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115th Congress   }                                          {    Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session     }                                          {   115-110

======================================================================



 
    IMPROVING SUPPORT FOR MISSING AND EXPLOITED CHILDREN ACT OF 2017

                                _______
                                

  May 4, 2017.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Ms. Foxx, from the Committee on Education and the Workforce, submitted 
                             the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1808]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Education and the Workforce, to whom was 
referred the bill (H.R. 1808) to amend and improve the Missing 
Children's Assistance Act, and for other purposes, having 
considered the same, report favorably thereon with an amendment 
and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.
    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Improving Support for Missing and 
Exploited Children Act of 2017''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

  Section 402 of the Missing Children's Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5771) 
is amended--
          (1) by amending paragraph (1) to read as follows:
          ``(1) each year tens of thousands of children run away, or 
        are abducted or removed, from the control of a parent having 
        legal custody without such parent's consent, under 
        circumstances which immediately place the child in grave 
        danger;'',
          (2) by striking paragraphs (4) and (5),
          (3) in paragraph (6) by inserting ``, including child sex 
        trafficking and sextortion'' after ``exploitation'',
          (4) in paragraph (8) by adding ``and'' at the end,
          (5) by striking paragraph (9),
          (6) by amending paragraph (10) to read as follows:
          ``(10) a key component of such programs is the National 
        Center for Missing and Exploited Children that--
                  ``(A) serves as a nonprofit, national resource center 
                and clearinghouse to provide assistance to victims, 
                families, child-serving professionals, and the general 
                public;
                  ``(B) works with the Department of Justice, the 
                Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States 
                Marshals Service, the Department of the Treasury, the 
                Department of State, the United States Immigration and 
                Customs Enforcement, the United States Secret Service, 
                the United States Postal Inspection Service, other 
                agencies, and nongovernmental organizations in the 
                effort to find missing children and to prevent child 
                victimization; and
                  ``(C) coordinates with each of the missing children 
                clearinghouses operated by the 50 States, the District 
                of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and international 
                organizations to transmit images and information 
                regarding missing and exploited children to law 
                enforcement, nongovernmental organizations, and 
                corporate partners across the United States and around 
                the world instantly.'', and
          (7) by redesignating paragraphs (6), (7), (8), and (10) as 
        paragraphs (4), (5), (6), and (7), respectively.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

  Section 403 of the Missing Children's Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5772) 
is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (1)--
                  (A) by striking ``legal custodian'' each place it 
                appears and inserting ``parent'',
                  (B) in subparagraph (A) by striking ``custodian's'' 
                and inserting ``parent's'', and
                  (C) in subparagraph (C) by striking the period and 
                the end and inserting a semicolon,
          (2) in paragraph (2) by striking ``and'' at the end,
          (3) in paragraph (3) by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting ``; and'', and
          (4) by adding at the end the following:
          ``(4) the term `parent' includes a legal guardian or other 
        individual standing in loco parentis (such as a grandparent or 
        stepparent with whom the child lives, or an individual who is 
        legally responsible for the child's welfare).''.

SEC. 4. DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATOR.

  Section 404 of the Missing Children's Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5773) 
is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) in paragraph (3) by striking ``telephone line'' 
                and inserting ``hotline'', and
                  (B) in paragraph (6)(E)--
                          (i) by striking ``telephone line'' and 
                        inserting ``hotline'',
                          (ii) by striking ``(b)(1)(A) and'' and 
                        inserting ``(b)(1)(A),'', and
                          (iii) by inserting ``, and the number and 
                        types of reports to the tipline established 
                        under subsection (b)(1)(K)(i)'' before the 
                        semicolon at the end,
          (2) in subsection (b)(1)--
                  (A) in subparagraph (A)--
                          (i) by striking ``telephone line'' each place 
                        it appears and inserting ``hotline'', and
                          (ii) by striking ``legal custodian'' and 
                        inserting ``parent'',
                  (B) in subparagraph (C)--
                          (i) in clause (i)--
                                  (I) by striking ``restaurant'' and 
                                inserting ``food'', and
                                  (II) by striking ``and'' at the end,
                          (ii) in clause (ii) by adding ``and'' at the 
                        end, and
                          (iii) by adding at the end the following:
                          ``(iii) innovative and model programs, 
                        services, and legislation that benefit missing 
                        and exploited children;'',
                  (C) by striking subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G),
                  (D) by amending subparagraph (H) to read as follows:
                  ``(H) provide technical assistance and training to 
                families, law enforcement agencies, State and local 
                governments, elements of the criminal justice system, 
                nongovernmental agencies, local educational agencies, 
                and the general public--
                          ``(i) in the prevention, investigation, 
                        prosecution, and treatment of cases involving 
                        missing and exploited children;
                          ``(ii) to respond to foster children missing 
                        from the State child welfare system in 
                        coordination with child welfare agencies and 
                        courts handling juvenile justice and dependency 
                        matters; and
                          ``(iii) in the identification, location, and 
                        recovery of victims of, and children at risk 
                        for, child sex trafficking;'',
                  (E) by amending subparagraphs (I), (J), and (K) to 
                read as follows:
                  ``(I) provide assistance to families, law enforcement 
                agencies, State and local governments, nongovernmental 
                agencies, child-serving professionals, and other 
                individuals involved in the location and recovery of 
                missing and abducted children, both nationally, and in 
                cooperation with the Department of State, 
                internationally;
                  ``(J) provide support and technical assistance to 
                child-serving professionals involved in helping to 
                recover missing and exploited children by searching 
                public records databases to help in the identification, 
                location, and recovery of such children, and help in 
                the location and identification of potential abductors 
                and offenders;
                  ``(K) provide forensic and direct on-site technical 
                assistance and consultation to families, law 
                enforcement agencies, child-serving professionals, and 
                nongovernmental organizations in child abduction and 
                exploitation cases, including facial reconstruction of 
                skeletal remains and similar techniques to assist in 
                the identification of unidentified deceased 
                children;''.
                  (F) by striking subparagraphs (L) and (M),
                  (G) by amending subparagraph (N) to read as follows:
                  ``(N) provide training, technical assistance, and 
                information to nongovernmental organizations relating 
                to non-compliant sex offenders and to law enforcement 
                agencies in identifying and locating such 
                individuals;'',
                  (H) by striking subparagraph (P),
                  (I) by amending subparagraph (Q) to read as follows:
                  ``(Q) work with families, law enforcement agencies, 
                electronic service providers, electronic payment 
                service providers, technology companies, 
                nongovernmental organizations, and others on methods to 
                reduce the existence and distribution of online images 
                and videos of sexually exploited children--
                          ``(i) by operating a tipline to provide to 
                        individuals and electronic service providers an 
                        effective means of reporting Internet-related 
                        and other instances of child sexual 
                        exploitation in the areas of--
                                  ``(I) possession, manufacture, and 
                                distribution of child pornography;
                                  ``(II) online enticement of children 
                                for sexual acts;
                                  ``(III) child sex trafficking;
                                  ``(IV) sex tourism involving 
                                children;
                                  ``(V) extra familial child sexual 
                                molestation;
                                  ``(VI) unsolicited obscene material 
                                sent to a child;
                                  ``(VII) misleading domain names; and
                                  ``(VIII) misleading words or digital 
                                images on the Internet;
                        and subsequently to make such reports available 
                        to the appropriate law enforcement agency for 
                        its review and potential investigation;
                          ``(ii) by operating a child victim 
                        identification program to assist law 
                        enforcement agencies in identifying victims of 
                        child pornography and other sexual crimes to 
                        support the recovery of children from sexually 
                        exploitative situations; and
                          ``(iii) by utilizing emerging technologies to 
                        provide additional outreach and educational 
                        materials to parents and families;'',
                  (J) by striking subparagraph (R),
                  (K) by amending subparagraphs (S) and (T) to read as 
                follows:
                  ``(S) develop and disseminate programs and 
                information to families, child-serving professionals, 
                law enforcement agencies, State and local governments, 
                nongovernmental organizations, schools, local 
                educational agencies, child-serving organizations, and 
                the general public on--
                          ``(i) the prevention of child abduction and 
                        sexual exploitation;
                          ``(ii) Internet safety, including tips for 
                        social media and cyberbullying; and
                          ``(iii) sexting and sextortion; and
                  ``(T) provide technical assistance and training to 
                local educational agencies, schools, State and local 
                law enforcement agencies, individuals, and other 
                nongovernmental organizations that assist with finding 
                missing and abducted children in identifying and 
                recovering such children.'', and
                  (L) by redesignating subparagraphs (H), (I), (J), 
                (K), (N), (O), (Q), (S), (T), (U), and (V) as 
                subparagraphs (E) through (O), respectively.

SEC. 5. GRANTS.

  Section 405 of the Missing Children's Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5775) 
is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) in paragraph (7) by striking ``(as defined in 
                section 403(1)(A))'', and
                  (B) in paragraph (8)--
                          (i) by striking ``legal custodians'' and 
                        inserting ``parents'', and
                          (ii) by striking ``custodians''' and 
                        inserting ``parents''', and
          (2) in subsection (b)(1)(A) by striking ``legal custodians'' 
        and inserting ``parents''.

SEC. 6. REPORTING.

  The Missing Children's Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5771 et seq.) is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating sections 407 and 408 as section 408 and 
        409, respectively, and
          (2) by inserting after section 406 the following:

``SEC. 407. REPORTING.

  ``(a) Required Reporting.--As a condition of receiving funds under 
section 404(b), the grant recipient shall, based solely on reports 
received by the grantee and not involving any data collection by the 
grantee other than those reports, annually provide to the Administrator 
and make available to the general public, as appropriate--
          ``(1) the number of children nationwide who are reported to 
        the grantee as missing;
          ``(2) the number of children nationwide who are reported to 
        the grantee as victims of non-family abductions;
          ``(3) the number of children nationwide who are reported to 
        the grantee as victims of family abductions; and
          ``(4) the number of missing children recovered nationwide 
        whose recovery was reported to the grantee.
  ``(b) Incidence of Attempted Child Abductions.--As a condition of 
receiving funds under section 404(b), the grant recipient shall--
          ``(1) track the incidence of attempted child abductions in 
        order to identify links and patterns;
          ``(2) provide such information to law enforcement agencies; 
        and
          ``(3) make such information available to the general public, 
        as appropriate.''.

H.R. 1808, IMPROVING SUPPORT FOR MISSING AND EXPLOITED CHILDREN ACT OF 
                                  2017


                                Purpose

    H.R. 1808, the Improving Support for Missing and Exploited 
Children Act of 2017, updates the Missing Children's Assistance 
Act (MCAA), which coordinates and supports state and local 
efforts to recover missing and exploited children. MCAA both 
provides guidance on the resources needed to best assist 
victims and their families and ensures engaged stakeholders 
have the necessary skills needed to prevent, recover, and help 
missing, abducted, and exploited children. H.R. 1808 updates 
MCAA to ensure it aligns with best practices currently utilized 
at the state and local levels.

                            Committee Action


                             113TH CONGRESS

Introduction and House Passage of H.R. 3092, E. Clay Shaw, Jr. Missing 
        Children's Assistance Reauthorization Act of 2013

    On September 12, 2013, Rep. Brett Guthrie (R-KY) introduced 
H.R. 3092, the E. Clay Shaw, Jr. Missing Children's Assistance 
Reauthorization Act of 2013. The bill reauthorized MCAA, under 
which the Missing and Exploited Children program is authorized. 
On September 17, the U.S. House of Representatives (House) 
passed H.R. 3092, and on September 25, it was passed by the 
U.S. Senate. On September 30, President Obama signed H.R. 3092 
into law.

Subcommittee Hearing on Protecting America's Youth: An Update from the 
        National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

    On July 15, 2014, the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, 
Elementary, and Secondary Education (Subcommittee) held a 
hearing in Washington, D.C., on ``Protecting America's Youth: 
An Update from the National Center for Missing and Exploited 
Children.'' The purpose of the hearing was to oversee the 
implementation of H.R. 3092. Testifying before the Subcommittee 
was Mr. John D. Ryan, President and Chief Executive Officer, 
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), 
Alexandria, Virginia.

                             115TH CONGRESS

Full Committee Hearing on Honoring Our Commitment to Recover and 
        Protect Missing and Exploited Children

    On March 16, 2017, the Committee on Education and the 
Workforce (Committee) held a hearing in Washington, D.C., on 
``Honoring Our Commitment to Recover and Protect Missing and 
Exploited Children.'' The purpose of the hearing was to learn 
about MCAA and NCMEC. Testifying before the Committee was Mr. 
John F. Clark, President and Chief Executive Officer, National 
Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Alexandria, 
Virginia.

Introduction of H.R. 1808, Improving Support for Missing and Exploited 
        Children Act of 2017

    On March 30, 2017, Rep. Brett Guthrie (R-KY) introduced 
H.R. 1808. The bill updates MCAA to streamline the grant 
activities of the Missing and Exploited Children program to 
better align required activities with current services.

Committee Passage of H.R. 1808, Improving Support for Missing and 
        Exploited Children Act of 2017

    On April 4, 2017, the Committee considered H.R. 1808 in 
legislative session and reported the bill favorably, as 
amended, to the House by voice vote. There was one amendment 
offered:
     Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute: Rep. 
Guthrie offered an amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment (1) made a conforming change to ensure consistency of 
terms throughout the bill; and (2) made technical changes.
    Vice Chairman Joe Wilson (R-SC) offered a motion to report 
the bill as amended. The motion was adopted by voice vote.

                          Summary of H.R. 1808

    Beginning in the late 1970s, many highly publicized cases 
of child abduction, sexual abuse, and murder prompted 
policymakers and child advocates to focus on the problem of 
missing children. Recognizing the need for greater federal 
coordination of local and state efforts to recover missing and 
exploited children, Congress created the Missing and Exploited 
Children program under the MCAA, which directed the U.S. 
Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and 
Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to establish both a toll-free 
number to report missing children and provide a grant for a 
national resource center for missing and exploited children. 
The program also allowed funding to be used for professional 
development and technical assistance to public and private 
entities to assist in recovering missing children.\1\ MCAA was 
most recently reauthorized in 2013.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Title IV of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act 
of 1974.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A primary component of the Missing and Exploited Children 
program was a grant given to the National Center for Missing 
and Exploited Children (NCMEC) to carry out a coordinated, 
national response to the problem of missing and exploited 
children in partnership with law enforcement, state and local 
entities, families, communities, and other stakeholders.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\Programs authorized under other laws that are not in the 
Committee's jurisdiction include (1) the Internet Crimes Against 
Children Task Force; (2) America's Missing: Broadcast Emergency 
Response Alert system, known as AMBER; and (3) other initiatives, 
including a membership-based nonprofit missing and exploited children's 
organization that assists families of missing children and efforts to 
respond to child sexual exploitation through education, known as the 
National Alliance of Missing Children's Organizations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The grantee has implemented innovative policies, 
educational initiatives, and public-private partnerships to 
prevent the victimization of children. The following programs 
are operated by the center:
     24-hour Hotline and CyberTipline. A 24-hour toll-
free hotline is operated through its call center to receive 
reports relating to missing children, leads or sightings of 
missing children, and requests for assistance, information, and 
technical assistance from families of missing children, law 
enforcement, and others. The CyberTipline enables electronic 
service providers and members of the public to report online 
incidents involving possession, manufacturing, and distribution 
of child pornography, online sexual exploitation, unsolicited 
and inappropriate materials, and misleading information. In all 
of these instances, the grantee provides various assistance, 
including sending publications or educational materials, 
providing technical support about missing children cases, and 
providing information about transportation for families needing 
assistance with reunification. The grantee also has access to 
the FBI's National Crime Information Center's (NCIC) Missing 
Person File in order to review records and updates of the 
records of missing children added by local and state law 
enforcement agencies.
     Nationwide Database. The grantee manages a 
nationwide database on missing children cases. Each missing 
child is entered into the database and assigned a case manager 
to serve as the single point of contact for the searching 
family. Case management teams work with families and law 
enforcement agencies by providing coordinated support and 
access to analytical and technological resources.
     Technical Assistance. The grantee offers technical 
assistance to law enforcement, criminal and juvenile justice 
professionals, and healthcare professionals. This includes 
resources that teach the skills needed to respond to and 
prevent missing and sexually exploited children cases, such as 
detection, identification, investigation, prevention, and 
forensic imaging. The grantee also provides nationally 
accredited professional development for healthcare 
professionals, which includes infant security for nursing and 
security personnel. The grantee receives technical assistance 
support from the U.S. Secret Service in matters involving 
missing and exploited children.
     Team HOPE. The grantee provides child safety and 
prevention resources for families and professionals, as well as 
support, crisis-intervention, and technical assistance. The 
Help Offering Parents Empowerment (Team HOPE) consists of 
volunteers who have had personal experiences with child 
disappearance to mentor other parents and families, helping 
them cope with the traumatic experience of abduction and sexual 
exploitation during and after incidents. Additionally, the 
grant recipient provides direct support services to such 
victims and families through mental health and child welfare 
professionals.
     State and Local Engagement. In addition to working 
closely with various federal agencies, the grant recipient 
works with each state to assist with missing children reports 
and tips. Working with their community partners, the grantee 
informs the public about ways to keep children safe through 
various education programs, such as resources for state 
officials and mayors to hold child safety events around the 
country. The grantee also works with nonprofit and corporate 
partners to create an important network for its programs, 
including technology provided from Microsoft, Google, and 
Adobe. Businesses, including Walmart, Comcast, USA Today, and 
ABC News, help ensure missing children photos and AMBER Alerts 
are rapidly disseminated to the public.
    While MCAA was last reauthorized in 2013, the program is 
set to expire in FY 2018. Given the sensitive nature of this 
work and past federal efforts to proactively reauthorize the 
program, it is imperative there is no interruption to the 
crucial services and assistance provided to victims and their 
families. As such, H.R. 1808 updates and streamlines the 
activities of the grant to better align required activities 
with current practice. This will allow the grantee to continue 
providing the support needed for victims and families during 
the difficult times they face. Specifically, the legislation 
improves current law in the following areas:

Clarifies existing structures to align with current practice

     H.R. 1808 updates the findings of Congress to 
reflect the awareness that a growing number of children are 
victims of child sex trafficking and sextortion. To better 
serve victims and families, the grantee has developed resources 
to address growing areas of concern where children are highly 
susceptible to malicious intent.

Updates requirements to better serve victims and families

     H.R. 1808 requires the grantee to provide 
information on innovative and model programs, services, and 
legislation that benefit missing and exploited children. This 
information, in combination with other assistance information 
relating to free or low-cost legal, food, lodging, and 
transportation services, serves as critical support for missing 
and exploited children and their families.

Protects children missing from state care and victims of sex 
        trafficking

     To better align MCAA with current practice to 
combat emerging trends in sex trafficking, H.R. 1808 clarifies 
the work the grantee does to help prevent child sex 
trafficking. Specifically, the grantee will provide technical 
assistance and education to families, law enforcement agencies, 
state and local governments, non-government agencies, schools, 
and the general public on how to proactively respond to 
children missing from state child welfare systems and victims 
or those at-risk of being victims of child sex trafficking. By 
updating this provision to address emerging trends, H.R. 1808 
ensures entities and individuals are best prepared to help 
victims and families.

Provides assistance in identifying and locating abductors and missing 
        children

     H.R. 1808 clarifies requirements to provide 
support and technical assistance to entities and individuals 
working to recover missing, abducted, or exploited children. In 
addition, H.R. 1808 continues the requirement to provide 
assistance and support relating to forensic information on 
victims to law enforcement entities, other individuals involved 
in child abduction and exploitation cases, and families, which 
might include facial reconstruction of skeletal remains and 
similar techniques to assist in the identification of 
unidentified deceased children. Through support and assistance 
from the grantee, the families and entities working to recover 
missing, exploited, and abducted children will be able to use 
reliable data and resources to locate and identify victims.

Addresses emerging trends in technology relating to abuse

     Given the prevalent use of, and easy access to, 
technology in children's daily lives, H.R. 1808 updates 
requirements that relate to working with families, law 
enforcement, technology companies, and other entities and 
individuals on methods to combat and reduce the existence and 
distribution of online images and videos associated with 
sexually exploited children. The bill also maintains the 
requirement to develop and disseminate programs and information 
to families, law enforcement, schools, child and youth-serving 
organizations, and other related entities about the prevention 
of child abduction and sexual exploitation and about internet 
safety, including tips for social media and cyberbullying, 
sexting, and sextortion. These requirements ensure the best 
possible services and preemptive measures are taken to prevent 
youth from becoming victims, as well as help those who have 
already been victimized.

Updates reporting requirements to provide additional transparency

     H.R. 1808 extends reporting requirements under the 
grant to include making reports to OJJDP publicly available as 
appropriate. This includes information relating to the number 
of children nationwide who are reported to the grantee as 
missing; the number of victims of non-family abductions; the 
number of victims of family abductions; and the number of 
children recovered nationwide when the recovery was reported to 
the grantee. Additionally, the grantee follows the incidence of 
attempted child abductions in order to identify links and 
patterns, providing such information to law enforcement 
agencies as well as the general public, as appropriate. This 
information improves the needed services and preemptive 
measures to help victims, those at-risk of becoming victims, 
and their families.

                            Committee Views


Introduction

    Protecting our children has long been a national priority, 
and children deserve to live without fear of being abused, 
sexually exploited or taken from their families. Unfortunately, 
statistics show that many children remain at-risk. Last year 
alone, there were more than 465,000 reports of missing 
children, which is why the Missing and Exploited Children 
program continues to play a critical role in protecting 
children and provides vital support for communities across the 
country.
    H.R. 1808 helps the Missing and Exploited Children program 
continue to provide crucial services to ensure children who are 
missing, abducted, or victims of sexual exploitation and their 
families receive needed support without disruption.

Combatting growing trends in crimes committed against children and 
        youth

    Since its creation, the Missing and Exploited Children 
program has supported the efforts of state and local 
governments, families, schools, law enforcement, community 
leaders, and nonprofit organizations to help children and at-
risk youth in desperate need of protection.
    As the use of technology becomes even more prevalent, the 
threat to children encountering individuals with malicious 
intent also increases, which is why H.R. 1808 maintains 
specific requirements to engage key stakeholders, such as 
families, schools, child and youth-serving entities, and law 
enforcement in prevention activities. Specifically, the grantee 
uses education to help children and families understand the 
parameters needed to navigate and use the internet safely. Some 
of these educational initiatives include the NetSmartz Workshop 
and NetSmartz411, which help parents and other adults 
interacting with children to have conversations about safe 
online behavior.
    In addition to education, the grant program supports 
opportunities for the public and service providers to report 
potential online exploitation of children and youth through the 
CyberTipline. In 2016, the CyberTipline received more than 8.3 
million reports of child sexual exploitation, including many 
cases that occur via the internet. As part of that important 
work, the Child Victim Identification Program has reviewed more 
than 200 million images and videos. By targeting the source and 
gathering critical information in these incidents, law 
enforcement has been able to identify over 12,600 child victims 
of exploitation, which helps lead to rescues of these children.
    Additionally, in recent years, an increasing number of 
children have become victims of sex trafficking and sextortion. 
In 2016, the grantee assisted with approximately 9,000 reports 
related to possible child sex trafficking--only a fraction of 
the actual count of sex trafficking victims nationwide. 
Specifically, 86 percent of the reported cases were in the care 
of social services or foster care when they went missing. To 
bring awareness to this issue, H.R. 1808 updates the findings 
of the MCAA to reflect the growing number of children in foster 
care falling victim to these crimes. Raising awareness about 
the growing number of children missing from state child welfare 
systems will ensure the law aligns with the work needed to 
prevent more children from becoming victims.
    H.R. 1808 also reinforces the crucial work of providing 
recovery assistance for these victims, including technical 
assistance and education for families, law enforcement 
agencies, state and local governments, non-governmental 
agencies, schools, and the general public on how to respond to, 
and curb, the growing number of victims being forced or lured 
into sex trafficking. For example, the grantee operates a Child 
Sex Trafficking Team, which performs the following activities:
           Reviewing CyberTipline reports related to 
        child sex trafficking;
           Assisting with cases of missing children 
        involved in, or at risk of, trafficking; and
           Providing technical assistance and education 
        to help with the identification, location, and recovery 
        of victims of child sex trafficking.
    H.R. 1808 ensures the continuation efforts to prevent youth 
from becoming victims and to help those who are victims.

Supporting victims and families

    H.R. 1808 continues support for states, public and private 
nonprofits, schools, local governments, and individuals to help 
them serve victims and families as they work through the 
process of recovery. Specifically, these resources and 
assistance provide the following services:
           Immediate crisis intervention when a family 
        needs help with a missing, exploited, or recovered 
        child;
           Support for survivors of abduction and 
        exploitation, including helping them to connect with 
        other victims;
           Emotional support for endangered runaways, 
        parents, guardians, and families;
           Referrals to appropriate agencies and mental 
        health professionals;
           Reunification assistance and support for 
        siblings of victims; and
           Assistance locating organizations to help 
        sexually exploited youth.
    H.R. 1808 also requires the grantee share best practices as 
well as model programs, services, and legislation to help 
victims and their families find the assistance needed to aid in 
healing and recovery.

Providing crucial technical support and forensic assistance

    H.R. 1808 clarifies requirements to provide technical 
support and assistance to entities and individuals working to 
recover missing, abducted, or exploited children. In order to 
prevent child victimization, H.R. 1808 maintains grant 
requirements to assist entities and individuals in locating and 
identifying abductors, offenders, and those at-risk of being 
victims. Additionally, the bill allows for the continuation of 
current work related to forensic information, including the 
Advanced Forensic Imaging Workshop, a 40-hour course designed 
to teach forensic artists advanced methods and techniques in 
clay sculpture for facial reconstructions. By supporting this 
work, H.R. 1808 ensures those involved in recovering missing 
children and preventing exploitation have the necessary tools 
for their important work.

Emphasizing transparency

    In order to bolster transparency and raise awareness, H.R. 
1808 extends the law's reporting requirements to include making 
reports publicly available as appropriate, including 
information regarding the number of children nationwide 
reported as missing; victims of non-family abductions; victims 
of family abductions; and victims whose recovery is reported to 
the grantee.
    Additionally, in order to combat potential abductions of 
children and youth, H.R. 1808 maintains the requirement that 
attempted child abductions be tracked in order to identify 
links and patterns and that such information be provided to law 
enforcement agencies as well as the general public, as 
appropriate.

                               Conclusion

    Over the years, Congress has worked to ensure the Missing 
and Exploited Children program accurately reflects the work 
needed to prevent the exploitation of children and support the 
recovery of missing children, families, and communities. As 
President Ronald Reagan said when the program was established 
in 1984, ``No single sector of our nation can solve the problem 
of missing and exploited children alone. But by working 
together, pooling our resources, and building on our strengths, 
we can accomplish great things.''

                           Section-by-Section

    The following is a section-by-section analysis of the 
Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute offered by Rep. Guthrie 
and reported favorably by the Committee.

Section 1. Short title

    Lists the short title of the Act as the ``Improving Support 
for Missing and Exploited Children Act of 2017.''

Section 2. Findings

    Updates the findings of the Act to include sex trafficking 
and sextortion as growing crimes committed against children.

Section 3. Duties and functions of the Administrator

    Updates and clarifies the grant requirements to include 
providing technical assistance, professional development, and 
support to appropriate personnel and entities to do the 
following:
           Help prevent, properly address and handle, 
        assist, and respond to cases relating to missing and 
        abducted children, especially those missing from the 
        state child welfare systems;
           Recover children through information gained 
        from public records;
           Use direct on-site and forensic technical 
        assistance and consultation to identify deceased 
        children;
           Locate non-compliant sex offenders;
           Reduce the existence and distribution on the 
        internet of images of sexually exploited children;
           Help provide education on safe practices for 
        the use of technology, including cellular devices, 
        internet usage, and preventing cyberbullying; and
           Help in other areas where needed and 
        appropriate.

Section 4. Reporting

    Moves existing reporting requirements to a new section of 
the law. The grantee, based solely on information derived from 
reports received by the grantee, reports on the number of 
children nationwide who are reported to the grantee as missing; 
victims of non-family abductions; victims of family abductions; 
and recovered nationwide.
    Includes the existing reporting requirement that the 
grantee track the incidence of attempted child abductions in 
order to identify links and patterns, and to provide that 
information to law enforcement agencies and the general public, 
as appropriate.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    The amendments, including the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute, are explained in the body of this report.

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch. H.R. 1808 updates the Missing Children's Assistance 
Act, which coordinates and supports state and local efforts to 
recover missing and exploited children.

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandates Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement of 
whether the provisions of the reported bill include unfunded 
mandates. This issue is addressed in the CBO letter.

                           Earmark Statement

    H.R. 1808 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of House Rule XXI.

                            Roll Call Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee Report to include for 
each record vote on a motion to report the measure or matter 
and on any amendments offered to the measure or matter the 
total number of votes for and against and the names of the 
Members voting for and against. No roll call votes were taken 
for H.R. 1808.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause (3)(c) of House Rule XIII, the 
goal of H.R. 1808 support state and local efforts to recover 
missing and exploited children.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 1808 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The committee estimates that enacting H.R. 1808 does not 
specifically direct the completion of any specific rule makings 
within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, 
the committee's oversight findings and recommendations are 
reflected in the body of this report.

               New Budget Authority and CBO Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the committee has received 
the following estimate for H.R. 1808 from the Director of the 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, April 19, 2017.
Hon. Virginia Foxx,
Chairwoman, Committee on Education and the Workforce,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Madam Chairwoman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1808, the 
Improving Support for Missing and Exploited Children Act of 
2017.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Mark 
Grabowicz.
            Sincerely,
                                             Mark P. Hadley
                                        (For Keith Hall, Director).
    Enclosure.

H.R. 1808--Improving Support for Missing and Exploited Children Act of 
                                  2017

    The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children 
(NCMEC) is a nonprofit organization funded mostly by the 
Department of Justice. H.R. 1808 would make several changes to 
the laws that govern the use of funds provided to NCMEC. Most 
of the changes would aim to streamline and reorganize how those 
funds are used and CBO estimates that implementing the bill 
would have no significant cost to the federal government.
    Enacting the legislation would not affect direct spending 
or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply. 
CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 1808 would not increase net 
direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    H.R. 1808 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Mark Grabowicz. 
The estimate was approved by H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                        Committee Cost Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison of the 
costs that would be incurred in carrying out H.R. 1808. 
However, clause 3(d)(2)(B) of that rule provides that this 
requirement does not apply when the committee has included in 
its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the bill 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (new matter is 
printed in italic and existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

MISSING CHILDREN'S ASSISTANCE ACT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



TITLE IV--MISSING CHILDREN

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 402. FINDINGS.

   The Congress finds that--
          [(1) each year thousands of children are abducted or 
        removed from the control of a parent having legal 
        custody without such parent's consent, under 
        circumstances which immediately place the child in 
        grave danger;]
          (1) each year tens of thousands of children run away, 
        or are abducted or removed, from the control of a 
        parent having legal custody without such parent's 
        consent, under circumstances which immediately place 
        the child in grave danger;
          (2) many missing children are at great risk of both 
        physical harm and sexual exploitation;
          (3) many missing children are runaways;
          [(4) in many cases, parents and local law enforcement 
        officials have neither the resources nor the expertise 
        to mount expanded search efforts;
          [(5) abducted children are frequently moved from one 
        locality to another, requiring the cooperation and 
        coordination of local, State, and Federal law 
        enforcement efforts;]
          [(6)] (4) growing numbers of children are the victims 
        of child sexual exploitation, including child sex 
        trafficking and sextortion, increasingly involving the 
        use of new technology to access the Internet;
          [(7)] (5) children may be separated from their 
        parents or legal guardians as a result of national 
        disasters such as hurricanes and floods;
          [(8)] (6) sex offenders pose a threat to children; 
        and
          [(9) the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency 
        Prevention administers programs under this Act through 
        the Child Protection Division, including programs which 
        prevent or address offenses committed against 
        vulnerable children and which support missing 
        children's organizations; and
          [(10) a key component of such programs is the 
        National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 
        which--
                  [(A) serves as a national resource center and 
                clearinghouse;
                  [(B) works in partnership with the Department 
                of Justice, the Federal Bureau of 
                Investigation, the United States Marshals 
                Service, the Department of the Treasury, the 
                Department of State, the Bureau of Immigration 
                and Customs Enforcement, the United States 
                Secret Service, the United States Postal 
                Inspection Service, and many other agencies in 
                the effort to find missing children and prevent 
                child victimization; and
                  [(C) operates a national network, linking the 
                Center online with each of the missing children 
                clearinghouses operated by the 50 States, the 
                District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, as well 
                as with international organizations, including 
                Scotland Yard in the United Kingdom, the Royal 
                Canadian Mounted Police, INTERPOL headquarters 
                in Lyon, France, and others, which enable the 
                Center to transmit images and information 
                regarding missing and exploited children to law 
                enforcement across the United States and around 
                the world instantly.]
          (7) a key component of such programs is the National 
        Center for Missing and Exploited Children that--
                  (A) serves as a nonprofit, national resource 
                center and clearinghouse to provide assistance 
                to victims, families, child-serving 
                professionals, and the general public;
                  (B) works with the Department of Justice, the 
                Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United 
                States Marshals Service, the Department of the 
                Treasury, the Department of State, the United 
                States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the 
                United States Secret Service, the United States 
                Postal Inspection Service, other agencies, and 
                nongovernmental organizations in the effort to 
                find missing children and to prevent child 
                victimization; and
                  (C) coordinates with each of the missing 
                children clearinghouses operated by the 50 
                States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, 
                and international organizations to transmit 
                images and information regarding missing and 
                exploited children to law enforcement, 
                nongovernmental organizations, and corporate 
                partners across the United States and around 
                the world instantly.

                              definitions

  Sec. 403. For the purpose of this title--
          (1) the term ``missing child'' means any individual 
        less than 18 years of age whose whereabouts are unknown 
        to such individual's [legal custodian] parent if--
                  (A) the circumstances surrounding such 
                individual's disappearance indicate that such 
                individual may possibly have been removed by 
                another from the control of such individual's 
                [legal custodian] parent without such 
                [custodian's] parent's consent;
                  (B) the circumstances of the case strongly 
                indicate that such individual is likely to be 
                abused or sexually exploited; or
                  (C) the individual is an individual under 21 
                years of age who is displaced from the habitual 
                residence of that individual as a result of an 
                emergency or major disaster (as those terms are 
                defined in section 102 of the Robert T. 
                Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency 
                Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122))[.];
          (2) the term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and 
        Delinquency Prevention; [and]
          (3) the term ``Center'' means the National Center for 
        Missing and Exploited Children[.]; and
          (4) the term ``parent'' includes a legal guardian or 
        other individual standing in loco parentis (such as a 
        grandparent or stepparent with whom the child lives, or 
        an individual who is legally responsible for the 
        child's welfare).

               duties and functions of the administrator

  Sec. 404. (a) The Administrator shall--
          (1) issue such rules as the Administrator considers 
        necessary or appropriate to carry out this title;
          (2) make such arrangements as may be necessary and 
        appropriate to facilitate effective coordination among 
        all federally funded programs relating to missing 
        children (including the preparation of an annual 
        comprehensive plan for facilitating such coordination);
          (3) provide for the furnishing of information derived 
        from the national toll-free [telephone line] hotline, 
        established under subsection (b)(1), to appropriate 
        entities;
          (4) coordinate with the United States Interagency 
        Council on Homelessness to ensure that homeless 
        services professionals are aware of educational 
        resources and assistance provided by the Center 
        regarding child sexual exploitation;
          (5) provide adequate staff and agency resources which 
        are necessary to properly carry out the 
        responsibilities pursuant to this title; and
          (6) not later than 180 days after the end of each 
        fiscal year, submit a report to the President, Speaker 
        of the House of Representatives, the Committee on 
        Education and the Workforce of the House of 
        Representatives, the President pro tempore of the 
        Senate, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
        Senate--
                  (A) containing a comprehensive plan for 
                facilitating cooperation and coordination in 
                the succeeding fiscal year among all agencies 
                and organizations with responsibilities related 
                to missing children;
                  (B) identifying and summarizing effective 
                models of Federal, State, and local 
                coordination and cooperation in locating and 
                recovering missing children;
                  (C) identifying and summarizing effective 
                program models that provide treatment, 
                counseling, or other aid to parents of missing 
                children or to children who have been the 
                victims of abduction;
                  (D) describing how the Administrator 
                satisfied the requirements of paragraph (4) in 
                the preceding fiscal year;
                  (E) describing in detail the number types of 
                telephone calls received in the preceding 
                fiscal year over the national toll-free 
                [telephone line] hotline established under 
                subsection [(b)(1)(A) and] (b)(1)(A), the 
                number and types of communications referred to 
                the national communications system established 
                under section 331, and the number and types of 
                reports to the tipline established under 
                subsection (b)(1)(K)(i);
                  (F) describing in detail the activities in 
                the preceding fiscal year of the national 
                resource center and clearinghouse established 
                under subsection (b)(2);
                  (G) describing all the programs for which 
                assistance was provided under section 405 in 
                the preceding fiscal year;
                  (H) summarizing the results of all research 
                completed in the preceding year for which 
                assistance was provided at any time under this 
                title; and
                  (I)(i) identifying each clearinghouse with 
                respect to which assistance is provided under 
                section 405(a)(9) in the preceding fiscal year;
                  (ii) describing the activities carried out by 
                such clearinghouse in such fiscal year;
                  (iii) specifying the types and amounts of 
                assistance (other than assistance under section 
                405(a)(9)) received by such clearinghouse in 
                such fiscal year; and
                  (iv) specifying the number and types of 
                missing children cases handled (and the number 
                of such cases resolved) by such clearinghouse 
                in such fiscal year and summarizing the 
                circumstances of each such cases.
  (b) Annual Grant to National Center for Missing and Exploited 
Children.--
          (1) In general.--The Administrator shall annually 
        make a grant to the Center, which shall be used to--
                  (A)(i) operate a national 24-hour toll-free 
                [telephone line] hotline by which individuals 
                may report information regarding the location 
                of any missing child, and request information 
                pertaining to procedures necessary to reunite 
                such child with such child's [legal custodian] 
                parent; and
                  (ii) coordinate the operation of such 
                [telephone line] hotline with the operation of 
                the national communications system referred to 
                in part C of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act 
                (42 U.S.C. 5714-11);
                  (B) operate the official national resource 
                center and information clearinghouse for 
                missing and exploited children;
                  (C) provide to State and local governments, 
                public and private nonprofit agencies, State 
                and local educational agencies, and 
                individuals, information regarding--
                          (i) free or low-cost legal, 
                        [restaurant] food, lodging, and 
                        transportation services that are 
                        available for the benefit of missing 
                        and exploited children and their 
                        families; [and]
                          (ii) the existence and nature of 
                        programs being carried out by Federal 
                        agencies to assist missing and 
                        exploited children and their families; 
                        and
                          (iii) innovative and model programs, 
                        services, and legislation that benefit 
                        missing and exploited children;
                  (D) coordinate public and private programs 
                that locate, recover, or reunite missing 
                children with their families;
                  [(E) disseminate, on a national basis, 
                information relating to innovative and model 
                programs, services, and legislation that 
                benefit missing and exploited children;
                  [(F) based solely on reports received by the 
                National Center for Missing and Exploited 
                Children (NCMEC), and not involving any data 
                collection by NCMEC other than the receipt of 
                those reports, annually provide to the 
                Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile 
                Justice and Delinquency Prevention--
                          [(i) the number of children 
                        nationwide who are reported to NCMEC as 
                        missing;
                          [(ii) the number of children 
                        nationwide who are reported to NCMEC as 
                        victims of non-family abductions;
                          [(iii) the number of children 
                        nationwide who are reported to NCMEC as 
                        victims of parental kidnappings; and
                          [(iv) the number of children 
                        recovered nationwide whose recovery was 
                        reported to NCMEC;
                  [(G) provide, at the request of State and 
                local governments, and public and private 
                nonprofit agencies, guidance on how to 
                facilitate the lawful use of school records and 
                birth certificates to identify and locate 
                missing children;
                  [(H) provide technical assistance and 
                training to law enforcement agencies, State and 
                local governments, elements of the criminal 
                justice system, public and private nonprofit 
                agencies, and individuals in the prevention, 
                investigation, prosecution, and treatment of 
                cases involving missing and exploited children;
                  [(I) provide assistance to families and law 
                enforcement agencies in locating and recovering 
                missing and exploited children, both nationally 
                and, in cooperation with the Department of 
                State, internationally;
                  [(J) provide analytical support and technical 
                assistance to law enforcement agencies through 
                searching public records databases in locating 
                and recovering missing and exploited children 
                and helping to locate and identify abductors;
                  [(K) provide direct on-site technical 
                assistance and consultation to law enforcement 
                agencies in child abduction and exploitation 
                cases;
                  [(L) provide forensic technical assistance 
                and consultation to law enforcement and other 
                agencies in the identification of unidentified 
                deceased children through facial reconstruction 
                of skeletal remains and similar techniques;
                  [(M) track the incidence of attempted child 
                abductions in order to identify links and 
                patterns, and provide such information to law 
                enforcement agencies;
                  [(N) provide training and assistance to law 
                enforcement agencies in identifying and 
                locating non-compliant sex offenders;]
                  (E) provide technical assistance and training 
                to families, law enforcement agencies, State 
                and local governments, elements of the criminal 
                justice system, nongovernmental agencies, local 
                educational agencies, and the general public--
                          (i) in the prevention, investigation, 
                        prosecution, and treatment of cases 
                        involving missing and exploited 
                        children;
                          (ii) to respond to foster children 
                        missing from the State child welfare 
                        system in coordination with child 
                        welfare agencies and courts handling 
                        juvenile justice and dependency 
                        matters; and
                          (iii) in the identification, 
                        location, and recovery of victims of, 
                        and children at risk for, child sex 
                        trafficking;
                  (F) provide assistance to families, law 
                enforcement agencies, State and local 
                governments, nongovernmental agencies, child-
                serving professionals, and other individuals 
                involved in the location and recovery of 
                missing and abducted children, both nationally, 
                and in cooperation with the Department of 
                State, internationally;
                  (G) provide support and technical assistance 
                to child-serving professionals involved in 
                helping to recover missing and exploited 
                children by searching public records databases 
                to help in the identification, location, and 
                recovery of such children, and help in the 
                location and identification of potential 
                abductors and offenders;
                  (H) provide forensic and direct on-site 
                technical assistance and consultation to 
                families, law enforcement agencies, child-
                serving professionals, and nongovernmental 
                organizations in child abduction and 
                exploitation cases, including facial 
                reconstruction of skeletal remains and similar 
                techniques to assist in the identification of 
                unidentified deceased children;
                  (I) provide training, technical assistance, 
                and information to nongovernmental 
                organizations relating to non-compliant sex 
                offenders and to law enforcement agencies in 
                identifying and locating such individuals;
                  [(O)] (J) facilitate the deployment of the 
                National Emergency Child Locator Center to 
                assist in reuniting missing children with their 
                families during periods of national disasters;
                  [(P) operate a cyber tipline to provide 
                online users and electronic service providers 
                an effective means of reporting Internet-
                related child sexual exploitation in the areas 
                of--
                          [(i) possession, manufacture, and 
                        distribution of child pornography;
                          [(ii) online enticement of children 
                        for sexual acts;
                          [(iii) child sex trafficking, 
                        including child prostitution;
                          [(iv) sex tourism involving children;
                          [(v) extrafamilial child sexual 
                        molestation;
                          [(vi) unsolicited obscene material 
                        sent to a child;
                          [(vii) misleading domain names; and
                          [(viii) misleading words or digital 
                        images on the Internet,
                and subsequently to transmit such reports, 
                including relevant images and information, to 
                the appropriate international, Federal, State 
                or local law enforcement agency for 
                investigation;
                  [(Q) work with law enforcement, Internet 
                service providers, electronic payment service 
                providers, and others on methods to reduce the 
                distribution on the Internet of images and 
                videos of sexually exploited children;
                  [(R) operate a child victim identification 
                program in order to assist the efforts of law 
                enforcement agencies in identifying victims of 
                child pornography and other sexual crimes;
                  [(S) develop and disseminate programs and 
                information to the general public, schools, 
                public officials, youth-serving organizations, 
                and nonprofit organizations, directly or 
                through grants or contracts with public 
                agencies and public and private nonprofit 
                organizations, on--
                          [(i) the prevention of child 
                        abduction and sexual exploitation; and
                          [(ii) internet safety;
                  [(T) provide technical assistance and 
                training to State and local law enforcement 
                agencies and statewide clearinghouses to 
                coordinate with State and local educational 
                agencies in identifying and recovering missing 
                children;]
                  (K) work with families, law enforcement 
                agencies, electronic service providers, 
                electronic payment service providers, 
                technology companies, nongovernmental 
                organizations, and others on methods to reduce 
                the existence and distribution of online images 
                and videos of sexually exploited children--
                          (i) by operating a tipline to provide 
                        to individuals and electronic service 
                        providers an effective means of 
                        reporting Internet-related and other 
                        instances of child sexual exploitation 
                        in the areas of--
                                  (I) possession, manufacture, 
                                and distribution of child 
                                pornography;
                                  (II) online enticement of 
                                children for sexual acts;
                                  (III) child sex trafficking;
                                  (IV) sex tourism involving 
                                children;
                                  (V) extra familial child 
                                sexual molestation;
                                  (VI) unsolicited obscene 
                                material sent to a child;
                                  (VII) misleading domain 
                                names; and
                                  (VIII) misleading words or 
                                digital images on the Internet;
                        and subsequently to make such reports 
                        available to the appropriate law 
                        enforcement agency for its review and 
                        potential investigation;
                          (ii) by operating a child victim 
                        identification program to assist law 
                        enforcement agencies in identifying 
                        victims of child pornography and other 
                        sexual crimes to support the recovery 
                        of children from sexually exploitative 
                        situations; and
                          (iii) by utilizing emerging 
                        technologies to provide additional 
                        outreach and educational materials to 
                        parents and families;
                  (L) develop and disseminate programs and 
                information to families, child-serving 
                professionals, law enforcement agencies, State 
                and local governments, nongovernmental 
                organizations, schools, local educational 
                agencies, child-serving organizations, and the 
                general public on--
                          (i) the prevention of child abduction 
                        and sexual exploitation;
                          (ii) Internet safety, including tips 
                        for social media and cyberbullying; and
                          (iii) sexting and sextortion; and
                  (M) provide technical assistance and training 
                to local educational agencies, schools, State 
                and local law enforcement agencies, 
                individuals, and other nongovernmental 
                organizations that assist with finding missing 
                and abducted children in identifying and 
                recovering such children.
                  [(U)] (N) assist the efforts of law 
                enforcement agencies in coordinating with child 
                welfare agencies to respond to foster children 
                missing from the State welfare system; and
                  [(V)] (O) provide technical assistance to law 
                enforcement agencies and first responders in 
                identifying, locating, and recovering victims 
                of, and children at risk for, child sex 
                trafficking.
          (2) Limitation.--
                  (A) In general.--Notwithstanding any other 
                provision of law, no Federal funds may be used 
                to pay the compensation of an individual 
                employed by the Center if such compensation, as 
                determined at the beginning of each grant year, 
                exceeds 110 percent of the maximum annual 
                salary payable to a member of the Federal 
                Government's Senior Executive Service (SES) for 
                that year. The Center may compensate an 
                employee at a higher rate provided the amount 
                in excess of this limitation is paid with non-
                Federal funds.
                  (B) Definition of compensation.--For the 
                purpose of this paragraph, the term 
                ``compensation''--
                          (i) includes salary, bonuses, 
                        periodic payments, severance pay, the 
                        value of a compensatory or paid leave 
                        benefit not excluded by clause (ii), 
                        and the fair market value of any 
                        employee perquisite or benefit not 
                        excluded by clause (ii); and
                          (ii) excludes any Center expenditure 
                        for health, medical, or life insurance, 
                        or disability or retirement pay, 
                        including pensions benefits.
  (c) National Incidence Studies.--The Administrator, either by 
making grants to or entering into contracts with public 
agencies or nonprofit private agencies, shall--
          (1) triennially conduct national incidence studies to 
        determine for a given year the actual number of 
        children reported missing each year, the number of 
        children who are victims of abduction by strangers, the 
        number of children who are the victims of parental 
        kidnappings, and the number of children who are 
        recovered each year; and
          (2) provide to State and local governments, public 
        and private nonprofit agencies, and individuals 
        information to facilitate the lawful use of school 
        records and birth certificates, in compliance with the 
        Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (20 
        U.S.C. 1232g) to identify and locate missing children.
  (d) Nothing contained in this title shall be construed to 
grant to the Administrator any law enforcement responsibility 
or supervisory authority over any other Federal agency.

                                 grants

  Sec. 405. (a) The Administrator is authorized to make grants 
to and enter into contracts with the Center and with public 
agencies or nonprofit private organizations, or combinations 
thereof, for research, demonstration projects, or service 
programs designed--
          (1) to educate parents, children, schools, school 
        leaders, teachers, State and local educational 
        agencies, homeless shelters and service providers, and 
        community agencies and organizations in ways to prevent 
        the abduction and sexual exploitation of children;
          (2) to provide information to assist in the locating 
        and return of missing children;
          (3) to aid communities and schools in the collection 
        of materials which would be useful to parents in 
        assisting others in the identification of missing 
        children;
          (4) to increase knowledge of and develop effective 
        treatment pertaining to the psychological consequences, 
        on both parents and children, of--
                  (A) the abduction of a child, both during the 
                period of disappearance and after the child is 
                recovered; and
                  (B) the sexual exploitation of a missing 
                child;
          (5) to collect detailed data from selected States or 
        localities on the actual investigative practices 
        utilized by law enforcement agencies in missing 
        children's cases;
          (6) to address the particular needs of missing 
        children by minimizing the negative impact of judicial 
        and law enforcement procedures on children who are 
        victims of abuse or sexual exploitation and by 
        promoting the active participation of children and 
        their families in cases involving abuse or sexual 
        exploitation of children;
          (7) to address the needs of missing children [(as 
        defined in section 403(1)(A))] and their families 
        following the recovery of such children;
          (8) to reduce the likelihood that individuals under 
        18 years of age will be removed from the control of 
        such individuals' [legal custodians] parents without 
        such [custodians'] parents' consent; and
          (9) to establish or operate statewide clearinghouses 
        to assist in locating and recovering missing children.
  (b) In considering grant applications under this title, the 
Administrator shall give priority to applicants who--
          (1) have demonstrated or demonstrate ability in--
                  (A) locating missing children or locating and 
                reuniting missing children with their [legal 
                custodians] parents;
                  (B) providing other services to missing 
                children or their families; or
                  (C) conducting research relating to missing 
                children; and
          (2) with respect to subparagraphs (A) and (B) of 
        paragraph (1), substantially utilize volunteer 
        assistance.
The Administrator shall give first priority to applicants 
qualifying under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1).
  (c) In order to receive assistance under this title for a 
fiscal year, applicants shall give assurance that they will 
expend, to the greatest extent practicable, for such fiscal 
year an amount of funds (without regard to any funds received 
under any Federal law) that is not less than the amount of 
funds they received in the preceding fiscal year from State, 
local, and private sources.

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SEC. 407. REPORTING.

  (a) Required Reporting.--As a condition of receiving funds 
under section 404(b), the grant recipient shall, based solely 
on reports received by the grantee and not involving any data 
collection by the grantee other than those reports, annually 
provide to the Administrator and make available to the general 
public, as appropriate--
          (1) the number of children nationwide who are 
        reported to the grantee as missing;
          (2) the number of children nationwide who are 
        reported to the grantee as victims of non-family 
        abductions;
          (3) the number of children nationwide who are 
        reported to the grantee as victims of family 
        abductions; and
          (4) the number of missing children recovered 
        nationwide whose recovery was reported to the grantee.
  (b) Incidence of Attempted Child Abductions.--As a condition 
of receiving funds under section 404(b), the grant recipient 
shall--
          (1) track the incidence of attempted child abductions 
        in order to identify links and patterns;
          (2) provide such information to law enforcement 
        agencies; and
          (3) make such information available to the general 
        public, as appropriate.

SEC. [407.]  408. OVERSIGHT AND ACCOUNTABILITY.

  All grants awarded by the Department of Justice that are 
authorized under this title shall be subject to the following:

                    authorization of appropriations

  Sec. [408.]  409. (a) In General.--To carry out the 
provisions of this title, there are authorized to be 
appropriated $40,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2014 
through 2018, up to $32,200,000 of which shall be used to carry 
out section 404(b) for each such fiscal year.
  (b) Evaluation.--The Administrator may use not more than 5 
percent of the amount appropriated for a fiscal year under 
subsection (a) to conduct an evaluation of the effectiveness of 
the programs and activities established and operated under this 
title.

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