information is related to a 
        veteran's medical debt and the consumer reporting 
        agency is in compliance with its obligation under 
        section 4(e) of the Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 
        2018.
          (8) Any information related to a fully paid or 
        settled veteran's medical debt that had been 
        characterized as delinquent, charged off, or in 
        collection if the consumer reporting agency has actual 
        knowledge that the information is related to a 
        veteran's medical debt and the consumer reporting 
        agency is in compliance with its obligation under 
        section 4(e) of the Protecting Veterans Credit Act of 
        2018.
  (b) The provisions of paragraphs (1) through (5) of 
subsection (a) are not applicable in the case of any consumer 
credit report to be used in connection with--
          (1) a credit transaction involving, or which may 
        reasonably be expected to involve, a principal amount 
        of $150,000 or more;
          (2) the underwriting of life insurance involving, or 
        which may reasonably be expected to involve, a face 
        amount of $150,000 or more; or
          (3) the employment of any individual at an annual 
        salary which equals, or which may reasonably be 
        expected to equal $75,000, or more.
  (c) Running of Reporting Period.--
          (1) In general.--The 7-year period referred to in 
        paragraphs (4) and (6) of subsection (a) shall begin, 
        with respect to any delinquent account that is placed 
        for collection (internally or by referral to a third 
        party, whichever is earlier), charged to profit and 
        loss, or subjected to any similar action, upon the 
        expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date 
        of the commencement of the delinquency which 
        immediately preceded the collection activity, charge to 
        profit and loss, or similar action.
          (2) Effective date.--Paragraph (1) shall apply only 
        to items of information added to the file of a consumer 
        on or after the date that is 455 days after the date of 
        enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act 
        of 1996.
  (d) Information Required To Be Disclosed.--
          (1) Title 11 information.--Any consumer reporting 
        agency that furnishes a consumer report that contains 
        information regarding any case involving the consumer 
        that arises under title 11, United States Code, shall 
        include in the report an identification of the chapter 
        of such title 11 under which such case arises if 
        provided by the source of the information. If any case 
        arising or filed under title 11, United States Code, is 
        withdrawn by the consumer before a final judgment, the 
        consumer reporting agency shall include in the report 
        that such case or filing was withdrawn upon receipt of 
        documentation certifying such withdrawal.
          (2) Key factor in credit score information.--Any 
        consumer reporting agency that furnishes a consumer 
        report that contains any credit score or any other risk 
        score or predictor on any consumer shall include in the 
        report a clear and conspicuous statement that a key 
        factor (as defined in section 609(f)(2)(B)) that 
        adversely affected such score or predictor was the 
        number of enquiries, if such a predictor was in fact a 
        key factor that adversely affected such score. This 
        paragraph shall not apply to a check services company, 
        acting as such, which issues authorizations for the 
        purpose of approving or processing negotiable 
        instruments, electronic fund transfers, or similar 
        methods of payments, but only to the extent that such 
        company is engaged in such activities.
  (e) Indication of Closure of Account by Consumer.--If a 
consumer reporting agency is notified pursuant to section 
623(a)(4) that a credit account of a consumer was voluntarily 
closed by the consumer, the agency shall indicate that fact in 
any consumer report that includes information related to the 
account.
  (f) Indication of Dispute by Consumer.--If a consumer 
reporting agency is notified pursuant to section 623(a)(3) that 
information regarding a consumer who was furnished to the 
agency is disputed by the consumer, the agency shall indicate 
that fact in each consumer report that includes the disputed 
information.
  (g) Truncation of Credit Card and Debit Card Numbers.--
          (1) In general.--Except as otherwise provided in this 
        subsection, no person that accepts credit cards or 
        debit cards for the transaction of business shall print 
        more than the last 5 digits of the card number or the 
        expiration date upon any receipt provided to the 
        cardholder at the point of the sale or transaction.
          (2) Limitation.--This subsection shall apply only to 
        receipts that are electronically printed, and shall not 
        apply to transactions in which the sole means of 
        recording a credit card or debit card account number is 
        by handwriting or by an imprint or copy of the card.
          (3) Effective date.--This subsection shall become 
        effective--
                  (A) 3 years after the date of enactment of 
                this subsection, with respect to any cash 
                register or other machine or device that 
                electronically prints receipts for credit card 
                or debit card transactions that is in use 
                before January 1, 2005; and
                  (B) 1 year after the date of enactment of 
                this subsection, with respect to any cash 
                register or other machine or device that 
                electronically prints receipts for credit card 
                or debit card transactions that is first put 
                into use on or after January 1, 2005.
  (h) Notice of Discrepancy in Address.--
          (1) In general.--If a person has requested a consumer 
        report relating to a consumer from a consumer reporting 
        agency described in section 603(p), the request 
        includes an address for the consumer that substantially 
        differs from the addresses in the file of the consumer, 
        and the agency provides a consumer report in response 
        to the request, the consumer reporting agency shall 
        notify the requester of the existence of the 
        discrepancy.
          (2) Regulations.--
                  (A) Regulations required.--The Bureau shall,, 
                in consultation with the Federal banking 
                agencies, the National Credit Union 
                Administration, and the Federal Trade 
                Commission,, prescribe regulations providing 
                guidance regarding reasonable policies and 
                procedures that a user of a consumer report 
                should employ when such user has received a 
                notice of discrepancy under paragraph (1).
                  (B) Policies and procedures to be included.--
                The regulations prescribed under subparagraph 
                (A) shall describe reasonable policies and 
                procedures for use by a user of a consumer 
                report--
                          (i) to form a reasonable belief that 
                        the user knows the identity of the 
                        person to whom the consumer report 
                        pertains; and
                          (ii) if the user establishes a 
                        continuing relationship with the 
                        consumer, and the user regularly and in 
                        the ordinary course of business 
                        furnishes information to the consumer 
                        reporting agency from which the notice 
                        of discrepancy pertaining to the 
                        consumer was obtained, to reconcile the 
                        address of the consumer with the 
                        consumer reporting agency by furnishing 
                        such address to such consumer reporting 
                        agency as part of information regularly 
                        furnished by the user for the period in 
                        which the relationship is established.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 609. Disclosures to consumers

  (a) Every consumer reporting agency shall, upon request, and 
subject to section 610(a)(1), clearly and accurately disclose 
to the consumer:
          (1) All information in the consumer's file at the 
        time of the request, except that--
                  (A) if the consumer to whom the file relates 
                requests that the first 5 digits of the social 
                security number (or similar identification 
                number) of the consumer not be included in the 
                disclosure and the consumer reporting agency 
                has received appropriate proof of the identity 
                of the requester, the consumer reporting agency 
                shall so truncate such number in such 
                disclosure; and
                  (B) nothing in this paragraph shall be 
                construed to require a consumer reporting 
                agency to disclose to a consumer any 
                information concerning credit scores or any 
                other risk scores or predictors relating to the 
                consumer.
          (2) The sources of the information; except that the 
        sources of information acquired solely for use in 
        preparing an investigative consumer report and actually 
        used for no other purpose need not be disclosed: 
        Provided, That in the event an action is brought under 
        this title, such sources shall be available to the 
        plaintiff under appropriate discovery procedures in the 
        court in which the action is brought.
          (3)(A) Identification of each person (including each 
        end-user identified under section 607(e)(1)) that 
        procured a consumer report--
                  (i) for employment purposes, during the 2-
                year period preceding the date on which the 
                request is made; or
                  (ii) for any other purpose, during the 1-year 
                period preceding the date on which the request 
                is made.
          (B) An identification of a person under subparagraph 
        (A) shall include--
                  (i) the name of the person or, if applicable, 
                the trade name (written in full) under which 
                such person conducts business; and
                  (ii) upon request of the consumer, the 
                address and telephone number of the person.
          (C) Subparagraph (A) does not apply if--
                  (i) the end user is an agency or department 
                of the United States Government that procures 
                the report from the person for purposes of 
                determining the eligibility of the consumer to 
                whom the report relates to receive access or 
                continued access to classified information (as 
                defined in section 604(b)(4)(E)(i)); and
                  (ii) the head of the agency or department 
                makes a written finding as prescribed under 
                section 604(b)(4)(A).
          (4) The dates, original payees, and amounts of any 
        checks upon which is based any adverse characterization 
        of the consumer, included in the file at the time of 
        the disclosure.
          (5) A record of all inquiries received by the agency 
        during the 1-year period preceding the request that 
        identified the consumer in connection with a credit or 
        insurance transaction that was not initiated by the 
        consumer.
          (6) If the consumer requests the credit file and not 
        the credit score, a statement that the consumer may 
        request and obtain a credit score.
  (b) The requirements of subsection (a) respecting the 
disclosure of sources of information and the recipients of 
consumer reports do not apply to information received or 
consumer reports furnished prior to the effective date of this 
title except to the extent that the matter involved is 
contained in the files of the consumer reporting agency on that 
date.
  (c) Summary of Rights To Obtain and Dispute Information in 
Consumer Reports and To Obtain Credit Scores.--
          (1) Commission summary of rights required.--
                  (A) In general.--The Commission shall prepare 
                a model summary of the rights of consumers 
                under this title.
                  (B) Content of summary.--The summary of 
                rights prepared under subparagraph (A) shall 
                include a description of--
                          (i) the right of a consumer to obtain 
                        a copy of a consumer report under 
                        subsection (a) from each consumer 
                        reporting agency;
                          (ii) the frequency and circumstances 
                        under which a consumer is entitled to 
                        receive a consumer report without 
                        charge under section 612;
                          (iii) the right of a consumer to 
                        dispute information in the file of the 
                        consumer under section 611;
                          (iv) the right of a consumer to 
                        obtain a credit score from a consumer 
                        reporting agency, and a description of 
                        how to obtain a credit score;
                          (v) the method by which a consumer 
                        can contact, and obtain a consumer 
                        report from, a consumer reporting 
                        agency without charge, as provided in 
                        the regulations of the Bureau 
                        prescribed under section 211(c) of the 
                        Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions 
                        Act of 2003; [and]
                          (vi) the method by which a consumer 
                        can contact, and obtain a consumer 
                        report from, a consumer reporting 
                        agency described in section 603(w), as 
                        provided in the regulations of the 
                        Bureau prescribed under section 
                        612(a)(1)(C)[.]; and
                          (vii) the right of a veteran to 
                        dispute the inclusion of veteran's 
                        medical debt under section 611.
                  (C) Availability of summary of rights.--The 
                Commission shall--
                          (i) actively publicize the 
                        availability of the summary of rights 
                        prepared under this paragraph;
                          (ii) conspicuously post on its 
                        Internet website the availability of 
                        such summary of rights; and
                          (iii) promptly make such summary of 
                        rights available to consumers, on 
                        request.
          (2) Summary of rights required to be included with 
        agency disclosures.--A consumer reporting agency shall 
        provide to a consumer, with each written disclosure by 
        the agency to the consumer under this section--
                  (A) the summary of rights prepared by the 
                Bureau under paragraph (1);
                  (B) in the case of a consumer reporting 
                agency described in section 603(p), a toll-free 
                telephone number established by the agency, at 
                which personnel are accessible to consumers 
                during normal business hours;
                  (C) a list of all Federal agencies 
                responsible for enforcing any provision of this 
                title, and the address and any appropriate 
                phone number of each such agency, in a form 
                that will assist the consumer in selecting the 
                appropriate agency;
                  (D) a statement that the consumer may have 
                additional rights under State law, and that the 
                consumer may wish to contact a State or local 
                consumer protection agency or a State attorney 
                general (or the equivalent thereof) to learn of 
                those rights; and
                  (E) a statement that a consumer reporting 
                agency is not required to remove accurate 
                derogatory information from the file of a 
                consumer, unless the information is outdated 
                under section 605 or cannot be verified.
  (d) Summary of Rights of Identity Theft Victims.--
          (1) In general.--The Commission, in consultation with 
        the Federal banking agencies and the National Credit 
        Union Administration, shall prepare a model summary of 
        the rights of consumers under this title with respect 
        to the procedures for remedying the effects of fraud or 
        identity theft involving credit, an electronic fund 
        transfer, or an account or transaction at or with a 
        financial institution or other creditor.
          (2) Summary of rights and contact information.--
        Beginning 60 days after the date on which the model 
        summary of rights is prescribed in final form by the 
        Bureau pursuant to paragraph (1), if any consumer 
        contacts a consumer reporting agency and expresses a 
        belief that the consumer is a victim of fraud or 
        identity theft involving credit, an electronic fund 
        transfer, or an account or transaction at or with a 
        financial institution or other creditor, the consumer 
        reporting agency shall, in addition to any other action 
        that the agency may take, provide the consumer with a 
        summary of rights that contains all of the information 
        required by the Bureau under paragraph (1), and 
        information on how to contact the Bureau to obtain more 
        detailed information.
  (e) Information Available to Victims.--
          (1) In general.--For the purpose of documenting 
        fraudulent transactions resulting from identity theft, 
        not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of a 
        request from a victim in accordance with paragraph (3), 
        and subject to verification of the identity of the 
        victim and the claim of identity theft in accordance 
        with paragraph (2), a business entity that has provided 
        credit to, provided for consideration products, goods, 
        or services to, accepted payment from, or otherwise 
        entered into a commercial transaction for consideration 
        with, a person who has allegedly made unauthorized use 
        of the means of identification of the victim, shall 
        provide a copy of application and business transaction 
        records in the control of the business entity, whether 
        maintained by the business entity or by another person 
        on behalf of the business entity, evidencing any 
        transaction alleged to be a result of identity theft 
        to--
                  (A) the victim;
                  (B) any Federal, State, or local government 
                law enforcement agency or officer specified by 
                the victim in such a request; or
                  (C) any law enforcement agency investigating 
                the identity theft and authorized by the victim 
                to take receipt of records provided under this 
                subsection.
          (2) Verification of identity and claim.--Before a 
        business entity provides any information under 
        paragraph (1), unless the business entity, at its 
        discretion, otherwise has a high degree of confidence 
        that it knows the identity of the victim making a 
        request under paragraph (1), the victim shall provide 
        to the business entity--
                  (A) as proof of positive identification of 
                the victim, at the election of the business 
                entity--
                          (i) the presentation of a government-
                        issued identification card;
                          (ii) personally identifying 
                        information of the same type as was 
                        provided to the business entity by the 
                        unauthorized person; or
                          (iii) personally identifying 
                        information that the business entity 
                        typically requests from new applicants 
                        or for new transactions, at the time of 
                        the victim's request for information, 
                        including any documentation described 
                        in clauses (i) and (ii); and
                  (B) as proof of a claim of identity theft, at 
                the election of the business entity--
                          (i) a copy of a police report 
                        evidencing the claim of the victim of 
                        identity theft; and
                          (ii) a properly completed--
                                  (I) copy of a standardized 
                                affidavit of identity theft 
                                developed and made available by 
                                the Bureau; or
                                  (II) an affidavit of fact 
                                that is acceptable to the 
                                business entity for that 
                                purpose.
          (3) Procedures.--The request of a victim under 
        paragraph (1) shall--
                  (A) be in writing;
                  (B) be mailed to an address specified by the 
                business entity, if any; and
                  (C) if asked by the business entity, include 
                relevant information about any transaction 
                alleged to be a result of identity theft to 
                facilitate compliance with this section 
                including--
                          (i) if known by the victim (or if 
                        readily obtainable by the victim), the 
                        date of the application or transaction; 
                        and
                          (ii) if known by the victim (or if 
                        readily obtainable by the victim), any 
                        other identifying information such as 
                        an account or transaction number.
          (4) No charge to victim.--Information required to be 
        provided under paragraph (1) shall be so provided 
        without charge.
          (5) Authority to decline to provide information.--A 
        business entity may decline to provide information 
        under paragraph (1) if, in the exercise of good faith, 
        the business entity determines that--
                  (A) this subsection does not require 
                disclosure of the information;
                  (B) after reviewing the information provided 
                pursuant to paragraph (2), the business entity 
                does not have a high degree of confidence in 
                knowing the true identity of the individual 
                requesting the information;
                  (C) the request for the information is based 
                on a misrepresentation of fact by the 
                individual requesting the information relevant 
                to the request for information; or
                  (D) the information requested is Internet 
                navigational data or similar information about 
                a person's visit to a website or online 
                service.
          (6) Limitation on liability.--Except as provided in 
        section 621, sections 616 and 617 do not apply to any 
        violation of this subsection.
          (7) Limitation on civil liability.--No business 
        entity may be held civilly liable under any provision 
        of Federal, State, or other law for disclosure, made in 
        good faith pursuant to this subsection.
          (8) No new recordkeeping obligation.--Nothing in this 
        subsection creates an obligation on the part of a 
        business entity to obtain, retain, or maintain 
        information or records that are not otherwise required 
        to be obtained, retained, or maintained in the ordinary 
        course of its business or under other applicable law.
          (9) Rule of construction.--
                  (A) In general.--No provision of subtitle A 
                of title V of Public Law 106-102, prohibiting 
                the disclosure of financial information by a 
                business entity to third parties shall be used 
                to deny disclosure of information to the victim 
                under this subsection.
                  (B) Limitation.--Except as provided in 
                subparagraph (A), nothing in this subsection 
                permits a business entity to disclose 
                information, including information to law 
                enforcement under subparagraphs (B) and (C) of 
                paragraph (1), that the business entity is 
                otherwise prohibited from disclosing under any 
                other applicable provision of Federal or State 
                law.
          (10) Affirmative defense.--In any civil action 
        brought to enforce this subsection, it is an 
        affirmative defense (which the defendant must establish 
        by a preponderance of the evidence) for a business 
        entity to file an affidavit or answer stating that--
                  (A) the business entity has made a reasonably 
                diligent search of its available business 
                records; and
                  (B) the records requested under this 
                subsection do not exist or are not reasonably 
                available.
          (11) Definition of victim.--For purposes of this 
        subsection, the term ``victim'' means a consumer whose 
        means of identification or financial information has 
        been used or transferred (or has been alleged to have 
        been used or transferred) without the authority of that 
        consumer, with the intent to commit, or to aid or abet, 
        an identity theft or a similar crime.
          (12) Effective date.--This subsection shall become 
        effective 180 days after the date of enactment of this 
        subsection.
          (13) Effectiveness study.--Not later than 18 months 
        after the date of enactment of this subsection, the 
        Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a 
        report to Congress assessing the effectiveness of this 
        provision.
  (f) Disclosure of Credit Scores.--
          (1) In general.--Upon the request of a consumer for a 
        credit score, a consumer reporting agency shall supply 
        to the consumer a statement indicating that the 
        information and credit scoring model may be different 
        than the credit score that may be used by the lender, 
        and a notice which shall include--
                  (A) the current credit score of the consumer 
                or the most recent credit score of the consumer 
                that was previously calculated by the credit 
                reporting agency for a purpose related to the 
                extension of credit;
                  (B) the range of possible credit scores under 
                the model used;
                  (C) all of the key factors that adversely 
                affected the credit score of the consumer in 
                the model used, the total number of which shall 
                not exceed 4, subject to paragraph (9);
                  (D) the date on which the credit score was 
                created; and
                  (E) the name of the person or entity that 
                provided the credit score or credit file upon 
                which the credit score was created.
          (2) Definitions.--For purposes of this subsection, 
        the following definitions shall apply:
                  (A) Credit score.--The term ``credit 
                score''--
                          (i) means a numerical value or a 
                        categorization derived from a 
                        statistical tool or modeling system 
                        used by a person who makes or arranges 
                        a loan to predict the likelihood of 
                        certain credit behaviors, including 
                        default (and the numerical value or the 
                        categorization derived from such 
                        analysis may also be referred to as a 
                        ``risk predictor'' or ``risk score''); 
                        and
                          (ii) does not include--
                                  (I) any mortgage score or 
                                rating of an automated 
                                underwriting system that 
                                considers one or more factors 
                                in addition to credit 
                                information, including the loan 
                                to value ratio, the amount of 
                                down payment, or the financial 
                                assets of a consumer; or
                                  (II) any other elements of 
                                the underwriting process or 
                                underwriting decision.
                  (B) Key factors.--The term ``key factors'' 
                means all relevant elements or reasons 
                adversely affecting the credit score for the 
                particular individual, listed in the order of 
                their importance based on their effect on the 
                credit score.
          (3) Timeframe and manner of disclosure.--The 
        information required by this subsection shall be 
        provided in the same timeframe and manner as the 
        information described in subsection (a).
          (4) Applicability to certain uses.--This subsection 
        shall not be construed so as to compel a consumer 
        reporting agency to develop or disclose a score if the 
        agency does not--
                  (A) distribute scores that are used in 
                connection with residential real property 
                loans; or
                  (B) develop scores that assist credit 
                providers in understanding the general credit 
                behavior of a consumer and predicting the 
                future credit behavior of the consumer.
          (5) Applicability to credit scores developed by 
        another person.--
                  (A) In general.--This subsection shall not be 
                construed to require a consumer reporting 
                agency that distributes credit scores developed 
                by another person or entity to provide a 
                further explanation of them, or to process a 
                dispute arising pursuant to section 611, except 
                that the consumer reporting agency shall 
                provide the consumer with the name and address 
                and website for contacting the person or entity 
                who developed the score or developed the 
                methodology of the score.
                  (B) Exception.--This paragraph shall not 
                apply to a consumer reporting agency that 
                develops or modifies scores that are developed 
                by another person or entity.
          (6) Maintenance of credit scores not required.--This 
        subsection shall not be construed to require a consumer 
        reporting agency to maintain credit scores in its 
        files.
          (7) Compliance in certain cases.--In complying with 
        this subsection, a consumer reporting agency shall--
                  (A) supply the consumer with a credit score 
                that is derived from a credit scoring model 
                that is widely distributed to users by that 
                consumer reporting agency in connection with 
                residential real property loans or with a 
                credit score that assists the consumer in 
                understanding the credit scoring assessment of 
                the credit behavior of the consumer and 
                predictions about the future credit behavior of 
                the consumer; and
                  (B) a statement indicating that the 
                information and credit scoring model may be 
                different than that used by the lender.
          (8) Fair and reasonable fee.--A consumer reporting 
        agency may charge a fair and reasonable fee, as 
        determined by the Bureau, for providing the information 
        required under this subsection.
          (9) Use of enquiries as a key factor.--If a key 
        factor that adversely affects the credit score of a 
        consumer consists of the number of enquiries made with 
        respect to a consumer report, that factor shall be 
        included in the disclosure pursuant to paragraph (1)(C) 
        without regard to the numerical limitation in such 
        paragraph.
  (g) Disclosure of Credit Scores by Certain Mortgage 
Lenders.--
          (1) In general.--Any person who makes or arranges 
        loans and who uses a consumer credit score, as defined 
        in subsection (f), in connection with an application 
        initiated or sought by a consumer for a closed end loan 
        or the establishment of an open end loan for a consumer 
        purpose that is secured by 1 to 4 units of residential 
        real property (hereafter in this subsection referred to 
        as the ``lender'') shall provide the following to the 
        consumer as soon as reasonably practicable:
                  (A) Information required under subsection 
                (f).--
                          (i) In general.--A copy of the 
                        information identified in subsection 
                        (f) that was obtained from a consumer 
                        reporting agency or was developed and 
                        used by the user of the information.
                          (ii) Notice under subparagraph (d).--
                        In addition to the information provided 
                        to it by a third party that provided 
                        the credit score or scores, a lender is 
                        only required to provide the notice 
                        contained in subparagraph (D).
                  (B) Disclosures in case of automated 
                underwriting system.--
                          (i) In general.--If a person that is 
                        subject to this subsection uses an 
                        automated underwriting system to 
                        underwrite a loan, that person may 
                        satisfy the obligation to provide a 
                        credit score by disclosing a credit 
                        score and associated key factors 
                        supplied by a consumer reporting 
                        agency.
                          (ii) Numerical credit score.--
                        However, if a numerical credit score is 
                        generated by an automated underwriting 
                        system used by an enterprise, and that 
                        score is disclosed to the person, the 
                        score shall be disclosed to the 
                        consumer consistent with subparagraph 
                        (C).
                          (iii) Enterprise defined.--For 
                        purposes of this subparagraph, the term 
                        ``enterprise'' has the same meaning as 
                        in paragraph (6) of section 1303 of the 
                        Federal Housing Enterprises Financial 
                        Safety and Soundness Act of 1992.
                  (C) Disclosures of credit scores not obtained 
                from a consumer reporting agency.--A person 
                that is subject to the provisions of this 
                subsection and that uses a credit score, other 
                than a credit score provided by a consumer 
                reporting agency, may satisfy the obligation to 
                provide a credit score by disclosing a credit 
                score and associated key factors supplied by a 
                consumer reporting agency.
                  (D) Notice to home loan applicants.--A copy 
                of the following notice, which shall include 
                the name, address, and telephone number of each 
                consumer reporting agency providing a credit 
                score that was used:

                  ``notice to the home loan applicant

  ``In connection with your application for a home loan, the 
lender must disclose to you the score that a consumer reporting 
agency distributed to users and the lender used in connection 
with your home loan, and the key factors affecting your credit 
scores.
   ``The credit score is a computer generated summary 
calculated at the time of the request and based on information 
that a consumer reporting agency or lender has on file. The 
scores are based on data about your credit history and payment 
patterns. Credit scores are important because they are used to 
assist the lender in determining whether you will obtain a 
loan. They may also be used to determine what interest rate you 
may be offered on the mortgage. Credit scores can change over 
time, depending on your conduct, how your credit history and 
payment patterns change, and how credit scoring technologies 
change.
   ``Because the score is based on information in your credit 
history, it is very important that you review the credit-
related information that is being furnished to make sure it is 
accurate. Credit records may vary from one company to another.
   ``If you have questions about your credit score or the 
credit information that is furnished to you, contact the 
consumer reporting agency at the address and telephone number 
provided with this notice, or contact the lender, if the lender 
developed or generated the credit score. The consumer reporting 
agency plays no part in the decision to take any action on the 
loan application and is unable to provide you with specific 
reasons for the decision on a loan application.
   ``If you have questions concerning the terms of the loan, 
contact the lender.''.
                  (E) Actions not required under this 
                subsection.--This subsection shall not require 
                any person to--
                          (i) explain the information provided 
                        pursuant to subsection (f);
                          (ii) disclose any information other 
                        than a credit score or key factors, as 
                        defined in subsection (f);
                          (iii) disclose any credit score or 
                        related information obtained by the 
                        user after a loan has closed;
                          (iv) provide more than 1 disclosure 
                        per loan transaction; or
                          (v) provide the disclosure required 
                        by this subsection when another person 
                        has made the disclosure to the consumer 
                        for that loan transaction.
                  (F) No obligation for content.--
                          (i) In general.--The obligation of 
                        any person pursuant to this subsection 
                        shall be limited solely to providing a 
                        copy of the information that was 
                        received from the consumer reporting 
                        agency.
                          (ii) Limit on liability.--No person 
                        has liability under this subsection for 
                        the content of that information or for 
                        the omission of any information within 
                        the report provided by the consumer 
                        reporting agency.
                  (G) Person defined as excluding enterprise.--
                As used in this subsection, the term ``person'' 
                does not include an enterprise (as defined in 
                paragraph (6) of section 1303 of the Federal 
                Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and 
                Soundness Act of 1992).
          (2) Prohibition on disclosure clauses null and 
        void.--
                  (A) In general.--Any provision in a contract 
                that prohibits the disclosure of a credit score 
                by a person who makes or arranges loans or a 
                consumer reporting agency is void.
                  (B) No liability for disclosure under this 
                subsection.--A lender shall not have liability 
                under any contractual provision for disclosure 
                of a credit score pursuant to this subsection.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 611. Procedure in case of disputed accuracy

  (a) Reinvestigations of Disputed Information.--
          (1) Reinvestigation required.--
                  (A) In general.--Subject to subsection (f) 
                and except as provided in subsection (g), if 
                the completeness or accuracy of any item of 
                information contained in a consumer's file at a 
                consumer reporting agency is disputed by the 
                consumer and the consumer notifies the agency 
                directly, or indirectly through a reseller, of 
                such dispute, the agency shall, free of charge, 
                conduct a reasonable reinvestigation to 
                determine whether the disputed information is 
                inaccurate and record the current status of the 
                disputed information, or delete the item from 
                the file in accordance with paragraph (5), 
                before the end of the 30-day period beginning 
                on the date on which the agency receives the 
                notice of the dispute from the consumer or 
                reseller.
                  (B) Extension of period to reinvestigate.--
                Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the 30-
                day period described in subparagraph (A) may be 
                extended for not more than 15 additional days 
                if the consumer reporting agency receives 
                information from the consumer during that 30-
                day period that is relevant to the 
                reinvestigation.
                  (C) Limitations on extension of period to 
                reinvestigate.--Subparagraph (B) shall not 
                apply to any reinvestigation in which, during 
                the 30-day period described in subparagraph 
                (A), the information that is the subject of the 
                reinvestigation is found to be inaccurate or 
                incomplete or the consumer reporting agency 
                determines that the information cannot be 
                verified.
          (2) Prompt notice of dispute to furnisher of 
        information.--
                  (A) In general.--Before the expiration of the 
                5-business-day period beginning on the date on 
                which a consumer reporting agency receives 
                notice of a dispute from any consumer or a 
                reseller in accordance with paragraph (1), the 
                agency shall provide notification of the 
                dispute to any person who provided any item of 
                information in dispute, at the address and in 
                the manner established with the person. The 
                notice shall include all relevant information 
                regarding the dispute that the agency has 
                received from the consumer or reseller.
                  (B) Provision of other information.--The 
                consumer reporting agency shall promptly 
                provide to the person who provided the 
                information in dispute all relevant information 
                regarding the dispute that is received by the 
                agency from the consumer or the reseller after 
                the period referred to in subparagraph (A) and 
                before the end of the period referred to in 
                paragraph (1)(A).
          (3) Determination that dispute is frivolous or 
        irrelevant.--
                  (A) In general.--Notwithstanding paragraph 
                (1), a consumer reporting agency may terminate 
                a reinvestigation of information disputed by a 
                consumer under that paragraph if the agency 
                reasonably determines that the dispute by the 
                consumer is frivolous or irrelevant, including 
                by reason of a failure by a consumer to provide 
                sufficient information to investigate the 
                disputed information.
                  (B) Notice of determination.--Upon making any 
                determination in accordance with subparagraph 
                (A) that a dispute is frivolous or irrelevant, 
                a consumer reporting agency shall notify the 
                consumer of such determination not later than 5 
                business days after making such determination, 
                by mail or, if authorized by the consumer for 
                that purpose, by any other means available to 
                the agency.
                  (C) Contents of notice.--A notice under 
                subparagraph (B) shall include--
                          (i) the reasons for the determination 
                        under subparagraph (A); and
                          (ii) identification of any 
                        information required to investigate the 
                        disputed information, which may consist 
                        of a standardized form describing the 
                        general nature of such information.
          (4) Consideration of consumer information.--In 
        conducting any reinvestigation under paragraph (1) with 
        respect to disputed information in the file of any 
        consumer, the consumer reporting agency shall review 
        and consider all relevant information submitted by the 
        consumer in the period described in paragraph (1)(A) 
        with respect to such disputed information.
          (5) Treatment of inaccurate or unverifiable 
        information.--
                  (A) In general.--If, after any 
                reinvestigation under paragraph (1) of any 
                information disputed by a consumer, an item of 
                the information is found to be inaccurate or 
                incomplete or cannot be verified, the consumer 
                reporting agency shall--
                          (i) promptly delete that item of 
                        information from the file of the 
                        consumer, or modify that item of 
                        information, as appropriate, based on 
                        the results of the reinvestigation; and
                          (ii) promptly notify the furnisher of 
                        that information that the information 
                        has been modified or deleted from the 
                        file of the consumer.
                  (B) Requirements relating to reinsertion of 
                previously deleted material.--
                          (i) Certification of accuracy of 
                        information.--If any information is 
                        deleted from a consumer's file pursuant 
                        to subparagraph (A), the information 
                        may not be reinserted in the file by 
                        the consumer reporting agency unless 
                        the person who furnishes the 
                        information certifies that the 
                        information is complete and accurate.
                          (ii) Notice to consumer.--If any 
                        information that has been deleted from 
                        a consumer's file pursuant to 
                        subparagraph (A) is reinserted in the 
                        file, the consumer reporting agency 
                        shall notify the consumer of the 
                        reinsertion in writing not later than 5 
                        business days after the reinsertion or, 
                        if authorized by the consumer for that 
                        purpose, by any other means available 
                        to the agency.
                          (iii) Additional information.--As 
                        part of, or in addition to, the notice 
                        under clause (ii), a consumer reporting 
                        agency shall provide to a consumer in 
                        writing not later than 5 business days 
                        after the date of the reinsertion--
                                  (I) a statement that the 
                                disputed information has been 
                                reinserted;
                                  (II) the business name and 
                                address of any furnisher of 
                                information contacted and the 
                                telephone number of such 
                                furnisher, if reasonably 
                                available, or of any furnisher 
                                of information that contacted 
                                the consumer reporting agency, 
                                in connection with the 
                                reinsertion of such 
                                information; and
                                  (III) a notice that the 
                                consumer has the right to add a 
                                statement to the consumer's 
                                file disputing the accuracy or 
                                completeness of the disputed 
                                information.
                  (C) Procedures to prevent reappearance.--A 
                consumer reporting agency shall maintain 
                reasonable procedures designed to prevent the 
                reappearance in a consumer's file, and in 
                consumer reports on the consumer, of 
                information that is deleted pursuant to this 
                paragraph (other than information that is 
                reinserted in accordance with subparagraph 
                (B)(i)).
                  (D) Automated reinvestigation system.--Any 
                consumer reporting agency that compiles and 
                maintains files on consumers on a nationwide 
                basis shall implement an automated system 
                through which furnishers of information to that 
                consumer reporting agency may report the 
                results of a reinvestigation that finds 
                incomplete or inaccurate information in a 
                consumer's file to other such consumer 
                reporting agencies.
          (6) Notice of results of reinvestigation.--
                  (A) In general.--A consumer reporting agency 
                shall provide written notice to a consumer of 
                the results of a reinvestigation under this 
                subsection not later than 5 business days after 
                the completion of the reinvestigation, by mail 
                or, if authorized by the consumer for that 
                purpose, by other means available to the 
                agency.
                  (B) Contents.--As part of, or in addition to, 
                the notice under subparagraph (A), a consumer 
                reporting agency shall provide to a consumer in 
                writing before the expiration of the 5-day 
                period referred to in subparagraph (A)--
                          (i) a statement that the 
                        reinvestigation is completed;
                          (ii) a consumer report that is based 
                        upon the consumer's file as that file 
                        is revised as a result of the 
                        reinvestigation;
                          (iii) a notice that, if requested by 
                        the consumer, a description of the 
                        procedure used to determine the 
                        accuracy and completeness of the 
                        information shall be provided to the 
                        consumer by the agency, including the 
                        business name and address of any 
                        furnisher of information contacted in 
                        connection with such information and 
                        the telephone number of such furnisher, 
                        if reasonably available;
                          (iv) a notice that the consumer has 
                        the right to add a statement to the 
                        consumer's file disputing the accuracy 
                        or completeness of the information; and
                          (v) a notice that the consumer has 
                        the right to request under subsection 
                        (d) that the consumer reporting agency 
                        furnish notifications under that 
                        subsection.
          (7) Description of reinvestigation procedure.--A 
        consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer a 
        description referred to in paragraph (6)(B)(iii) by not 
        later than 15 days after receiving a request from the 
        consumer for that description.
          (8) Expedited dispute resolution.--If a dispute 
        regarding an item of information in a consumer's file 
        at a consumer reporting agency is resolved in 
        accordance with paragraph (5)(A) by the deletion of the 
        disputed information by not later than 3 business days 
        after the date on which the agency receives notice of 
        the dispute from the consumer in accordance with 
        paragraph (1)(A), then the agency shall not be required 
        to comply with paragraphs (2), (6), and (7) with 
        respect to that dispute if the agency--
                  (A) provides prompt notice of the deletion to 
                the consumer by telephone;
                  (B) includes in that notice, or in a written 
                notice that accompanies a confirmation and 
                consumer report provided in accordance with 
                subparagraph (C), a statement of the consumer's 
                right to request under subsection (d) that the 
                agency furnish notifications under that 
                subsection; and
                  (C) provides written confirmation of the 
                deletion and a copy of a consumer report on the 
                consumer that is based on the consumer's file 
                after the deletion, not later than 5 business 
                days after making the deletion.
  (b) If the reinvestigation does not resolve the dispute, the 
consumer may file a brief statement setting forth the nature of 
the dispute. The consumer reporting agency may limit such 
statements to not more than one hundred words if it provides 
the consumer with assistance in writing a clear summary of the 
dispute.
  (c) Whenever a statement of a dispute is filed, unless there 
is reasonable grounds to believe that it is frivolous or 
irrevelant, the consumer reporting agency shall, in any 
subsequent consumer report containing the information in 
question, clearly note that it is disputed by the consumer and 
provide either the consumer's statement or a clear and accurate 
codification or summary thereof.
  (d) Following any deletion of information which is found to 
be inaccurate or whose accuracy can no longer be verified or 
any notation as to disputed information, the consumer reporting 
agency shall, at the request of the consumer, furnish 
notification that the item has been deleted or the statement, 
codification or summary pursuant to subsection (b) or (c) to 
any person specifically designated by the consumer who has 
within two years prior thereto received a consumer report for 
employment purposes, or within six months prior thereto 
received a consumer report for any other purpose, which 
contained the deleted or disputed information.
  (e) Treatment of Complaints and Report to Congress.--
          (1) In general.--The Commission shall--
                  (A) compile all complaints that it receives 
                that a file of a consumer that is maintained by 
                a consumer reporting agency described in 
                section 603(p) contains incomplete or 
                inaccurate information, with respect to which, 
                the consumer appears to have disputed the 
                completeness or accuracy with the consumer 
                reporting agency or otherwise utilized the 
                procedures provided by subsection (a); and
                  (B) transmit each such complaint to each 
                consumer reporting agency involved.
          (2) Exclusion.--Complaints received or obtained by 
        the Bureau pursuant to its investigative authority 
        under the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 
        shall not be subject to paragraph (1).
          (3) Agency responsibilities.--Each consumer reporting 
        agency described in section 603(p) that receives a 
        complaint transmitted by the Bureau pursuant to 
        paragraph (1) shall--
                  (A) review each such complaint to determine 
                whether all legal obligations imposed on the 
                consumer reporting agency under this title 
                (including any obligation imposed by an 
                applicable court or administrative order) have 
                been met with respect to the subject matter of 
                the complaint;
                  (B) provide reports on a regular basis to the 
                Bureau regarding the determinations of and 
                actions taken by the consumer reporting agency, 
                if any, in connection with its review of such 
                complaints; and
                  (C) maintain, for a reasonable time period, 
                records regarding the disposition of each such 
                complaint that is sufficient to demonstrate 
                compliance with this subsection.
          (4) Rulemaking authority.--The Bureau may prescribe 
        regulations, as appropriate to implement this 
        subsection.
          (5) Annual report.--The Bureau shall submit to the 
        Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the 
        Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the 
        House of Representatives an annual report regarding 
        information gathered by the Bureau under this 
        subsection.
  (f) Reinvestigation Requirement Applicable to Resellers.--
          (1) Exemption from general reinvestigation 
        requirement.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), a 
        reseller shall be exempt from the requirements of this 
        section.
          (2) Action required upon receiving notice of a 
        dispute.--If a reseller receives a notice from a 
        consumer of a dispute concerning the completeness or 
        accuracy of any item of information contained in a 
        consumer report on such consumer produced by the 
        reseller, the reseller shall, within 5 business days of 
        receiving the notice, and free of charge--
                  (A) determine whether the item of information 
                is incomplete or inaccurate as a result of an 
                act or omission of the reseller; and
                  (B) if--
                          (i) the reseller determines that the 
                        item of information is incomplete or 
                        inaccurate as a result of an act or 
                        omission of the reseller, not later 
                        than 20 days after receiving the 
                        notice, correct the information in the 
                        consumer report or delete it; or
                          (ii) if the reseller determines that 
                        the item of information is not 
                        incomplete or inaccurate as a result of 
                        an act or omission of the reseller, 
                        convey the notice of the dispute, 
                        together with all relevant information 
                        provided by the consumer, to each 
                        consumer reporting agency that provided 
                        the reseller with the information that 
                        is the subject of the dispute, using an 
                        address or a notification mechanism 
                        specified by the consumer reporting 
                        agency for such notices.
          (3) Responsibility of consumer reporting agency to 
        notify consumer through reseller.--Upon the completion 
        of a reinvestigation under this section of a dispute 
        concerning the completeness or accuracy of any 
        information in the file of a consumer by a consumer 
        reporting agency that received notice of the dispute 
        from a reseller under paragraph (2)--
                  (A) the notice by the consumer reporting 
                agency under paragraph (6), (7), or (8) of 
                subsection (a) shall be provided to the 
                reseller in lieu of the consumer; and
                  (B) the reseller shall immediately reconvey 
                such notice to the consumer, including any 
                notice of a deletion by telephone in the manner 
                required under paragraph (8)(A).
          (4) Reseller reinvestigations.--No provision of this 
        subsection shall be construed as prohibiting a reseller 
        from conducting a reinvestigation of a consumer dispute 
        directly.
  (g) Dispute Process for Veteran's Medical Debt.--
          (1) In general.--With respect to a veteran's medical 
        debt, the veteran may submit a notice described in 
        paragraph (2), proof of liability of the Department of 
        Veterans Affairs for payment of that debt, or 
        documentation that the Department of Veterans Affairs 
        is in the process of making payment for authorized 
        hospital care, medical services, or extended care 
        services rendered to a consumer reporting agency or a 
        reseller to dispute the inclusion of that debt on a 
        consumer report of the veteran.
          (2) Notification to veteran.--The Department of 
        Veterans Affairs shall submit to a veteran, not later 
        than 30 days after the Department of Veterans Affairs 
        assumes such liability, a written notice that the 
        Department of Veterans Affairs has assumed liability 
        for part or all of a veteran's medical debt.
          (3) Deletion of information from file.--If a consumer 
        reporting agency receives notice, proof of liability, 
        or documentation under paragraph (1), the consumer 
        reporting agency, not later than 30 days after receipt, 
        and free of charge to the veteran, shall delete all 
        information relating to the veteran's medical debt from 
        the file of the veteran and notify the furnisher and 
        the veteran of that deletion.

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