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                                                Union Calendar No. 882
115th Congress    }                                     {       Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session       }                                     {     115-1115

_______________________________________________________________________

                                     


                     REPORT ON THE LEGISLATIVE AND

                          OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES

                                 of the

                      COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS

                               during the

                             115TH CONGRESS














[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]
















January 2, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                   ______
		 

                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
		 
33-946                    WASHINGTON : 2019                 




























                      COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS
                     One Hundred Fifteenth Congress

                      KEVIN BRADY, Texas, Chairman
Sam Johnson, Texas                   Richard E. Neal, Massachusetts
Devin Nunes, California              Sander M. Levin, Michigan
David G. Reichert, Washington        John Lewis, Georgia
Vern Buchanan, Florida               Lloyd Doggett, Texas
Peter J. Roskam, Illinois            Mike Thompson, California
Adrian Smith, Nebraska               John B. Larson, Connecticut
Lynn Jenkins, Kansas                 Earl Blumenauer, Oregon
Erik Paulsen, Minnesota              Ron Kind, Wisconsin
Kenny Marchant, Texas                Bill Pascrell, Jr., New Jersey
Diane Black, Tennessee               Joseph Crowley, New York
Tom Reed, New York                   Danny K. Davis, Illinois
Mike Kelly, Pennsylvania             Linda Sanchez, California
Jim Renacci, Ohio                    Brian Higgins, New York
Kristi Noem, South Dakota            Terri Sewell, Alabama
George Holding, North Carolina       Suzan DelBene, Washington
Jason Smith, Missouri                Judy Chu, California
Tom Rice, South Carolina
David Schweikert, Arizona
Jackie Walorski, Indiana
Carlos Curbelo, Florida
Mike Bishop, Michigan*
Darin LaHood, Illinois**
Brad R. Wenstrup, Ohio***

----------
*TOM PRICE, Georgia, resigned from the Committee on Ways and Means on 
February 10, 2017. MIKE BISHOP, Michigan, was elected to the Committee 
on Ways and Means on February 14, 2017.
**PAT TIBERI, Ohio, resigned from the Committee on Ways and Means on 
January 11, 2018. DARIN LaHOOD, Illinois, was elected to the Committee 
on Ways and Means on January 9, 2018.
***PATRICK MEEHAN, Pennsylvania, resigned from the Committee on Ways 
and Means on April 27, 2018. BRAD R. WENSTRUP, Ohio, was elected to the 
Committee on Ways and Means on May 16, 2018. 



















                         LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

                              ----------                              


                          House of Representatives,
                               Committee on Ways and Means,
                                   Washington, DC, January 2, 2019.
Hon. Karen Haas,
Office of the Clerk,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Ms. Haas: I am herewith transmitting, pursuant to 
House Rule XI, clause 1(d), the report of the Committee on Ways 
and Means on its legislative and oversight activities during 
the 115th Congress.
            Sincerely,
                                               Kevin Brady,
                                                          Chairman.





















                            C O N T E N T S

                              ----------                              
                                                                   Page
Transmittal Letter...............................................   III
Foreword.........................................................   VII
 I. Legislative Activity Review.......................................1
          A. Legislative Review of Tax Issues....................     1
          B. Legislative Review of Trade Issues..................    12
          C. Legislative Review of Health Issues.................    31
          D. Legislative Review of Human Resources Issues........    56
          E. Legislative Review of Social Security Issues........    65
          F. Legislative Review of Oversight Issues..............    67
II. Oversight Activity Review........................................71
          A. Oversight Agenda....................................    71
          B. Actions Taken and Recommendations Made with Respect 
              To Oversight Plan..................................    73
            a. Oversight.........................................    73
            b. Trade.............................................    88
            c. Tax...............................................   117
            d. Human Resources...................................   119
            e. Health............................................   120
            f. Social Security...................................   122
III.Public Hearings.................................................126

IV. Markups.........................................................129
Appendix I. Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means......   132
Appendix II. Statistical Review of the Activities of the 
  Committee on Ways and Means....................................   138
Appendix III. Chairmen & Membership of the Committee on Ways and 
  Means from the 1st through the 115th Congresses................   139

















                                FOREWORD

    The Committee on Ways and Means submits its report on its 
legislative and oversight activities for the 115th Congress 
pursuant to the requirements of clause 1(d) of Rule XI of the 
Rules of the House. Section I of the report describes the 
Committee's legislative activities, divided into seven sections 
as follows: Legislative Review of Tax Issues; Legislative 
Review of Trade Issues; Legislative Review of Health Issues; 
Legislative Review of Human Resources Issues; Legislative 
Review of Social Security Issues; Legislative Review of 
Oversight Issues; and Legislative Review of Multi-
Jurisdictional Issues.
    Section II of the report describes the Committee's 
oversight activities. It includes a copy of the Committee's 
Oversight Agenda, adopted on February 14, 2017, along with a 
description of actions taken and recommendations made with 
respect to the oversight plan. The report then discusses 
additional Committee oversight activities, and any 
recommendations or actions taken as a result.
    Finally, the report includes three appendices with 
Committee information. Appendix I is an expanded discussion of 
the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means along with 
a revised listing and explanation of blue slip resolutions and 
points of order under House Rule XXI 5(a). Appendix II is a 
Statistical Review of the Activities of the Committee on Ways 
and Means. Appendix III is a listing of the Chairmen and 
membership of the Committee from the 1st through 115th 
Congress.
    To carry out its work during the One Hundred Fifteenth 
Congress, the Committee on Ways and Means had six standing 
Subcommittees, listed below with membership:

                       Subcommittee on Tax Policy

 Vern Buchanan, Florida, Chairman

Lloyd Doggett, Texas                 Peter Roskam, Illinois
John B. Larson, Connecticut          Dave Reichert, Ohio
Linda Sanchez, California            Jim Renacci, OHIO
Mike Thompson, California            Kristi Noem, South Dakota
Suzan DelBene, Washington            George Holding, North Carolina
Earl Blumenauer, Oregon              Jason Smith, Missouri
                                     Tom Rice, South Carolina
                                     David Schweikert, Arizona

                         Subcommittee on Trade

  David G. Reichert, Washington, 
             Chairman

Bill Pascrell, New Jersey            Devin Nunes, California
Ron Kind, Wisconsin                  Erik Paulsen, Minnesota
Lloyd Doggett, Texas                 Mike Kelly, Pennsylvania
Sander M. Levin, Michigan            Tom Reed, New York
Danny K. Davis, Illinois             Kristi Noem, South Dakota
Brian Higgins, New York              George Holding, North Carolina
                                     Tom Rice, South Carolina
                                     Kenny Marchant, Texas
                                     Jason Smith, Missouri

                         Subcommittee on Health

 Peter Roskam, Illinois, Chairman

Sander M. Levin, Michigan            Sam Johnson, Texas
Mike Thompson, California            Devin Nunes, California
Ron Kind, Wisconsin                  Vern Buchanan, Florida
Earl Blumenauer, Oregon              Adrian Smith, Nebraska
Brian Higgins, New York              Lynn Jenkins, Kansas
Terri A. Sewell, Alabama             Kenny Marchant, Texas
Judy Chu, California                 Diane Black, Tennessee
                                     Erik Paulsen, Minnesota
                                     Tom Reed, New York
                                     Mike Kelly, Pennsylvania

                    Subcommittee on Human Resources

 Adrian Smith, Nebraska, Chairman

Danny K. Davis, Illinois             Jackie Walorski, Indiana
Lloyd Doggett, Texas                 Carlos Curbelo, Florida
Terri A. Sewell, Alabama             David Schweikert, Arizona
Judy Chu, California                 Darin LaHood, Illinois
                                     Brad Wenstrup, Ohio
                                     David G. Reichert, Washington

                    Subcommittee on Social Security

   Sam Johnson, Texas, Chairman

John B. Larson, Connecticut          Mike Bishop, Michigan
Bill Pascrell, New Jersey            Vern Buchanan, Florida
Joseph Crowley, New York             Mike Kelly, Pennsylvania
Linda Sanchez, California            Tom Rice, South Carolina
                                     David Schweikert, Arizona
                                     Darin LaHood, Illinois

                       Subcommittee on Oversight

  Lynn Jenkins, Kansas, Chairman

John Lewis, Georgia                  Jackie Walorski, Indiana
Joseph Crowley, New York             Carlos Curbelo, Florida
Suzan DelBene, Washington            Mike Bishop, Michigan
Earl Blumenauer, Oregon              Darin LaHood, Illinois
                                     Brad Wenstrup, Ohio
                                     Kenny Marchant, Texas




















                                                Union Calendar No. 882
115th Congress    }                                     {       Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session       }                                     {     115-1115

======================================================================



 
REPORT ON THE LEGISLATIVE AND OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
        WAYS AND MEANS DURING THE ONE HUNDRED FIFTEENTH CONGRESS

                                _______
                                

January 2, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

       Mr. Brady of Texas, from the Committee on Ways and Means, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                     I. Legislative Activity Review


                  A. Legislative Review of Tax Issues


          1. BILLS ENACTED INTO LAW DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) Disaster Tax Relief and Airport and Airway Extension Act of 2017 
        (P.L. 115-63)

    On September 25, 2017, the Chairman of the House Committee 
on Ways and Means, Kevin Brady, and two cosponsors introduced 
H.R. 3823, a bill to amend title 49, United States Code, to 
extend authorizations for the airport improvement program, to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to extend the funding 
and expenditure authority of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund, 
to provide disaster tax relief, and for other purposes. On 
September 25, 2017 the House moved to suspend the rules and 
failed to pass the bill by the yeas and nays (2/3 required) 
245-171. The House passed the bill by the yeas and nays: 264-
155 (Roll no. 542) on September 28, 2017. On September 28, 
2017, the bill passed in the Senate with an amendment by voice 
vote. On September 28, 2017, the House agreed to the Senate 
amendment without objection. On September 29, 2017, the bill 
was signed by the President and became Public Law No: 115-63.
    P.L. 115-63 includes tax-related provisions that provide 
tax relief with respect to the federally declared disaster 
areas in connection with Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria and 
that extended the funding and expenditure authority of the 
Airport and Airway Trust Fund through September 30, 2018.

(b) Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (P.L. 115-97)

    On November 2, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and twenty-four 
cosponsors introduced a bill to provide for reconciliation 
pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the 
budget for fiscal year 2018. On November 6 through 9, 2017, the 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute (H. Rept. 115-409). On November 16, 2017, H.R. 1 
was passed by the Yeas and Nays: 227-205 (Roll no. 637). The 
Senate passed the bill with an amendment on December 2, 2017, 
by the Yeas and Nays: 51-49 (Record Vote Number: 303). A 
Conference was held on December 13, 2017, and the Conference 
filed a report on December 15, 2017 (H. Rept. 115-466). The 
report was agreed to in the House on December 19, 2017 by the 
Yeas and Nays: 227-203 (Roll no. 692). The House agreed to the 
Senate amendment on December 20, 2017, by the Yeas and Nays: 
224-201 (Roll no. 699). On December 22, 2017, H.R. 1 was signed 
by the President and became Public Law No: 115-97.
    P.L. 115-97 makes comprehensive reforms to the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 that provide tax relief and simplification 
to American families and individuals so they can keep more of 
what they earn and devote less time and resources to filing 
their tax returns; provide tax relief to businesses of all 
sizes so that they can create jobs, increase paychecks, and 
invest in the American economy; and modernize the U.S. 
international tax system to unleash the global competitiveness 
of America and American businesses.

(c) To extend the authorizations of Federal aviation programs, to 
        extend the funding and expenditure authority of the Airport and 
        Airway Trust Fund, and for other purposes (P.L. 115-250)

    On September 26, 2018, the Chairman of the House Committee 
on Transportation and Infrastructure, Bill Shuster, introduced 
H.R. 6897, a bill to extend the authorizations of Federal 
aviation programs, to extend the funding and expenditure 
authority of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund, and for other 
purposes. On September 26, 2018, the House Committee on 
Transportation and Infrastructure and the House Committee on 
Ways and Means both discharged the bill. The bill was 
considered by unanimous consent and passed without objection on 
September 26, 2018. The bill was passed, without amendment, by 
unanimous consent in the Senate on September 28, 2018. On 
September 29, 2018, H.R. 6897 was signed by the President and 
became Public Law No: 115-250.
    P.L. 115-250 includes tax-related provisions that extend 
the funding and expenditure authority of the Airport and Airway 
Trust Fund through September 30, 2023.

      2. TAX RELIEF AND OTHER PROPOSALS DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) Retirement, Savings, and Other Tax Relief Act of 2018 and Taxpayer 
        First Act of 2018

    On January 3, 2017, Representative Marsha Blackburn 
introduced H.R. 88, Shiloh National Military Park Boundary 
Adjustment and Parker's Crossroads Battlefield Designation Act. 
On February 27, 2017, H.R. 88 passed the House by a voice vote. 
On June 6, 2018, H.R. 88 passed the Senate with an amendment by 
unanimous consent. On December 20, 2018, the House passed a 
motion to concur in the Senate amendment with an amendment by 
the Yeas and Nays: 220-183 (Roll no. 470).
    The bill as passed by the House includes disaster-related 
tax relief provisions, retirement and other family savings 
provisions, health tax provisions, permanent provisions related 
to tax extenders, and other tax provisions. The bill also 
includes a package of provisions to redesign the Internal 
Revenue Service.

(b) To Reduce Federal Spending and the deficit by terminating taxpayer 
        financing of Presidential Elections

    On January 3, 2017, Representative Tom Cole introduced H.R. 
133, a bill to reduce Federal spending and the deficit by 
terminating taxpayer financing of Presidential election 
campaigns. The Committee on House Administration held a markup 
on February 7, 2017 and ordered the bill to be reported by the 
Yeas and Nays: 5-3.

(c) Protect Medical Innovation Act of 2018

    On January 3, 2017, Representatives Erik Paulsen and Ron 
Kind, along with two hundred and seventy-eight cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 184, a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code 
of 1986 to repeal the excise tax on medical devices. On July 
24, 2018, the House passed H.R. 184 by the Yeas and Nays: 283-
132 (Roll no. 372).

(d) No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion and Abortion Insurance Full 
        Disclosure Act of 2017

    On January 13, 2017, the Chairman of the House Veterans 
Affairs Committee, Chris Smith, and one hundred and one 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 7, a bill to prohibit taxpayer 
funded abortions. On January 24, 2017, H.R. 7 passed the House 
by a recorded vote: 238-183 (Roll no. 65).

(e) Water and Agriculture Tax Reform Act of 2018

    On January 13, 2017, Representative Ken Buck and fifteen 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 519, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to facilitate water leasing and water 
transfers to promote conservation and efficiency. On July 24, 
2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the 
nature of a substitute (H. Rept. 115-857). On July 24, 2018, 
the House suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by 
voice vote.
    The bill contains tax-related provisions that relate to the 
treatment of income received or accrued by a mutual ditch or 
irrigation company from non-member sources for purposes of 
determining whether the entity meets the qualifications for 
tax-exempt status and also that relate to the determination of 
a mutual ditch or irrigation company's corporate governance 
issues.

(f) EACH Act

    On February 17, 2017, Representative Rodney Davis and 
twenty-two cosponsors introduced H.R. 1201, a bill to amend 
section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide 
an additional religious exemption from the individual health 
coverage mandate, and for other purposes. The House agreed to 
suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by voice vote on 
July 24, 2017.

(g) Self-Insurance Protection Act

    On March 2, 2017, Representative David P. Roe and seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 1304, a bill to amend the Employee 
Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Public Health 
Service Act, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to exclude 
from the definition of health insurance coverage certain 
medical stop-loss insurance obtained by certain plan sponsors 
of group health plans. On March 20, 2017, the House Committee 
on Education and the Workforce favorably reported the bill as 
amended. The House on April 5, 2017, passed the by the Yeas and 
Nays: 400-16 (Roll no. 220).

(h) Native American Health Savings Improvement Act of 2018

    On March 9, 2017, Representatives John Moolenaar and Raul 
Ruiz introduced H.R. 1476, a bill to amend the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 to permit individuals eligible for Indian Health 
Service assistance to qualify for health savings accounts. The 
House suspended the rules and passed the as amended by voice 
vote on July 24, 2018.

(i) Orrin G. Hatch Music Modernization Act

    On March 15, 2017, Representative Tom Rice and thirty-two 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 1551, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to modify the credit for production from 
advanced nuclear power facilities. On June 5, 2017, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute (H. Rept. 115-183). The House suspended the rules 
and passed the bill as amended by voice vote on June 20, 2017. 
The Senate passed the bill as amended on September 25, 2018. 
The House agreed to the Senate amendment without objection on 
September 25, 2018. On October 11, 2018, H.R. 1551 was signed 
by the President and became Public Law No: 115-264.
    The bill originally contained tax-related provisions 
modifying the credit for production from advanced nuclear power 
facilities to clarify the process for re-allocation of credits 
in the event any credits are unutilized and to add a new credit 
transfer provision with respect to certain public entities. 
These provisions were included in H.R. 1892, the Bipartisan 
Budget Act of 2018, which on February 9, 2018 was signed by the 
President and became Public Law No: 115-123.

(j) Financial CHOICE Act of 2017

    On April 26, 2017, the Chairman of the House Financial 
Services Committee introduced H.R. 10, a bill to create hope 
and opportunity for investors, consumers, and entrepreneurs by 
ending bailouts and Too Big to Fail, holding Washington and 
Wall Street accountable, eliminating red tape to increase 
access to capital and credit, and repealing the provisions of 
the Dodd-Frank Act that make America less prosperous, less 
stable, and less free, and for other purposes. On May 25, 2017, 
the Committee on Financial Services reported H.R. 10 as amended 
(H. Rept. 115-153, Part I). The Committees on Agriculture, Ways 
and Means, Judiciary, Oversight and Government Reform, 
Transportation and Infrastructure, Rules, the Budget, and 
Education and the Workforce discharged the bill on May 25, 
2017. The Committee on Financial Services filed a supplemental 
report on June 2, 2017 (H. Rept. 115-153, Part II). The bill 
passed the House by the Yeas and Nays: 233-186 (Roll no. 299).

(k) Frederick Douglass Trafficking Victims Prevention and Protection 
        Reauthorization Act of 2017

    On April 27, 2017, Representative Christopher H. Smith and 
twenty-nine cosponsors introduced in H.R. 2200, a bill to 
reauthorize the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, and 
for other purposes. On July 12, 2017 the House agreed to 
suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by voice vote. 
The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations ordered that the bill 
be favorably reported with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute on September 26, 2018. (See also: Trade legislation 
page 20).

(l) VETERAN Act

    On May 4, 2018, Representative Sam Johnson and thirty-eight 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2372, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify the rules relating to veteran 
health insurance and eligibility for the premium tax credit. 
The House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup on May 24, 
2017, and favorably reported the bill as amended on June 2, 
2017. The House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill 
by voice vote on June 15, 2017. (See also: Health legislation 
page 42).

(m) Broader Options for Americans Act

    On May 19, 2017, Representative Patrick Tiberi introduced 
in House H.R. 2579, a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code 
of 1986 to allow the premium tax credit with respect to 
unsubsidized COBRA continuation coverage. On May 24, 2017, the 
House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and reported 
the bill as amended favorably by the yeas and nays 23-15. The 
bill passed the House by the yeas and nays 267-144 (Roll no. 
308) on June 15, 2017. (See also: Health legislation page 43).

(n) Verify First Act

    On May 22, 2017, Representative Lou Barletta and fourteen 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2581, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to require the provision of social 
security numbers as a condition of receiving the health 
insurance premium tax credit. On May 24, 2017, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and reported the bill 
as amended favorably by the yeas and nays 22-16. The bill 
passed the House by the yeas and nays 238-184 (Roll no. 305) on 
June 13, 2017.

(o) Affordable Retirement Advice for Savers Act

    On June 8, 2017, Representative David P. Roe and thirty 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2823, a bill to amend the Employee 
Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 to ensure that retirement investors receive advice 
in their best interests, and for other purposes. On July 19, 
2017, the House Committee on Education and the Workforce held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended by the yeas 
and nays 23-17. The House Committee on Ways and Means 
discharged the bill on March 5, 2018.

(p) Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Permanence Act of 2017

    On June 15, 2017, Representative Carlos Curbelo and thirty-
nine cosponsors introduced H.R. 2901, a bill to amend the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to make permanent the Volunteer 
Income Tax Assistance matching grant program. The House 
suspended the rules passed the bill by voice vote on April 17, 
2018. (See also: Oversight legislation page 78).

(q) Justice for Victims of IRS Scams and Identity Theft Act of 2018

    On June 15, 2017, Representatives David Young and Kyrsten 
Sinema introduced H.R. 2905, a bill to require the Attorney 
General to establish procedures for expedited review of the 
case of any person who unlawfully solicits personal information 
for purposes of committing identity theft, while purporting to 
be acting on behalf of the IRS, and for other purposes. The 
House suspended the rules passed the bill as amended by the 
yeas and nays (2/3 required) 403-3 (Roll no. 147) on April 18, 
2018. (See also: Oversight legislation page 78).

(r) Ensuring Integrity in the IRS Workforce Act of 2018

    On July 27, 2017, Representative Kristi L. Noem and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3500, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to prohibit the Commissioner of the 
Internal Revenue Service from rehiring any employee of the 
Internal Revenue Service who was involuntarily separated from 
service for misconduct. The House Committee on Ways and Means 
held a markup and favorably reported the bill by voice vote on 
June 22, 2018. On July 24, 2018, the House suspended the rules 
and passed the bill as amended by voice vote. (See also: 
Oversight legislation page 78).

(s) SHARE Act

    On September 2, 2017, Representative Jeff Duncan and five 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3668, a bill to provide for the 
preservation of sportsmen's heritage and enhance recreation 
opportunities on Federal land, and for other purposes. On 
September 13, 2017, the House Committee on Natural Resources 
held a markup and favorably reported the bill, as amended, by 
the Yeas and Nays (H. Rept. 115-314). On September 18, 2017, 
the House Committee on Agriculture, the House Committee on the 
Judiciary, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, the 
House Committee on Transportation, and the House Committee on 
Ways and Means discharged the bill.

(t) PASS Act of 2017

    On September 27, 2017, Representative Ann Wagner and 
fifteen cosponsors introduced H.R. 3857, a bill to amend the 
Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to establish standards of 
conduct for brokers and dealers that are in the best interest 
of their retail customers. On August 10, 2018, the House 
Committee on Education and the Workforce granted an extension 
for further consideration ending not later than Nov. 16, 2018.

(u) AG Act

    On October 23, 2017, the Chairman of House Committee on 
Judiciary, Bob Goodlatte, and thirteen cosponsors introduced 
H.R. 4092, a bill to create a nonimmigrant H-2C work visa 
program for agricultural workers, and for other purposes. The 
Committee held a markup favorably reported the bill by the yeas 
and nays 17-16 on October 25, 2017.

(v) Terrorist Screening and Targeting Review Act of 2017

    On December, 5, 2017, Representative Thomas Garrett, Jr. 
and six cosponsors introduced H.R. 4553, a bill to require a 
review of the authorization, funding, management, and operation 
of the National Targeting Center and the Terrorist Screening 
Center, and for other purposes. The House Committee on Homeland 
Security held a markup and favorably reported the bill by 
unanimous consent.

(w) Employer Relief Act of 2018

    On December, 5, 2017, Representative Devin Nunes and four 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4616, a bill to amend the Patient 
Protection and Affordable Care Act to provide for a temporary 
moratorium on the employer mandate and to provide for a delay 
in the implementation of the excise tax on high cost employer-
sponsored health coverage. The House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill by the yeas 
and nays 22-15 on July 11, 2018. (See also: Health legislation 
page 48).

(x) Securing America's Future Act of 2018

    On January 10, 2018, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Judiciary, Bob Goodlatte, and ninety-nine cosponsors introduced 
H.R. 4760, a bill to amend the immigration laws and the 
homeland security laws, and for other purposes. The House 
failed to pass the bill by recorded vote 193-231 (Roll no. 281) 
on June 21, 2018.

(y) Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 Reform Act

    On February 5, 2018, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Administration, Gregg Harper, and thirty-eight cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 4924, a bill to amend the Congressional 
Accountability Act of 1995 to reform the procedures provided 
under such Act for the initiation, investigation, and 
resolution of claims alleging that employing offices of the 
legislative branch have violated the rights and protections 
provided to their employees under such Act, including 
protections against sexual harassment, and for other purposes. 
The House suspended the rules and passed the bill by voice vote 
on February 6, 2018.

(z) To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow officers and 
        employees of the Department of the Treasury to provide to 
        taxpayers information regarding low-income taxpayer clinics.

    On April 9, 2018, Representatives George Holding and John 
Lewis introduced H.R. 5438, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to allow officers and employees of the 
Department of the Treasury to provide to taxpayers information 
regarding low-income taxpayer clinics. The House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill as 
amended by voice vote on April 11, 2018. On April 17, 2018, the 
House suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by 
voice vote. (See also: Oversight legislation page 79).

(aa) To provide for a single point of contact at the Internal Revenue 
        Service for the taxpayers who are victims of tax-related 
        identity theft.

    On April 9, 2018, Representatives James Renacci, John 
Lewis, and two cosponsors introduced H.R. 5439, a bill to 
provide for a single point of contact at the Internal Revenue 
Service for the taxpayers who are victims of tax-related 
identity theft. The House Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote 
on April 11, 2018. On April 17, 2018, the House suspended the 
rules and passed the bill as amended by voice vote. (See also: 
Oversight legislation page 80).

(bb) To require notice from the Secretary of the treasury in the case 
        of any closure of a Taxpayer Assistance Center

    On April 9, 2018, Representative Karen C. Handel and Tom 
O'Halleran introduced H.R. 5440, a bill to require notice from 
the Secretary of the Treasury in the case of any closure of a 
Taxpayer Assistance Center. On April 17, 2018, the House agreed 
to suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by voice 
vote. (See also: Oversight legislation page 40).

(cc) To amend the Internal Revenue of 1986 to require electronic filing 
        of the annual returns of exempt organizations and provide for 
        making such returns available for public inspection

    On April 10, 2018, Representative Mike Kelly and Stephanie 
N. Murphy introduced H.R. 5443, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to require electronic filing of the annual 
returns of exempt organizations and provide for making such 
returns available for public inspection. The House agreed to 
suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by voice vote on 
April 17, 2018. (See also: Oversight legislation page 80).

(dd) FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018

    On April 13, 2018, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Transportation and Infrastructure, Bill Shuster, and fifteen 
cosponsors introduced a bill, H.R. 4, to reauthorize programs 
of the Federal Aviation Administration, and for other purposes. 
On April 27, 2018, H.R. 4 was passed by the Yeas and Nays: 393-
13 (Roll no. 165).
    The bill includes tax-related provisions that would modify 
and extend the funding and expenditure authority of the Airport 
and Airway Trust Fund.

(ee) Border Security and Immigration Reform Act of 2018

    On June 19, 2018, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
the Judiciary, Bob Goodlatte, and eleven cosponsors introduced 
H.R. 6136, a bill to amend the immigration laws and provide for 
border security, and for other purposes. On June 27, 2018 the 
House failed to pass the by recorded vote: 121-301 (Roll no. 
297).

(ff) Restoring Access to Medication and Modernizing Health Savings 
        Accounts Act of 2018

    On June 22, 2018, Representatives Lynn Jenkins, Ron Kind, 
Grace Meng, and Erik Paulsen introduced H.R. 6199, a bill to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to include certain 
over-the-counter medical products as qualified medical 
expenses. On July 11, 2018, The House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup, and favorably reported the bill as amended 
on July 19, 2018. On July 25, 2018, the House passed the bill 
by the Yeas and Nays: 277-142 (Roll no. 377). (See also: Health 
legislation page 60).

(gg) Promoting High-Value Health Care Through Flexibility for High 
        Deductible Health Plans Act of 2018

    On June 29, 2018, Representatives Peter J. Roskam, Mike 
Thompson, and Diane Black introduced H.R. 6301, a bill to amend 
the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide high deductible 
health plans with first dollar coverage flexibility. On July 
11, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, 
and favorably reported the bill as amended on July 19, 2018. 
(See also: Health legislation page 61).

(hh) Bipartisan HSA Improvement Act of 2018

    On July 3, 2018, Representative Mike Kelly and Earl 
Blumenauer introduced H.R. 6305, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to improve access to health care through 
modernized health savings accounts. On July 11, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably 
reported the bill as amended on July 19, 2018. (See also: 
Health legislation page 61).

(ii) Health Care Security Act of 2018

    On July 3, 2018, Representative Erik Paulsen introduced 
H.R. 6306, a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to 
increase the contribution limitation for health savings 
accounts, and for other purposes. On July 11, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably 
reported the bill as amended on July 19, 2018. (See also: 
Health legislation page 61).

(jj) Allowing Working Seniors to Keep Their Health Savings Accounts Act 
        of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Erik Paulsen introduced 
H.R. 6309, a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to 
allow individuals entitled to Medicare Part A by reason of 
being over age 65 to contribute to health savings accounts. On 
July 11, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup, and favorably reported the bill as amended on July 19, 
2018. (See also: Health legislation page 62).

(kk) Increasing Access to Lower Premium Plans and Expanding Health 
        Savings Accounts Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Peter J. Roskam and Michael 
C. Burgess introduced H.R. 6311, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 and the Patient Protection and Affordable 
Care Act to modify the definition of qualified health plan for 
purposes of the health insurance premium tax credit and to 
allow individuals purchasing health insurance in the individual 
market to purchase a lower premium copper plan. On July 11, 
2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and 
favorably reported the bill as amended on July 19, 2018. The 
House passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 242-176 (Roll no, 
376). (See also: Health legislation page 62).

(ll) Personal Health Investment Today Act

    On July 6, 2018, Representatives Jason Smith and Ron Kind, 
and one cosponsor introduced H.R. 6312, a bill to amend the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to treat certain amounts paid for 
physical activity, fitness, and exercise as amounts paid for 
medical care. On July 11, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup, and favorably reported the bill as amended 
on July 19, 2018. (See also: Health legislation page 62).

(mm) Responsible Additions and Increases to Sustain Employee Health 
        Benefits Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Steve Stivers and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 6313, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code to allow unused health flexible spending 
arrangement account balances (or a portion of the balances) to 
be carried forward into the next plan year. On July 11, 2018, 
the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill, as amended (H. Rept. 115-853). 
(See also: Health legislation page 63).

(nn) Health Savings Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Michael C. Burgess and two 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 6314, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code, with respect to health savings accounts (HSAs), 
to require the bronze and catastrophic health plans described 
in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to be treated 
as high deductible health plans, which are required to 
participate in an HSA. On July 11, 2018, the House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill, 
as amended (H. Rept. 115-848). (See also: Health legislation 
page 63).

(oo) Primary Care Enhancement Act of 2018

    On July 10, 2018, Representative Erik Paulsen and two 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 6317, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to provide that direct primary care 
service arrangements do not disqualify deductible health 
savings account contributions, and for other purposes. On July 
11, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup 
and favorably reported the bill, as amended (H. Rept. 115-852). 
(See also: Health legislation page 63).

(pp) Save Community Newspaper Act of 2018

    On July 16, 2018, Representatives Erik Paulsen, Suzan 
DelBene, and five cosponsors introduced H.R. 6377, a bill to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and the Employee 
Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 to provide alternative 
minimum funding rules for certain single-employer plans 
maintained by a community newspaper. On July 18, 2018, the 
House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill as amended by the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute (H. Rept. 115-1011).
    The bill includes tax-related provisions that would amend 
the required funding rules for certain community newspaper 
pension plans in order to give those employers more time to 
fund the plans.

(qq) American Innovation Act of 2018

    On September 10, 2018, Representative Vern Buchanan and 
twenty-six cosponsors introduced H.R. 6756, a bill to amend the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to promote new business 
innovation, and for other purposes. On September 13, 2018, the 
House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute (H. Rept. 115-957). On September 27, 2018, the 
House passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 260-156 (Roll no. 
412).
    The bill contains tax-related provisions on the treatment 
of start-up and organizational expenditures and on the 
treatment of start-up losses and credits.

(rr) Family Savings Act of 2018

    On September 10, 2018, Representative Mike Kelly and 
twenty-nine cosponsors introduced H.R. 6757, a bill to amend 
the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to encourage retirement and 
family savings, and for other purposes. On September 13, 2018, 
the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the 
nature of a substitute (H. Rept. 115-959). On September 24, 
2018, the House Committee on Education and the Workforce 
discharged the bill. On September 27, 2018, the House passed 
the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 240-177 (Roll no. 411).
    The bill contains tax-related provisions to make it easier 
for employers to provide retirement plans to their employees 
and to make it easier for individuals to save for retirement 
and for other purposes.

(ss) Protecting Family and Small Business Tax Cuts Act of 2018

    On September 10, 2018, Representative Rodney Davis and 
forty cosponsors introduced H.R. 6760, a bill to amend the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to make permanent certain 
provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act affecting individuals, 
families, and small businesses. On September 13, 2018, the 
House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute, (H. Rept. 115-958). On September 28, 2018, 
Representative John B. Larson's motion to recommit failed by 
the Yeas and Nays: 184-226 (Roll no. 413). On September 28, 
2018, the House passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 220-191 
(Roll no. 414).
    The bill contains tax-related provisions to make permanent 
the comprehensive reforms to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 
that provide tax relief and simplification to American 
families, individuals, and small businesses that were enacted 
on a temporary basis by subtitles A and B of the Tax Cuts and 
Jobs Act (Public Law 115-97).

(tt) H. Con. Res. 119

    On April 26, 2018, Representative Steve Scalise and forty-
eight cosponsors introduced H. Con. Res. 119, a concurrent 
resolution to express the sense of Congress that a carbon tax 
would be detrimental to American families and businesses and is 
not in the best interest of the United States. On July 19, 
2018, the concurrent resolution was agreed to in the House by 
the Yeas and Nays: 229-180 (Roll no. 363).

                 B. Legislative Review of Trade Issues


     1. STANDALONE BILLS ENACTED INTO LAW DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) H.R. 4318, Miscellaneous Tariff Bill Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-239)

    On October 25, 2018, the Subcommittee on Trade held a 
hearing on the Miscellaneous Tariff Bill. The purpose of the 
hearing was to investigate the U.S. manufacturing and economic 
benefits of providing temporary tariff relief on imported 
finished goods and raw materials not produced in the United 
States. The Subcommittee heard testimony from (i) Cindy Smith, 
Agriculture Relations Director--Gowan USA, (ii) Edward V. 
McAsey, Chief Operating Officer--Lasko Products LLC, and (iii) 
Michael Ratchford, Government Relations Associate--W.L. Gore & 
Associates.
    On November 9, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady, Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave Reichert, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr,. and twenty-seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4318, a bill to amend the Harmonized 
Tariff Schedule of the United States to modify temporarily 
certain rates of duty. The bill was referred to the Committee 
on Ways and Means.
    The House suspended the rules and passed the bill on 
January 18, 2018, by a recorded vote of 402-0. On July 26, 
2018, the Senate passed the bill with amendments by voice vote. 
On September 4, 2018, the House suspended the rules and agreed 
to the Senate amendments by voice vote. The bill was signed 
into law on September 13, 2018, and became Public Law 115-239.

(b) H.R. 2200, Frederick Douglass Trafficking Victims Prevention 
        Reauthorization Act of 2017

    On April 4, 2017, Representative Christopher Smith and 
twenty-nine cosponsors introduced H.R. 2200, a bill to 
reauthorize the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, and 
for other purposes. The bill was referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, and to the Committees on the Judiciary, 
Oversight and Government Reform, Ways and Means, Transportation 
and Infrastructure, Energy and Commerce, Armed Services, and 
Education and the Workforce. On May 16, 2017, Chairman Brady 
and Chairman Royce exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady 
asserted jurisdiction under Rule X of the House but agreed to 
waive formal consideration of the bill. On July 13, 2017, the 
House suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by 
voice vote.
    On September 26, 2018, the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations reported the bill favorably. On October 10, 2018, the 
bill was placed on the Senate Legislative calendar. On December 
17, 2018, the Senate passed the bill with an amendment by voice 
vote. On December 21, 2018, the House passed the Senate 
amendment to the bill by a recorded vote of 368-7. The bill was 
presented to the President.

(c) & (d) H.R. 3364, Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions 
        Act (P.L. 115-44

    H.R. 3364, the ``Countering America's Adversaries Through 
Sanctions Act'' was introduced on July 24, 2017, by House 
Committee on Foreign Affairs Chairman Ed Royce and five 
cosponsors and was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs 
and to the Committees on Ways and Means, Intelligence 
(Permanent Select), the Judiciary, Oversight and Government 
Reform, Armed Services, Financial Services, Rules, and 
Transportation and Infrastructure. The bill included H.R. 1644, 
the ``Korean Interdiction and Modernization of Sanctions Act'' 
which was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means.
    The House passed the bill on July 25, 2017, by a recorded 
vote of 419-3. On July 27, 2017, the Senate passed the bill 
without amendment by a recorded vote of 98-2. The bill was 
signed into law on August 2, 2018 and became Public Law 115-44.

(e) & (f) H.R. 3342, Sanctioning the Use of Civilians as Defenseless 
        Shields Act.

    On July 20, 2017, Representative Mike Gallagher and twenty-
six cosponsors introduced H.R. 3342, a bill to impose sanctions 
on foreign persons that are responsible for using civilians as 
human shields, and for other purposes. On October 23, 2017, 
Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce exchanged letters in which 
Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction but agreed not to request 
a sequential referral on the bill. The House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs reported the bill on October 24, 2017.
    On October 25, 2017, the House suspended the rules and 
passed the bill by voice vote. On October 11, 2018, the Senate 
passed the bill with amendments by unanimous consent. On 
December 11, 2018, the House agreed to the Senate amendments 
without objection. The bill was signed into law on December 21, 
2018.

(g) & (h) H.R. 6400, United States Ports of Entry Threat and 
        Operational Review Act

    On July 17, 2018, Representative Debbie Lesko and thirty-
three cosponsors introduced H.R. 6400, a bill to require the 
Secretary of Homeland Security to conduct a threat and 
operational analysis of ports of entry, and for other purposes. 
On July 17, 2018, the bill was referred to the Committee on 
Ways and Means, and to the Committee on Homeland Security. On 
September 4, 2018, the House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill as amended by voice vote. On December 19, 2018, the bill 
passed the Senate without amendment by voice vote. The bill was 
presented to the President.

(i) & (j) H.R. 6888, Asia Reassurance Initiative Act of 2018

    H.R. 6888, the ``Asia Reassurance Initiative Act of 2018'' 
was introduced on September 25, 2018, by Majority Leader Kevin 
McCarthy and three cosponsors as a companion bill to S. 2736. 
The bill was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and 
to the Committees on Ways and Means, Armed Services, 
Intelligence (Permanent Select), Judiciary, Financial Services, 
and Transportation and Infrastructure.
    The Senate passed S. 2736 on December 4, 2018, by unanimous 
consent. On December 12, 2018, the House passed the bill as 
amended by voice vote. On December 19, 2018, the Senate agreed 
to the House amendment by unanimous consent. The bill was 
presented to the President.

      3. & 4. BILLS INCORPORATED INTO LEGISLATION ENACTED INTO LAW

(a) H.R. 5788, STOP Act of 2018

    On April 25, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``The Opioid Crisis: Stopping the Flow of Synthetic 
Opioids in the International Mail System.'' The hearing focused 
on efforts to improve the detection of synthetic opioids in the 
international mail system and prevent them from entering the 
United States as well as on bipartisan legislative solutions to 
address vulnerabilities in the international mail system that 
have allowed synthetic opioids to go undetected. Testimony was 
received from (i) Todd Owen, Executive Assistant Commissioner, 
Office of Field Operations--U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 
and (ii) Robert Cintron, Vice President, Network Operations--
U.S. Postal Service. Written testimony was received from 
Gregory Thome, Director, Office of Specialized and Technical 
Agencies, Bureau of International Organization Affairs--
Department of State.
    On May 15, 2018, Representative Mike Bishop, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., Trade 
Subcommittee Chairman Dave Reichert, Trade Subcommittee Ranking 
Member Bill Pascrell Jr., and four cosponsors introduced H.R. 
5788, the ``Securing the International Mail Against Opioids 
Act,'' later named the ``Synthetics Trafficking and Overdose 
Prevention (STOP) Act of 2018,'' to provide for the processing 
by U.S. Customs and Border Protection of certain international 
mail shipments and to require the provision of advance 
electronic information on international mail shipments of mail, 
and for other purposes. The bill was referred to the Committee 
on Ways and Means and the Committees on Homeland Security and 
Oversight and Government Reform.
    The Committee marked up H.R. 5788 on May 16, 2018, and 
ordered the bill, as amended, favorably reported. The Committee 
filed H. Rept. 115-722 on June 8, 2018. The House Committee on 
Homeland Security discharged the bill June 8, 2018, and the 
House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform discharged 
the bill on June 11, 2018. On June 14, 2018, the House passed 
the bill by a recorded vote of 353-52. H.R. 5788 was later 
incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and 
Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by 
a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and the 
Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was 
signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-
271.

(b) H.R. 4068, Competitive Need Limitations Modernization Act of 2017

    H.R. 4068, the ``Competitive Need Limitations Modernization 
Act of 2017'' was introduced on October 12, 2017, by 
Representative Jackie Walorski and four cosponsors. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means. Provisions of 
this bill were included in H.R. 4979, ``To extend the 
Generalized System of Preferences and to make technical changes 
to the competitive need limitations provision of the program.'' 
Later H.R. 4068 was incorporated into H.R. 1625, the 
``Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2108, which was signed into 
law on March 23, 2018, and became Public Law 115-141.

(c) H.R. 4979, To extend the Generalized System of Preferences and to 
        make technical changes to the competitive need limitations 
        provision of the program

    On February 8, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert, Trade Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., 
Chairman Kevin Brady, Ranking Member Richard Neal, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., and eight 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4979, to extend the Generalized 
System of Preferences and to make technical changes to the 
competitive need limitations provision of the program. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means.
    The House suspended the rules and passed the bill on 
February 13, 2018, by a recorded vote of 400-2. H.R. 4979 was 
later incorporated into H.R. 1625, the ``Consolidated 
Appropriations Act of 2108,'' which was signed into law on 
March 23, 2018, and became Public Law 115-141.

(d) H.R. 1644, Korean Interdiction and Modernization of Sanctions Act

    On March 21, 2017, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, Ed Royce, and twenty-three cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 1644, a bill to enhance sanctions with respect 
to transactions relating to North Korea, and for other 
purposes. The bill contained provisions within the Rule X 
jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, but the 
Committee did not receive a referral on the bill.
    On April 25, 2017, Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed not to request a sequential referral on the bill. 
The House Committee on Foreign Affairs favorably reported the 
bill on April 28, 2017. The House Committees on Ways and Means, 
Financial Services, Transportation and Infrastructure, 
Oversight and Government Reform, and the Judiciary discharged 
the bill on April 28, 2017. On May 4, 2017, the House suspended 
the rules and passed the bill by a recorded vote of 419-1. H.R. 
1644 was later incorporated into H.R. 3364, the ``Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act.'' H.R. 3364 passed 
the house on July 25, 2017, by a recorded vote of 419-3. On 
July 27, 2017, the bill passed the Senate without amendment by 
a recorded vote of 98-2. The bill was signed into law on August 
2, 2017 and became Public Law 115-44.

                   5. BILLS PASSED BY THE HOUSE ONLY

(a) H.R. 70, Federal Advisory Committee Act of 2017

    On January 3, 2017, Representative Lacy Clay and three 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 70, a bill to amend the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act to increase the transparency of Federal 
advisory committees, and for other purposes. The bill was 
referred to the House Committee on Oversight and Government 
Reform, and to the Committee on Ways and Means.
    On January 4, 2017, Chairman Brady and Chairman Chaffetz 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed to discharge the bill. On January 4, 2017, the House 
suspended the rules and passed the bill by voice vote. On 
October 4, 2017, the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and 
Governmental Affairs ordered the bill to be reported without 
amendment favorably. On March 22, 2018, the bill was placed on 
the Senate Legislative Calendar.

(b) H.R. 1677, Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2018

    On March 22, 2017, Representative Eliot Engel and one 
hundred and eight cosponsors introduced H.R. 1677, a bill to 
halt the wholesale slaughter of the Syrian people, encourage a 
negotiated political settlement, and hold Syrian human rights 
abusers accountable for their crimes. The bill was referred to 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and to the Committees on 
Financial Services and the Judiciary. The bill contained 
provisions within the Rule X jurisdiction of the Committee on 
Ways and Means, but the Committee did not receive a referral on 
the bill. On May 11, 2017, the bill was reported favorably by 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs. On May 16, Chairman Brady and 
Chairman Royce exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady 
asserted jurisdiction but agreed not to request a sequential 
referral on the bill. On May 17, 2017, the House suspended the 
rules and passed the bill as amended by voice vote.
    On September 6, 2018, the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations ordered the bill favorably reported with an amendment 
in the nature of a substitute. On October 3, 2018, Senator 
Corker reported with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute, and the bill was placed on the Senate Legislative 
Calendar. There was no further action taken by the Senate.

(c) H.R. 1698, Iran Ballistic Missiles and International Sanctions 
        Enforcement Act

    On March 23, 2017, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, Ed Royce, Ranking Member Eliot Engel, and 
three hundred and twenty-two cosponsors introduced H.R. 1698, a 
bill to expand sanctions against Iran with respect to the 
ballistic missile program of Iran, and for other purposes. On 
March 23, 2017, the bill was referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, and to the Committees on Financial Services, 
the Judiciary, Ways and Means, and Oversight and Government 
Reform.
    On March 23, Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce exchanged 
letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction but 
agreed to discharge the bill. On October 26, 2017, the House 
suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by a 
recorded vote of 423-2. There was no action taken by the 
Senate.

(d) H.R. 2825, the Department of Homeland Security Authorization Act of 
        2017

    On June 8, 2017, Representative Michael McCaul and eleven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2825, a bill to amend the Homeland 
Security Act of 2002 to make certain improvements in the laws 
administered by the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for 
other purposes. The bill was referred to the Committee on 
Homeland Security, and to the Committee on Transportation and 
Infrastructure. The bill contained provisions within the Rule X 
jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, but the 
Committee did not receive a referral on the bill.
    On June 27, 2017, Chairman Brady and Chairman McCaul 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed not to request a sequential referral on the bill. On 
July 20, 2017, the House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill as amended by a vote of 386-41. On March 7, 2018, the 
Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
favorably reported the bill with an amendment. The bill was 
placed on the Senate Legislative Calendar on April 16, 2018. 
There was no further action taken by the Senate.

(e) H.R. 3329, the Hizballah International Financing Prevention 
        Amendments Act of 2017

    On July 20, 2017, Chairman of the House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs Edward Royce, Ranking Member Eliot Engel, and 
one-hundred and thirteen cosponsors introduced H.R. 3329, a 
bill to amend the Hizballah International Financing Prevention 
Act of 2015 to impose additional sanctions with respect to 
Hizballah, and for other purposes. The bill was referred to the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and to the Committees on Financial 
Services and the Judiciary. The bill contained provisions 
within the Rule X jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and 
Means, but the Committee did not receive a referral on the 
bill.
    On October 23, 2017, Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed not to request a sequential referral on the bill. On 
October 24, 2017, the Committees Financial Services and the 
Judiciary discharged the bill. On October 25, 2017, the House 
suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by voice 
vote. There was no action taken by the Senate.

(f) H.R. 3542, Hamas Human Shields Prevention Act

    On July 28, 2017, Representative Joe Wilson and twenty-one 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3542, a bill to impose sanctions 
against Hamas for violating universally applicable 
international laws of armed conflict by intentionally using 
civilians and civilian property to shield military objectives 
from lawful attack, and for other purposes. The bill was 
referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and to the 
Committee on the Judiciary, and the Committee on Ways and Means 
asserted jurisdiction. On February 14, 2018, the House 
suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by a vote of 
415-0. There was no action taken by the Senate.

(g) H.R. 3551, the C-TPAT Reauthorization Act of 2017

    On July 28, 2017, Representative Martha McSally and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 355, a bill to amend the Security 
and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 to reauthorize 
the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism Program, and 
for other purposes. The bill was referred to the Committee on 
Homeland Security. The bill contained provisions within the 
Rule X jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, but the 
Committee did not receive a referral on the bill.
    On October 23, 2017, Chairman Brady and Chairman McCaul 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed not to request a sequential referral on the bill. On 
October 23, 2017, the House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill as amended by a recorded vote of 402-01. There was no 
action taken by the Senate.

(h) H.R. 4403, Moving Americans Privacy Protection Act

    On November 15, 2017, Representative Jeff Denham, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Bill Pascrell Jr., and fourteen cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 4403, a bill to amend the Tariff Act of 1930 to 
protect personally identifiable information, and for other 
purposes. On November 15, 2017, the House referred the bill to 
the Committee on Ways and Means. On April 16, 2018, the 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill by voice vote. The Committee filed H. Rept. 
115-639 on April 16, 2018. The House suspended the rules and 
passed the bill by voice vote on April 17, 2018. There was no 
action taken by the Senate.

(i) H.R. 4537, International Insurance Standards Act of 2018

    On December 4, 2017, Representative Sean Duffy, 
Representative Denny Heck, and eleven cosponsors introduced 
H.R. 4537, a bill to preserve the state-based system of 
insurance regulation and provide greater oversight of and 
transparency on international insurance standards setting 
processes, and for other purposes. The bill was referred to the 
Committee on Financial Services, in addition to the Committee 
on Rules. The bill contained provisions within the Rule X 
jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, but the 
Committee did not receive a referral on the bill.
    On June 22, 2018, Chairman Brady and Chairman Hensarling 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed not to request a sequential referral on the bill. On 
July 10, 2018, the House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill as amended by voice vote. There was no action taken by the 
Senate.

(j) H.R. 4744, Iran Human Rights and Hostage-Taking Accountability Act

    On January 9, 2018, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Homeland Security, Michael McCaul, and forty-six cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 4744, a bill to impose additional sanctions 
with respect to serious human rights abuses of the Government 
of Iran, and for other purposes. On January 9, 2018, the House 
referred the bill to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and to 
the Committees on the Judiciary, Financial Services, and Ways 
and Means.
    The House Committee on Foreign Affairs favorably reported 
the bill by voice vote on March 15, 2018. On April 13, 2018, 
Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce exchanged letters in which 
Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction under House Rule X but 
agreed to waive formal consideration of the bill. The 
Committees on Ways and Means, Judiciary, and Financial Services 
discharged the bill on April 18, 2018. On April 24, 2018, the 
House suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by a 
recorded vote of 410-2. There was no action taken by the 
Senate.

(k) H.R. 6219, the Georgia Support Act

    On June 26, 2018, Representative Ted Poe and seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 6219, a bill to support the 
independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of 
Georgia, and for other purposes. The bill was referred to the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs, and to the Committees on the 
Judiciary and Ways and Means.
    On December 12, 2018, Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
under House Rule X but agreed to waive formal consideration of 
the bill. On December 12, 2018, the House passed the bill by 
unanimous consent. There was no action taken by the Senate.

(l) H.R. 6237, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018

    On June 27, 2018, the Chairman of the Permanent Select 
Committee on Intelligence, Devin Nunes, introduced H.R. 6237, a 
bill to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2018 and 2019 
for intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the 
United States Government, the Community Management Account, and 
the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability 
System, and for other purposes. On June 27, 2018, the House 
referred the bill to the Permanent Select Committee on 
Intelligence, and to the Committee on Ways and Means. On July 
3, 2018, the Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    On July 3, 2018, the House Committee on Intelligence 
favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote. On July 
12, 2018, the House passed the bill by a recorded vote of 363-
54. There was no action taken by the Senate.

(m) H.R. 6742, Secure Border Communications Act

    On September 7, 2018, Representative Brian J. Mast and the 
Chairman of the House Committee on Homeland Security, Michael 
McCaul, introduced H.R. 6742, a bill to amend the Homeland 
Security Act of 2002 to ensure that appropriate officers and 
agents of U.S. Customs and Border Protection are equipped with 
secure radios or other two-way communication devices, supported 
by system interoperability, and for other purposes. On 
September 9, 2018, the bill was referred to the Committee on 
Homeland Security, and to the Committee on Ways and Means. On 
September 13, 2018, the Committee on Homeland Security held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill by unanimous consent.
    On September 24, 2018, Chairman Brady and Chairman McCaul 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
under House Rule X but agreed to waive formal consideration of 
the bill. On September 25, 2018, the Committee on Ways and 
Means discharged the bill, and the House suspended the rules 
and passed H.R. 6742 by voice vote. There was no action taken 
by the Senate.

(n) H. Res. 357, Reaffirming the strategic partnership between the 
        United States and Canada, recognizing bilateral cooperation 
        that advances United States national interests, and urging 
        increased bilateral cooperation on security, economic issues, 
        and energy, and for other purposes.

    On May 5, 2017, Representative Jeff Duncan and twenty-six 
cosponsors introduced H. Res. 357, a resolution reaffirming the 
strategic partnership between the United States and Canada, 
recognizing bilateral cooperation that advances United States 
national interests, and urging increased bilateral cooperation 
on security, economic issues, and energy, and for other 
purposes. The resolution was referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, and to the Committee on Ways and Means.
    On December 11, 2017, Chairman Brady and Chairman Royce 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed to waive formal consideration of the resolution. On 
December 12, 2017, the House agreed to suspend the rules and 
pass the resolution as amended by voice vote.

(o) H. Res. 990, Supporting the officers and personnel who carry out 
        the important mission of the United States Immigration and 
        Customs Enforcement.

    On July 11, 2018, Representative Clay Higgins and seventy-
four cosponsors introduced H. Res. 990, a resolution supporting 
the officers and personnel who carry out the important mission 
of the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The 
resolution was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, and 
to the Committees on Ways and Means, Homeland Security, and 
Armed Services. On July 18, 2018, the House suspended the rules 
and passed the resolution as amended by a vote of 244-35 with 
133 Members voting present.

       6. OTHER BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS CONSIDERED BY THE COMMITTEE

(a) H.R. 3548, Border Security for America Act of 2017

    On July 28, 2017, Chairman of the House Committee on 
Homeland Security, Michael McCaul, and seventy-seven cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 3548, a bill to make certain improvements to 
the security of the international borders of the United States, 
and for other purposes. The bill was referred to the Committee 
on Homeland Security, and in addition to the Committees on 
Armed Services, Foreign Affairs, Natural Resources, 
Agriculture, Transportation and Infrastructure, Ways and Means, 
and Oversight and Government Reform.
    On January 9, 2018, Chairman Brady and Chairman McCaul 
exchanged letters in which Chairman Brady asserted jurisdiction 
but agreed not to request a sequential referral on the bill. On 
January 10, 2018, the Committees on Foreign Affairs, Natural 
Resources, Agriculture, Oversight and Government Reform, and 
Ways and Means discharged the bill. On March 23, 2018, the 
House Committee on Armed Services discharged the bill and the 
bill was placed on the calendar. There was no action taken by 
the Senate.

(b) H. Res. 1018, Requesting the President to transmit to the House of 
        Representatives certain documents in the possession of the 
        President relating to the determination to impose certain 
        tariffs and to the strategy of the United States with respect 
        to China.

    On July 24, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill 
Pascrell Jr. and 7 cosponsors introduced H. Res. 1018, a 
resolution requesting the President to transmit to the House of 
Representatives certain documents in the possession of the 
President relating to the determination to impose certain 
tariffs and to the strategy of the United States with respect 
to China. The resolution was referred to the Committee on Ways 
and Means. On September 5, 2018, the Committee held a markup 
and reported the bill without recommendation. On September 26, 
2018, the Committee filed H. Rept. 115-979. No further action 
was taken in the House.

                 7. NEGOTIATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO

    On January 31, 2017, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations convened within 30 days of the convening of 
Congress as required by the Bipartisan Congressional Trade 
Priorities and Accountability (TPA) Act of 2015 to discuss the 
trade agenda during the 115th Congress, including consulting 
with USTR on the determination of appropriate negotiating 
partners; the formulation of specific objectives, negotiating 
strategies, and positions; and compliance and enforcement of 
the negotiated commitments under U.S. trade agreements.
    On March 16, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On March 28, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On March 21, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United 
States Trade Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade 
agenda.
    On March 28, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On May 17, 2017, the Committee met with the United States 
Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross as required by TPA prior to sending to 
Congress notification of intent to commence negotiations with 
Canada and Mexico regarding modernization of the North American 
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    On May 17, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and 
Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross as required by TPA prior to 
sending to Congress notification of intent to initiate 
negotiations with Canada and Mexico regarding modernization of 
NAFTA.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were the 
structure, content, and prospect for NAFTA negotiations. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On July 17, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its summary of objectives for the NAFTA 
renegotiation, as required by TPA.
    On July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Trade held a hearing 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. The purpose of the hearing was to analyze whether 
NAFTA had been successful for the U.S. economy and job creation 
with a focus on the U.S. manufacturing, agriculture, and 
services sectors, and whether NAFTA could be renegotiated and 
modernized to better address issues affecting U.S. workers, 
business, and consumers. Testimony was received from (i) Tom 
Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer--Cummins, 
Inc., (ii) Patrick J. Ottensmeyer, Chief Executive Officer--
Kansas City Southern, (iii) Dennis Arriola, Executive Vice 
President--Corporate Strategy and External Affairs--Sempra 
Energy, (iv) Celeste Drake, Trade and Globalization Policy 
Specialist--AFL-CIO, (v) Jason Perdue, President--York County, 
Nebraska Farm Bureau, (vi) Christine Bliss, President--
Coalition of Services Industries, (vii) Stan Ryan, Chief 
Executive Officer and President--Darigold, Inc., (viii) Althea 
Erickson, Senior Director--Global Advocacy and Policy--Etsy, 
Inc., and (ix) Susan Helper, Frank Tracy Carlton Professor of 
Economics--Case Western Reserve University.
    On August 16-20, 2017, the Committee participated in the 
first round of negotiations with Mexico and Canada in 
Washington, D.C. Committee staff met with U.S. stakeholders and 
officials from USTR.
    On September 2-5, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Mexico City, Mexico, to 
participate in the second round of negotiations with Mexico and 
Canada and to meet with officials from those countries, U.S. 
officials, and stakeholders.
    On September 24-27, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Ottawa, Canada, to participate 
in the third round of negotiations and to meet with officials 
from those countries, U.S. officials, and stakeholders.
    On October 13-17, 2017, the Committee participated in the 
fourth round of negotiations in Arlington, Virginia. Committee 
staff met with officials from Mexico and Canada, U.S. 
officials, and stakeholders.
    On November 17, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its updated summary of 
objectives for the NAFTA renegotiation, as required by TPA.
    On November 18-21, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Mexico City, Mexico, to 
participate in the fifth round of negotiations and to meet with 
officials from those countries, U.S. officials, and 
stakeholders.
    On January 26-29, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert led a bipartisan Congressional delegation to Montreal, 
Canada, to participate in the sixth round of negotiations and 
to meet with officials and stakeholders from the United States, 
Canada, and Mexico.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy including 
negotiations with Mexico and Canada.
    On March 2-5, 2018, Chairman Kevin Brady led a bipartisan 
Congressional delegation to Mexico City, Mexico, to participate 
in the seventh round of negotiations and to meet with officials 
and stakeholders from the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were the 
structure, content, and prospect for negotiations with Mexico 
and Canada. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the 
Committee on the Administration's views on these issues.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including progress on 
the negotiations with Canada and Mexico.
    On August 31, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter 
under TPA notifying Congress of his intent to sign a trade 
agreement with Mexico, and Canada if it is willing, after 90 
days.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the trade agenda, including Member views 
on the negotiations, as required by TPA prior to signing the 
agreement.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer to discuss the 
trade agenda, including Member views on the negotiations, as 
required by TPA prior to signing the agreement.
    On September 30, 2018, the Administration posted the text 
of the United States--Mexico--Canada Agreement (USMCA) on a 
publicly-available website.
    On October 2, 2018, the Committee had a bipartisan call 
with Ambassador Lighthizer to discuss the USMCA.
    On November 30, 2018, the USMCA was signed.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee Members and staff 
held frequent consultations with USTR and other agencies to 
discuss ongoing progress in the negotiations and to provide 
Member views on the conduct and content of the negotiations.

      8. UNITED STATES--KOREA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT AMENDMENTS AND 
                             MODIFICAITONS

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
modifications to the United States - Korea Free Trade 
Agreement. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the 
Committee on the Administration's views.
    On July 14, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch 
and Ranking Member Ron Wyden, sent a letter to Ambassador 
Lighthizer urging the Administration to consult closely with 
Congress before meeting with Korea regarding possible 
amendments and modifications to the United States--Korea Free 
Trade Agreement.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region, including Korea; explore how to 
expand and improve our access to the markets in the region 
through existing and new trade agreements; and analyze the 
impact of unfair trade practices of countries in the Asia-
Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. Testimony was 
received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in 
Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian Economics - Center 
for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) Kelley Sullivan, 
Owner and Operator - Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) Demetrios 
Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global Government 
Relations - Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, Director of 
Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--Trident 
Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance for 
American Manufacturing.
    On November 6-11, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the Asia-Pacific Economic 
Cooperation (APEC) Ministerial meeting in Da Nang, Vietnam to 
meet with officials from APEC countries (including Korea) and 
U.S. officials.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy agenda, including 
the United States--Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS).
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
modifications to KORUS. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified 
before the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On June 13, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee a report regarding certain proposed 
modifications to be made to the United States--Korea Free Trade 
Agreement. Sending this report commenced a 60-day Congressional 
consultation and layover period with respect to the 
modifications to the agreement, which ended on August 12, 2018.
    On September 24, 2018, President Trump and Korean President 
Moon Jae-In signed the modifications to the agreement. The 
Korean National Assembly commenced its domestic procedures for 
consideration of the modifications.
    On November 12-17, 2018, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the 2018 APEC Ministerial in 
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to meet with officials from APEC 
countries and U.S. officials.

           9. TARIFF ACTIONS TAKEN UNDER SECTIONS 232 AND 301

    On July 27, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross to discuss the ongoing investigations into 
the national security impact of imports of steel and aluminum 
products under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy agenda, including 
the ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered was the 
ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On March 22, 2018, the Committee held a hearing with the 
Secretary of Commerce, Wilbur Ross. The hearing focused on 
trade matters within the Department of Commerce's purview, 
particularly the section 232 determinations on steel and 
aluminum.
    On April 12, 2018, the Committee held a hearing entitled 
``The Effects of Tariff Increases on the U.S. Economy and 
Jobs.'' Testimony was received from (i) Kevin Kennedy, 
President--Kennedy Fabricating, (ii) John Wolfe, Chief 
Executive Officer--NW Seaport Alliance, (iii) Roger Newport, 
Chief Executive Officer--AK Steel Corporation, (iv) John 
Heisdorffer, President--American Soybean Association, (v) 
Calvin Dooley, President and Chief Executive Officer--American 
Chemistry Council, (vi) Ann Wilson, Senior Vice President--
Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association, and (vii) Scott 
Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On July 18, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``The Effects of Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture and Rural 
Communities.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine the 
effects on American agriculture and rural communities of U.S. 
tariffs imposed under both Sections 232 and 301 as well as 
retaliation by other countries against U.S. exports. Testimony 
was received from (i) Cass Gebbers, President and CEO--Gebbers 
Farms, (ii) Russell Boening, Owner--Loma Vista Farms and 
Boening Bros. Dairy Inc.; President--Texas Farm Bureau (iii) 
Kevin Paap, President--Minnesota Farm Bureau, (iv) Scott 
VanderWal, Secretary and Treasurer--Vanderwal Farms; Vice 
President--American Farm Bureau Federation; President--South 
Dakota Farm Bureau, (v) Michelle Erickson-Jones, Co-owner--
Gooseneck Land and Cattle; President--Montana Grain Growers 
Association, and (vi) Jared Bernstein, Senior Fellow--Center on 
Budget and Policy Priorities.
    On July 24, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Product Exclusion Process for Section 232 Tariffs on 
Steel and Aluminum.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine 
the experiences of U.S. companies navigating the process for 
requesting product exclusions from Section 232 tariffs and 
quotas on steel and aluminum and to investigate the impact of 
the exclusion process on affected stakeholders. Testimony was 
received from (i) Brian Semcer, President--MICRO, (ii) Willie 
Chang, Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, and 
Director--Plains All American GP LLC, (iii) Rick Huether, 
President, CEO, and Chairman--Independent Can Company, (iv) 
Todd Adams, President--Sanitube LLC; Vice President--Stainless 
Imports Inc., and (v) Roy Houseman, Legislative 
Representative--United Steelworkers.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including tariffs 
imposed on China under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 and 
China's retaliatory tariffs.

                       10. OTHER REGIONAL ISSUES

Japan

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including Japan. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to expand and improve 
our access to the markets in the region through existing and 
new trade agreements; and analyze the impact of unfair trade 
practices of countries in the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. 
workers and businesses. Testimony was received from (i) Matthew 
Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior 
Adviser for Asian Economics--Center for Strategic and 
International Studies, (ii) Kelley Sullivan, Owner and 
Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) Demetrios Marantis, Senior 
Vice President and Head of Global Government Relations--Visa 
Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, Director of Government Relations 
and Seafood Sustainability--Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) 
Scott Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On November 6-11, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the APEC Ministerial meeting in 
Da Nang, Vietnam, to meet with officials from APEC countries 
and U.S. officials.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
trade policy agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including Japan. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer as required by TPA prior to sending notification of 
intent to commence negotiations with Japan.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer as required by TPA 
prior to sending notification of intent to commence 
negotiations with Japan.
    On October 16, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter as 
required by TPA notifying Congress of his intent to commence 
trade negotiations with Japan after 90 days.
    On November 12-17, 2018, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the 2018 APEC Ministerial in 
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to meet with officials from APEC 
countries and U.S. officials.
    On December 21, 2018, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its summary of objectives 
for negotiations with Japan, as required by TPA.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee staff held 
consultations with USTR to discuss trade relations with Japan 
and to provide Member views.

United Kingdom

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
United Kingdom. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On February 17-20, 2018, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the United Kingdom to discuss 
the U.S.-U.K. trading relationship and Brexit issues with U.K. 
officials.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
United Kingdom. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer as required by TPA prior to sending notification of 
intent to commence negotiations with the United Kingdom.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer as required by TPA 
prior to sending notification of intent to commence 
negotiations with the United Kingdom.
    On October 16, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter as 
required by TPA notifying Congress of his intent to commence 
trade negotiations with the United Kingdom after 90 days.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee staff held 
consultations with USTR to discuss trade relations with the UK 
and to provide Member views.

European Union

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
European Union. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
European Union. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer as required by TPA prior to sending notification of 
intent to commence negotiations with the European Union.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer as required by TPA 
prior to sending notification of intent to commence 
negotiations with the European Union.
    On October 16, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter as 
required by TPA notifying Congress of his intent to commence 
trade negotiations with the European Union after 90 days.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee staff held 
consultations with USTR to discuss trade relations with the EU 
and to provide Member views.

China

    On April 5, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch and 
Ranking Member Ron Wyden sent a letter to President Trump ahead 
of President Xi's visit identifying several areas of concern in 
the U.S.-China trading relationship and urging President Trump 
to raise them with President Xi. These concerns included market 
distorting behavior harming American manufacturers, 
discriminatory and distortive technology policies, weak 
protection of intellectual property, barriers to U.S. 
agriculture exports, currency and exchange rate policies, 
retaliatory policies, and nontransparent legal regimes.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered was the 
U.S.-China trading relationship. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer 
testified before the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On July 27, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross to discuss the ongoing investigations into 
the national security impact of imports of steel and aluminum 
products under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 
and the impact of Chinese overcapacity of steel and aluminum on 
U.S. workers and companies.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to expand and improve 
our access to the markets in the region through existing and 
new trade agreements; and analyze the impact of unfair trade 
practices of countries in the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. 
workers and businesses. Testimony was received from (i) Matthew 
Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior 
Adviser for Asian Economics--Center for Strategic and 
International Studies, (ii) Kelley Sullivan, Owner and 
Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) Demetrios Marantis, Senior 
Vice President and Head of Global Government Relations--Visa 
Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, Director of Government Relations 
and Seafood Sustainability--Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) 
Scott Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy agenda, including 
the ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered was the 
ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On March 22, 2018, the Committee held a hearing with the 
Secretary of Commerce, Wilbur Ross. The hearing focused on 
trade matters within the Department of Commerce's purview, 
particularly the section 232 determinations on steel and 
aluminum.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including tariffs 
imposed on China under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 and 
China's retaliatory tariffs.
    The Committee also engaged in frequent Member and staff 
consultations with USTR and the Department of Commerce 
regarding the Section 232 and 301 investigations and World 
Trade Organization (WTO) disputes with respect to China.

India

    On June 23, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch and 
Ranking Member Ron Wyden sent a letter to President Trump ahead 
of Prime Minister Modi's visit urging the President to 
prioritize the elimination of Indian trade and investment 
barriers that significantly harm American business and workers.
    The Committee also engaged in frequent Member and staff 
consultations with USTR and ITC regarding ongoing U.S.-India 
trade issues.

Developing countries and trade preferences

    On August 7-11, 2017, the Committee conducted a staff 
delegation to Lome, Togo, to participate in the 2017 AGOA Forum 
and to meet with officials from participating countries and 
U.S. officials.
    On February 8, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert, Trade Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., 
Chairman Kevin Brady, Ranking Member Richard Neal, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr. and eight 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4979, to extend the Generalized 
System of Preferences and to make technical changes to the 
competitive need limitations provision of the program. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means. The House 
suspended the rules and passed the bill on February 13, 2018 by 
a vote of 400-2. H.R. 4979 was later incorporated into H.R. 
1625, the ``Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2018,'' which 
was signed into law on March 23, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-141.
    On July 12, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert, Trade Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., 
Representative Erik Paulsen, Representative Suzan DelBene, 
Representative Terri Sewell, and committee staff participated 
in the 2018 AGOA Forum in Washington, D.C.
    The Committee also engaged in frequent Member and staff 
consultations with USTR and other relevant agencies regarding 
all U.S. trade preference programs.

                            11. AGRICULTURE

    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to strengthen the U.S. 
job market by expanding and improving our access to the markets 
in the region through existing and new trade agreements; and 
analyze the impact of unfair trade practices of countries in 
the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. 
Testimony was received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. 
Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian 
Economics--Center for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) 
Kelley Sullivan, Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) 
Demetrios Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global 
Government Relations--Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, 
Director of Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--
Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance 
for American Manufacturing.
    On April 12, 2018, the Committee held a hearing entitled 
``The Effects of Tariff Increases on the U.S. Economy and 
Jobs.'' Testimony was received from (i) Kevin Kennedy, 
President--Kennedy Fabricating, (ii) John Wolfe, Chief 
Executive Officer--NW Seaport Alliance, (iii) Roger Newport, 
Chief Executive Officer--AK Steel Corporation, (iv) John 
Heisdorffer, President--American Soybean Association, (v) 
Calvin Dooley, President and Chief Executive Officer--American 
Chemistry Council, (vi) Ann Wilson, Senior Vice President--
Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association, and (vii) Scott 
Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On July 18, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``The Effects of Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture and Rural 
Communities.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine the 
effects on American agriculture and rural communities of U.S. 
tariffs imposed under both Sections 232 and 301 as well as 
retaliation by other countries against U.S. exports. Testimony 
was received from (i) Cass Gebbers, President and CEO--Gebbers 
Farms, (ii) Russell Boening, Owner--Loma Vista Farms and 
Boening Bros. Dairy Inc.; President--Texas Farm Bureau (iii) 
Kevin Paap, President--Minnesota Farm Bureau, (iv) Scott 
VanderWal, Secretary and Treasurer--Vanderwal Farms; Vice 
President--American Farm Bureau Federation; President--South 
Dakota Farm Bureau, (v) Michelle Erickson-Jones, Co-owner--
Gooseneck Land and Cattle; President--Montana Grain Growers 
Association, and (vi) Jared Bernstein, Senior Fellow--Center on 
Budget and Policy Priorities.

                   12. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

    On December 9-14, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Buenos Aires, Argentina, to 
participate in the 11th WTO Ministerial Meeting and to meet 
with officials from other participating countries and U.S. 
officials.
    On October 1-5, 2018, the Committee conducted a bipartisan 
staff delegation to Geneva, Switzerland, to participate in the 
WTO Public Forum and to meet with officials from other 
participating countries and U.S. officials.
    The Committee held frequent Member and staff consultations 
with USTR concerning the ongoing negotiations, including 
negotiations on e-commerce and fish subsidies, as well as WTO 
reform. The Committee also held regular Member and staff 
consultations with USTR regarding ongoing disputes being 
adjudicated at the WTO.

                  13. MISCELLANEOUS TARIFF BILL (MTB)

    On June 9, 2017, the Committee received from the U.S. 
International Trade Commission (ITC) the preliminary report on 
miscellaneous tariff petitions it received under the American 
Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2016.
    On July 21, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch 
and Ranking Member Ron Wyden, sent a letter to the ITC 
providing comments on the MTB preliminary report in preparation 
for the issuance of the final report.
    On August 8, 2017, the Committee received from the ITC the 
final report on miscellaneous tariff petitions it received 
under the American Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2016.
    On October 25, 2018, the Subcommittee on Trade held a 
hearing on the MTB. The purpose of the hearing was to 
investigate the U.S. manufacturing and economic benefits of 
providing temporary tariff relief on imported finished goods 
and raw materials not produced in the United States. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony from (i) Cindy Smith, Agriculture 
Relations Director--Gowan USA, (ii) Edward V. McAsey, Chief 
Operating Officer--Lasko Products LLC, and (iii) Michael 
Ratchford, Government Relations Associate--W.L. Gore & 
Associates.
    On November 9, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady, Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave Reichert, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr. and twenty-seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4318, a bill to amend the Harmonized 
Tariff Schedule of the United States to modify temporarily 
certain rates of duty. The bill was referred to the Committee 
on Ways and Means.
    The House suspended the rules and passed the bill on 
January 18, 2018, by a recorded vote of 402-0. On July 26, 
2018, the Senate passed the bill with amendments by voice vote. 
On September 4, 2018, the House suspended the rules and agreed 
to the Senate amendments by voice vote. The bill was signed 
into law on September 13, 2018 and became Public Law 115-239.
    The Committee consulted heavily with the U.S. International 
Trade Commission, the Department of Commerce, and U.S. Customs 
and Border Protection, as well as petitioners and other 
stakeholders, throughout the process.

                 C. Legislative Review of Health Issues


          1. BILLS ENACTED INTO LAW DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

a. Know the Lowest Price Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-262)

    On March 14, 2018, Senator Debbie Stabenow and fifteen 
cosponsors introduced S. 2553, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to prohibit Medicare part D plans from 
restricting pharmacies from informing individuals regarding the 
prices for certain drugs and biologicals. On September 4, 2018, 
the Senate Committee on Finance discharged the bill by 
unanimous consent and the bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment and an amendment to the title by unanimous consent 
(CR: S6033). On September 5, 2018 the message on Senate action 
was sent and received in the House. On September 25, 2018, 
Representative Michael C. Burgess moved to suspend the rules 
and pass the bill. The bill was considered under suspension of 
the rules and was agreed to by a voice vote in the House on 
September 25, 2018 (CR H8799). On October 4, 2018, the bill was 
presented to the President. S. 2553 became Public Law No. 115-
262 on October 10, 2018.
    This bill prohibits a prescription drug plan under Medicare 
or Medicare Advantage from restricting a pharmacy from 
informing an enrollee of any difference between the price, 
copayment, or coinsurance of a drug under the plan and a lower 
price of the drug without health-insurance coverage.

b. SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act (P.L. 115-271)

    On June 13, 2018, the Chairman of the House Energy and 
Commerce Committee, Greg Walden, introduced H.R. 6, a bill to 
provide for opioid use disorder prevention, recovery, and 
treatment, and for other purposes. On June 22, 2018 H.R. 6 
passed the House by the Yeas and Nays: 396-14 (Roll no. 288). 
The senate passed H.R. 6 with an amendment by a Yea-Nay Vote: 
99-1 (Record Vote Number: 21. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment pursuant to H. Res. 1099 on 
September 28, 2018. The Senate agreed on October 3, 2018, to 
the House amendment to the Senate amendment to H.R. 6. by Yea-
Nay Vote. 98-1 (Record Vote Number: 221).
    H.R. 6 includes Medicaid, Medicare, and public health 
reforms to combat the opioid crisis by advancing treatment and 
recovery initiatives, improving prevention, protecting 
communities, and bolstering efforts to combat illicit synthetic 
drugs like fentanyl.

c. Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123)

    On April 4, 2017, Representative John Larson and ten 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 1892, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 
2018. On May 15, 2017, the House Committee on Judiciary held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended. On May 18, 
2017, the House passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 411-1 
(Roll no. 266). On November 28, 2017, the Senate passed the 
bill with an amendment by Unanimous Consent. On February 6, 
2018, the House passed the bill with resolving differences on 
motion that the House agree with an amendment to the Senate 
amendment agreed to by the Yeas and Nays: 245-182 (Roll no. 
60). On February 9, 2018, the Senate passed the bill with 
resolving differences to concur in the House amendment to the 
Senate amendment to H.R. 1892 with an amendment (SA 1930) by 
the Yeas and Nays: 71-28 (Record Vote Number: 31). On February 
9, 2018, the House passed the bill with resolving differences 
on motion that the House agree to the Senate amendment to the 
House amendment to the Senate amendment agreed to by recorded 
vote: 240-186 (Roll no. 69). On February 9, 2018, the bill was 
presented to the President. H.R. 1892 became Public Law No. 
115-123 on February 9, 2018. (See also: Human Resources 
legislation page 66).
    The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 contains a number of 
common-sense Medicare policies that make a series of targeted 
improvements to Medicare Part B programs, including expanding 
access to in-home treatments for patients. The bill also 
contains Medicare extenders and other Medicare-related 
policies, including those in the CHRONIC Care Act.

d. Omnibus Appropriation (Pub. L. 115-245) and Related Action Under 
        H.R. 5874, the Restoring Accountability in the Indian Health 
        Service Act of 2018

    On May 18, 2018, Rep. Kristi Noem introduced H.R. 5874, the 
Restoring Accountability in the Indian Health Service Act of 
2018, to offer better tools for recruiting competent medical 
staff and leadership, improve care standards, and increase 
accountability of the Indian Health Service. On June 4, 2018, 
it was referred to the Ways and Means Subcommittee on Health. 
On June 13, 2018, it was marked up and passed by voice vote 
under the Committee on Natural Resources.
    Under section 110 of H.R. 5874, certain (non-Indian Health 
Service) hospitals were erroneously approved for Medicare 
inpatient hospital low-volume payment adjustment (LVA) status 
by the hospital's respective Medicare Administrative Contractor 
beginning in FY2011 due to their proximity to a neighboring 
Indian Health Service (IHS) hospital. This includes two 
hospitals located in Mississippi and Alaska that owe CMS about 
$4 million. Under the statute, to be eligible for LVA status, a 
hospital must have fewer than 1,600 Medicare discharges during 
a fiscal year and be more than 15 miles from the nearest 
``like'' subsection (d) hospital. In the latest FY2018 IPPS 
payment rule, CMS changed its regulations surrounding the 15-
mile criteria for proximate IHS and non-IHS hospitals. This 
regulatory change fixed the problem for both hospitals 
prospectively. However, a provision was included in the FY 2019 
Omnibus that would apply CMS's new regulation retroactively, in 
order to restore all LVA payments to these two hospitals dating 
back to 2011. Thus, section 110 of H.R. 5874 was passed into 
law under Pub. L. 115-245. The FY 2019 Omnibus, H.R. 6157, 
passed the House by the Yeas and Nays: 361-61 (Roll no. 405) on 
September 26, 2018.

           2. HEALTH CARE PROPOSALS DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) H.R. 849, Protecting Seniors Access to Medicare Act

    On February 3, 2017, Representative David P. Roe and two 
hundred and seventy cosponsors introduced H.R. 849, a bill to 
repeal the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable 
Care Act providing for the Independent Payment Advisory Board. 
On October 31, 2017, the Committee held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill as amended (H. Rept. 115-373). The House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce and Committee on Rules 
discharged H.R. 849 on October 31, 2017. On November 2, 2017, 
the House passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 307-111 (Roll 
no. 604). The bill was referred to the Senate on November 6, 
2017.
    H.R. 849, as amended, would repeal section 3403 and 10320 
of the ACA, including the amendments made by these sections. 
Beginning in 2014, the IPAB is tasked with making 
recommendations to cut per capita Medicare spending if such 
spending exceeds certain economic growth targets. The Secretary 
of HHS is directed to implement the Board's proposals 
automatically unless Congress affirmatively acts to alter the 
Board's proposals or to discontinue the automatic 
implementation of such proposals. Under the proposed 
legislation, the IPAB would be repealed.

(c) H.R. 1148, Furthering Access to Stroke Telemedicine (FAST) Act of 
        2017

    On February 16, 2017, Representative Morgan Griffith and 
one hundred and seventy-seven cosponsors introduced H.R. 1148, 
a bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to 
expand access to telehealth-eligible stroke services under the 
Medicare program. On December 6, 2017, the House Committee on 
Energy and Commerce favorably reported the bill as amended and 
the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 1148 would expand the ability of patients presenting 
at hospitals or at mobile stroke units to receive a Medicare 
reimbursed neurological consultation via telemedicine. H.R. 
1148 would expand the use of remote (telehealth) services for 
Medicare stroke patients located in non-rural areas. CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 1148 would increase direct 
spending by $180 million over the 2018-2027 period.

(d) H.R. 1313, Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act

    On March 2, 2017, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Education and the Workforce, Virginia Foxx, and seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 1313. The House Committee on 
Education and the Workforce favorably reported the bill as 
amended on December 11, 2017. The House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged 
the bill on December 11, 2017.
    H.R. 1313, the Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act, 
clarifies that if an employer-sponsored wellness program 
complies with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 
(ACA) and its regulations, the program will be considered to 
comply with the applicable sections of the Americans with 
Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) or the Genetic Information 
Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) relating to wellness 
programs. The bill also clarifies that offering an incentive to 
provide medical information for an employee's family member who 
is voluntarily participating in the wellness program does not 
violate GINA.

(e) H.R. 1628, American Health Care Act of 2017

    On March 8, 2017, the House Committee on Ways and Means 
favorably reported budget reconciliation recommendations to 
repeal and replace Obamacare. On March 20, 2017, Representative 
Diane Black introduced the American Health Care Act of 2017. On 
March 20, 2017, the House Committee on Budget favorably 
reported an original measure. On May 4, 2017, the House passed 
the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 217-213 (Roll no. 256).

(f) H.R. 2372, VETERAN Act

    On May 4, 2017, Representative Sam Johnson and ten 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2372, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify the rules relating to veteran 
health insurance and eligibility for the premium tax credit. 
The House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote June 2, 
2017. The House passed the bill as amended by voice vote on 
June 15, 2017. (See also: Tax legislation page 11).
    H.R. 2372 codifies a Treasury regulation, under which, for 
purposes of eligibility for the premium tax credit under 
section 36B of the Internal Revenue Code, an individual is not 
considered eligible for certain health care programs of the 
United States Department of Veterans Affairs unless enrolled in 
the program. In addition, H.R. 2372, as reported by the 
Committee on Ways and Means, amends H.R. 1628, the American 
Health Care Act of 2017, as passed by the House of 
Representatives on May 4, 2017, to provide a similar rule with 
respect to a new credit for the purchase of health insurance 
(effective for months beginning after December 31, 2019, in 
taxable years ending after that date).

(g) H.R. 2465, Steve Gleason Enduring Voices Act of 2017

    On May 16, 2017, Representative Cathy McMorris Rodgers and 
ninety-one cosponsors introduced H.R. 2465, a bill to mend 
title XVIII of the Social Security Act to make permanent the 
removal of the rental cap for durable medical equipment under 
the Medicare program with respect to speech generating devices. 
On December 18, 2017, the House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce favorably reported the bill and the House Committee on 
Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 2465 would make coverage of speech generating devices 
under ``routinely purchased durable medical equipment'' 
permanent under the Medicare program.

(h) H.R. 2557, Prostate Cancer Misdiagnosis Elimination Act of 2017

    On May 19, 2017, Representative Larry Bucshon and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2557, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to provide for coverage under the 
Medicare program of certain DNA Specimen Provenance Assay 
clinical diagnostic laboratory tests. On December 6, 2017, the 
House Committee on Energy and Commerce favorably reported the 
bill as amended and the House Committee on Ways and Means 
discharged the bill.
    H.R. 2557 would provide Medicare coverage of DNA Specimen 
Provenance Assay (DPSA) testing for positive prostate biopsy 
tests to ensure that there are no specimen provenance 
complications.

(i) H.R. 2579, Broader Options for Americans Act

    On May 19, 2017, Representative Patrick J. Tiberi 
introduced H.R. 2579, a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code 
of 1986 to allow the premium tax credit with respect to 
unsubsidized COBRA continuation coverage. The House Committee 
on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill 
as amended June 2, 2017. The House passed the bill by the Yeas 
and Nays: 267-144 (Roll no. 308) on June 13, 2017. (See also: 
Tax legislation page 11).
    H.R. 2579 amends section 214 of H.R. 1628, the American 
Health Care Act of 2017, as passed by the House of 
Representatives on May 4, 2017, which provides a tax credit 
under the Internal Revenue Code for the purchase of health 
insurance in the individual market, so that the credit is 
available also with respect to unsubsidized COBRA continuation 
coverage under an employer-sponsored health plan.

(j) H.R. 2581, Verify First Act

    On May 22, 2017, Representative Lou Barletta and eight 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2581, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to require the provision of social 
security numbers as a condition of receiving the health 
insurance premium tax credit. The House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill as amended 
June 2, 2017. On June 2, 2017, the House Committee on Energy 
and Commerce discharged the bill. The House passed the bill by 
the Yeas and Nays: 238-184 (Roll no. 306) on June 13, 2017.
    H.R. 2581 amends the premium tax credit under section 36B 
of the Internal Revenue Code, to specify that advance payments 
of the credit are not to be made with respect to an individual 
unless the Secretary of the Treasury has confirmed with the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services that the individual's 
status as a citizen or national of the United States, or as 
lawfully present in the United States, has been verified. In 
addition, H.R. 2581, as reported by the Committee on Ways and 
Means, amends H.R. 1628, the American Health Care Act of 2017, 
as passed by the House of Representatives on May 4, 2017, to 
provide a similar rule with respect to advance payments of a 
new credit for the purchase of health insurance (effective for 
months beginning after December 31, 2019, in taxable years 
ending after that date).

(k) H.R. 3120, To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to 
        reduce the volume of future electronic health record-related 
        significant hardship requests

    On June 29, 2017, Representative Michael C. Burgess and 
seven cosponsors introduced H.R. 3120, a bill to amend title 
XVIII of the Social Security Act to reduce the volume of future 
electronic health record-related significant hardship requests. 
The House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill by voice vote October 4, 2017.
    H.R. 3120 would remove a requirement that requires the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services to continue to make 
meaningful use standards more stringent over time.

(l) H.R. 3168, SNP Reauthorization Act of 2017

    On July 6, 2017, Representatives Patrick J. Tiberi and 
Sander M. Levin introduced H.R. 3168, a bill to amend title 
XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide continued access to 
specialized Medicare Advantage (MA) plans for special needs 
individuals, and for other purposes. The House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup and favorably reported on July 13, 
2017. The House Committee on Energy and Commerce discharged the 
bill on December 21, 2017.
    H.R. 3168 would provide continued access to Medicare 
Advantage (MA) Special Needs Plans (``SNPs'') for Medicare 
beneficiaries with specific circumstances benefiting from 
specialized plan designs. The bill reauthorizes Chronic 
Condition SNPs (C-SNPs) and Dual-Eligible SNPs (D-SNPs) for 5 
years, and permanently authorizes Institutional SNPs (I-SNPs) 
with policy enhancements consistent with recommendations by the 
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. The bill makes 
improvements to D-SNPs and C-SNPs by increasing the integration 
of benefits for dual eligible beneficiaries and requiring 
improvements to the care coordination model of C-SNPs. 
Additionally, the bill directs the Secretary of Health and 
Human Services to establish and consult a panel of clinical 
advisors to develop and update the list of conditions that 
qualify for C-SNPs. Lastly, this legislation strengthens access 
to meaningful supplemental benefits by allowing Medicare 
Advantage (MA) plans to tailor and expand the type of 
supplemental benefits offered to meet the individual needs of 
patients with chronic illnesses.

(m) H.R. 3178, Medicare Part B Improvement Act of 2017

    On July 11, 2017, the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Ways and Means, Kevin Brady and Ranking Member Richard Neal, 
along with 9 cosponsors introduced H.R. 3178, a bill to amend 
title XVIII of the Social Security Act to improve the delivery 
of home infusion therapy and dialysis and the application of 
the Stark rule under the Medicare program, and for other 
purposes. The House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup 
and favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote July 
13, 2017. The House passed the bill as amended by voice vote on 
July 25, 2017.
    H.R. 3178 would improve the delivery of home infusion 
therapy and dialysis and the application of the Stark rule 
under the Medicare program. H.R. 3178 includes bipartisan 
policies sponsored by several Committee Members aimed at 
improving both the program and beneficiary experience that 
would:
           Create a transitional Medicare payment for 
        home infusion services to expand access and ensure 
        beneficiaries do not experience a gap in care before 
        the permanent home infusion benefit takes effect in 
        2021;
           Extend an ongoing intravenous immunoglobulin 
        (IVIG) demonstration program to increase patient 
        education and appropriate utilization of infusion 
        services;
           Streamline rules to preserve access to 
        orthotics and prosthetics for patients in need;
           Allow telehealth technologies to monitor 
        patients receiving dialysis in their home;
           Expedite accreditation of dialysis 
        facilities for Medicare billing purposes by allowing 
        private organizations to accredit new facilities; and
           Modify Medicare's physician self-referral 
        laws to clarify rules for providers.

(n) H.R. 3245, Medicare Civil and Criminal Penalties Update Act

    On July 14, 2017, Representatives Gus M. Bilirakis and 
Kathy Castor introduced H.R. 3245, a bill to amend title XI of 
the Social Security Act to increase civil money penalties and 
criminal fines for Federal health care program fraud and abuse, 
and for other purposes. The House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce held a markup and favorably reported the bill by voice 
vote October 4, 2017. On December 6, 2017, the House Committee 
on Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 3245 would update both civil and criminal penalties in 
the Medicare program. Many of these penalties were last updated 
20 years ago.

(o) H.R. 3263, Independence at Home Demonstration Improvement and 
        Extension Act of 2017

    On July 17, 2017, Representative Michael C. Burgess and 
fourteen cosponsors introduced H.R. 3263, a bill to amend title 
XVIII of the Social Security Act to extend the Medicare 
independence at home medical practice demonstration program. 
The House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill by voice vote October 4, 2017.
    H.R. 3263 would extend the Independence at Home Medical 
Practice Demonstration Program (IAH), which provides a home-
based primary care benefit to high-need Medicare beneficiaries 
with multiple chronic conditions. The program is designed to 
allow beneficiaries to stay in their homes instead of 
institutionalized settings, avoiding unnecessary 
hospitalizations, ER visits, and nursing home use. H.R. 3263 
would extend the program for two additional years.

(p) H.R. 3271, Protecting Access to Diabetes Supplies Act of 2017

    On July 17, 2017, Representative Diana DeGette and twelve 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3271, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act in order to strengthen rules in case of 
competition for diabetic testing strips, and for other 
purposes. The House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote 
September 13, 2017. On December 6, 2017, the House Committee on 
Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 3271 would address several issues beneficiaries have 
reported facing under the competitive bidding program regarding 
Diabetes Test Strips. Many of these issues stem from how the 
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has enforced certain 
beneficiary protections.

(q) H.R. 3331, To amend title XI of the Social Security Act to promote 
        testing of incentive payments for behavioral health providers 
        for adoption and use of certified electronic health record 
        technology

    On July 20, 2017, Representative Lynn Jenkins and thirteen 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3331, a bill to amend title XI of 
the Cybersecurity Act to promote testing of incentive payments 
for behavioral health providers for adoption and use of 
certified electronic health record technology. The House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill as amended by voice vote on May 9, 2018. The 
House Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill on June 
8, 2018. On June 12, 2018, the House suspended the rules and 
passed the bill as amended by voice vote.
    H.R. 3331 promotes the testing of incentive payments for 
behavioral health providers for adoption and use of certified 
electronic health record technology.

(r) H.R. 3528, Every Prescription Conveyed Security Act

    On July 28, 2017, Representative Katherine M. Clark and 
fifty-one cosponsors introduced H.R. 3528, a bill to amend 
title XVIII of the Social Security Act to require e-prescribing 
for coverage under part D of the Medicare program of 
prescription drugs that are controlled substances. On April 25, 
2018, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a markup 
and favorably reported the bill, as amended, by a voice vote 
(H. Rept. 115-748). On June 12, 2018, the House Committee on 
Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 3528 requires e-prescribing for coverage of prescribed 
controlled substances under the Medicare Part D program. H.R. 
3528 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for 
Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 
22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the 
Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to 
the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, 
and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 
6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-271.

(s) H.R. 3635, Local Coverage Determination Clarification (LCDC) Act of 
        2018

    On August 1, 2017, Representatives Lynn Jenkins and Ron 
Kind, along with eighty cosponsors introduced H.R. 3635, a bill 
to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act in order to 
improve the process whereby Medicare administrative contractors 
issue local coverage determinations under the Medicare program, 
and for other purposes. On September 5, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute, by voice vote (H. Rept. 115-933). On September 
10, 2018, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce discharged 
the bill. On September 12, 2018, the motion to suspend the 
rules and pass the bill, as amended, was agreed to by a voice 
vote.
    H.R. 3635 would establish transparency, certainty, and 
consistency for Medicare beneficiaries and providers through 
codifying and improving the process through which Medicare 
Administrative Contractors (MACs) make local coverage 
determinations (LCDs). The bill would require MACs to institute 
an open process for developing LCDs, including publicly posting 
online proposed LCDs and the rationale and evidence relied on 
for making such determinations; convene open public meetings; 
solicit input from the public, including an expert panel; and 
establish a public comment period for developing draft policies 
and posting responses to comments received. H.R. 3635 would 
offer beneficiaries, providers, and suppliers a meaningful 
reconsideration process. Finally, H.R. 3635 would require the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services to provide an annual 
report detailing the LCD process including the amount of 
applications and actions taken with respect to reconsideration.

(t) H.R. 3726, Stark Administrative Simplification Act of 2017

    On September 11, 2017, Representatives Kenny Marchant and 
Ron Kind, along with two cosponsors introduced H.R. 3726, a 
bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to create 
alternative sanctions for technical noncompliance with the 
Stark rule under Medicare, and for other purposes. On September 
13, 2017, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup 
and favorably reported the bill, as amended by the amendment in 
the nature of a substitute, by voice vote (H. Rept. 115-479). 
On December 21, 207, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce 
discharged the bill.
    H.R. 3726 would create an alternative pathway to resolve 
inadvertent technical violations of the ``Stark Laws,'' that 
prevent financial interests from interfering with clinical 
decisions.

(u) H.R. 3727, Increasing Telehealth Access in Medicare Act

    On September 11, 2017, Representatives Diane Black and Mike 
Thompson, along with five cosponsors introduced in the House 
H.R. 3727, a bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security 
Act to include additional telehealth services for purposes of 
MA organization bids, and for other purposes. On September 13, 
2017, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and 
reported the bill as amended favorably by voice vote.
    H.R. 3727 would allow Medicare Advantage plans to include 
the cost of providing telehealth services in their bids and 
increase funding in the Medicare Improvement Fund. CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 3727 would increase direct 
spending by $46 million over the 2018-2022 period and decrease 
direct spending by $4 million over the 2018-2027 period.

(v) H.R. 3729, Comprehensive Operations, Sustainability, and Transport 
        (COST) Act of 2017

    On September 11, 2017, Representatives Devin Nunes and 
Terri Sewell, along with three cosponsors introduced H.R. 3729, 
a bill to amend titles XI and XVIII of the Social Security Act 
to facilitate provider and supplier cost reporting of ambulance 
services under the Medicare program, and for other purposes. On 
September 13, 2017, the Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended by voice 
vote.
    H.R. 3729 focuses on accurately reimbursing and sustaining 
access to ground ambulance transports in the Medicare program. 
The bill would achieve two primary objectives: (1) required 
submission of annual cost report data by Medicare ambulance 
suppliers and providers to better understand the cost of 
furnishing ground ambulance services; and (2) extension of the 
current law add-on reimbursement for ground ambulance services 
that would otherwise expire on December 31, 2017.

(w) H.R. 3921, HEALTHY KIDS Act

    On October 3, 2017, Representative Michael Burgess 
introduced H.R. 3921, a bill to extend funding for the 
Children's Health Insurance Program, and for other purposes. 
The House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill as amended by the yeas and nays 28-
23 on October 4, 2017. The House Committee on Ways and Means 
discharged the bill on October 23, 2017.
    H.R. 3921 extends federal funding for the Children's Health 
Insurance Program (CHIP) for fiscal year (FY) 2018 through FY 
2022, eliminates the FY 2018 reductions in Medicaid 
Disproportionate Share Hospital allotments, and provides 
funding for Puerto Rico's Medicaid program for FY 2018 through 
the end of calendar year 2019.

(x) H.R. 4616, Employer Relief Act of 2018

    On December 12, 2017, Representative Devin Nunes and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 4616, a bill to amend the Patient 
Protection and Affordable Care Act to provide for a temporary 
moratorium on the employer mandate and to provide for a delay 
in the implementation of the excise tax on high cost employer-
sponsored health coverage. The House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill as amended 
by the yeas and nays 22-15 on July 11, 2018. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 13).

(y) H.R. 4841, Standardizing Electronic Prior Authorization for Safe 
        Prescribing Act of 2018

    On January 18, 2018, Representatives David Schweikert and 
Mike Thompson, along with twenty-five cosponsors introduced 
H.R. 4841, a bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security 
Act to provide for electronic prior authorization under 
Medicare part D for covered part D drugs, and for other 
purposes. The House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill by voice vote on May 9, 
2018. The House Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill 
on June 12, 2018.
    H.R. 4841 requires the Secretary to standardize electronic 
prior authorization for prescription drugs under Medicare Part 
D.

(z) H.R. 4952, Improving Seniors Access to Quality Benefits Act

    On February 6, 2018, Representatives Mike Kelly and Ron 
Kind, along with two cosponsors introduced H.R. 4952, a bill to 
direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to conduct a 
study and submit a report on the effects of the inclusion of 
quality increases in the determination of blended benchmark 
amounts under part C of the Medicare program. The House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill by voice vote on June 21, 2018. The House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce discharged the bill on July 
17, 2018. On July 24, 2018, the House suspended the rules and 
passed the bill by voice vote.
    H.R. 4952 requires the Secretary to study and report to 
Congress on the effects of including quality bonus payments 
under the benchmark cap on Medicare Advantage (MA) plans and 
enrollees, among other things. The study is required to include 
an analysis of the following: (1) the authority of the 
Secretary to remove quality bonus payments from the MA 
benchmark; (2) the effects of including quality bonus payments 
in the MA benchmark; (3) the financial impact of including 
quality bonus payments in the determination of the MA benchmark 
by county; and (4) the effects of including quality bonus 
payments in the MA benchmark on plan enrollees.

(aa) H.R. 5582, Abuse Deterrent Access Act of 2018

    On April 23, 2018, Representative Earl L. ``Buddy'' Carter 
and six cosponsors introduced H.R. 5582, a bill to direct the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services to conduct a study and 
submit a report on barriers to accessing abuse-deterrent opioid 
formulations for individuals enrolled in a plan under part C or 
D of the Medicare program. On June 8, 2018, the House Committee 
on Energy and Commerce favorably reported the bill as amended 
and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill. 
The House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill as 
amended by voice vote on June 12, 2018.
    H.R. 5582 directs the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 
Services (CMS) to evaluate the use of abuse-deterrent opioid 
formulations in Medicare Part C or D plans. H.R. 5582 was later 
incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and 
Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by 
a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and the 
Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was 
signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-
271.

(bb) H.R. 5590, Opioid Addiction Action Plan Act

    On April 24, 2018, Representatives Adam Kinzinger and Danny 
Davis, along with five cosponsors introduced H.R. 5590, a bill 
to require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to 
provide for an action plan on recommendations for changes under 
Medicare and Medicaid to prevent opioids addictions and enhance 
access to medication-assisted treatment, and for other 
purposes. On June 12, 2018, the House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce favorably reported the bill as amended and the House 
Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill. The House 
agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by 
voice vote on June 19, 2018.
    H.R. 5590 establishes an action plan, including studies, 
and reports to Congress authored by Department of Health and 
Human Services (HHS), as well as to hold meetings with 
stakeholders, for the purpose of addressing the opioid crisis. 
H.R. 5590 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for 
Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 
22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the 
Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to 
the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, 
and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 
6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-271.

(cc) H.R. 5603, Access to Telehealth Services for Substance Use 
        Disorders Act

    On April 24, 2018, Representative Doris O. Matsui and eight 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5603, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to provide the Secretary of Health and 
Human Services authority to waive certain Medicare telehealth 
requirements in the case of certain treatment of an opioid use 
disorder or co-occurring mental health disorder. On June 12, 
2018, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce favorably 
reported the bill as amended and the House Committee on Ways 
and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 5603 would require the Centers for Medicare and 
Medicaid Services to expand the use of telehealth services in 
treating substance use disorder in the Medicare program. H.R. 
5603 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for 
Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 
22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the 
Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to 
the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, 
and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 
6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-271.

(dd) H.R. 5605, Advancing High Quality Treatment for Opioid Use 
        Disorders in Medicare Act

    On April 24, 2018, Representative Raul Ruiz and two 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5605, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to provide for an opioid use disorder 
treatment demonstration program. On June 12, 2018, the House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce favorably reported the bill as 
amended and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged 
the bill. The House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the 
bill as amended by voice vote on June 19, 2018.
    H.R. 5605 creates a demonstration project to test new ways 
to treat opioid use disorder among the Medicare population. 
This model includes the development of measures to evaluate the 
quality and outcomes of treatment. H.R. 5605 was later 
incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and 
Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by 
a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and the 
Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was 
signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-
271.

(ee) H.R. 5675, To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to 
        require prescription drug plan sponsors under the Medicare 
        program to establish drug management programs for at-risk 
        beneficiaries.

    On May 3, 2018, Representatives Gus M. Bilirakis and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5675, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to require prescription drug plan 
sponsors under the Medicare program to establish drug 
management programs for at-risk beneficiaries. On June 12, 
2018, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce reported the 
bill as amended and the House Committee on Ways and Means 
discharged the bill.
    H.R. 5675 will require prescription drug plan sponsors 
under the Medicare program to establish drug management 
programs, commonly referred to as ``lock-in programs'', for at-
risk beneficiaries. Under CARA, prescription drug plan sponsors 
had the option to establish lock-in programs. H.R. 5675 was 
later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and 
Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by 
a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and the 
Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was 
signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-
271.

(ff) H.R. 5676, Stop Excessive Narcotics in our Retirement Communities 
        Protection (SENIOR) Communities Protection Act of 2018

    On May 3, 2018, Representatives Thomas MacArthur and Earl 
Blumenauer along with four cosponsors introduced H.R. 5676, a 
bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to 
authorize the suspension of payments by Medicare prescription 
drug plans (PD) and Medicare Advantage plans with prescription 
drug benefits (MA-PD) pending investigations of credible 
allegations of fraud by pharmacies. The House Committee on Ways 
and Means held a markup on May 16, 2018, and favorably reported 
the bill as amended on May 19, 2018. On May 19, 2018, the House 
agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill by the Yeas and 
Nays: 256-3 (Roll no. 270).
    H.R. 5676 grants prescription drug plans the authority to 
suspend payments to a provider or supplier pending an 
investigation of a credible allegation of fraud against the 
provider or supplier. H.R. 5676 was later incorporated into 
H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 
6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-
14. The bill passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 
99-1. The House agreed to the Senate amendment with an 
amendment on September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the 
House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on 
October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(gg) H.R. 5684, Protecting Seniors From Opioid Abuse Act

    On May 7, 2018, Representatives Mike Kelly and Mike 
Thompson, along with seven cosponsors introduced H.R. 5684, a 
bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to expand 
eligibility for medication therapy management programs 
established under part D of the Medicare program to include 
certain individuals who are at risk for prescription drug 
abuse. On June 12, 2018, the House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce reported the bill, and the House Committee on Ways and 
Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 5684 adds beneficiaries at risk for prescription drug 
abuse to the list of targeted beneficiaries eligible for 
Medication Therapy Management programs under Medicare Part D. 
H.R. 5684 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for 
Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 
22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the 
Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to 
the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, 
and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 
6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-271.

(hh) H.R. 5685, Medicare Opioid Safety Education Act of 2018

    On May 7, 2018, Representative John J. Faso and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5685, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to provide educational resources 
regarding opioid use and pain management as part of the 
Medicare & You handbook. The House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce reported the bill. The House agreed to suspend the 
rules and pass the bill by voice vote on June 12, 2018.
    H.R. 5685 directs the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 
Services (CMS) to compile education resources for beneficiaries 
regarding opioid use, pain management, and alternative pain 
management treatments, and to include these resources in the 
``Medicare and You'' handbook. H.R. 5685 was later incorporated 
into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' 
H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 
396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote 
of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate amendment with an 
amendment on September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the 
House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on 
October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(ii) H.R. 5686, Medicare Clear Health Options in Care for Enrollees 
        (CHOICE) Act of 2018

    On May 7, 2018, Representatives Erik Paulsen and Ron Kind 
along with five cosponsors introduced H.R. 5686, a bill to 
amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to require 
prescription drug plans under Medicare part D to include 
information on the adverse effects of opioid overutilization 
and of coverage of nonpharmacological therapies and nonopioid 
medications or devices used to treat pain. On June 12, 2018, 
the bill was reported by the House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged 
the bill.
    H.R. 5686 requires prescription drug plans under Medicare 
Part D to include information on the effects of opioid 
overutilization and coverage of non-pharmacological therapies 
and non-opioid medications or devices used to treat pain. H.R. 
5686 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for 
Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 
22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the 
Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to 
the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, 
and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 
6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-271.

(jj) H.R. 5715, Strengthening Partnerships to Prevent Opioid Act

    On May 9, 2018, Representatives James B. Renacci and Terri 
Sewell, along with eight cosponsors introduced H.R. 5715, a 
bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide 
for certain program integrity transparency measures under 
Medicare parts C and D. On June 12, 2018, the House Committee 
on Energy and Commerce reported the bill as amended.
    H.R. 5715 helps facilitate communication among Medicare 
Advantage (MA) organizations, Part D plan sponsors, and the 
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) relating to 
substantiated fraud, waste, and abuse investigations. H.R. 5715 
was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients 
and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 
2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate 
with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the 
Senate amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and 
the Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 
was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-271. 

(kk) H.R. 5716, Commit to Opioid Medical Prescriber Accountability and 
        Safety for Seniors (COMPASS) Act

    On May 9, 2018, Representatives Peter J. Roskam and John 
Larson, along with four cosponsors introduced H.R. 5716, a bill 
to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to require the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services to provide notifications 
under the Medicare program to outlier prescribers of opioids. 
On June 12, 2018, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce 
reported the bill, and the House Committee on Ways and Means 
discharged the bill.
    H.R. 5716 requires the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 
Services (CMS) to establish a prescriber threshold based on 
specialty and geographic area, which could designate a 
prescriber as an outlier opioid prescriber. CMS would then be 
responsible for notifying prescribers identified as outliers of 
their status. H.R. 5716 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the 
``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the 
House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill 
passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The 
House agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on 
September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House 
amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 
24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(ll) H.R. 5723, Expanding Oversight of Opioid Prescribing and Payment 
        Act of 2018

    On May 9, 2018, Representatives Claudia Tenney and Susan 
DelBene, along with three cosponsors introduced H.R. 5723, a 
bill to require the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission to 
report on how the Medicare Program pays for pain management 
treatment options in a hospital setting, including adverse 
incentives to prescribing opioids relative to non-opioid 
alternatives, and how to improve data on opioid use under the 
Medicare program. The House Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup on May 16, 2018, and favorably reported the bill as 
amended on May 19, 2018. The House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce discharged the bill on May 19, 2018. The House agreed 
to suspend the rules and pass the bill by voice vote on May 19, 
2018.
    H.R. 5723 requires that by March 15, 2019, the Medicare 
Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) submit a report to 
Congress that describes: (1) how the Medicare Program pays for 
pain management treatment options in a hospital setting; (2) 
incentives under Medicare hospital payments for prescribing 
opioids relative to non-opioid alternatives; and (3) how opioid 
use may be tracked through Medicare claims data. MedPAC will 
also identify areas in which further data/methods are needed to 
fully understand opioid utilization patterns in Medicare. If 
appropriate, MedPAC will issue recommendations for addressing 
any adverse incentives in the hospital payment system related 
to opioid vs. non-opioid prescribing. H.R. 5723 was later 
incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and 
Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by 
a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and the 
Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was 
signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-
271.

(mm) H.R. 5773, Promoting Academic Success Sustainably (PASS) Act of 
        2018

    On May 11, 2018, Representatives Peter J. Roskam and Terri 
Sewell, along with six cosponsors introduced H.R. 5773, a bill 
to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to require 
Medicare prescription drug plans to establish drug management 
programs for at-risk beneficiaries, require electronic prior 
authorization for covered part D drugs, and to provide for 
other program integrity measures under parts C and D of the 
Medicare program. On May 16, 2018, the House Committee on Ways 
and Means held a markup, and favorably reported the bill as 
amended on May 19, 2018. The House agreed to suspend the rules 
and pass the bill by voice vote on May 19, 2018.
    The bill requires Medicare prescription drug plans to 
establish lock-in programs for seniors at-risk of opioid 
overuse. Further, the Secretary of Health and Human Services 
(HHS) is required to establish a standard, secure electronic 
prior authorization (ePA) system. The bill requires the 
Secretary to establish a secure Internet website portal (or 
other successor technology) that would allow for a secure 
communication between the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid 
Services (CMS), plans providing Part D coverage, and the 
Medicare Drug Integrity Contractor (MEDIC) regarding certain 
program integrity activities. The bill defines ``at-risk'' 
beneficiaries as eligible for the benefits provided under the 
Medication Therapy Management Program. Lastly, the bill 
requires the Secretary to notify providers that prescribe 
opioids in amounts or dosages in excess of their peers.
    H.R. 5773 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT 
for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on 
June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed 
the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House 
agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 
28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on 
October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and 
became Public Law 115-271.

(nn) H.R. 5774, Combating Opioid Abuse for Care in Hospitals (COACH) 
        Act of 2018

    On May 11, 2018, Representatives Carlos Curbelo and Suzan 
K. DelBene along with eight cosponsors introduced H.R. 5774, a 
bill requiring the Secretary of Health and Human Services to 
publish guidance on pain management and opioid use disorder 
prevention for hospitals receiving payment under part A of the 
Medicare program, provide for opioid quality measures 
development, and provide for a technical expert panel on 
reducing surgical setting opioid use and data collection on 
perioperative opioid use, and for other purposes. On May 16, 
2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and 
favorably reported the bill as amended on June 19, 2018. The 
House Committee on Energy and Commerce discharged the bill and 
the House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill as 
amended by voice vote on June 19, 2018.
    H.R. 5774 focuses on preventing opioid overuse by improving 
education for providers and beneficiaries. This legislation 
requires the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 
to develop and publish a toolkit by January 1, 2019, that 
provides best practices to hospitals for reducing opioid use. 
Additionally, within 180 days of enactment, the Department of 
Health and Human Services (HHS) is required to convene at least 
two Technical Expert Panels (TEPs). The first TEP is required 
to review quality measures related to opioids and opioid use 
disorders and identify gaps in such measures, prioritize such 
measures for development in gap areas, and make recommendations 
for adopting such measures under physician and hospital quality 
reporting programs. The legislation requires, as practicable, 
the creation of a fast-track endorsement process for such 
measures by the National Quality Forum (NQF). Within one year 
of the TEP's establishment, the Secretary will report on the 
quality measures (and gaps), including those related to care, 
prevention, diagnosis, health outcomes, and treatment furnished 
to individuals with opioid use disorders. The second TEP is 
required to make recommendations on best practices for pain 
management and reducing opioid use within the surgical setting; 
it also must analyze post-surgical opioid prescribing. HHS must 
report to Congress based on the TEP's work, while also 
describing the available data on perioperative opioid use, as 
well as identifying barriers to data collection and 
recommendations to improve data collection. HHS will publish 
the recommendations under the report (or reports) to Congress 
within one year of enactment. Finally, within 180 days of 
enactment, the Secretary will publish on the CMS website all 
opioid prescribing guidance published after January 1, 2016, 
applicable to Medicare beneficiaries.
    H.R. 5774 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT 
for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on 
June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed 
the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House 
agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 
28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on 
October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and 
became Public Law 115-271.

(oo) H.R. 5775, Providing Reliable Options for Patients and Educational 
        Resources (PROPER) Act of 2018

    On May 11, 2018, Representatives Erik Paulsen and Ron Kind, 
along with four cosponsors introduced H.R. 5775, a bill to 
require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop 
guidance on pain management and opioid use disorder prevention 
for hospitals receiving payment under part A of the Medicare 
program, provide for opioid quality measures development, and 
provide for a technical expert panel on reducing surgical 
setting opioid use and data collection on perioperative opioid 
use, and for other purposes. On May 16, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably 
reported the bill as amended on June 19, 2018. The House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce discharged the bill and the 
House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended 
by voice vote on June 19, 2018.
    H.R. 5775 aims to increase educational resources for 
Medicare beneficiaries related to coverage options for the 
treatment of pain and the potential risks of prolonged opioid 
use. The PROPER ACT improves pain-related questions used in 
hospital patient satisfaction surveys. Beginning January 1, 
2019, hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and 
systems (HCAHPS) surveys must not include pain-related 
questions unless the pain questions take into account, as 
applicable, whether an individual experiencing pain was 
informed about the risks associated with the use of opioids and 
about non-opioid alternatives for the treatment of pain. The 
Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 
may not include on either the Hospital Compare Internet website 
or the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program any measures 
based on the questions appearing on the HCAHPS survey for 2018 
about communication by hospital staff with an individual about 
pain.
    This legislation also requires that, by 2021, plans provide 
information to beneficiaries on the risks associated with 
prolonged opioid use and coverage of nonpharmacological 
therapies, devices, and nonopioid medications. Beginning 
January 1, 2021, plans are required to provide information to 
enrollees on the safe disposal of prescription drugs that are 
controlled substances as part of the in-home risk assessment. 
Plans are also required to provide information on cost-
effective means for safe disposal of controlled substances 
through their Medication Therapy Management programs.
    H.R. 5775 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT 
for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on 
June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed 
the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House 
agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 
28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on 
October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and 
became Public Law 115-271.

(pp) H.R. 5776, Medicare and Opioid Safe Treatment (MOST) Act

    On May 11, 2018, Ranking Member of the Committee on Ways 
and Means, Richard E. Neal, and George Holding, along with two 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5776, a bill to amend title XVIII to 
provide for Medicare coverage of certain services furnished by 
opioid treatment programs, and for other purposes. On May 16, 
2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and 
favorably reported the bill as amended on June 19, 2018.
    H.R. 5776 increases treatment coverage in Medicare for 
individuals suffering from opioid use disorder. The MOST Act 
fills coverage gaps for substance use disorder treatment and 
explores the potential for perverse incentives to prescribing 
opioids. H.R. 5776 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the 
``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the 
House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill 
passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The 
House agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on 
September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House 
amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 
24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(qq) H.R. 5796, Responsible Education Achieves Care and Healthy 
        Outcomes for Users' Treatment (REACH OUT) Act of 2018

    On May 15, 2018 Representatives Brian K. Fitzpatrick and 
Mike Thompson, along with four cosponsors introduced H.R. 5796, 
a bill to require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to 
provide grants for eligible entities to provide technical 
assistance to outlier prescribers of opioids. On June 12, 2018, 
the House Committee on Energy and Commerce favorably reported 
the bill and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged 
the bill. The House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the 
bill as amended by voice vote on June 19, 2018.
    H.R. 5796 directs the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 
Services (CMS) to work with eligible entities, including 
Quality Improvement Organizations, to engage in outreach with 
prescribers identified as clinical outliers to share best 
practices to evaluate their prescribing behavior. H.R. 5796 was 
later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and 
Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by 
a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an 
amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate 
amendment with an amendment on September 28, 2018, and the 
Senate agreed to the House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was 
signed into law on October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-
271.

(rr) H.R. 5798, Opioid Screening and Chronic Pain Management 
        Alternatives for Seniors Act

    On May 15, 2018, Representative Larry Bucshon and four 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5798, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to require a review of current opioid 
prescriptions for chronic pain and screening for opioid use 
disorder to be included in the Welcome to Medicare initial 
preventive physical examination. On June 12, 2018, the House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce favorably reported the bill 
and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 5798 adds a review of current opioid prescriptions, a 
pain assessment, and, as appropriate, a screening for opioid 
use disorder as part of the Welcome to Medicare initial 
examination. H.R. 5798 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the 
``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the 
House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill 
passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The 
House agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on 
September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House 
amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 
24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(ss) H.R. 5804, Post-Surgical Injections as an Opioid Alternative Act

    On May 15, 2018, Representative John Shimkus and three 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5804, a bill to amend title XVIII of 
the Social Security Act to provide for modifications in payment 
for certain outpatient surgical services. On June 13, 2018, the 
House Committee on Energy and Commerce favorably reported the 
bill and the House Committee on Ways and Means discharged the 
bill.
    H.R. 5804 incentivizes post-surgical injections as a pain 
treatment alternative to opioids by reversing a reimbursement 
cut for these treatments in the Ambulatory Service Center 
setting, as well as to collect data on a subset of codes 
related to these treatments. H.R. 5804 was later incorporated 
into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' 
H.R. 6 passed the House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 
396-14. The bill passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote 
of 99-1. The House agreed to the Senate amendment with an 
amendment on September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the 
House amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on 
October 24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(tt) H.R. 5809, Postoperative Opioid Prevention Act of 2018

    On May 15, 2018, Representatives Scott H. Peters and Larry 
Bucshon along with three cosponsors introduced H.R. 5809, a 
bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to 
encourage the use of non-opioid analgesics for the management 
of post-surgical pain under the Medicare program, and for other 
purposes. On June 13, 2018, the House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce favorably reported the bill and the House Committee on 
Ways and Means discharged the bill.
    H.R. 5809 extends pass through payment for certain 
qualifying drugs to encourage the development of non-opioid 
drugs for post-surgical pain management under the Medicare 
program. H.R. 5809 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the 
``SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the 
House on June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill 
passed the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The 
House agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on 
September 28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House 
amendment on October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 
24, 2018 and became Public Law 115-271.

(uu) H.R. 6110, Dr. Todd Graham Pain Management, Treatment, and 
        Recovery Act of 2018

    On June 14, 2018, Representatives Jackie Walorski and Earl 
Blumenauer along with eight original cosponsors introduced H.R. 
6110, a bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to 
provide for the review and adjustment of payments under the 
Medicare outpatient prospective payment system to avoid 
financial incentives to use opioids instead of non-opioid 
alternative treatments, and for other purposes. The House 
agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by 
voice vote on June 19, 2018.
    This bill establishes several requirements for the Centers 
for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and alters requirements 
under Medicare and Medicare Advantage (MA), related to pain 
management and opioid use. Among other requirements, the CMS 
must review payments under Medicare for opioid and non-opioid 
pain management procedures, specifically with respect to 
ambulatory outpatient surgical procedures and hospital 
outpatient department services. The CMS must ensure that there 
are no payment incentives for using opioids instead of non-
opioid alternatives and must make revisions accordingly. The 
bill also requires payment under Medicare to federally 
qualified health centers and rural health clinics that have 
health care practitioners who are newly certified to provide 
medication-assisted treatment (e.g., buprenorphine). The bill 
also authorizes the suspension of payments to a pharmacy under 
the Medicare prescription drug benefit and MA prescription drug 
plans pending the investigation of a credible allegation of 
fraud by the pharmacy.
    H.R. 6110 was later incorporated into H.R. 6, the ``SUPPORT 
for Patients and Communities Act.'' H.R. 6 passed the House on 
June 22, 2018, by a recorded vote of 396-14. The bill passed 
the Senate with an amendment by a vote of 99-1. The House 
agreed to the Senate amendment with an amendment on September 
28, 2018, and the Senate agreed to the House amendment on 
October 3. H.R. 6 was signed into law on October 24, 2018 and 
became Public Law 115-271.

(vv) H.R. 6138, Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Transparency Act of 
        2018

    On June 19, 2018, Representatives Devin Nunes and John 
Larson, along with two cosponsors introduced H.R. 6138, a bill 
to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for 
ambulatory surgical center representation during the review of 
hospital outpatient payment rates under part B of the Medicare 
program, and for other purposes. On June 21, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably 
reported the bill as amended on July 17, 2018. The Committee on 
Energy and Commerce discharged the bill on July 17, 2018. The 
House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended 
by voice vote on July 24, 2018.
    H.R. 6138 would add an Ambulatory Surgical Center (ASC) 
representative to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient 
Payment (HOP) to ensure ASCs have a voice when the Centers for 
Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) makes changes to payment 
policies. H.R. 6138 would also require CMS to disclose the 
reasons for taking procedures off, or not putting procedures 
on, the ASC-approved codes list.

(ww) H.R. 6199, Restoring Access to Medication and Modernizing Health 
        Savings Accounts Act of 2018

    On June 22, 2018, Representatives Lynn Jenkins and Ron 
Kind, along with two cosponsors introduced H.R. 6199, to amend 
the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to include certain over-the-
counter medical products as qualified medical expenses. On July 
19, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, 
and favorably reported the bill as amended. The House passed 
the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 277-142 (Roll no. 377) on July 
25, 2018.
    H.R. 6199 allows all tax-favored health accounts to be used 
to purchase over-the-counter (OTC) medical products and adds 
feminine or ``menstrual care'' products to the list of 
qualified medical expenses for the purposes of these tax-
favored health accounts. (See also: Tax legislation page 15).

(xx) H.R. 6301, Promoting High-Value Health Care Through Flexibility 
        for High Deductible Health Plans Act of 2018

    On June 29, 2018, Representatives Peter J. Roskam and Mike 
Thompson along with one cosponsor introduced H.R. 6301, to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide high 
deductible health plans with first dollar coverage flexibility. 
On July 19, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup, and favorably reported the bill as amended.
    H.R. 6301 expands access and enhances the utility of health 
savings accounts (HSAs) by offering health plans a certain 
amount of flexibility in their plan design while still 
maintaining eligibility for HSA contributions. This flexibility 
will allow insurers to offer coverage for high-value, low-cost 
services like telehealth, chronic disease management (e.g. 
diabetic testing strips), or primary care visits below the 
deductible. (See also: Tax legislation page 16).

(yy) H.R. 6305, Bipartisan HSA Improvement Act of 2018

    On July 3, 2018, Representatives Mike Kelly and Earl 
Blumenauer introduced H.R. 6305, to amend the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 to improve access to health care through 
modernized health savings accounts. On July 19, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably 
reported the bill as amended.
    H.R. 6305 expands access and enhances the utility of health 
savings accounts (HSAs) through three common-sense improvements 
to the rules governing HSAs: (1) clarifying that certain 
employment related services (such as on-site clinics) are not 
treated as disqualifying coverage for purposes of HSAs; (2) 
allowing an eligible individual to make HSA contributions if a 
spouse has a Flexible Spending Arrangement (FSA), provided that 
FSA does not also reimburse for expenses of the spouse with the 
HSA; and (3) allowing FSA and Health Reimbursement Account 
(HRA) terminations or conversions to fund HSAs. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 16).

(zz) H.R. 6306, Health Care Security Act of 2018

    On July 3, 2018, Representative Erik Paulsen introduced 
H.R. 6306, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to 
increase the contribution limitation for health savings 
accounts, and for other purposes. On July 19, 2018, the House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably 
reported the bill as amended.
    H.R. 6306 expands access and enhances the utility of health 
savings accounts (HSAs) through several common-sense 
improvements to the eligibility, contribution and expenditure 
rules governing HSAs. Specifically, this bill would increase 
the contributions limits for HSAs, permit spousal catch-up 
contributions into the same account and create a grace period 
for medical expenses incurred before the establishment of an 
HSA. (See also: Tax legislation page 16).

(aaa) H.R. 6309, Allowing Working Seniors to Keep Their Health Savings 
        Accounts Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Erik Paulsen introduced 
H.R. 6309, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow 
individuals entitled to Medicare Part A by reason of being over 
age 65 to contribute to health savings accounts. On July 19, 
2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and 
favorably reported the bill as amended.
    H.R. 6309 expands access to Health Savings accounts (HSAs) 
for working seniors enrolled in Medicare Part A. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 16).

(bbb) H.R. 6311, Increasing Access to Lower Premium Plans and Expanding 
        Health Savings Accounts Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Peter J. Roskam and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 6311, to amend the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 
to modify the definition of qualified health plan for purposes 
of the health insurance premium tax credit and to allow 
individuals purchasing health insurance in the individual 
market to purchase a lower premium copper plan. On July 19, 
2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup, and 
favorably reported the bill as amended. The House passed the 
bill by the Yeas and Nays: 242-176 (Roll no. 376) on July 25, 
2018.
    H.R. 6311 provides an off-ramp from Obamacare's rising 
premiums and limited choices by allowing the premium tax credit 
to be used for qualified plans offered outside of the law's 
exchanges and Healthcare.gov. In addition, it expands access to 
the lowest-premium plans available (``catastrophic'' plans) for 
all individuals purchasing coverage in the individual market 
and allows the premium tax credit to be used to offset the cost 
of such plans. (See also: Tax legislation page 17).

(ccc) H.R. 6312, Personal Health Investment Today Act

    On July 6, 2018, Representatives Jason Smith and Ron Kind 
along with one cosponsor introduced H.R. 6312, to amend the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to treat certain amounts paid for 
physical activity, fitness, and exercise as amounts paid for 
medical care. On July 19, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup, and favorably reported the bill as 
amended.
    H.R. 6312 adds qualified sports and fitness expenses to the 
definition of qualified medical expenses. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 17).

(ddd) H.R. 6313, Responsible Additions and Increases to Sustain 
        Employee Health Benefits Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Steve Stivers introduced 
H.R. 6313, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow 
the carryforward of health flexible spending arrangement 
account balances. On July 19, 2018, the House Committee on Ways 
and Means held a markup, and favorably reported the bill as 
amended.
    H.R. 6313 allows balances in Flexible Spending Arrangements 
(FSA) to be carried forward each year. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 17).

(eee) H.R. 6314, Health Savings Act of 2018

    On July 6, 2018, Representative Michael C. Burgess 
introduced H.R, 6314, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 
1986 to allow bronze and catastrophic plans in connection with 
health savings accounts. On July 19, 2018, the House Committee 
on Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably reported the 
bill as amended.
    H.R. 6314 expands eligibility and access to Health Savings 
Accounts (HSAs) by allowing plans categorized as catastrophic 
and bronze in the individual and small group markets to qualify 
for HSA contributions. (See also: Tax legislation page

(fff) H.R. 6317. Primary Care Enhancement Act of 2018

    On July 10, 2018, Representatives Erik Paulsen and Earl 
Blumenauer along with one cosponsor introduced H.R. 6317, to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide that direct 
primary care service arrangements do not disqualify deductible 
health savings account contributions, and for other purposes. 
On July 19, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup, and favorably reported the bill as amended.
    H.R. 6317 allows Health Savings Account (HSA)-eligible 
individuals that participate in a direct primary care (DPC) 
arrangement not to lose their HSA eligibility merely because of 
their participation in a DPC. In addition, it allows DPC 
provider fees to be paid for out of HSAs. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 18).

(ggg) H.R. 6561, Comprehensive Care for Seniors Act of 2018

    On July 26, 2018, Representatives Jackie Walorski and Earl 
Blumenauer, along with nine cosponsors introduced H.R. 6561, a 
bill to require the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 
(CMS) to issue a final rule based on the provisions of a 
proposed rule regarding Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the 
Elderly (PACE) by December 31, 2018. On September 5, 2018, the 
House Committee on Ways and Means favorably reported the bill, 
as amended by the amendment in the nature of a substitute, by a 
voice vote (H. Rept. 115-934). On September 10, 2018, the House 
committee on Energy and Commerce discharged the bill. On 
September 12, 2018, Representative Jackie Walorski moved to 
suspend the rules and pass the bill, as amended, and the bill 
was agreed to by a voice vote.
    H.R. 6561 directs the Secretary of the Department of Health 
and Human Services (the Secretary'') to finalize the Program of 
All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) regulations, 
originally proposed in August 2016, no later than December 31, 
2018. The bill provides the Secretary with the flexibility to 
make updates and changes to the proposed regulation.

(hhh) H.R. 6662, Empowering Seniors' Enrollment Decision Act of 2018

    On August 10, 2018, Representatives Erik Paulsen and Ron 
Kind introduced H.R. 6662, a bill to provide statutory 
authority for the extension of a special enrollment period 
under Medicare Advantage (MA) to enrollees in certain Medicare 
Cost plans that are not transitioning into qualifying MA plans. 
Current regulations allow such enrollees (i.e., non-deemed 
individuals) to participate in the special enrollment period. 
On September 5, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and Means 
held a markup and favorably reported the bill, as amended by 
the amendment in the nature of a substitute, by a voice vote 
(H. Rept. 115-935). On September 10, 2018, the House Committee 
on Energy and Commerce discharged the bill. On September 12, 
2018, Representative Erik Paulsen moved to suspend the rules 
and pass the bill, as amended, and the bill was agreed to by a 
voice vote.
    H.R. 6662 codifies existing regulation which allows for 
non-deemed Medicare Cost Plan enrollees to take advantage of 
the Special Enrollment Period (SEP) offered in statute to the 
deemed Medicare Cost Plan enrollees. Additionally, it ensures 
that the existing deeming authority allowed under current 
statute for plan year 2019 is extended in perpetuity.

(iii) H.R. 6690, Fighting Fraud to Protect Care for Seniors Act of 2018

    On August 28, 2018, Representatives Peter Roskam and Earl 
Blumenauer, along with four cosponsors introduced H.R. 6690, a 
bill to require the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 
(CMS) to establish a pilot program that evaluates the 
feasibility of using smart card technology to address Medicare 
fraud. On September 5, 2018, the House Committee on Ways and 
Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill, as amended 
by the amendment in the nature of a substitute, by a voice vote 
(H. Rept. 115-936). On September 10, 2018, the House Committee 
on Energy and Commerce discharged the bill. On September 12, 
2018, Representative Peter Roskam moved to suspend the rules 
and pass the bill, as amended, and the bill was agreed to by a 
voice vote.

(jjj) H.R. 6886, Health Equity and Access for Returning Troops and 
        Servicemembers (HEARTS) Act of 2018

    On September 25, 2018, Representatives Sam Johnson and John 
Larson, along with three cosponsors introduced H.R. 6886, a 
bill to amend title 10, United States Code, to modify the 
requirement for certain former members of the Armed Forces to 
enroll in Medicare Part B to be eligible for TRICARE for Life, 
and to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide 
for coverage of certain DNA specimen provenance assay tests 
under the Medicare program. On September 28, 2018, the House 
Committee on Energy and Commerce, the House Committee on Ways 
and Means, and the House Committee on Armed Services each 
discharged the bill. The bill was considered by unanimous 
consent and passed without objection on September 25, 2018.

            D. Legislative Review of Human Resources Issues


          1. BILLS ENACTED INTO LAW DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) Disapproving the rule submitted by the Department of Labor relating 
        to drug testing of unemployment compensation applicants

    On January 1, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and thirty-five 
cosponsors introduced H. J. Res. 42, a joint resolution under 
the Congressional Review Act to nullify the rule finalized by 
the Department of Labor on August 1, 2016, relating to 
establishing, for state unemployment compensation program 
purposes, occupations that regularly conduct drug testing. On 
February 15, 2017, the joint resolution passed the House by the 
Yeas and Nays: 236-189 (Roll no. 97). On March 13, 2017, the 
motion to proceed to consideration of the measure was agreed to 
by voice vote in the Senate. On March 14, 2017, the joint 
resolution was considered in the Senate and passed, without 
amendment, by the Yeas and Nays: 51-48 (Record Vote Number: 
87). On March 31, 2017, the joint resolution was signed by the 
President and became Public Law No: 115-17.

(b) Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017

    On April 25, 2017, Representative Vern Buchanan introduced 
H.R. 2126, the What Works to Move Welfare Recipients into Jobs 
Act, to strengthen welfare research and evaluation by 
establishing a ``What Works Clearinghouse'' at the Department 
of Health and Human Services. This bill was included in the 
H.R. 244, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2017, under 
Division M, Title I, Section 102, and requires HHS to develop a 
database (the What Works Clearinghouse of Proven and Promising 
Projects to Move Welfare Recipients into Work) or projects that 
used a proven approach or a promising approach in moving 
welfare recipients into work, based on independent, rigorous 
evaluations of the projects. On May 3, 2017, the House passed 
H.R. 244 by the Yeas and Nays: 309-1188 (Roll no. 249). On May 
4, 2017, the bill was considered in the Senate and passed, by 
the Yeas and Nays: 79-18 (Record Vote Number: 121). On May 5, 
2017, H.R. 244 was signed by the President and became Public 
Law No: 115-31.

(c) Emergency Aid to American Survivors of Hurricanes Irma and Jose 
        Overseas Act

    On September 11, 2017, Representative David Reichert 
introduced H.R. 3732, the Emergency Aid to American Survivors 
of Hurricanes Irma and Jose Overseas Act. This bill amends 
Title XVI of the Social Security Act to increase, from $1 
million to $25 million, the maximum amount of temporary 
assistance that may be provided annually in FY2017-FY2018. On 
September 11, 2017, the Committee on Ways and Means and the 
Committee on the Budget discharged the bill, and it passed both 
the House and the Senate without objection by Voice Vote. On 
September 12, 2017, the bill was signed by the President and 
became Public Law No: 115-57.

(d) Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018

    On April 4, 2017, Representatives John Larson and David 
Reichert, along with fifteen cosponsors introduced H.R. 1892, 
the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (BBA). On February 9, 2018 
BBA was agreed to in the Senate by the Yeas and Nays: 71-28 
(Record Vote Number: 31), and in the House by the Yeas and 
Nays: 240-186 (Roll no. 69) and was signed by the President and 
became Public Law No: 115-123. The Bipartisan Budget Act 
contains twelve bills that the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
introduced in the 115th Congress. (See also: Health legislation 
page 40).

(e) The Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA) of 2017

    On January 4, 2017, Representative Vern Buchanan 
Representative Sander M. Levin, and seven bipartisan cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 253. FFPSA amends parts B and E of Title IV of 
the Social Security Act to: invest in funding prevention and 
family services to help keep children safe and supported at 
home; and ensure that children in foster care are placed in the 
least restrictive, most family-like, and appropriate settings. 
The bill amends part E (Foster Care and Adoption Assistance) of 
title IV of the Social Security Act (SSAct) regarding, among 
other matters: (1) mental health and substance abuse prevention 
and treatment services and in-home parenting skill-based 
programs, (2) foster care maintenance payments for children 
with parents in a licensed residential family-based treatment 
facility for substance abuse, and (3) payments for evidence-
based kinship navigator programs. Part B of title IV (Child and 
Family Services) of the SSAct is amended regarding, among other 
matters: (1) time limits for family reunification services for 
children in foster care or returning home, (2) grants for the 
development of an electronic interstate case-processing system 
to expedite the interstate placement of children in foster care 
or guardianship or for adoption, and (3) targeted grants to 
increase the well-being of children affected by substance 
abuse. The bill appropriates certain funding to Department of 
Health and Human Services for FY2018 for competitive grants to 
states, Indian tribes, or tribal consortia to support the 
recruitment and retention of high-quality foster families. The 
bill amends part B of title IV of the SS Act to reauthorize 
through FY2021: (1) the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Child Welfare 
Services Program, (2) promotion of safe and stable families 
program, (3) funding reservations for monthly caseworker visits 
and regional partnership grants, and (4) funding for state 
courts. Part E of title IV of the SS Act is amended to: (1) 
revise the John H. Chaffee Foster Care Independence Program and 
related provisions, and (2) reauthorize adoption and legal 
guardianship incentive programs through FY2021.
    H.R. 253 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
under Division E, Title VII. Its predecessor, H.R. 5456 in the 
114th Congress was introduced in the House on June 13, 2016. It 
was subsequently reported out by the Committee and agreed to in 
the House by Voice Vote on June 21, 2016. No additional Senate 
action was taken.

(f) Social Impact Partnerships to Pay for Results Act

    On January 13, 2017, Representative Patrick Tiberi, 
Representative John Delaney and thirteen bipartisan cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 576. H.R. 576 is now led by Representative 
Jackie Walorski and encourages and supports partnerships 
between the public and private sectors to improve our Nation's 
social programs. The bill provides up to $100 million for the 
federal government to pay for outcomes under a social impact 
partnership. To do this, the bill allows the Department of the 
Treasury to enter into agreements with state and local 
governments for social-impact partnership projects for which 
federal funds shall be awarded only if a project achieves 
certain agreed-upon outcomes resulting in both social benefit 
and federal, state, or local savings. In carrying out these 
agreements, Treasury must consult with the Federal Interagency 
Council on Social Impact Partnerships and the Commission on 
Social Impact Partnerships (both newly established by the 
bill). Treasury may transfer to another federal agency the 
authority to administer the agreements. At least 50% of all 
federal payments made under such agreements must be used for 
initiatives that directly benefit children.
    H.R. 576 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
under Division E, Title VIII.

(g) Flexibility to Promote Reemployment Act

    On February 15, 2017, Representative James Renacci and four 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 1091, to amend certain provisions of 
the Social Security Act relating to demonstration projects 
designed to promote the reemployment of unemployed workers. The 
bill authorizes the structure of reemployment services and 
eligibility assessments (RESEA) within the unemployment 
insurance (UI) program to reduce benefit duration and improve 
overall integrity. Further, H.R. 1091 expects preparation for 
work in exchange for benefits, improves coordination with the 
workforce development system, and focuses on outcomes. H.R. 
1091 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 under 
Division C, Title II, Section 30206.

(h) Increasing Opportunity and Success for Children and Parents through 
        Evidence-Based Home Visiting Act

    On March 2, 2017, Representative Adrian Smith and seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2824, a bill to amend Title V of the 
Social Security Act to extend the Maternal, Infant, and Early 
Childhood Home Visiting Program. H.R. 2824 reauthorizes the 
MIECHV program for five years (through FY2022) and helps 
families by: requiring states to demonstrate improvements in at 
least four of the six benchmark areas specified in law; 
requiring states to conduct follow-up statewide needs 
assessments by FY2020, and at least once every five years 
thereafter; allowing states to fund home visiting services on a 
``pay-for-outcomes'' basis, etc.
    The House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and 
favorably reported the bill as amended by the Yeas and Nays: 
22-15 on September 13, 2017. The House Committee on Energy and 
Commerce discharged the bill on September 21, 2017. The House 
passed the bill by recorded vote 214-209 (Roll no. 537) on 
September 26, 2017. H.R. 2824 was not brought to the Senate 
floor, but instead was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 
2018 under Division E, Title VI, Subtitle A, Section 50601.

(i) Standard Data and Technology Advancement (DATA) Act of 2017

    On April 28, 2017, Representative Tom Reed, Representative 
Danny K. Davis, and five bipartisan cosponsors introduced H.R. 
2250, to amend Title XVI of the Social Security Act to 
establish consistent requirements for the electronic content 
and format of data used in the administration of certain human 
services programs. H.R. 2250 was included in the Bipartisan 
Budget Act of 2018 under Division E, Title VII, Subtitle A, 
Part VI, Section 50771. The Standard DATA Act language was 
added to the section in the BBA extending the Maternal, Infant, 
and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program, using H.R. 2824, and 
requires the Department of Health and Human Services to develop 
data standards for home visiting programs that will help state 
agencies and the federal government more easily exchange 
information to ensure the integrity of programs and improve 
services for families in need, all while maintaining privacy 
standards.

(j) Modernizing the Interstate Placement of Children in Foster Care Act

    On May 25, 2017, Representative Jackie Walorski, 
Representative Danny K. Davis, and six bipartisan cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 2742, to amend Title IV of the Social Security 
Act to require States to adopt an electronic system to help 
expedite the placement of children in foster care or 
guardianship, or for adoption, across State lines, and to 
provide funding to aid States in developing such a system. The 
bill would allow states to connect to an electronic interstate 
case-processing system that has already been tested in five 
states and the District of Columbia and has shown to 
substantially reduce the amount of time children have to wait 
to be placed in the right home when they must move across state 
lines.
    H.R. 2742 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
under Division E, Title VII, Subtitle A, Part I, Section 50722.

(k) Supporting Families in Substance Abuse Treatment Act

    On June 8, 2017, Representative Kristi Noem, Representative 
Judy Chu, and Representative Danny K. Davis introduced H.R. 
2857, a bill to amend Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to 
support foster care maintenance payments for children with 
parents in a licensed residential family-based treatment 
facility for substance abuse through federal foster care 
payments for up to twelve months. To be eligible for these 
payments, the child's placement with a parent in the treatment 
facility must be recommended in the child's case plan and the 
facility must incorporate trauma-informed parent education, 
parenting skills, and counseling as part of its substance abuse 
treatment.
    The House suspended the rules and passed the bill as mended 
by voice vote on June 20, 2017. H.R. 2857 was included in the 
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 under Division E, Title VII, 
Subtitle A, Part I, Section 50712.

(l) Partnership Grants to Strengthen Families Affected by Parental 
        Substance Abuse Act

    On June 8, 2017, Representative Danny Davis and five 
bipartisan cosponsors introduced H.R. 2834, a bill to improve 
the well-being of, and improve permanency outcomes for, 
children and families affected by heroin, opioids, and other 
substance abuse. H.R. 2834 provides funds to states to prevent 
child abuse and neglect related to substance abuse, 
specifically focusing on addressing the opioid and heroin 
epidemic. The House suspended the rules and passed the as 
amended by voice vote on June 20, 2017.
    H.R. 2834 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
under Division E, Title VII, Subtitle A, Part II, Section 
50723. The Regional Partnership Grant program was reauthorized 
in the Family First Prevention Services Act within the 
Bipartisan Budget Act.

(m) Reducing Unnecessary Barriers for Relative Foster Parents Act

    On June 8, 2017, Representative Lloyd Smucker, 
Representative Terri Sewell and six bipartisan cosponsors 
introduced H.R. 2866, a bill to review and improve licensing 
standards for placement in a relative foster family home. H.R. 
2866 helps relative caregivers avoid bureaucracy by promoting 
best practices for states by providing model foster care 
licensing standards with a focus on ensuring states promote 
placements with family members for children in care. This bill 
is focused on reducing bureaucracy and quickly placing children 
in foster care with relatives, which is one of the Family First 
Prevention Services Acts' biggest goals.
    The House passed the bill as amended by the Yeas and Nays 
(2/3 required) 382-19 (Roll no. 310) on June 21, 2017. H.R. 
2866 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 under 
Division E Title VII, Subtitle A, Part III, Section 50731.

(n) Improving Services for Older Youth in Foster Care Act

    On June 8, 2017, Representative John Faso, Representative 
Karen Bass and four bipartisan cosponsors introduced H.R. 2847, 
a bill to make improvements to the John H. Chafee Foster Care 
Independence Program and related provisions. H.R. 2847 improves 
support for the transition to adulthood by updating the Chafee 
program to: allow states the option of continuing to assist 
older former foster youth up to age 23; extend to age 26 
eligibility for Education and Training Vouchers under Chafee; 
require HHS to report on the National Youth in Transition 
Database (NYTD) and other relevant databases that track 
outcomes of youth who aged out or exited care to adoption or 
kinship guardianship; ensure that youth who age out of foster 
care are provided official documentation that proves they were 
previously in foster care.
    The House suspended the rules and passed the bill by the 
Yeas and Nays (2/3 required) 391-8 (Roll no. 309) on June 20, 
2017. H.R. 2847 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 
2018 under Division E, Title VII, Subtitle A, Part V, Section 
50753.

(o) Continuation of Useful Resources to States (COURTS) Act

    On November 28, 2017, Representative Kevin Brady and four 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4461, the Continuation of Useful 
Resources to States Act (COURTS Act), to amend subpart 2 of 
part B of Title IV of the Social Security Act to extend State 
court funding for child welfare. This bill extends and fully 
funds the Court Improvement Program (CIP) at $30 million 
annually to provide grants to the highest court in any state 
operating a Title IV-E child welfare program.
    H.R. 4461 was included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
under Division E, Title VII, Subtitle A, Part VI, Section 
50761. The COURTS Act was included in the four-year 
reauthorization for the Promoting Safe and Stable Families and 
Child Welfare Services programs through the Family First 
Prevention Services Act within the BBA.

              2. OTHER PROPOSALS DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) Preparing More Welfare Recipients for Work Act

    On March 2, 2017, Representative James Renacci and Derek 
Kilmer, along with five cosponsors introduced H.R. 1352, to 
encourage States to engage more TANF recipients in activities 
leading to employment and self-sufficiency, and to simplify 
State administration of TANF work requirements. The bill 
eliminates the distinction between core work activities and 
other specified work activities related to training and 
education, and increases, from 12 to 24 months, the maximum 
period for which vocational educational training counts a work 
activity. H.R. 1352 was included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and 
Opportunity with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for Success Act 
(mentioned below).

(b) Help Americans in Need Develop their Ultimate Potential (HAND UP) 
        Act

    On April 28, 2017, Representative Tom Reed and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2249, to authorize a State or a 
portion of a State to conduct a demonstration project designed 
to test methods of program integration and coordination of 
services with the goals of moving individuals and families 
towards self-sufficiency, reducing welfare dependence, and 
increasing work and earnings. On May 11, 2017, H.R. 2249 was 
referred to the Subcommittee on Human Resources.

(c) Control Unlawful Fugitive Felons Act of 2017

    On June 6, 2017, Representative Kristi Noem and three 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 2792, a bill to amend the Social 
Security Act to make certain revisions to provisions limiting 
payment of benefits to fugitive felons under titles II, VIII, 
and XVI of the Social Security Act. H.R. 2792 prohibits 
individuals subject to an outstanding arrest warrant for a 
felony from receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) 
payments. The House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup a 
favorably reported the bill as amended by the Yeas and Nays: 
23-14, on September 13, 2017. The House passed the bill by the 
Yeas and Nays: 244-171 (Roll no. 543) on September 28, 2017.

(d) Accelerating Individuals into the Workforce Act

    On June 6, 2017, Representative Carlos Curbelo and 
Representative Danny K. Davis introduced H.R. 2842, a bill to 
amend provide for the conduct of demonstration projects to test 
the effectiveness of subsidized employment for TANF recipients. 
H.R. 2842 encourages employer-led partnerships to help people 
move from welfare to work by: encouraging state and local 
agencies to hire recipients from the TANF program; reserving up 
to $100 million to subsidize the wages of TANF recipients for 
up to 12 months; sets aside 15% of funds for programs that 
offer Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) defined 
Career Pathway services; allows no more than 50% of the wage 
for a TANF recipient to be subsidized using funds from this 
bill; requires states to report on outcome measures and provide 
high-quality evaluations to determine whether these public-
private partnerships were effective in helping welfare 
recipients move into jobs, retain work, and increase their 
earnings over time. The Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote 
on June 15, 2017. The House passed the bill by the Yeas and 
Nays 377-34 (Roll no. 322) on June 23, 2017.

(e) Permanency for Children Act of 2017

    On June 28, 2017, Representative Vicky Hartzler and five 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3092, to amend Title IV-D of the 
Social Security Act to require the Secretary of Health and 
Human Services to modify the Federal Parent Locator Service to 
improve search functions and include State responsible father 
registry search functions. On July 12, 2017, H.R. 3092 was 
referred to the Subcommittee on Human Resources.

(f) TANF Accountability and Integrity Improvement Act

    On July 26, 2017, Representative Kristi Noem introduced 
H.R. 3437 to prevent States from counting certain 
expenditures--more specifically, third-party contributions--as 
State spending to reduce TANF work requirements.
    On July 26, 2017, H.R. 3437 was referred to the 
Subcommittee on Human Resources. H.R. 3437 was included in H.R. 
5861, the Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits and Services 
(JOBS) for Success Act (mentioned below).

(g) Coordinating Assistance for TANF Recipients Act

    On October 27, 2017, Representative Jackie Walorski and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 4167, to provide for the conduct of 
demonstration projects to provide coordinated case management 
services for TANF recipients. H.R. 4167 establishes Coordinated 
Case Management Demonstration Projects to help individuals 
receiving assistance increase their employment and self-
sufficiency. H.R. 4167 was included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and 
Opportunity with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for Success Act 
(mentioned below).

(h) Navy SEAL Chief Petty Officer William `Bill' Mulder (Ret.) 
        Transition Improvement Act of 2018

    On April 27, 2018, Representative Jodey Arrington and 
eleven cosponsors introduced H.R. 5649, a bill to amend titles 
10 and 38, United States Code, to amend the Social Security 
Act, and to direct the Secretaries of Veterans Affairs, 
Defense, Labor, and Homeland Security, and the Administrator of 
the Small Business Administration, to take certain actions to 
improve transition assistance to members of the Armed Forces 
who separate, retire, or are discharged from the Armed Forces, 
and for other purposes. On July 16, 2018, the Chairman of the 
Committee on Veterans' Affairs, David Roe, M.C., sent a letter 
to the Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, Kevin 
Brady, to ask to consider H.R. 5649, as amended, for floor 
consideration. Chairman Kevin Brady sent a follow-up letter on 
July 17, 2018 to approve Chairman Roe's request. Following this 
exchange of letters, on July 24, 2018, the House Committee on 
Veterans' Affairs favorably reported the bill as amended, and 
the House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the bill by 
voice vote.

(i) Improving Access to Child Care Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative Mike Bishop and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 5835, to amend Title IV-A of the 
Social Security Act to support work by increasing access to 
child care. H.R. 5835 increases the current funding for the 
Child Care Entitlement to States portion of the Child Care 
Development Fund (CCDF) to $3.5 billion annually from $2.9 
billion annually. The Improving Access to Child Care Act is 
included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits 
and Services (JOBS) for Success Act (mentioned below).

(j) Supporting Work Through Apprenticeships Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative Mike Bishop and three 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5836, to amend Title IV-A of the 
Social Security Act to increase opportunities for success by 
promoting apprenticeships. The bill includes apprenticeships 
within the current law definition of ``on-the-job training.'' 
H.R. 5836 is included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and Opportunity 
with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for Success Act (mentioned 
below).

(k) Improving Access to Work Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative Darin LaHood and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 5838, to amend Title IV-A of the 
Social Security Act to refocus funding to emphasize core work 
purposes. The bill requires states to address the core work 
purposes, rather than use federal assistance funds to fill 
state budget holes and adds non-supplantation language to 
prohibit the diversion of federal funds to replace state 
spending. Additionally, H.R. 5838 directs the Department of 
Health and Human Services (HHS) to ensure that states are 
satisfying the ``supplement not supplant'' requirement that 
this bill enforces. H.R. 5838 is included in H.R. 5861, the 
Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for 
Success Act (mentioned below).

(l) Helping Americans Succeed by Measuring Outcomes Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative Tom Reed and one cosponsor 
introduced H.R. 5842, to amend Title IV-A of the Social 
Security Act to measure work outcomes and ease the transition 
to work. The bill applies an outcome-based performance 
accountability system to assess the effectiveness of states in 
increasing employment, retention and advancement among families 
receiving assistance, replacing the work participation rate as 
the primary state accountability mechanism. H.R. 5842 also 
establishes four indicators of performance, in alignment with 
those used under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act 
(WIOA), to be determined on a state-by-state basis jointly with 
the Secretary of Health and Human Services. H.R. 5842 is 
included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits 
and Services (JOBS) for Success Act (mentioned below).

(m) The Benefits to Employment Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative Jason Smith and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 5843, to amend Title IV-A of the 
Social Security Act to increase expectations and engagement to 
promote work. The bill retains the strong focus on work by 
requiring all work-eligible individuals receiving assistance to 
participate in work or work preparation activities for a 
minimum number of hours per month in exchange for benefits. 
H.R. 5843 also expects universal engagement and case management 
that begins with an initial assessment of education, skills, 
and work readiness to develop an individual opportunity plan. 
H.R. 5843 is included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and Opportunity 
with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for Success Act (mentioned 
below).

(n) Protecting Family Resources and Training Options Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative Carlos Curbelo and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 5847, to amend Title IV-A of the 
Social Security Act to improve transparency and accountability 
through better data reporting. H.R. 5847 requires that program 
data be subject to improper payment reviews consistent with 
other programs across government, with respect to applicable 
federal and state laws and policies, to produce a national 
error rate for the program. Additionally, the bill clarifies 
that vocational education training includes career technical 
education and removes the 12-month time limit on such training 
and education. H.R. 5847 is included in H.R. 5861, the Jobs and 
Opportunity with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for Success Act 
(mentioned below).

(o) Preserving Welfare for Needs Not Weed Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative David Reichert and one 
cosponsor introduced H.R. 5853, to prohibit assistance provided 
under the program of block grants to States for temporary 
assistance for needy families from being accessed through the 
use of an electronic benefit transfer card at any store that 
offers marijuana for sale. H.R. 5853 is included in H.R. 5861, 
the Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for 
Success Act (mentioned below).

(p) Improving Transparency in TANF through Data Act

    On May 16, 2018, Representative David Schweikert and five 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 5854, to amend Title IV-A of the 
Social Security Act to increase transparency and accountability 
through better data reporting. H.R. 5854 requires reporting of 
full population data, rather than samples, in order to improve 
transparency and sub-state analysis. The bill also adds 
reporting to capture the number of hours per month for each 
work eligible individual and instructs the Department of Health 
and Human Services (HHS) HHS and the Department of Labor (DOL) 
to determine information necessary to be collected for the 
measurement of employment and earnings outcomes of work-
eligible individuals, in the shift to measure outcomes as the 
primary means of accountability. H.R. 5854 is included in H.R. 
5861, the Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits and Services 
(JOBS) for Success Act (mentioned below).

(q) Jobs and Opportunity with Benefits and Services (JOBS) for Success 
        Act

    On May 17, 2018, Representative Adrian Smith and thirty-
five cosponsors introduced H.R. 5861, a bill to amend part A of 
title IV of the Social Security Act to reauthorize the 
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. H.R. 
5861 extends TANF and related funds for five years through 
FY2023, strengthens work requirements through universal 
engagement and case management, restores accountability by 
measuring and paying for real employment and earnings outcomes, 
focuses funding on truly needy families and core purposes that 
support work, and improves program integrity by measuring 
improper payments and program errors. The JOBS for Success Act 
contains eleven bills that were referred to the Subcommittee on 
Human Resources: H.R. 1352, H.R. 3437, H.R. 4167, H.R. 5835, 
H.R. 5836, H.R. 5838, H.R. 5842, H.R. 5843, H.R. 5847, H.R. 
5853, and H.R. 5854. On May 23-24, 2018, the House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup, and favorably reported the bill 
as amended on June 13, 2018.

            E. Legislative Review of Social Security Issues


          1. BILLS ENACTED INTO LAW DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) Social Security Number Fraud Prevention Act of 2017 (P.L. 115-59)

    On January 24, 2017, Representatives David Valadao and Eric 
Swalwell introduced H.R. 624. This bill had 33 cosponsors. H.R. 
624 restricts the inclusion of Social Security account numbers 
on federal documents sent by mail, and for other purposes. H.R. 
624 generally prohibits agencies of the federal government from 
mailing documents containing full Social Security numbers 
(SSNs) by September 15, 2022, and requires agencies to provide 
annual reports to Congress that include updates of the 
agencies' progress in implementing the law. On May 23, 2017, 
the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform 
favorably reported the bill as amended (H. Rept. 115-150, Part 
I), and the Committee on Ways and Means discharged H.R. 624. On 
May 24, 2017, the House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill, as amended, by voice vote. On September 6, 2017, the 
Senate passed H.R. 624 without amendment by Unanimous Consent. 
The bill was signed by the President and became Public Law No. 
115-59 on September 15, 2017.

(b) Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act 
        (P.L. 115-174)

    On November 16, 2017, Senator Mike Crapo introduced S. 
2155, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer 
Protection Act. This bill had 26 cosponsors. S. 2155 includes 
an amendment introduced by Senator Tim Scott to combat 
synthetic identity fraud by allowing financial institutions to 
obtain electronic consent from individuals before verifying 
their personal information against the Social Security 
Administration's (SSA's) records. On March 14, 2018 the Senate 
passed the bill by a Yea-Nay vote 67-31. On May 22, 2018, the 
bill was passed in the House by a Yea-Nay vote 258-159. On May 
24, 2018, S. 2155 was signed by the President and became Public 
Law No. 115-174.
    The Protecting Children from Identity Theft Act (H.R. 
5192), a standalone version of section 215 of S. 2155, was 
introduced on March 7, 2018 by Representatives Carlos Curbelo 
and Kyrsten Sinema. This bill had 14 cosponsors. H.R. 5192 
would authorize the Commissioner of Social Security to provide 
confirmation of fraud protection data to certain permitted 
entities, and for other purposes. The Committee on Ways and 
Means favorably reported the bill as amended by a Yea-Nay vote 
38-0 on April 11, 2018. On April 17, 2018, the House passed the 
bill by a Yea-Nay vote 420-1 (Roll no. 142).

(c) Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, 
        United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Social 
        Security Administration relating to Implementation of the NICS 
        Improvement Amendments Act of 2007 (P.L. 115-8)

    On January 30, 2017, Representative Sam Johnson and 
Representative Ralph Abraham introduced H.J. Res. 40. This had 
119 cosponsors. H.J. Res. 40 overturned a regulation finalized 
under the Obama Administration that infringes upon the Second 
Amendment rights of certain Social Security disability 
beneficiaries. On February 2, 2017, it was passed in the House 
by a Yea-Nay vote 235-180. On February 15, 2017, it was passed 
in the Senate by a Yea-Nay vote 57-43. On February 28, 2017, it 
was signed by the President and became Public Law No. 115-8.

(d) Strengthening Protections for Social Security Beneficiaries Act of 
        2018 (P.L. 115-165)

    On December 5, 2017, Representative Sam Johnson and 
Representative John Larson introduced H.R. 4547. This bill had 
74 cosponsors. H.R. 4547, a bill to amend titles II, VIII, and 
XVI of the Social Security Act, makes changes to Social 
Security's representative payment program. This legislation 
strengthens oversight of representative payees and increases 
beneficiary protections, while improving payee selection and 
quality. The House suspended the rules and passed the bill by a 
Yea-Nay vote 396-0 (Roll no. 51) on February 5, 2018. The 
Senate passed the bill by unanimous consent on March 23, 2018. 
On April 13, 2018, the bill was signed by the President and 
became Public Law No. 115-165.

(e) Tribal Social Security Fairness Act of 2018

    On June 15, 2018, Representative David G. Reichert, 
Representative Suzan DelBene, Representative Tom Cole, and 
Representative Derek Kilmer introduced H.R. 6124. This bill had 
three other cosponsors. H.R. 6124 is a bill to amend title II 
of the Social Security Act to allow Tribal Councils to 
voluntarily enter into Social Security coverage agreements with 
the Social Security Administration (SSA). On June 21, 2018, the 
Committee on Ways and Means favorably reported the bill as 
amended. The House agreed to suspend the rules and pass the 
bill as amended by voice vote on July 24, 2018. On September 6, 
2018, the Senate passed the bill without amendment by unanimous 
consent. H.R. 6124 was signed by the President and became 
Public Law No. 115-243 on September 20, 2018.

              2. OTHER PROPOSALS DURING THE 115TH CONGRESS

(a) Social Security Child Protection Act of 2018

    On March 13, 2017, Representative Kenny Marchant and 
Representative Lloyd Doggett introduced H.R. 1512. This bill 
had 11 cosponsors. H.R. 1512, a bill to amend title II of the 
Social Security Act, provides the reissuance of Social Security 
account numbers to young children in cases where 
confidentiality has been compromised. The Committee favorably 
reported the bill on April 13, 2018. The House suspended the 
rules and passed by voice vote on April 17, 2018. This protects 
children under the age of 14 whose Social Security numbers have 
been stolen in transit by allowing them to receive a new SSN 
without having to wait for them to be harmed by that SSNs 
misuse.

(b) Social Security Online Tools Innovation Act of 2018

    On July 19, 2017, Representatives Sam Johnson, Mike Bishop, 
and Tom Reed introduced H.R. 3309. This bill requires the 
Commissioner of Social Security to develop online tools to 
allow an individual entitled to Disability Insurance (DI) 
benefits to obtain an estimate of the potential impact of 
earnings on the individual's eligibility for and amount of DI 
benefits. The Committee on Ways and Means favorably reported 
the bill as amended on July 18, 2018.

(c) Improving Social Security's Service to Victims of Identity Theft 
        Act

    On June 13, 2018, Representative Mike Bishop and 
Representative John Larson introduced H.R. 6084. This bill had 
ten cosponsors. H.R. 6084 amends title VII of the Social 
Security Act to provide for a single point of contact at the 
SSA for any individual who needs to resolve a problem with the 
SSA because of misuse of his or her SSN. On June 21, 2018, the 
Committee on Ways and Means favorably reported as amended on 
June 29, 2018. The House agreed to suspend the rules and pass 
the bill as amended by voice vote on July 24, 2018.

               F. Legislative Review of Oversight Issues

    Throughout the 115th Congress, the Ways and Means Committee 
marked up thirteen Oversight bills. Of those, eleven have been 
passed by the House. Those bills include:

(a) H. Res. 186

    On March 9, 2017, Representative Bill Pascrell Jr. and 
ninety-two cosponsors introduced H. Res. 186, a resolution of 
inquiry directing the Secretary of the Treasury to provide to 
the House of Representatives the tax returns and other 
specified financial information of President Donald J. Trump. 
On March 28, 2017, the Committee held a markup and unfavorably 
reported the resolution (H. Rept. 115-73).

(b) Clyde-Hirsch-Sowers RESPECT Act

    On March 30, 2017, Representatives Peter Roskam and Joseph 
Crowley, and thirteen cosponsors, introduced H.R. 1843, a bill 
to amend title 31, United States Code, to prohibit the Internal 
Revenue Service from carrying out seizures relating to a 
structuring transaction unless the property to be seized 
derived from an illegal source or the funds were structured for 
the purpose of concealing the violation of another criminal law 
or regulation, to require notice and a post-seizure hearing for 
such seizures, and for other purposes. The House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup on July 13, 2017 and favorably 
reported the bill as amended on September 5, 2017. The House 
Committee on Financial Services discharged the bill on 
September 5, 2017. The House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill, as amended by voice vote on September 5, 2017.

(c) Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Permanence Act of 2017

    On June 15, 2017, Representatives Carlos Curbelo and Danny 
Davis, and thirty-eight cosponsors, introduced H.R. 2901, a 
bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to make 
permanent the Volunteer Income Tax Assistance matching grant 
program. The House suspended the rules and passed the bill by 
voice vote on April 17, 2018. (See also: Tax legislation page 
12).

(d) Justice for Victims of IRS Scams and Identity Theft Act of 2018

    On June 15, 2017, Representatives David Young and Kyrsten 
Sinema introduced H.R. 2905, a bill to require the Attorney 
General to establish procedures for expedited review of the 
case of any person who unlawfully solicits personal information 
for purposes of committing identity theft, while purporting to 
be acting on behalf of the IRS, and for other purposes. The 
House suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by the 
Yeas and Nays (2/3 required) 403-3 (Roll no. 147) on April 18, 
2018. (See also: Tax legislation page 12).

(e) Ensuring Integrity in the IRS Workforce Act of 2018

    On July 27, 2017, Representative Kristi L. Noem and six 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 3500, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to prohibit the Commissioner of the 
Internal Revenue Service from rehiring any employee of the 
Internal Revenue Service who was involuntarily separated from 
service for misconduct. The House Committee on Ways and Means 
held a markup and favorably reported the bill by voice vote on 
June 22, 2018. On July 24, 2018, the House suspended the rules 
and passed the bill as amended by voice vote. (See also: Tax 
legislation page 12).

(f) H. Res. 479

    On July 27, 2017, Representative Bill Pascrell Jr. and 
eight cosponsors introduced H. Res. 479, a resolution of 
inquiry directing the Secretary of the Treasury to provide to 
the House of Representatives the tax return information of 
President Donald J. Trump as well as the tax returns of each 
business entity disclosed by Donald J. Trump on his Office of 
Government Ethics Form 278e. On September 7, 2017, the 
Committee held a markup and unfavorably reported the resolution 
(H. Rept. 115-309).

(g) To require the Secretary of the Treasury to establish a program for 
        the issuance of identity protection personal identification 
        numbers.

    On April 9, 2018, Representatives Erik Paulsen and Suzan 
DelBene introduced H.R. 5437, a bill to require the Secretary 
of the Treasury to establish a program for the issuance of 
identity protection personal identification numbers. The House 
Committee on Ways and Means held a markup and favorably 
reported the bill as amended by voice vote on April 11, 2018. 
On April 17, 2018, the House suspended the rules and passed the 
bill as amended by voice vote.

(h) To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow officers and 
        employees of the Department of the Treasury to provide to 
        taxpayers information regarding low-income taxpayer clinics.

    On April 9, 2018, Representatives George Holding and John 
Lewis introduced H.R. 5438, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to allow officers and employees of the 
Department of the Treasury to provide to taxpayers information 
regarding low-income taxpayer clinics. The House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill as 
amended by voice vote on April 11, 2018. On April 17, 2018, the 
House suspended the rules and passed the bill as amended by 
voice vote. (See also: Tax legislation page 14).

(i) To provide for a single point of contact at the Internal Revenue 
        Service for the taxpayers who are victims of tax-related 
        identity theft.

    On April 9, 2018, Representatives James Renacci and John 
Lewis, and two cosponsors, introduced H.R. 5439, a bill to 
provide for a single point of contact at the Internal Revenue 
Service for the taxpayers who are victims of tax-related 
identity theft. The House Committee on Ways and Means held a 
markup and favorably reported the bill as amended by voice vote 
on April 11, 2018. On April 17, 2018, the House suspended the 
rules and passed the bill as amended by voice vote. (See also: 
Tax legislation page 14).

(j) To require notice from the Secretary of the treasury in the case of 
        any closure of a Taxpayer Assistance Center

    On April 9, 2017, Representatives Karen C. Handel and Tom 
O'Halleran introduced H.R. 5440, a bill to require notice from 
the Secretary of the Treasury in the case of any closure of a 
Taxpayer Assistance Center. On April 17, 2018, the House agreed 
to suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by voice 
vote. (See also: Tax legislation page 14).

(k) To amend the Internal Revenue of 1986 to require electronic filing 
        of the annual returns of exempt organizations and provide for 
        making such returns available for public inspection

    On April 10, 2018, Representatives Mike Kelly and Stephanie 
N. Murphy introduced H.R. 5443, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to require electronic filing of the annual 
returns of exempt organizations and provide for making such 
returns available for public inspection. The House agreed to 
suspend the rules and pass the bill as amended by voice vote on 
April 17, 2018. (See also: Tax legislation page 15).

(l) Taxpayer First Act

    On April 10, 2018, Representatives Lynn Jenkins and John 
Lewis, and three cosponsors, introduced H.R. 5444, a bill to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to modernize and 
improve the Internal Revenue Service, and for other purposes. 
The House Committee on Ways and Means held a markup on April 
11, 2018 and favorably reported the bill as amended on April 
13, 2018. The House Committee on Financial Services discharged 
the bill on April 13, 2018. On April 18, 2018, the House agreed 
to suspend the rules and passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 
414-0 (Roll no. 146).

(m) To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to restrict the 
        immediate sale of seized property by the Secretary of the 
        Treasury to perishable goods

    On April 10, 2018, Representatives Drew A. Ferguson and 
Joseph Crowley introduced H.R. 5446, a bill to amend the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to restrict the immediate sale of 
seized property by the Secretary of the Treasury to perishable 
goods. On April 17, 2018, the House agreed to suspend the rules 
and pass the bill as amended by voice vote.

(n) 21st Century IRS Act

    On April 19, 2018, Representatives Mike Bishop and Suzan 
DelBene, and five cosponsors, introduced H.R. 5445, a bill to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to improve 
cybersecurity and taxpayer identity protection, and modernize 
the information technology of the Internal Revenue Service, and 
for other purposes. On April 11, 2018, the House Committee on 
Ways and Means held a markup and favorably reported the bill as 
amended on April 13, 2018. The House agreed to suspend the 
rules and passed the bill by the Yeas and Nays: 414-3 (Roll no. 
145).

(o) Taxpayer First Act of 2018

    On December 10, 2018, Representatives Lynn Jenkins and John 
Lewis introduced H.R. 7227, a bill to amend the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 to modernize and improve the Internal 
Revenue Service, and for other purposes. On December 20, 2018, 
the House agreed to suspend the rules and passed the bill as 
amended by the Yeas and Nays: 378-11 (Roll no. 455).

                     II. OVERSIGHT ACTIVITY REVIEW


                          A. Oversight Agenda


Matters under the Committee's Trade Jurisdiction

     Trade Negotiations and Trade Promotion Authority. 
Fully exercise Congress' oversight responsibilities regarding 
existing and new trade negotiations. Ensure the 
Administration's compliance with TPA's Congressional 
notification and consultation requirements and transparency 
requirements. Ensure the Administration's consideration of 
Congressional trade objectives contained in TPA, with the goal 
of concluding comprehensive and high-ambition agreements, with 
particular focus on the Asia-Pacific and the European Union. 
Closely monitor the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the 
European Union to determine an appropriate time for 
negotiations concerning a trade agreement.
     Role of Trade in U.S. Job Creation. Oversight of 
the role of trade in creating U.S. jobs and economic growth and 
how to create new market access for U.S. manufactured goods, 
agriculture, and services.
     Miscellaneous Tariff Bill (MTB). Oversight of the 
implementation of the procedures set forth in the American 
Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2016 to reduce or suspend 
tariffs for U.S. manufacturers on products not made in the 
United States, to include: ensuring that the International 
Trade Commission and the Executive Branch perform their roles 
within the timeframes set forth in the bill and maintain an 
open and transparent process; and producing a legislative 
package of noncontroversial provisions for consideration by the 
House.
     Enforcement. Oversight of enforcement of U.S. 
rights under trade agreements, including the WTO Agreements and 
bilateral and regional free trade agreements, to hold U.S. 
trading partners accountable. Particular oversight of 
enforcement activities related to China's WTO commitments, as 
well as continuing barriers imposed by India. Oversight of the 
administration of U.S. trade remedy laws, as well as 
enforcement related to U.S. intellectual property rights, 
import safety, and illegal transshipment. Oversight of the 
implementation of the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement 
Act of 2015 (``Customs bill'') to ensure that the new 
enforcement tools in the bill are being fully utilized, 
particularly with respect to evasion of trade remedies, 
intellectual property violations, currency policy, forced 
labor, and violations of trade agreements.
     Trade Remedies. Oversight and promotion of the 
enforcement of the trade remedy laws, in compliance with the 
legal and evidentiary requirements established by Congress. 
Oversight of implementation of the Enforce and Protect Act of 
2015 by Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to address trade 
remedy evasion and ensure CBP's compliance with the law as 
written. Support of Administration efforts to defend the use of 
the criteria established by Congress to identify non-market 
economy countries for the purposes of antidumping cases.
     China. Oversight of enforcement issues including 
ensuring that implementation of U.S. trade remedy laws 
appropriately accounts for the continued high level of 
government intervention in China's economy. Oversight of 
systemic problems in U.S.-China trade relations, including 
issues related to China's consistent lack of protection and 
enforcement of U.S. intellectual property rights; excess 
production capacity for steel, aluminum, and many other 
commodities; indigenous innovation requirements; use of 
industrial subsidies; export restraints on key products; and 
currency policies.
     Implemented Trade Agreements. Oversight of 
implemented agreements with Colombia; Panama; Korea; Peru; 
Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, and 
Honduras (CAFTA-DR); Oman; Bahrain; Singapore; Chile; 
Australia; Morocco; Jordan; Canada and Mexico (NAFTA); and 
Israel. Continued analysis of the benefits of these trade 
agreements for American companies, workers, ranchers and 
farmers. Identify provisions of such trade agreements that 
should be updated or added to increase and improve the 
benefits, including by drawing on work from previous trade 
negotiations.
     Preference Programs. Oversight and renewal of 
major U.S. trade preference programs, including the Generalized 
System of Preferences (expiring December 31, 2017) and the 
African Growth and Opportunity Act.
     Agriculture. Oversight and promotion of 
Administration efforts to increase enforcement and remove 
tariff and non-tariff barriers to U.S. agriculture, including 
non-science based sanitary and phytosanitary measures and 
barriers to agriculture biotechnology. Continued analysis and 
assessment of the broad and crucial benefits of agriculture 
exports to U.S. farmers, ranchers, companies, workers, and 
rural communities, and the need to increase U.S. agriculture 
exports. Engagement on trade-related provisions of the 2018 
Farm Bill.
     Manufacturing. Oversight and promotion of 
Administration efforts to increase enforcement and remove 
tariff and non-tariff barriers to U.S. manufacturing. Continued 
analysis and assessment of the broad and crucial benefits of 
manufacturing exports to U.S. manufacturers and their 
employees, and the need to increase U.S. manufacturing exports. 
Preparation of a Miscellaneous Tariff Bill for consideration by 
the House following the requirements of the American 
Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2016.
     Services. Oversight and promotion of 
Administration efforts to increase enforcement to remove 
barriers to the U.S. services sector. Analysis and assessment 
of the broad and crucial benefits of services to all sectors of 
the U.S. economy and the need to increase U.S. exports. 
Oversight over the Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) 
negotiations.
     Digital Trade and E-commerce. Oversight regarding 
trade barriers faced by U.S. manufacturers, service providers, 
and the agriculture sector in the area of digital trade and e-
commerce, particularly with respect to data issues 
(localization measures and dataflows). Oversight regarding how 
to address these issues through enforcement and trade 
negotiations.
     World Trade Organization (WTO). Oversight of U.S. 
goals in the WTO, including negotiations such as the 
Environmental Goods Agreement, the functioning of the dispute 
settlement system, and WTO accessions (including consideration 
of legislation granting Permanent Normal Trade Relations status 
and graduation from the Jackson-Vanik amendment's 
requirements). Analysis of the benefits of WTO membership for 
the United States, including the success of the WTO dispute 
settlement system and the importance of predictable rules to 
U.S. businesses and consumers. Monitor the progress of WTO 
members in undertaking the domestic processes necessary to 
bring the Trade Facilitation Agreement into force.
     Trade Sanctions. Oversight concerning import 
sanctions with, among others, Iran, Russia, Cuba, North Korea, 
and Syria.
     Trade Adjustment Assistance. Continued oversight 
concerning the Trade Adjustment Assistance programs for 
workers, firms, communities, and farmers, to monitor the 
effectiveness of these programs in providing training and new 
jobs for displaced workers in a simple and cost-effective 
manner.
     Priorities of the Office of the United States 
Trade Representative (USTR). Oversight over USTR to evaluate 
priorities for the 115th Congress and the trade agenda, and to 
assure its statutory role with respect to trade policy.
     Priorities of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). 
Oversight over CBP and implementation of Customs revenue 
functions. Oversight of the implementation of the Customs bill 
to ensure that the new enforcement tools provided in the bill 
are being fully utilized by CBP, including provisions relating 
to evasion of trade remedy laws and forced labor.
     Priorities of the United States International 
Trade Commission. Oversight over the Commission concerning 
overall priorities and operations.

  B. Actions Taken and Recommendations Made with Respect to Oversight 
                                  Plan


                       SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT

Actions Taken

                         SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On January 24, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on examining the effectiveness of the individual 
mandate under the Affordable Care Act from: (i) Mr. Thomas 
Miller, Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute; (ii) 
Mr. John R. Graham, Senior Fellow at the National Center for 
Policy Analysis; (iii) Dr. John E. McDonough, DrPH, MPA, 
Professor of Practice, Department of Health Policy & 
Management, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health. The 
Subcommittee examined the individual mandate penalty and its 
effectiveness in stabilizing health insurance markets.
    On February 7, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
and the Subcommittee on Oversight received testimony at a 
hearing entitled ``Examining the Social Security 
Administration's Representative Payee Program: Determining Who 
Needs Help'' from: (i) Marianna LaCanfora, Acting Deputy 
Commissioner, Office of Retirement and Disability Policy, 
Social Security Administration; (ii) Dr. Paul Appelbaum, 
Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of Psychiatry, Medicine & Law, 
Columbia University; (iii) Lindsay Nichols, Senior Attorney, 
The Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence/Americans for 
Responsible Solutions; (iv) Gale Stallworth Stone, Acting 
Inspector General, Social Security Administration. The hearing 
focused on the capability determination process used by the 
Social Security Administration (SSA) to assess whether an 
individual needs a representative payee to manage benefit 
payments on their behalf. The witnesses discussed how 
capability determinations are made, concerns with the SSA's 
current process, and recommendations for improvement.
    On March 22, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight and the 
Subcommittee on Social Security received testimony on Social 
Security's Representative Payee Program from: (i) Ms. Marianna 
LaCanfora, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Office of Retirement and 
Disability Policy, Social Security Administration; (ii) Ms. 
Gale Stallworth Stone, Acting Inspector General, Social 
Security Administration; (iii) Ms. Marty Ford, Senior Executive 
Officer, Public Policy, The Arc, on behalf of the Consortium 
for Citizens with Disabilities Social Security Task Force; (iv) 
Ms. Brenda Uekert, Principal Court Research Consultant, 
National Center for State Courts; (v) Mr. David Slayton, 
Administrative Director, Office of Court Administration, Texas 
Judicial Branch. This hearing was a follow-up hearing to the 
joint Social Security Subcommittee and Oversight Subcommittee 
hearing held on February 7, 2017, entitled ``Examining the 
Social Security Administration's Representative Payee Program: 
Determining Who Needs Help.'' This second hearing focused on 
how Social Security selects and monitors those serving as 
payees. The hearing also looked at innovative efforts at the 
state level, including recent changes that Texas has made to 
its guardianship program. Members indicated interest in 
bipartisan legislation to improve the representative payee 
program. This legislation entitled ``Strengthening Protections 
for Social Security Beneficiaries Act of 2018'' was later 
introduced on December 5, 2017 and signed into law on April 13, 
2018.
    On April 26, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on the 2017 tax filing season from: (i) Ms. Kirsten 
Wielobob, Deputy Commissioner for Services and Enforcement, 
Internal Revenue Service (IRS); (ii) Mr. Michael McKenney, 
Deputy Inspector General for Audit, Treasury Inspector General 
for Tax Administration (TIGTA); (iii) Ms. Jessica Lucas-Judy, 
Acting Director, Strategic Issues, Government Accountability 
Office (GAO). The hearing focused on efforts made by the IRS to 
provide services to taxpayers, combat identity theft, and 
collect taxes in the 2017 tax filing season. Topics covered 
included the newly implemented Protecting Taxpayers from Tax 
Hikes Act of 2015 anti-fraud provisions, identity theft, Earned 
Income Tax Credit improper payments, taxpayer access to face-
to-face customer services, the IRS's revised civil asset 
forfeiture procedures, and private debt collection activities.
    On May 19, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on IRS reform from the National Taxpayer Advocate, 
Ms. Nina Olson. The hearing provided input on reforms that can 
be made to the IRS based on the experience of the Taxpayer 
Advocate Service, an independent office which helps taxpayers 
resolve problems with the IRS.
    On July 19, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on efforts to combat waste, fraud, and abuse in the 
Medicare program from: (i) Mr. James Cosgrove, Director, Health 
Care, GAO; (ii) Mr. Jonathan Morse, Acting Director, Center for 
Program Integrity, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 
(CMS). The hearing focused on how CMS identifies and combats 
waste, fraud, and abuse in both traditional Medicare and the 
Medicare Advantage program. In 2015, the Medicare program 
(including Fee-for- Service, Medicare Advantage, and Part D) 
reported that it made $59.6 billion in improper payments, 
representing nearly 10 percent of all Medicare spending. 
Reducing improper payments is critical to protecting the 
integrity of the program and ensuring that taxpayer dollars are 
well spent.
    On July 25, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on the IRS's electronic record retention policies 
from: (i) Mr. Gregory Kutz, Assistant Inspector General for 
Audit, Management Services and Exempt Organizations, TIGTA; 
(ii) Mr. Jeffrey Tribiano, Deputy Commissioner for Operations 
Support, IRS; (iii) Mr. Edward Killen, Director of Privacy, 
Governmental Liaison, and Disclosure, IRS. The hearing focused 
on how the IRS retains electronic records, how it responds to 
record requests, and what policies and systems the IRS has in 
place to more readily respond to such requests. The hearing 
centered around a TIGTA report, released July 17, 2017, 
entitled ``Electronic Record Retention Policies Do Not 
Consistently Ensure That Records are Retained and Produced When 
Requested.'' The report found that the IRS fails to adequately 
retain electronic records, impeding Congressional oversight 
efforts and the IRS's ability to respond to taxpayer requests 
for information. The IRS discussed policy and process 
improvements that it has or will make to ensure that record 
retention does not continue to be an issue for the IRS. One of 
the key concerns raised by TIGTA is the IRS's inability to 
modernize its enterprise email system, which would allow for 
the automatic archiving of IRS employee emails in adherence 
with federal requirements. The IRS testified that it is on 
track to institute a new email system by its September 2017 
goal, nine months after the deadline mandated by the Office of 
Management and Budget.
    On September 13, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight 
received testimony on IRS reform and resolving taxpayer 
disputes from: Ms. Kathy Petronchak, Director of IRS Practice & 
Procedures, alliantgroup, LP; (ii) Mr. Pete Sepp, President, 
National Taxpayers Union (NTU) & NTU Foundation; (iii) Mr. 
Byron Shinn, Founder and Managing Partner, Shinn & Co; (iv) Ms. 
Chastity Wilson, Principal, National Tax Office, 
CliftonLarsonAllen LLP. Members heard testimony from tax 
practitioners about their experience with IRS Appeals. The 
practitioners described the intimidating dispute resolution 
process that sometimes leaves taxpayers with little or no 
recourse. Less than five percent of small businesses appeal the 
results of their audit and it was suggested that this is due to 
the perception of the time and money required to dispute the 
audit results. The problems outlined by witnesses were largely 
unrelated to the Code itself and were described as purely 
administrative in nature.
    On October 4, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on the IRS's information technology (IT) 
modernization efforts from: (i) Mr. Jeffrey Tribiano, Deputy 
Commissioner for Operations Support, IRS; (ii) Ms. Gina Garza, 
Chief Information Officer (CIO), IRS; (iii) Mr. Danny 
Verneuille, Assistant Inspector General for Audit, Security and 
Information Technology Services, TIGTA; (iv) Mr. David Powner, 
Director, IT Management Issues, GAO. The hearing was held as 
part of the Oversight Subcommittee's ongoing series exploring 
various aspects of tax administration reform. The hearing 
concentrated on IRS IT and the hurdles faced as the IRS seeks 
to modernize its outdated IT infrastructure. The hearing 
explored the current state of IRS IT infrastructure, why IRS IT 
projects so often exceed time and budget constraints, and the 
changes needed to ensure a better functioning IRS IT 
environment. Members questioned the IRS witnesses on the 
agency's decision to award Equifax a $7.3 million contract 
three weeks after the announcement of the largest data breach 
in American history. The IRS CIO testified that she was unaware 
of the contract until the morning of the hearing.
    On December 13, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight 
received testimony on the taxpayer experience with the IRS 
from: (i) Ms. Jennifer MacMillan, Enrolled Agent, Owner, 
Jennifer MacMillan, EA; Government Relations Chair, National 
Association of Enrolled Agents; (ii) Ms. Tameka Lester, 
Associate Director, Phillip C. Cook Low Income Tax Clinic, 
Georgia State University College of Law; (iii) Ms. Karina Ron, 
Director, Center for Financial Stability, United Way of Miami-
Dade; (iv) Ms. Lynnette Lee-Villanueva, Vice President, Tax-
Aide, AARP Foundation. The hearing focused on the taxpayer 
experience. Members received testimony from paid preparers and 
volunteer organizations like the Volunteer Income Tax 
Assistance (VITA) clinic on what the IRS can do to better serve 
taxpayers. The hearing highlighted the successful public-
private partnership of the VITA program. Although partially 
funded by Congress, this grant program has never been 
authorized. Following the hearing, the Taxpayer First Act (H.R. 
5444), which would authorize the VITA program, passed the House 
on April 17, 2018.
    On January 17, 2018, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on the opioid crisis: the current landscape and CMS 
actions to prevent opioid misuse from: Mr. Gary L. Cantrell, 
Deputy Inspector General for Investigations, Office of the 
Inspector General (OIG), U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services (HHS); (ii) Ms. Elizabeth H. Curda, Director, Health 
Care, GAO (iii) Ms. Kimberly Brandt, Principal Deputy 
Administrator for Operations, CMS. Members heard from witnesses 
on what CMS is doing to monitor opioid use and identify 
beneficiaries at risk of overdose or abuse. HHS OIG discussed 
its work to identify opioid abuse, some of the latest opioid 
schemes it has encountered, and outstanding recommendations to 
CMS aimed at improving the agency's capabilities to monitor 
opioid users and identify potential opioid abusers.
    On January 30, 2018, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on legislation to improve tax administration from: 
(i) Representative Jason Smith, 8th District of Missouri; (ii) 
Representative Peter Roskam, 6th District of Illinois; (iii) 
Representative James Renacci, 16th District of Ohio; (iv) 
Representative Tom Rice, 7th District of South Carolina; (v) 
Representative Steve Chabot, 1st District of Ohio; (vi) 
Representative Louie Gohmert, 1st District of Texas; (vii) 
Representative Bill Posey, 8th District of Florida. The hearing 
was an opportunity for Committee Members and off-Committee 
Members to present their legislative ideas on reforming the 
IRS.
    On June 20, 2018, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on IRS and U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) efforts 
to return taxpayers' seized funds from: (i) Mr. John P. Cronan, 
Acting Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, DOJ; (ii) 
Mr. Don Fort, Chief, Criminal Investigation, IRS. The hearing 
served as a follow-up to civil asset forfeiture hearings held 
during the 114th Congress. The hearing focused on discrepancies 
between the IRS and DOJ's processes for reviewing petitions to 
return taxpayers' seized funds. Members voiced their concern 
that DOJ denied numerous petitions that, under current IRS and 
DOJ policies, should have been granted. Members followed-up by 
sending DOJ a letter on July 19, 2018 to further inquire about 
the denied petitions.
    On July 17, 2018, the Subcommittee on Oversight received 
testimony on combating fraud in Medicare: a strategy for 
success from: (i) Mr. Seto J. Bagdoyan, Director, Forensic 
Audits & Investigative Service, GAO; (ii) Ms. Gloria L. Jarmon, 
Deputy Inspector General for Audit Services, HHS OIG, (iii) Mr. 
Alec Alexander, Director, Center for Program Integrity, CMS. 
The hearing focused on the steps CMS is taking to align its 
antifraud efforts with GAO's ``Fraud Risk Framework,'' as 
mandated in the Fraud Reduction and Data Analytics Act of 2015.
    On September 26, 2018, the Subcommittee on Oversight 
received testimony on the IRS's taxpayer online authentication 
efforts from (i) Ms. Gina Garza, CIO, IRS; (ii) Mr. Edward 
Killen, Chief Privacy Officer, IRS; (iii) Mr. James R. McTigue 
Jr., Director, Tax Issues, Strategic Issues, GAO; (iv) Mr. 
Michael McKenney, Deputy Inspector General for Audit, TIGTA. 
The hearing focused on the IRS's current online authentication 
efforts, potential challenges, and additional actions the IRS 
could consider to better protect taxpayer information while 
ensuring easy taxpayer access to its online services.

                             INVESTIGATIONS

(a) Maternal Health

    During the 115th Congress, the Ways and Means Committee 
became aware of various media reports and medical research that 
raised concerns regarding rising maternal mortality and severe 
maternal morbidity rates in the U.S. over the past 30 years. 
One study estimated the maternal mortality rate increased by 
26.6 percent from 2000 to 2014. According to the Centers for 
Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 700 women die 
each year as a result of pregnancy or delivery complications 
and 50,000 women are also affected annually by severe maternal 
morbidity. A study of maternal mortality review committees in 
nine states determined that approximately 63 percent of 
pregnancy-related deaths were preventable.
    In response, the Ways and Means Committee launched an 
investigation on October 10, 2018 into rising maternal 
mortality and severe maternal morbidity rates among women 
during and after childbirth. The first phase of the 
investigation consisted of a letter sent by Ways and Means 
Chairman Brady (R-TX), Health Subcommittee Chairman Roskam (R-
IL), and Oversight Subcommittee Chairman Jenkins (R-KS) on 
October 10, 2018 to the 15 hospital systems in the U.S. with 
the highest patient revenues. The letter asked the hospital 
systems for information regarding identification of women at 
risk of pregnancy-related complications, how the hospital 
systems track and review pregnancy-related deaths, and to what 
extent the hospital systems participate in programs that seek 
to standardize and improve maternal safety practices. The 
Committee letter also focuses on the causes of racial 
disparities in maternal outcomes. The letter is the first phase 
in an ongoing investigation into the rising number of maternal 
mortalities and severe maternal morbidities.

(b) Medicare Fraud

    Billions of taxpayer dollars are lost every year due to 
fraud and improper payments and the Subcommittee continuously 
conducts oversight of CMS's efforts to combat fraud, waste, and 
abuse in the Medicare program. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2017, the 
Medicare program spent $630 billion, including nearly $52 
billion in improper payments. During the 115th Congress, the 
Subcommittee held two hearings on the subject in July 2017 and 
July 2018. In March 2018, Chairman Brady and Senate Finance 
Chairman Hatch sent a letter to CMS to address fraud, waste, 
and abuse vulnerabilities in Medicare, Medicaid, and the health 
insurance marketplace. The Ways and Means and Senate Finance 
Committees further inquired about CMS's efforts to assess fraud 
risk in these programs.
    Currently, CMS does not specifically identify or measure 
fraudulent payments, making it difficult for CMS to track 
fraud. Given the difficulty of measuring actual fraud, GAO 
developed the Fraud Risk Framework in 2015 to provide metrics 
for success when combating fraud in programs such as Medicare. 
The Framework outlines methods of identifying and mitigating 
fraud risk in order to reduce the likelihood and impact of 
fraud. The Oversight Subcommittee has found that CMS has taken 
steps to identify fraud risks but has yet to conduct a fraud 
risk assessment, and develop and implement an antifraud 
strategy for Medicare.

(c) Oversight of the Affordable Care Act

    The Subcommittee has continued its oversight of how the 
Treasury Department, IRS and HHS have implemented the 
Affordable Care Act, including ensuring a lawful process for 
distributing tax credits to assist individuals in obtaining 
health coverage. While the Affordable Care Act prohibited 
undocumented aliens from receiving the advanced premium tax 
credits, a report by the Senate Homeland Security and 
Governmental Affairs Committee, found that as of June 2015, 
``the Administration awarded approximately $750 million in tax 
credits on behalf of individuals who were later determined to 
be ineligible because they failed to verify their citizenship, 
status as a national, or legal presence.'' The review found the 
credits went to more than 500,000 individuals--who are illegal 
immigrants or whose legal status was unclear due to 
insufficient records. The Ways and Means Committee has been 
committed to ensuring that the process for applying for tax 
credits designed to assist individuals in purchasing health 
insurance is accurate and fair to taxpayers. The Committee has 
therefore reviewed both HHS and the Treasury Department's 
processes to verify eligibility and actions taken to prevent 
ineligible individuals from receiving advanced credits.
    The Subcommittee continued its work from the 114th Congress 
in investigating the IRS's implementation of the individual 
mandate penalty. On January 24, 2017, the Subcommittee held a 
hearing on the issue. The individual mandate penalty was later 
repealed through the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.

(d) CO-OPs

    The ACA created the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans 
(CO-OPs), which are non-profit insurance companies that offer 
plans on the ACA exchanges. In 2013, CMS loaned the CO-OPs $2.4 
billion to establish operations. To date, of the twenty-three 
CO-OPs that began operating in 2014, nineteen have collapsed, 
and only four remain operational. During the 114th Congress, 
the Ways and Means Committee began an investigation into the 
financial health of the CO-OPs, as well as proposed illegal 
conversions from non-profit to for-profit status. On September 
30, 2015, Chairman Brady, along with Chairman Roskam, and Rep. 
Adrian Smith, sent a letter to CMS asking about their efforts 
to monitor the CO-OPs' financial health as well as steps they 
are taking to ensure taxpayer dollars are protected. 
Additionally, the Health Subcommittee, with support from the 
Oversight Subcommittee, held a hearing on the CO-OP program on 
November 3, 2015, where CMS testified. On February 5, 2016, 
Committee staff reviewed CMS documents related to CO-OP 
oversight in camera.
    On October 3, 2016, the Washington Post reported that one 
CO-OP, Evergreen Health, was planning to convert from a not-
for-profit insurer to a for-profit company--a conversion 
explicitly prohibited by CMS regulations and loan agreements 
signed by Evergreen Health and CMS. Additionally, such a 
conversion may have tax implications. In late October 2016, the 
Committee sent letters to both CMS and Evergreen Health asking 
for additional documents and information on the proposed 
conversion. In January of 2017, CMS released Evergreen Health 
from the CO-OP program but ordered it repay $3.2 million of its 
$65 million startup loan and forfeit $30 million it was owed 
through the risk corridor program.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the Oversight Subcommittee 
has tracked the CO-OP recoveries repaid to CMS. Given that only 
four CO-OPs remain operational, it has become increasingly 
unlikely that they will repay much of the $2.4 billion.

(e) Civil Asset Forfeitures

    For a number of years, the IRS used its civil asset 
forfeiture authority to seize assets of individuals and small 
business owners it believed were ``structuring'' bank 
transactions--that is, keeping their transactions below $10,000 
to avoid IRS reporting requirements. The law that criminalizes 
structuring is designed to help the government capture money 
launderers, drug runners, and the like. Instead of focusing its 
attention on major criminal activity, however, the IRS began 
seizing funds from individuals and small business owners 
conducting business in cash and frequently making deposits of 
less than $10,000. The IRS would hold the funds--oftentimes, 
most of the business's or individual's entire savings--until 
the property holders agreed to settle the case, even if the 
property owners continued to insist on their innocence of 
structuring. Many of these individuals explained that their 
insurance policies only protected up to $10,000 of cash on hand 
in their stores, so they would deposit funds as they got close 
to $10,000, or a bank teller had told them that it would save 
paperwork if they kept their cash deposits under $10,000. After 
the Ways and Means Committee began raising questions about the 
IRS's seizure and settlement practices, on October 25, 2014, 
the IRS issued a policy saying it would no longer seize 
structured funds unless they came from an illegal source.
    On June 15, 2016, the IRS announced that it would notify 
all individuals from whom it had seized assets based on a 
suspicion of structuring since 2010 that they could petition 
the IRS to reconsider their cases. The IRS identified a total 
of 691 cases that fell within this time period and sent more 
than 1,800 letters to individuals with a potential interest in 
forfeited property. The IRS accepted petitions under this 
program until December 31, 2016.
    Based on the initial oversight work conducted during the 
114th Congress, the Subcommittee continued to receive regular 
updates on the disposition of petitions for remission and 
mitigation made to the IRS. The IRS received a total of 464 
petitions, of which 208 were determined to be administrative 
forfeiture cases and 256 were determined to be civil judicial 
forfeiture cases. The IRS granted relief with respect to 174 
administrative forfeiture petitions (84 percent), returning all 
associated funds totaling approximately $9.9 million. The IRS 
also recommended DOJ grant relief with respect to 194 judicial 
forfeiture petitions (76 percent). However, DOJ elected to only 
grant 41 petitions (16 percent), returning $1.9 million. DOJ 
denied the remaining 215 petitions, declining to return $22.2 
million.
    In May 2018, Members received a briefing from the DOJ on 
its progress reviewing these petitions and their final 
disposition. DOJ's decisions and its inability to fully explain 
why their decisions varied so much from the outcomes 
recommended by the IRS led the Chairman to hold a Subcommittee 
hearing. In a June 2018 hearing, Subcommittee Members voiced 
their concerns that DOJ denied numerous petitions, which under 
current IRS and DOJ policies, should have been granted. Based 
on the testimony received, Members also sent a letter to DOJ on 
July 19, 2018 asking the Attorney General to reconsider DOJ's 
denials of so many of the petitions.
    During the 114th Congress, Oversight Subcommittee Chairman 
Roskam (R-IL) and Representative Joe Crowley (D-NY) introduced 
H.R. 5523 Clyde-Hirsch-Sowers RESPECT Act on June 16, 2016 and 
the Committee marked up the bill on July 7, 2016. The Committee 
ordered the bill favorably reported to the House of 
Representatives, and the bill was passed by the House on 
September 22, 2016, by a vote of 415-0. Senators Tim Scott (R-
SC) and Sherrod Brown (D-OH) introduced a companion bill, S. 
3353 in the Senate.
    During the 115th Congress, Tax Policy Subcommittee Chairman 
Roskam (R-IL) and Representative Joe Crowley (D-NY) 
reintroduced H.R. 1843 Clyde-Hirsch-Sowers RESPECT Act on March 
30, 2017 and the Committee marked up the bill on July 13, 2017. 
The Committee ordered the bill favorably reported to the House 
of Representatives, and on September 5, 2017, the House voted 
to suspend the rules and passed the bill by voice vote. 
Senators Tim Scott (R-SC), Sherrod Brown (D-OH), Johnny Isakson 
(R-GA), and Mark Warner (D-VA) reintroduced a companion bill, 
S. 824 in the Senate. On December 10, 2018, Representatives 
Lynn Jenkins and John Lewis introduced H.R. 7227, a bill to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to modernize and 
improve the Internal Revenue Service, and for other purposes. 
The Clyde-Hirsch-Sowers RESPECT Act was incorporated into that 
bill. On December 20, 2018, the House agreed to suspend the 
rules and passed H.R. 7227 as amended by the Yeas and Nays: 
378-11 (Roll no. 455).

(f) Equifax and Internal Revenue Service Information Technology 
        Contracting

    Shortly after Equifax experienced a breach in 2017 
resulting in the loss of information for approximately 146 
million individuals, the Committee became aware of a renewed 
short-term contract between Equifax and the IRS. Preliminary 
results showed that Equifax's recent data breach stemmed from a 
basic failure to install security patches in a timely manner, 
drawing into question whether or not Equifax should be trusted 
to be the recipient of IRS data for taxpayer authentication 
purposes. Moreover, the short-term contract was put in place, 
in part, because of the actions taken by Equifax. Despite 
having allowed for the largest breach in U.S. history, Equifax 
proceeded with a bid protest to provide services to the IRS 
that directly related to the breach. Equifax's actions could 
have resulted in the company making millions of dollars without 
fully assuring the IRS or Congress that the breach of the 
Equifax systems and internal failures leading to the breach had 
been properly addressed.
    Furthermore, the short-term contract between the IRS and 
Equifax for identity authentication services raised serious 
concerns about the oversight of the IRS with respect to its IT 
contracts. In December 2014, Congress passed the Federal 
Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA), in 
part, to better empower agency CIOs to more appropriately 
oversee their agencies' IT portfolios. FITARA requires agency 
CIOs to approve IT plans, strategies, and contracts. 
Specifically, FITARA directly states that a covered agency, 
such as the Treasury Department, ``may not enter into a 
contract or other agreement for information technology or 
information technology services, unless the contract or other 
agreement has been reviewed and approved by the Chief 
Information Officer of the agency.'' Subsequent Office of 
Management and Budget guidance emphasizes that agencies cannot 
approve an acquisition strategy, acquisition plan, or 
interagency agreement that includes IT without review and 
approval by the agency CIO. For contract actions containing IT 
without an approved acquisition strategy or plan, the CIO must 
also review and approve the action itself.
    On October 27, 2017, the Senate Finance and House Ways and 
Means Committees wrote to Equifax and the Treasury Department 
seeking additional information on this matter as well as all of 
the related contracting documents. Subcommittee Members also 
directly questioned the IRS about the renewal of the contract 
during an October 2017 hearing on IRS IT modernization. The 
Subcommittee found that the IRS CIO was not aware of the 
contract renewal until the morning of the hearing and that 
Treasury provides minimal oversight of IRS IT and procurement, 
delegating authorities where it can.

(g) Internal Revenue Service's Information Technology

    During the 115th Congress, the Subcommittee has closely 
monitored the IRS's efforts to modernize its IT infrastructure 
after a number of high-profile IT failures. Time and time 
again, the Committee received reports of the IRS failing to 
deliver, or delivering IT solutions that were over budget, 
late, and/or provided less functionality than initially 
desired. On October 4, 2017, the Subcommittee held a hearing on 
the IRS's IT modernization efforts. During this hearing, 
Members questioned the IRS's ability to complete projects on 
time and within budget. Members also delved into the IRS IT 
planning process, questioning whether or not the IRS adequately 
planned for where it needs to be five or ten years in the 
future. Since the hearing, the IRS has briefed Members twice on 
its five-year IT plan. Members still remain concerned about the 
feasibility of the plan and whether or not it has been 
independently validated.
    As a result of the Committee's findings, on April 10, 2018, 
Oversight Subcommittee Chairman Jenkins (R-KS) and 
Representative Lewis (D-GA) introduced H.R. 5444, the Taxpayer 
First Act, which included a provision codifying the roles and 
responsibilities of the IRS CIO. This provision sought to 
strengthen IRS accountability for the billions of taxpayer 
dollars annually spent on developing and maintaining IRS IT 
systems. The provision also codified the position of the IRS's 
CIO and established clear roles and responsibilities for the 
CIO. The provision mandated that the IRS develop and implement 
an IT strategic plan, in alignment with the overall goals of 
the IRS, to ensure adequate consideration and planning for the 
IRS's long-term IT needs. The IRS also must have a third party 
independently verify and validate its plans for the completion 
of the Customer Account Data Engine 2 and Enterprise Case 
Management system(s) within a year of enactment. The Committee 
marked up the bill on April 11, 2018. The Committee ordered the 
bill favorably reported to the House of Representatives, and 
the bill was passed by the House on April 18, 2018, by a vote 
of 414-0.

(h) Virtual Currencies and the Internal Revenue Service's Use of Its 
        John Doe Summons Authority

    On May 17, 2017, after seeing public reports of a John Doe 
Summons being served on Coinbase, Inc. for its records spanning 
three years, the Senate Finance and House Ways and Means 
Committee Chairmen wrote to the IRS to request information 
about the IRS's digital currency strategy as well as recent 
events surrounding the IRS's summons to Coinbase.
    Furthermore, the Committees were concerned that the IRS has 
not issued guidance on virtual currencies beyond a series of 
Frequently Asked Questions issue in 2014. In March 2014, the 
IRS began working to clarify tax issues related to digital 
currencies by issuing guidance indicating that digital 
currencies would be treated as property for tax purposes. 
However, in September of 2016, TIGTA reported that the IRS had 
yet to develop a comprehensive digital currency tax strategy, 
citing a need for the IRS to update its initial guidance to 
reflect the various uses of digital currencies. To date, no 
such update has appeared.
    Despite the absence of a comprehensive strategy, on 
December 6, 2016, the IRS issued a summons to Coinbase 
requiring the records of all American Coinbase customers who 
conducted transactions in convertible digital currency between 
January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. The summons was 
estimated to affect 500,000 active Coinbase customers and would 
result in the production of millions of pages of associated 
records, many of which contain personally identifiable 
information. However, 90 percent of these customers engaged in 
less than $10,000 in cumulative, gross transactions during the 
entire period requested.
    According to the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), the issuance 
of this type of Summons-called a John Doe Summons-requires the 
government to establish that the summons pertains to an 
ascertainable class of persons, whose identity is unknown, and 
with respect to whom the IRS has a ``reasonable basis''' for 
the belief that the individuals have failed to comply with tax 
laws. However, the Committees strongly questioned whether the 
IRS established a reasonable basis to support the mass 
production of records for half a million individuals, the vast 
majority of whom appear to not be conducting the volume of 
transactions needed to report them to the IRS. Based on a 
subsequent briefing and additional investigative work 
undertaken, the Committee still found the summons to be overly 
broad, extremely burdensome, and highly intrusive to a large 
population of individuals. The Committee also remained 
concerned that the IRS's actions in this case set a dangerous 
precedent for companies facilitating virtual currency 
transactions that could be subject to a similar summons.
    As a result, on April 10, 2018, Oversight Subcommittee 
Chairman Jenkins (R-KS) and Representative Lewis (D-GA) 
introduced H.R. 5444, the Taxpayer First Act, which included a 
provision clarifying the IRS's John Doe Summons authority. The 
Committee marked up the bill on April 11, 2018. The Committee 
ordered the bill favorably reported to the House of 
Representatives, and the bill was passed by the House on April 
18, 2018, by a vote of 414-0.
    Members of the Oversight Subcommittee also sent a follow-up 
letter on September 19, 2018, asking for an update on the IRS's 
efforts to issue further guidance on virtual currencies. The 
Committee found that the IRS does not have a timeline for 
issuing such guidance and was able to share very little in 
terms of what efforts it had made to address the need for 
additional guidance. The Subcommittee also requested follow-up 
work from GAO to better ascertain what actions, if any, the IRS 
has taken to develop further guidance on virtual currencies.

(i) Perishable Goods

    Under the IRC, if it is determined that any tangible 
property seized to satisfy unpaid taxes (1) is liable to 
perish, (2) is liable to become greatly reduced in price or 
value by keeping, or (3) cannot be kept without great expense, 
the property may be sold after it has been appraised and the 
owner has been given an opportunity to pay the appraised value 
or furnish bond for payment. The general procedures governing 
the sale of seized property that are set forth in the IRC 
(e.g., requiring ten-day notice before sale and the 
determination of a minimum bid) are not applicable to sales of 
perishables. Deeming property as ``perishable'' also allows the 
IRS to forgo minimum bid requirements, which can lead to seized 
property being sold for significantly less than a normal 
auction would allow.
    After hearing reports of a bridal shop in Texas, whose 
contents were sold on the same day as a seizure by deeming them 
as ``perishable,'' the Subcommittee investigated the extent to 
which the IRS used these procedures to sell goods seized on the 
same day. The Subcommittee found that while these procedures 
are not used often, when they are, they are almost always used 
in cases where the goods are not liable to perish. Instead, the 
streamlined procedures were often used when the IRS seized the 
contents of a small business. In the case of the bridal shop, 
because the auction took place on the same day as the seizure, 
the contents of the store were sold at what appeared to be a 
fraction of their value. Furthermore, the profits from the sale 
were in fact not sufficient to cover the existing tax 
liability, leaving the owners with a remaining tax liability 
and without a means to earn a living going forward.
    Representatives Ferguson (R-GA) and Crowley (D-NY) 
introduced H.R. 5446, to amend the IRC of 1986 to restrict the 
immediate sale of seized property by the Secretary of the 
Treasury to perishable goods on April 10, 2018. This bill seeks 
to modify the definition of ``perishable'' by limiting the 
IRS's ability to deem seized property as ``perishable'' to only 
those that are liable to perish. The Committee marked up the 
bill on April 11, 2018. The Committee ordered the bill 
favorably reported to the House of Representatives, and on 
April 17, 2018, the House voted to suspend the rules and pass 
the bill by voice vote. On December 10, 2018, Representatives 
Lynn Jenkins and John Lewis introduced H.R. 7227, a bill to 
amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to modernize and 
improve the Internal Revenue Service, and for other purposes. 
H.R. 5446 was incorporated into that bill. On December 20, 
2018, the House agreed to suspend the rules and passed H.R. 
7227 as amended by the Yeas and Nays: 378-11 (Roll no. 455).

(j) Tax Refunds for Combat-Injured Veterans Disability Severance 
        Payments

    The Combat-Injured Veterans Tax Fairness Act of 2016 (H.R. 
5015) passed during the 114th Congress directed the Department 
of Defense (DoD) to identify and notify certain veterans who 
are eligible for a refund of taxes because such taxes were 
improperly withheld from disability severance payments. Prior 
to the passage of H.R. 5015, DoD had been withholding taxes 
from servicemembers with combat-related injuries who were 
separated from military service and received a disability 
severance payment. The law also required DoD to report to 
Congress on the number of veterans separated from duty with 
combat-related injuries since 1991, who are due a tax refund 
because of federal taxes withheld on disability severance 
payments, the total amount of federal taxes withheld from such 
payments and how DoD plans to ensure the withheld amounts will 
not be considered in gross income for the affected veterans. 
The report was due to Congress by December 16, 2017. However, 
six months after the due date of the report, the Committee had 
not received the report from DoD. In response, on July 25, 
2018, Chairman Brady (R-TX), Tax Policy Subcommittee Chairman 
Buchanan (R-FL), and Oversight Subcommittee Chairman Jenkins 
(R-KS) sent DoD a letter requesting information on the status 
of the report.
    In response, DoD provided the report to the Committee on 
August 2, 2018. The Subcommittee reviewed the report and found 
that DoD was unable to identify and notify all affected 
veterans. The Subcommittee followed up with DoD regarding its 
response to ask for additional information and ensure that DoD 
had conducted outreach to Veterans Service Organizations as 
well as conducted its own outreach to affected veterans. DoD 
responded to the Subcommittee that it did conduct outreach to 
key Veterans Service Organizations and coordinated with the IRS 
to post information on the IRS's website and its own website on 
how eligible individuals could file an amended tax return and 
claim their tax refund.

(k) Internal Revenue Service's Online Taxpayer Authentication

    Over the past two years, the Committee has investigated and 
raised concerns about the ability of the IRS to validate and 
authenticate the identity of individuals attempting to access 
the IRS's online tools and applications before conducting any 
type of transaction or exchange with individuals. The IRS 
relies on a number of online tools and applications to help 
administer the tax system by allowing taxpayers to complete 
transactions with the IRS online. In FY 2017, the IRS completed 
more than 330 million electronic transactions with taxpayers 
and third parties.
    In January and February 2017, IRS identified unusual 
activity on one of its key online applications, the Data 
Retrieval Tool (DRT). The DRT allows students and parents to 
access their adjusted gross income (AGI) information through an 
interface with the IRS to complete the Free Application for 
Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) by transferring the AGI information 
directly into their Department of Education FAFSA application 
form. The IRS reported that the unusual activity experienced in 
January and February 2017 were cyberattacks that led to the 
theft of up to 100,000 taxpayers' records. In March 2017, the 
Committee was briefed by the IRS and the Department of 
Education on the deactivation of the DRT, ongoing security 
concerns, and the IRS and ED's plan for the DRT going forward. 
On April, 6, 2017, the IRS sent a letter to Chairman Brady (R-
TX), in accordance with the Federal Information Security 
Modernization Act, to notify him that a major incident had 
occurred with the DRT. The letter included a timeline of events 
and stated that the IRS had begun to notify impacted taxpayers. 
The IRS fully relaunched the DRT in October 2017 with more 
stringent authentication practices in place.
    In response to ongoing concerns about the ability of the 
IRS to properly secure taxpayer information online and 
authenticate taxpayers, the Committee, including Chairman Brady 
(R-TX), Ranking Member Neal (D-MA), Oversight Subcommittee 
Chairman Jenkins (R-KS), and Oversight Subcommittee Ranking 
Member Lewis (D-GA) sent a letter to the IRS on April 28, 2017, 
to obtain information on the DRT as well as the IRS's other 
online tools and applications, and the steps the IRS is taking 
to prevent unauthorized access to taxpayer information through 
its online tools and applications. The IRS responded on June 8, 
2017 regarding the steps it is taking to authenticate the 
identity of individuals online before allowing them to access 
taxpayer information. The IRS disclosed that some of its online 
tools and applications had discrepancies between the level of 
authentication they should have and actually have, raising 
concerns that those online tools and applications may be 
susceptible to cyberattacks. Therefore, the Committee asked GAO 
in October 2017 to review the IRS's efforts to identify, 
develop, and implement new online services, which GAO is still 
in the process of reviewing. The Committee also joined an 
ongoing GAO request in January 2018 to evaluate the IRS's 
taxpayer authentication efforts.
    On July 23, 2018, GAO publicly released its report on 
taxpayer authentication, which identified a number of 
authentication deficiencies at the IRS. GAO made 11 
recommendations to the IRS, including recommending that the IRS 
estimate resources for and prioritize its authentication 
initiatives, address internal control issues to better monitor 
authentication, develop a plan to fully implement federal 
authentication guidance, and develop a process to evaluate 
potential authentication technologies. The IRS agreed with all 
of GAO's recommendations and is in the process of implementing 
them.
    Chairman Brady (R-TX) and Oversight Subcommittee Chairman 
Jenkins (R-KS) also sent a follow-up letter to the IRS on 
August 6, 2018, which asked the same questions the Committee 
asked in a letter sent to the IRS on April 28, 2017. In its 
response to the Committee's August 6, 2018 letter, the IRS sent 
a letter on September 24, 2018 stating that it had aligned the 
authentication level of its most sensitive online tools and 
applications between the level of authentication that should be 
in place and the authentication level that the IRS has in place 
based on federal authentication guidelines. Based on the 
findings from the GAO report as well as the Subcommittee's 
work, the Subcommittee held a hearing on September 26, 2018 to 
review the IRS's online taxpayer authentication efforts. 
Individuals from GAO, TIGTA, and the IRS testified at the 
hearing. The Committee hearing found that the IRS still has 
work to do to implement and track its overall authentication 
strategy as well as monitor its online tools and applications.

(l) Internal Revenue Service's Rehiring of Employees with Past 
        Misconduct or Performance Issues

    On July 24, 2017, TIGTA released a report that found that 
the IRS has not effectively updated or implemented hiring 
policies to fully consider past IRS conduct and performance 
issues prior to making a tentative decision to hire former 
employees, including those who were terminated or separated 
during an investigation of a substantiated conduct or 
performance issue. TIGTA found that about 10 percent, or more 
than 200 former employees, who were rehired between January 
2015 and March 2016, were previously terminated from the IRS or 
separated while under investigation for a substantiated conduct 
or performance issue. TIGTA made five recommendations to the 
IRS to provide the selecting official with access to former 
employee conduct and performance issues, and require that the 
basis for rehiring employees with prior employment issues be 
clearly documented. The IRS agreed with all of TIGTA's 
recommendations.
    Immediately following TIGTA's report, Ways and Means 
Member, Representative Kristi L. Noem (R-SD), along with five 
co-sponsors introduced H.R. 3500, Ensuring Integrity in the IRS 
Workforce Act of 2018. The bill amends the IRC by prohibiting 
the IRS from rehiring any individual who was previously 
employed by the IRS but was removed for misconduct or whose 
employment was terminated for cause. The Committee marked up 
the bill on June 21, 2018. The Committee ordered the bill 
favorably reported to the House of Representatives and on July 
24, 2018, the House voted to suspend the rules and passed the 
bill, as amended by voice vote. Chairman Hatch (R-UT), along 
with thirteen cosponsors, introduced a bill on July 19, 2018, 
S. 3246, in the Senate that included a similar provision to 
revise the IRS's hiring practices.
    In addition, on August 17, 2017, Chairman Brady (R-TX), Tax 
Policy Subcommittee Chairman Roskam (R-IL), and three Ways and 
Means Members sent a letter to the IRS regarding its hiring 
practices and to stress that the IRS must not rehire employees 
who were previously involuntarily separated from service for 
misconduct. In response, on October 23, 2017, the IRS said that 
it had updated its hiring policies and process to ensure it 
considers all prior performance and conduct issues and that the 
selecting officials will document any decision to rehire former 
employees with prior conduct or performance issues. These 
changes were implemented prior to the onboarding of new 
employees hired for the FY 2018 filing season. The IRS was also 
exploring additional efforts to strengthen its hiring policies 
and process.

(m) Internal Revenue Service Record Retention

    In July 2017, a TIGTA report found that the IRS policies do 
not comply with certain federal requirements that agencies must 
ensure that all records are retrievable and usable for as long 
as needed. For example, TIGTA found that the IRS e-mail 
retention policies are not adequate because e-mails are not 
automatically archived for all IRS employees. TIGTA made five 
recommendations to the IRS based on its findings. The 
recommendations included that the IRS establish an e-mail 
system compliant with federal management requirements and 
notify its employees about new retention policies, among other 
recommendations. The IRS agreed with all five recommendations.
    In response to TIGTA's findings, Chairman Hatch (R-UT) of 
the Senate Committee on Finance and Chairman Brady (R-TX) and 
Oversight Subcommittee Chairman Buchanan (R-FL) of the House 
Committee on Ways and Means sent a joint letter to the IRS on 
July 18, 2017, stressing the importance of addressing the 
retention deficiencies identified by TIGTA and also asking the 
IRS for a briefing on its plan to address the deficiencies 
identified by TIGTA. The letter also raised concerns about the 
IRS accidental destruction of 422 backup tapes and 24,000 
emails that Congress had requested as part of the bipartisan 
investigation into the IRS's treatment of tax-exempt 
organizations.
    In addition, on July 25, 2017, the Subcommittee held a 
hearing on the IRS's electronic record retention policies. 
Witnesses at the hearing included individuals from TIGTA and 
the IRS familiar with the IRS's retention policies. The hearing 
focused on how the IRS retains electronic records, how it 
responds to record requests, and what policies and systems the 
IRS has in place to more readily respond to such requests. The 
IRS testified that it is on track to institute a new email 
system by its September 30, 2017, but missed OMB's mandated 
deadline for all federal agencies to manage mail records in an 
electronic format by nine months.

(n) Social Security Administration's Information Technology

    The Oversight and Social Security Subcommittees continued 
to oversee the Social Security Administration's (SSA) IT 
procurements. Oversight Chairman Jenkins (R-KS) and Social 
Security Chairman Johnson (R-TX) sent a letter to Acting SSA 
Commissioner Berryhill to inquire about the agency's decision 
to develop a Click to Chat (CTC) service in-house, as opposed 
to implementing a commercial off-the-shelf product. In the wake 
of repeated missteps and hundreds of millions of wasted 
taxpayer dollars with the Disability Case Processing System, 
the Committee remained concerned that SSA chose to develop a 
CTC service in-house given the widespread use of CTC services 
available to the public.

(o) Social Security Childcare Dropout Years

    Since Social Security benefit amounts are based on average 
lifetime earnings, years without Social Security-covered 
earnings may reduce the benefit amount. By law, individuals 
applying for Disability Insurance (DI) may ``drop out'' from 
the benefit calculation up to three years with zero earnings if 
these years occurred while caring for a child under age three. 
However, data obtained by the Congressional Research Service 
suggested that only about 0.16 percent of individuals who 
received DI benefits between 2000 and 2013 had Childcare 
Dropout Years (CDYs) applied. On February 14, 2018, Oversight 
Subcommittee Chairman Jenkins (R-KS) and Social Security 
Subcommittee Chairman Johnson (R-TX) sent a letter to the SSA 
OIG requesting a review issues of the SSA's implementation of 
CDYs. In response to the Committee's request, SSA OIG issued a 
report on September 17, 2018 concluding that SSA correctly 
applies the CDY policy but very few beneficiaries meet all of 
the requirements to receive a CDY.

                         SUBCOMMITTEE ON TRADE

           1. TRADE NEGOTIATION AND TRADE PROMOTION AUTHORITY

Actions taken

            a. NAFTA/United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) 
                    Negotiations
    On January 31, 2017, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations convened within 30 days of the convening of 
Congress as required by the Bipartisan Congressional Trade 
Priorities and Accountability (TPA) Act of 2015 to discuss the 
trade agenda during the 115th Congress, including consulting 
with USTR on the determination of appropriate negotiating 
partners; the formulation of specific objectives, negotiating 
strategies, and positions; and compliance and enforcement of 
the negotiated commitments under U.S. trade agreements.
    On March 16, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On March 21, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United 
States Trade Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade 
agenda.
    On March 28, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On May 17, 2017, the Committee met with United States Trade 
Representative Robert Lighthizer and Secretary of Commerce 
Wilbur Ross as required by TPA prior to sending to Congress 
notification of intent to commence negotiations with Canada and 
Mexico regarding modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement (NAFTA).
    On May 17, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer 
and Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross as required by TPA prior 
to sending to Congress notification of intent to initiate 
negotiations with Canada and Mexico regarding modernization of 
NAFTA.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were the 
structure, content, and prospect for NAFTA negotiations. United 
States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On July 17, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its summary of objectives for the NAFTA 
renegotiation, as required by TPA.
    On July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Trade held a hearing 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. The purpose of the hearing was to analyze whether 
NAFTA had been successful for the U.S. economy and job creation 
with a focus on the U.S. manufacturing, agriculture, and 
services sectors, and whether NAFTA could be renegotiated and 
modernized to better address issues affecting U.S. workers, 
business, and consumers. Testimony was received from (i) Tom 
Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer--Cummins, 
Inc., (ii) Patrick J. Ottensmeyer, Chief Executive Officer--
Kansas City Southern, (iii) Dennis Arriola, Executive Vice 
President--Corporate Strategy and External Affairs--Sempra 
Energy, (iv) Celeste Drake, Trade and Globalization Policy 
Specialist--AFL-CIO, (v) Jason Perdue, President--York County, 
Nebraska Farm Bureau, (vi) Christine Bliss, President--
Coalition of Services Industries, (vii) Stan Ryan, Chief 
Executive Officer and President--Darigold, Inc., (viii) Althea 
Erickson, Senior Director--Global Advocacy and Policy--Etsy, 
Inc., and (ix) Susan Helper, Frank Tracy Carlton Professor of 
Economics--Case Western Reserve University.
    On August 16-20, 2017, the Committee participated in the 
first round of negotiations with Mexico and Canada in 
Washington, D.C. Committee staff met with U.S. stakeholders and 
officials from USTR.
    On September 2-5, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Mexico City, Mexico, to 
participate in the second round of negotiations with Mexico and 
Canada and to meet with officials from those countries, U.S. 
officials, and stakeholders.
    On September 22, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its report on Proposals 
Advanced in the NAFTA Negotiations that may Require Amendments 
to U.S. Trade Remedy Laws.
    On September 24-27, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Ottawa, Canada, to participate 
in the third round of negotiations and to meet with officials 
from those countries, U.S. officials, and stakeholders.
    On October 13-17, 2017, the Committee participated in the 
fourth round of negotiations in Arlington, Virginia. Committee 
staff met with officials from Mexico and Canada, U.S. 
officials, and stakeholders.
    On November 17, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its updated summary of 
objectives for the NAFTA renegotiation, as required by TPA.
    On November 18-21, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Mexico City, Mexico, to 
participate in the fifth round of negotiations and to meet with 
officials from those countries, U.S. officials, and 
stakeholders.
    On January 26-29, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert led a bipartisan Congressional delegation to Montreal, 
Canada to participate in the sixth round of negotiations and to 
meet with officials and stakeholders from the United States, 
Canada, and Mexico.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy including 
negotiations with Mexico and Canada.
    On March 2-5, 2018, Chairman Kevin Brady led a bipartisan 
Congressional delegation to Mexico City, Mexico to participate 
in the seventh round of negotiations and to meet with officials 
and stakeholders from the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were the 
structure, content, and prospect for negotiations with Mexico 
and Canada. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the 
Committee on the Administration's views on these issues.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including progress on 
the negotiations.
    On August 31, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter 
under TPA notifying Congress of his intent to sign a trade 
agreement with Mexico, and Canada if it is willing, after 90 
days.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the trade agenda, including Member views 
on the negotiations, as required by TPA prior to signing the 
agreement.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer to discuss the 
trade agenda, including Member views on the negotiations, as 
required by TPA prior to signing the agreement.
    On September 30, the Administration posted the text of the 
United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) on a publicly 
available website.
    On October 2, 2018, the Committee had a bipartisan call 
with Ambassador Lighthizer to discuss the USMCA.
    On November 30, 2018, the USMCA was signed.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee Members and staff 
held frequent consultations with USTR and other agencies to 
discuss ongoing progress in the negotiations and to provide 
Member views on the conduct and content of the negotiations.
            b. Japan Negotiations
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including Japan. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to expand and improve 
our access to the markets in the region through existing and 
new trade agreements; and analyze the impact of unfair trade 
practices of countries in the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. 
workers and businesses. Testimony was received from (i) Matthew 
Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior 
Adviser for Asian Economics--Center for Strategic and 
International Studies, (ii) Kelley Sullivan, Owner and 
Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) Demetrios Marantis, Senior 
Vice President and Head of Global Government Relations--Visa 
Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, Director of Government Relations 
and Seafood Sustainability--Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) 
Scott Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On November 6-11, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the Asia-Pacific Economic 
Cooperation (APEC) Ministerial meeting in Da Nang, Vietnam to 
meet with officials from APEC countries and U.S. officials.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
trade policy agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including Japan. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer as required by TPA prior to sending notification of 
intent to commence negotiations with Japan.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer as required by TPA 
prior to sending notification of intent to commence 
negotiations with Japan.
    On October 16, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter as 
required by TPA notifying Congress of his intent to commence 
trade negotiations with Japan after 90 days.
    On November 12-17, 2018, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the 2018 APEC Ministerial in 
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to meet with officials from APEC 
countries and U.S. officials.
    On December 21, 2018, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its summary of objectives 
for negotiations with Japan, as required by TPA.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee staff held 
consultations with USTR to discuss trade relations with Japan 
and to provide Member views.
            c. United Kingdom Negotiations
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
United Kingdom. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On February 17-20, 2018, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the United Kingdom to discuss 
the U.S.-U.K. trading relationship and Brexit issues with U.K. 
officials.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
United Kingdom. Ambassador Lighthizer testified before the 
Committee on the Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer as required by TPA prior to sending notification of 
intent to commence negotiations with the United Kingdom.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer as required by TPA 
prior to sending notification of intent to commence 
negotiations with the United Kingdom.
    On October 16, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter as 
required by TPA notifying Congress of his intent to commence 
trade negotiations with the United Kingdom after 90 days.
    On December 11, 2018, the Department of the Treasury and 
the United States Trade Representative announced their intent 
to sign the Bilateral Agreement between the United States of 
America and the United Kingdom on Prudential Measures Regarding 
Insurance and Reinsurance (U.S.-UK Covered Agreement). This 
announcement commenced a 90-day submission and layover period 
required by statute before the agreement can enter into force.
    On December 18, 2018, the U.S.-UK Covered Agreement was 
signed.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee staff held 
consultations with USTR to discuss trade relations with the UK 
and to provide Member views.
            d. European Union Negotiations
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
European Union. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before 
the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On July 14, 2017, the Department of the Treasury and the 
United States Trade Representative announced their intent to 
sign the Bilateral Agreement between the United States of 
America and the European Union on Prudential Measures Regarding 
Insurance and Reinsurance (U.S.-EU Covered Agreement). This 
announcement commenced a 90-day submission and layover period 
required by statute before the agreement can enter into force.
    On September 22, 2017, the U.S.-EU Covered Agreement was 
signed.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
potential new free trade agreement partners, including the 
European Union. Ambassador Lighthizer testified before the 
Committee on the Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer as required by TPA prior to sending notification of 
intent to commence negotiations with the European Union.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer as required by TPA 
prior to sending notification of intent to commence 
negotiations with the European Union.
    On October 16, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter as 
required by TPA notifying Congress of his intent to commence 
trade negotiations with the European Union after 90 days.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, Committee staff held 
consultations with USTR to discuss trade relations with the EU 
and to provide Member views.
            e. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Amendments and 
                    Modifications
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
modifications to the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On July 14, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch 
and Ranking Member Ron Wyden, sent a letter to Ambassador 
Lighthizer urging the Administration to consult closely with 
Congress before meeting with Korea regarding possible 
amendments and modifications to the United States-Korea Free 
Trade Agreement.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region, including Korea; explore how to 
expand and improve our access to the markets in the region 
through existing and new trade agreements; and analyze the 
impact of unfair trade practices of countries in the Asia-
Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. Testimony was 
received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in 
Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian Economics--Center 
for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) Kelley Sullivan, 
Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) Demetrios Marantis, 
Senior Vice President and Head of Global Government Relations--
Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, Director of Government 
Relations and Seafood Sustainability--Trident Seafoods Inc., 
and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance for American 
Manufacturing.
    On November 6-11, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the APEC Ministerial meeting in 
Da Nang, Vietnam to meet with officials from APEC countries 
(including Korea) and U.S. officials.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy agenda, including 
the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS) 
negotiations.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were 
modifications to the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On June 13, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee a report regarding certain proposed 
modifications to be made to the United States-Korea Free Trade 
Agreement. Sending this report commenced a 60-day Congressional 
consultation and layover period with respect to the 
modifications to the agreement, which ended on August 12, 2018.
    On September 24, 2018, President Trump and Korean President 
Moon Jae-In signed the modifications to the agreement. The 
Korean National Assembly commenced its domestic procedures for 
consideration of the modifications.
    On November 12-17, 2018, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to the 2018 APEC Ministerial in 
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to meet with officials from APEC 
countries (including Korea) and U.S. officials.

                 2. ROLE OF TRADE IN U.S. JOB CREATION

Actions taken

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of trade for U.S. economic growth and job 
creation.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to strengthen the U.S. 
job market by expanding and improving our access to the markets 
in the region through existing and new trade agreements; and 
analyze the impact of unfair trade practices of countries in 
the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. 
Testimony was received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. 
Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian 
Economics--Center for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) 
Kelley Sullivan, Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) 
Demetrios Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global 
Government Relations--Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, 
Director of Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--
Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance 
for American Manufacturing.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of trade for U.S. economic growth and job 
creation.
    On April 12, 2018, the Committee held a hearing entitled 
``The Effects of Tariff Increases on the U.S. Economy and 
Jobs.'' Testimony was received from (i) Kevin Kennedy, 
President--Kennedy Fabricating, (ii) John Wolfe, Chief 
Executive Officer--NW Seaport Alliance, (iii) Roger Newport, 
Chief Executive Officer--AK Steel Corporation, (iv) John 
Heisdorffer, President--American Soybean Association, (v) 
Calvin Dooley, President and Chief Executive Officer--American 
Chemistry Council, (vi) Ann Wilson, Senior Vice President--
Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association, and (vii) Scott 
Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On July 18, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``The Effects of Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture and Rural 
Communities.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine the 
effects on American agriculture and rural communities of U.S. 
tariffs imposed under both Sections 232 and 301 as well as 
retaliation by other countries against U.S. exports. Testimony 
was received from (i) Cass Gebbers, President and CEO--Gebbers 
Farms, (ii) Russell Boening, Owner--Loma Vista Farms and 
Boening Bros. Dairy Inc.; President--Texas Farm Bureau, (iii) 
Kevin Paap, President--Minnesota Farm Bureau, (iv) Scott 
VanderWal, Secretary and Treasurer--Vanderwal Farms; Vice 
President--American Farm Bureau Federation; President--South 
Dakota Farm Bureau, (v) Michelle Erickson-Jones, Co-owner--
Gooseneck Land and Cattle; President--Montana Grain Growers 
Association, and (vi) Jared Bernstein, Senior Fellow--Center on 
Budget and Policy Priorities.

                   3. MISCELLANEOUS TARIFF BILL (MTB)

Actions taken

    On April 10, 2017, the Department of Commerce sent to the 
Committee a report determining whether there exists domestic 
production of the article that is the subject of each 
miscellaneous tariff petition submitted under the Miscellaneous 
Tariff Bill process established under the American 
Manufacturing Competitiveness Act (AMCA) of 2016, and, if so, 
whether a domestic producer of the article objects to the 
petition; and any technical changes to the article description 
necessary to ensure that the duty suspension or reduction 
petition can be administered pursuant to section 3(c) of AMCA.
    On June 9, 2017, the Committee received from the U.S. 
International Trade Commission (ITC) the preliminary report on 
miscellaneous tariff petitions it received under AMCA.
    On July 21, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch 
and Ranking Member Ron Wyden, sent a letter to the ITC 
providing comments on the MTB preliminary report in preparation 
for the issuance of the final report.
    On August 8, 2017, the Committee received from the ITC the 
final report on miscellaneous tariff petitions it received 
under AMCA.
    On October 25, 2018, the Subcommittee on Trade held a 
hearing on the MTB. The purpose of the hearing was to 
investigate the U.S. manufacturing and economic benefits of 
providing temporary tariff relief on imported finished goods 
and raw materials not produced in the United States. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony from (i) Cindy Smith, Agriculture 
Relations Director--Gowan USA, (ii) Edward V. McAsey, Chief 
Operating Officer--Lasko Products LLC, and (iii) Michael 
Ratchford, Government Relations Associate--W.L. Gore & 
Associates.
    On November 9, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady, Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave Reichert, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., and twenty-seven 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4318, a bill to amend the Harmonized 
Tariff Schedule of the United States to modify temporarily 
certain rates of duty. The bill was referred to the Committee 
on Ways and Means.
    The House suspended the rules and passed the bill on 
January 18, 2018, by a recorded vote of 402-0. On July 26, 
2018, the Senate passed the bill with amendments by voice vote. 
On September 4, 2018, the House suspended the rules and agreed 
to the Senate amendments by voice vote. The bill was signed 
into law on September 13, 2018, and became Public Law 115-239.
    The Committee consulted heavily with the U.S. International 
Trade Commission, the Department of Commerce, and U.S. Customs 
and Border Protection, as well as petitioners and other 
stakeholders, throughout the process.

                             4. ENFORCEMENT

Actions taken

    On January 9, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2016 Report on China's WTO Compliance 
pursuant to section 421 of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 
2000.
    On January 11, 2017, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a report regarding its review of a submission it had 
received under Chapter 17 (the Labor Chapter) of the United 
States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.
    On February 15, 2017, the United States Department of 
Commerce sent to the Committee a letter regarding the renewal 
of the charter for the Advisory Council on Trade Enforcement 
and Compliance.
    On February 28, 2017, the United States Department of 
Commerce Office of Inspector General sent to the Committee a 
report regarding the International Trade Administration (ITA) 
Enforcement and Compliance Audit.
    On April 13, 2017, the United States Government 
Accountability Office sent to the Committee a report on US 
Monitoring and Enforcement of International Trade Agreements 
pursuant to the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 
2015 (TFTEA).
    On April 27, 2017, the United States Government 
Accountability Office sent to the Committee a report on 
Improvement and Strengthening Trade Enforcement pursuant to 
TFTEA.
    On April 28, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its Special 301 Report on the protection 
and enforcement of intellectual property as required by the 
Trade Act of 1974.
    On June 9, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee a letter regarding Dominican 
Republic Airport preclearance pursuant to TFTEA.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of strong trade enforcement.
    On July 31, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its Enforcement Priorities Report as 
required by TFTEA.
    On January 9, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its first periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 17(the Labor Chapter) of 
the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee a report regarding its 
compliance with Section 307 of the Tariff Act of 1930 as 
required by TFTEA.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on In-Bond: Steps 
to Improve Enforcement and Collections for FY2017 and FY2018.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2017 Report on China's WTO Compliance 
pursuant to section 421 of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 
2000.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2017 Report on Russia's WTO 
Compliance pursuant to section 201(a) of the Russia and Moldova 
Jackson-Vanik Repeal and Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law 
Accountability Act of 2012.
    On February 1, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
and the Department of Commerce sent to the Committee the 
Administration's Annual Report on Subsidies Enforcement 
pursuant to section 281(f)(4) of the Uruguay Round Agreements 
Act.
    On February 14, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Intellectual 
Property Rights Enforcement pursuant to TFTEA.
    On March 5, 2018, the Department of Treasury sent to the 
Committee its report on Customs Revenue Function under TFTEA.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of strong trade enforcement.
    On April 20, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its second periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 17 (the Labor Chapter) of 
the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement.
    On May 16, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its sixth periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 16 (the Labor Chapter) of 
the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade 
Agreement regarding labor practices in the Dominican Republic.
    On July 31, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its Enforcement Priorities Report as 
required by TFTEA.
    On October 12, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its sixth periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 16 (the Labor Chapter) of 
the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade 
Agreement regarding labor practices in Honduras.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the Department of Treasury 
sent to the Committee its semiannual reports, submitted 
pursuant to the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 
and section 701 of TFTEA, regarding the macroeconomic and 
foreign exchange policies of major trading partners of the 
United States.
    During the 115th Congress, the Department of State sent to 
the Committee annual letters on Protecting and Preserving 
International Cultural Property Act.
    The Committee also engaged in frequent staff consultations 
with USTR and the Department of Commerce regarding enforcement.

                           5. TRADE REMEDIES

Actions taken

    On February 2, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the Administration's Annual Report on 
Subsidies Enforcement pursuant to 281(f)(4) of the Uruguay 
Round Agreements Act.
    On April 11, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its annual report on the 
Evasion of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Orders, as 
required by TFTEA.
    On April 11, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on the importation 
of Softwood Lumber.
    On June 20, 2017, the United States Department of Commerce 
sent to the Committee its semi-annual report on Softwood Lumber 
Subsidies pursuant to the requirements under Section 809(b) of 
Title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the Softwood Lumber Act of 
2008).
    On September 22, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its report on Proposals 
Advanced in the NAFTA Negotiations that May Require Amendments 
to U.S. Trade Remedy Laws.
    On November 13, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee its two-volume report on 
Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells pursuant to Section 
202(b) of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On November 17, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Antidumping and 
Countervailing Duty Enforcement Actions and Compliance 
initiatives for FY 2016.
    On December 4, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee its report on Large 
Residential Washers pursuant to Section 202(b) of the Trade Act 
of 1974.
    On February 5, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its semi-annual report on 
Softwood Lumber Subsidies pursuant to the requirements under 
Section 809(b) of Title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the 
Softwood Lumber Act of 2008).
    On June 22, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its annual report on the 
Evasion of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Orders as 
required by TFTEA.
    On December 20, 2018, the United States Department of 
Commerce sent to the Committee its semi-annual report on 
Softwood Lumber Subsidies pursuant to the requirements under 
Section 809(b) of Title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the 
Softwood Lumber Act of 2008).

                                6. CHINA

Actions taken

    On January 9, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2016 Report on China's WTO Compliance 
pursuant to section 421 of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 
2000.
    On April 5, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch and 
Ranking Member Ron Wyden sent a letter to President Trump ahead 
of President Xi's visit identifying several areas of concern in 
the U.S.-China trading relationship and urging President Trump 
to raise them with President Xi. These concerns included market 
distorting behavior harming American manufacturers, 
discriminatory and distortive technology policies, weak 
protection of intellectual property, barriers to U.S. 
agriculture exports, currency and exchange rate policies, 
retaliatory policies, and nontransparent legal regimes.
    On June 9, 2017, the Department of Homeland Security sent 
to the Committee the Report of the Task Force on the 
Prohibition of Importation of Products of Forced or Prison 
Labor from the People's Republic of China, as required by 
section 505 of the Normal Trade Relations for the People's 
Republic of China Act.
    On June 12, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee the annual report under 
investigation No. 332-501, Textile and Apparel Imports from 
China: Annual Compilation 2016, under section 332(g) of the 
Tariff Act of 1930.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered was the 
U.S.-China trading relationship. Ambassador Robert Lighthizer 
testified before the Committee on the Administration's views.
    On July 27, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross to discuss the ongoing investigations into 
the national security impact of imports of steel and aluminum 
products under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 
and the impact of Chinese overcapacity of steel and aluminum on 
U.S. workers and companies.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to expand and improve 
our access to the markets in the region through existing and 
new trade agreements; and analyze the impact of unfair trade 
practices of countries in the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. 
workers and businesses. Testimony was received from (i) Matthew 
Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior 
Adviser for Asian Economics--Center for Strategic and 
International Studies, (ii) Kelley Sullivan, Owner and 
Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) Demetrios Marantis, Senior 
Vice President and Head of Global Government Relations--Visa 
Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, Director of Government Relations 
and Seafood Sustainability--Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) 
Scott Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2017 Report on China's WTO Compliance 
pursuant to section 421 of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 
2000.
    On June 2, 2018, the Department of Homeland Security sent 
to the Committee the Report of the Task Force on the 
Prohibition of Importation of Products of Forced or Prison 
Labor from the People's Republic of China as required by 
section 505 of the Normal Trade Relations for the People's 
Republic of China Act.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy agenda, including 
the ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered was the 
ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. 
Ambassador Lighthizer testified before the Committee on the 
Administration's views.
    On March 22, 2018, the Committee held a hearing with the 
Secretary of Commerce, Wilbur Ross. The hearing focused on 
trade matters within the Department of Commerce's purview, 
particularly the section 232 determinations on steel and 
aluminum.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including tariffs 
imposed on China under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 and 
China's retaliatory tariffs.
    On June 27, 2018, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee the annual report under 
investigation No. 332-501, Textile and Apparel Imports from 
China: Annual Compilation 2016, under section 332(g) of the 
Tariff Act of 1930.
    The Committee also engaged in frequent Member and staff 
consultations with USTR and the Department of Commerce 
regarding the Section 232 and 301 investigations and WTO 
disputes with respect to China.

                    7. IMPLEMENTED TRADE AGREEMENTS

Actions taken

    On January 11, 2017, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a report regarding its review of a submission it had 
received under Chapter 17 (the Labor Chapter) of the United 
States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.
    On February 23, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee a report on the Probable 
Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the U.S.-Morocco 
FTA Rules of Origin.
    On March 31, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee: (1) a final list of individuals eligible 
to serve on binational panels under Annex 1901.2 of the NAFTA; 
and (2) a final list of former federal judges eligible to serve 
on Extraordinary Challenge Committees under NAFTA Annex 1904.13 
and Special Committees under NAFTA Article 1905.
    On July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Trade held a hearing 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. The purpose of the hearing was to analyze whether 
NAFTA had been successful for the U.S. economy and job creation 
with a focus on the U.S. manufacturing, agriculture, and 
services sectors, and whether NAFTA could be renegotiated and 
modernized to better address issues affecting U.S. workers, 
business, and consumers. Testimony was received from (i) Tom 
Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer--Cummins, 
Inc., (ii) Patrick J. Ottensmeyer, Chief Executive Officer--
Kansas City Southern, (iii) Dennis Arriola, Executive Vice 
President--Corporate Strategy and External Affairs--Sempra 
Energy, (iv) Celeste Drake, Trade and Globalization Policy 
Specialist--AFL-CIO, (v) Jason Perdue, President--York County, 
Nebraska Farm Bureau, (vi) Christine Bliss, President--
Coalition of Services Industries, (vii) Stan Ryan, Chief 
Executive Officer and President--Darigold, Inc., (viii) Althea 
Erickson, Senior Director--Global Advocacy and Policy--Etsy, 
Inc., and (ix) Susan Helper, Frank Tracy Carlton Professor of 
Economics--Case Western Reserve University.
    On September 28, 2017, the United States International 
Trade Commission sent to the Committee its report on 
Investigation No. 332-503 Earned Import Allowance Program, as 
required by section 404(d) of the Dominican Republic-Central 
America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to strengthen the U.S. 
job market by expanding and improving our access to the markets 
in the region through existing and new trade agreements; and 
analyze the impact of unfair trade practices of countries in 
the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. 
Testimony was received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. 
Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian 
Economics--Center for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) 
Kelley Sullivan, Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) 
Demetrios Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global 
Government Relations--Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, 
Director of Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--
Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance 
for American Manufacturing.
    On November 21, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee a report regarding certain 
proposed modifications to be made to the U.S.-Morocco FTA rules 
of origin incorporated in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the 
United States.
    On December 29, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee: (1) a preliminary list of 
individuals eligible to serve on binational panels under Annex 
1901.2 of the NAFTA and (2) a preliminary list of former 
federal judges eligible to serve on Extraordinary Challenge 
Committees under NAFTA Annex 1904.13 and Special Committees 
under NAFTA Article 1905.
    On January 9, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its first periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received under Chapter 17 (the Labor Chapter) of the United 
States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.
    On April 20, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its second periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 17 (the Labor Chapter) of 
the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement.
    On May 16, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its sixth periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 16 (the Labor Chapter) of 
the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade 
Agreement regarding labor practices in the Dominican Republic.
    On August 3, 2018, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee its report on Investigation 
No. 332-503 Earned Import Allowance Program, as required by 
section 404(d) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United 
States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act.
    On October 12, 2018, the Department of Labor sent to the 
Committee a letter regarding its sixth periodic review to 
address issues identified in its review of a submission it had 
received that was filed under Chapter 16 (the Labor Chapter) of 
the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade 
Agreement regarding labor practices in Honduras.

                         8. PREFERENCE PROGRAMS

Actions taken

    On June 6, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee a report on possible 
modifications to the Generalized System of Preferences.
    On June 16, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee a letter notifying its intent to initiate 
an out-of-cycle review of the Republic of Rwanda, United 
Republic of Tanzania, and Republic of Uganda regarding their 
eligibility for benefits under the African Growth and 
Opportunity Act (AGOA).
    On June 16, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee a report on the Implementation of the 
Technical Assistance Improvement and Compliance Needs 
Assessment and Remediation (TAICNAR) Program pursuant to 
section 213AI(5) of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act 
(CBERA), as amended by the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity 
through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2008 (HOPE II)
    On August 7-11, 2017, the Committee conducted a staff 
delegation to Lome, Togo to participate in the 2017 AGOA Forum 
and to meet with officials from participating countries and 
U.S. officials.
    On September 29, 2017, the United States International 
Trade Commission sent to the Committee a report on the 
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act and its impact on U.S. 
industries and consumers and on beneficiary countries.
    On December 29, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee a report on the Operation 
of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act pursuant to 
section 212(f) of the CBERA.
    On February 8, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert, Trade Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., 
Chairman Kevin Brady, Ranking Member Richard Neal, Trade 
Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr. and eight 
cosponsors introduced H.R. 4979, to extend the Generalized 
System of Preferences and to make technical changes to the 
competitive need limitations provision of the program. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means. The House 
suspended the rules and passed the bill on February 13, 2018 by 
a vote of 400-2. H.R. 4979 was later incorporated into H.R. 
1625, the ``Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2108,'' which 
was signed into law on March 23, 2018 and became Public Law 
115-141.
    On February 25, 2018, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee a report on the 
Implementation of the Nepal Trade Preference Program (NTPP).
    On June 18, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee a report on the Implementation of the 
Technical Assistance Improvement and Compliance Needs 
Assessment and Remediation (TAICNAR) Program pursuant to 
section 213AI(5) of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act 
(CBERA), as amended by HOPE II.
    On June 29, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the Biennial Report of the Implementation 
of the African Growth and Opportunity Act pursuant to section 
110 of the Trade Preferences Act of 2015.
    On July 12, 2018, Trade Subcommittee Chairman Dave 
Reichert, Trade Subcommittee Ranking Member Bill Pascrell Jr., 
Representative Erik Paulsen, Representative Suzan DelBene, 
Representative Terri Sewell, and Committee staff participated 
in the 2018 AGOA Forum in Washington, D.C.
    On September 1, 2018, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee a report on the Andean Trade 
Preference Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on 
Drug Crop Eradication and Crop Substitution.
    On September 1, 2018, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee a report on possible 
modifications to the Generalized System of Preferences.
    The Committee also engaged in frequent Member and staff 
consultations with USTR and other relevant agencies regarding 
all preference programs.

                             9. AGRICULTURE

Actions taken

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the role of trade in promoting agriculture.
    On July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Trade held a hearing 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. The purpose of the hearing was to analyze whether 
NAFTA had been successful for the U.S. economy and job creation 
with a focus on the U.S. manufacturing, agriculture, and 
services sectors, and whether NAFTA could be renegotiated and 
modernized to better address issues affecting U.S. workers, 
business, and consumers. Testimony was received from (i) Tom 
Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer--Cummins, 
Inc., (ii) Patrick J. Ottensmeyer, Chief Executive Officer--
Kansas City Southern, (iii) Dennis Arriola, Executive Vice 
President--Corporate Strategy and External Affairs--Sempra 
Energy, (iv) Celeste Drake, Trade and Globalization Policy 
Specialist--AFL-CIO, (v) Jason Perdue, President--York County, 
Nebraska Farm Bureau, (vi) Christine Bliss, President--
Coalition of Services Industries, (vii) Stan Ryan, Chief 
Executive Officer and President--Darigold, Inc., (viii) Althea 
Erickson, Senior Director--Global Advocacy and Policy--Etsy, 
Inc., and (ix) Susan Helper, Frank Tracy Carlton Professor of 
Economics--Case Western Reserve University.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to strengthen the U.S. 
job market by expanding and improving our access to the markets 
in the region through existing and new trade agreements; and 
analyze the impact of unfair trade practices of countries in 
the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. 
Testimony was received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. 
Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian 
Economics--Center for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) 
Kelley Sullivan, Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) 
Demetrios Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global 
Government Relations--Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, 
Director of Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--
Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance 
for American Manufacturing.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of agriculture for U.S. economic growth and job 
creation.
    On April 12, 2018, the Committee held a hearing entitled 
``The Effects of Tariff Increases on the U.S. Economy and 
Jobs.'' Testimony was received from (i) Kevin Kennedy, 
President--Kennedy Fabricating, (ii) John Wolfe, Chief 
Executive Officer--NW Seaport Alliance, (iii) Roger Newport, 
Chief Executive Officer--AK Steel Corporation, (iv) John 
Heisdorffer, President--American Soybean Association, (v) 
Calvin Dooley, President and Chief Executive Officer--American 
Chemistry Council, (vi) Ann Wilson, Senior Vice President--
Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association, and (vii) Scott 
Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On July 18, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``The Effects of Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture and Rural 
Communities.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine the 
effects on American agriculture and rural communities of U.S. 
tariffs imposed under both Sections 232 and 301 as well as 
retaliation by other countries against U.S. exports. Testimony 
was received from (i) Cass Gebbers, President and CEO--Gebbers 
Farms, (ii) Russell Boening, Owner--Loma Vista Farms and 
Boening Bros. Dairy Inc.; President--Texas Farm Bureau (iii) 
Kevin Paap, President--Minnesota Farm Bureau, (iv) Scott 
VanderWal, Secretary and Treasurer--Vanderwal Farms; Vice 
President--American Farm Bureau Federation; President--South 
Dakota Farm Bureau, (v) Michelle Erickson-Jones, Co-owner--
Gooseneck Land and Cattle; President--Montana Grain Growers 
Association, and (vi) Jared Bernstein, Senior Fellow--Center on 
Budget and Policy Priorities.

                           10. MANUFACTURING

Actions taken

    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the role of trade in promoting manufacturing.
    On June 26, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee a letter on the Commission's 
investigation No. 332-557, Aluminum: Competitive Conditions 
Affecting the U.S. Industry, in response to the Chairman's 
request letter of February 24, 2016, under section 332(g) of 
the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332(4)).
    On July 27, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross to discuss the ongoing investigations into 
the national security impact of imports of steel and aluminum 
products under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962.
    On July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Trade held a hearing 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. The purpose of the hearing was to analyze whether 
NAFTA had been successful for the U.S. economy and job creation 
with a focus on the U.S. manufacturing, agriculture, and 
services sectors, and whether NAFTA could be renegotiated and 
modernized to better address issues affecting U.S. workers, 
business, and consumers. Testimony was received from (i) Tom 
Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer--Cummins, 
Inc., (ii) Patrick J. Ottensmeyer, Chief Executive Officer--
Kansas City Southern, (iii) Dennis Arriola, Executive Vice 
President--Corporate Strategy and External Affairs--Sempra 
Energy, (iv) Celeste Drake, Trade and Globalization Policy 
Specialist--AFL-CIO, (v) Jason Perdue, President--York County, 
Nebraska Farm Bureau, (vi) Christine Bliss, President--
Coalition of Services Industries, (vii) Stan Ryan, Chief 
Executive Officer and President--Darigold, Inc., (viii) Althea 
Erickson, Senior Director--Global Advocacy and Policy--Etsy, 
Inc., and (ix) Susan Helper, Frank Tracy Carlton Professor of 
Economics--Case Western Reserve University.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to strengthen the U.S. 
job market by expanding and improving our access to the markets 
in the region through existing and new trade agreements; and 
analyze the impact of unfair trade practices of countries in 
the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. 
Testimony was received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. 
Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian 
Economics--Center for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) 
Kelley Sullivan, Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) 
Demetrios Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global 
Government Relations--Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, 
Director of Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--
Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance 
for American Manufacturing.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the U.S. trade policy agenda, including 
the ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered was the 
ongoing investigation on the practices of the Government of 
China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, 
and innovation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. 
Ambassador Robert Lighthizer testified before the Committee on 
the Administration's views.
    On March 22, 2018, the Committee held a hearing with the 
Secretary of Commerce, Wilbur Ross. The hearing focused on 
trade matters within the Department of Commerce's purview, 
particularly the section 232 determinations on steel and 
aluminum.
    On March 23, 2018, the United States Department of Commerce 
sent to the Committee a letter and report regarding the renewal 
of the charter for the United States Advanced Manufacturing 
Council, in accordance with provisions of the Federal Advisory 
Committee Act.
    On April 12, 2018, the Committee held a hearing entitled 
``The Effects of Tariff Increases on the U.S. Economy and 
Jobs.'' Testimony was received from (i) Kevin Kennedy, 
President--Kennedy Fabricating, (ii) John Wolfe, Chief 
Executive Officer--NW Seaport Alliance, (iii) Roger Newport, 
Chief Executive Officer--AK Steel Corporation, (iv) John 
Heisdorffer, President--American Soybean Association, (v) 
Calvin Dooley, President and Chief Executive Officer--American 
Chemistry Council, (vi) Ann Wilson, Senior Vice President--
Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association, and (vii) Scott 
Paul, President--Alliance for American Manufacturing.
    On July 24, 2018, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Product Exclusion Process for Section 232 Tariffs on 
Steel and Aluminum.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine 
the experiences of U.S. companies navigating the process for 
requesting product exclusions from Section 232 tariffs and 
quotas on steel and aluminum and to investigate the impact of 
the exclusion process on affected stakeholders. Testimony was 
received from (i) Brian Semcer, President--MICRO, (ii) Willie 
Chang, Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, and 
Director--Plains All American GP LLC, (iii) Rick Huether, 
President, CEO, and Chairman--Independent Can Company, (iv) 
Todd Adams, President--Sanitube LLC; Vice President--Stainless 
Imports Inc., and (v) Roy Houseman, Legislative 
Representative--United Steelworkers.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including issues with 
respect to manufacturing.

                              11. SERVICES

Actions taken

    On June 8, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee its 2017 annual report on 
Recent Trends in U.S. Services Trade pursuant to section 332(b) 
of the Tariff Act of 1930.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of services for U.S. economic growth and job 
creation.
    On July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Trade held a hearing 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. The purpose of the hearing was to analyze whether 
NAFTA had been successful for the U.S. economy and job creation 
with a focus on the U.S. manufacturing, agriculture, and 
services sectors, and whether NAFTA could be renegotiated and 
modernized to better address issues affecting U.S. workers, 
business, and consumers. Testimony was received from (i) Tom 
Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer--Cummins, 
Inc., (ii) Patrick J. Ottensmeyer, Chief Executive Officer--
Kansas City Southern, (iii) Dennis Arriola, Executive Vice 
President--Corporate Strategy and External Affairs--Sempra 
Energy, (iv) Celeste Drake, Trade and Globalization Policy 
Specialist--AFL-CIO, (v) Jason Perdue, President--York County, 
Nebraska Farm Bureau, (vi) Christine Bliss, President--
Coalition of Services Industries, (vii) Stan Ryan, Chief 
Executive Officer and President--Darigold, Inc., (viii) Althea 
Erickson, Senior Director--Global Advocacy and Policy--Etsy, 
Inc., and (ix) Susan Helper, Frank Tracy Carlton Professor of 
Economics--Case Western Reserve University.
    On September 29, 2017, the United States International 
Trade Commission sent to the Committee its report on Global 
Digital Trade 1: Market Opportunities and Key Foreign Trade 
Restrictions.
    On October 11, 2017, the Trade Subcommittee held a hearing 
entitled ``Opportunities to Expand U.S. Trade Relationships in 
the Asia-Pacific Region.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, services 
providers, farmers, ranchers, fishermen, workers, and consumers 
in the Asia-Pacific region; explore how to strengthen the U.S. 
job market by expanding and improving our access to the markets 
in the region through existing and new trade agreements; and 
analyze the impact of unfair trade practices of countries in 
the Asia-Pacific region on U.S. workers and businesses. 
Testimony was received from (i) Matthew Goodman, William E. 
Simon Chair in Political Economy & Senior Adviser for Asian 
Economics--Center for Strategic and International Studies, (ii) 
Kelley Sullivan, Owner and Operator--Santa Rosa Ranch, (iii) 
Demetrios Marantis, Senior Vice President and Head of Global 
Government Relations--Visa Inc., (iv) Stefanie Moreland, 
Director of Government Relations and Seafood Sustainability--
Trident Seafoods Inc., and (v) Scott Paul, President--Alliance 
for American Manufacturing.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda with Ambassador Robert Lighthizer, United 
States Trade Representative, which included discussion about 
the importance of services for U.S. economic growth and job 
creation.
    On June 13, 2018, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee its 2018 annual report on 
Recent Trends in U.S. Services Trade pursuant to section 332(b) 
of the Tariff Act of 1930.

                    12. DIGITAL TRADE AND E-COMMERCE

Actions taken

    On September 29, 2017, the United States International 
Trade Commission sent to the Committee its report on Global 
Digital Trade 1: Market Opportunities and Key Foreign Trade 
Restrictions.
    On December 9-14, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Buenos Aires, Argentina, to 
participate in the 11th World Trade Organization (WTO) 
Ministerial Meeting and to meet with officials from other 
participating countries and U.S. officials about WTO issues, 
including e-commerce negotiations.
    On October 1-5, 2018, the Committee conducted a bipartisan 
staff delegation to Geneva, Switzerland, to participate in the 
WTO Public Forum and to meet with officials from other 
participating countries and U.S. officials about WTO issues, 
including e-commerce negotiations, among other topics.

                   13. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

Actions taken

    On January 9, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2016 Report on China's WTO Compliance 
pursuant to section 421 of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 
2000.
    On December 9-14, 2017, the Committee conducted a 
bipartisan staff delegation to Buenos Aires, Argentina, to 
participate in the 11th WTO Ministerial Meeting and to meet 
with officials from other participating countries and U.S. 
officials.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2017 Report on China's WTO Compliance 
pursuant to section 421 of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 
2000.
    On January 18, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee the 2017 Report on Russia's WTO 
Compliance pursuant to 201(a) of the Russia and Moldova 
Jackson-Vanik Repeal and Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law 
Accountability Act of 2012.
    On February 1, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
and the Department of Commerce sent to the Committee the 
Administration's Annual Report on Subsidies Enforcement 
pursuant to section 281(f)(4) of the Uruguay Round Agreements 
Act.
    On October 1-5, 2018, the Committee conducted a bipartisan 
staff delegation to Geneva, Switzerland to participate in the 
WTO Public Forum and to meet with officials from other 
participating countries and U.S. officials.
    The Committee held frequent Member and staff consultations 
with USTR concerning the ongoing negotiations, including the e-
commerce and fish subsidies dialogues, as well as WTO reform. 
The Committee also held regular Member and staff consultations 
with USTR regarding ongoing disputes being adjudicated at the 
WTO.

                          14. TRADE SANCTIONS

Actions taken

            a. Iran and Syria
    On July 17, 2017, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson sent to 
the Committee a letter regarding Iran's actions with regard to 
the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).
    On September 15, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report identifying the international organizations 
and entities in which Iran is a member and which received 
contributions from the U.S. government in FY 2016, consistent 
with the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 
2012 (TRA).
    On September 21, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a letter to notify the Committee of the Department of 
State's determination pursuant to Section 3(b)(l)(A) of the 
Protect and Preserve International Cultural Property Act of 
2016 (PPICPA), that it would be against the United States 
national interest to enter into an agreement with the 
Government of Syria under section 303 of the Convention on 
Cultural Property Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 2602), 
including the requirements under subsection (a)(3) of that 
section.
    On October 11, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report on global trade in 2015 relating to Iran 
pursuant to section 10(d) of the ISA.
    On December 1, 2017 and April 6, 2018, the Department of 
State sent to the Committee report on the status of U.S. 
citizens detained in Iran and the Department of State's efforts 
to secure their release, in response to Section 110 of 
Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act.
    On December 19, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report addressing Iran's continued human rights 
violations and abuses, in response to Section 106(a) of 
Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act 
(CAATSA).
    On January 2, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its semi-annual report relating to the Joint 
Comprehensive Plan of Actions (JCPOA) pursuant to Section 135 
(d)(4) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, including 
as amended by the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015.
    On January 13, 2018, the Department of Treasury sent to the 
Committee a report regarding Financial Transactions with 
Designated Iranian Port Operators pursuant to Section 211(d) of 
the Iran Threat Reduction and Syrian Human Rights Act of 2012.
    On March 27, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report on the Identification of, and Immigration 
Restrictions on, Senior Officials of the Government of Iran and 
their Family Members pursuant to Section 221(a) of the Iran 
Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012.
    On July 25, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report regarding investments in the energy sector 
of Iran pursuant to Section 110 of the Comprehensive Iran 
Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010.
    On August 29, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its report on Regional Strategy for Countering and 
Conventional and Asymmetric Iranian Threats in the Middle East 
and North Africa pursuant to Section 103 of CAATSA.
    On November 28, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its report on United States Citizens Detained by Iran 
pursuant to Section 110 of CAATSA.
    On November 28, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its report on its List of Persons Who Are Responsible 
for or Complicit in Certain Human Rights Abuses in Iran 
pursuant to Section 105 of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, 
Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the Department of Treasury 
sent to the Committee its quarterly reports from January 1, 
2017-December 31, 2017, submitted under Sec. 906(b) of the 
Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000 
regarding exportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, 
and medical devices to Iran and Sudan.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the Department of State sent 
to the Committee numerous letters regarding the Secretary's use 
of limited waivers of the sanctions provided for under: the 
Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 (IFCA), Iran 
Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (TRA), the 
National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), and the Iran 
Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended (ISA).
            b. North Korea
    On January 11, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee pursuant to Section 304(a) of the North Korea 
Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016, a report that: 
(1) identifies persons the Secretary of State has determined to 
be responsible for serious human rights abuses of censorship in 
North Korea and describes the conduct of that person; and (2) 
describes serious human rights abuses or censorship undertaken 
by the Government of North Korea or any person acting for or on 
behalf of that Government in the most recent year ending before 
the submission of the report.
    On June 27, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee pursuant to Section 202(d) of the North Korea 
Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016, a report on 
actions undertaken to implement a strategy to improve 
international implementation and enforcement of United Nations 
North Korean-specific sanctions.
    On October 26, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee pursuant to Section 304(a) of the North Korea 
Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016, a report that: 
(1) identifies persons the Secretary of State has determined to 
be responsible for serious human rights abuses of censorship in 
North Korea and describes the conduct of that person; and (2) 
describes serious human rights abuses or censorship undertaken 
by the Government of North Korea or any person acting for or on 
behalf of that Government in the most recent year ending before 
the submission of the report.
    On January 29, 2018, the Department of Treasury sent to the 
Committee a report regarding designating certain persons 
pursuant to section 104 of the North Korea Sanctions and Policy 
Enhancement Act of 2016, as required under Section 311(d) of 
the Countering America's Adversaries through Sanctions Act 
(CAATSA).
    On December 10, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee, pursuant to Section 304(a) of the North Korea 
Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016, a report that: 
(1) identifies persons the Secretary of State has determined to 
be responsible for serious human rights abuses or censorship in 
North Korea and describes the conduct of that person; and (2) 
describes serious human rights abuses or censorship undertaken 
by the Government of North Korea or any person acting for or on 
behalf of that Government in the most recent year ending before 
the submission of the report.
            c. Burma
    On October 11, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report on the current state of the Burmese timber 
trade and recommendations for future action, updating the 
report submitted in 2016 pursuant to Section 12 of the JADE 
Act.
            d. Russia
    On December 20, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report on the measures taken and results achieved 
to promote the rule of law in Russia and to support U.S. trade 
and investment by strengthening investor protections in Russia 
pursuant to Section 202(a) of the Russia and Moldova Jackson-
Vanik repeal and Sergei Magnitsky rule of Law Accountability 
Act of 2012.
    On January 29, 2018, the Department of Treasury sent to the 
Committee a report as required under Section 241 of the 
Countering America's Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) 
regarding senior foreign political figures and oligarchs in the 
Russian Federation.
    On August 6, 2018, the Department of Treasury sent to the 
Committee a report regarding interagency efforts in the United 
States to Combat Illicit Finance Relating to the Russian 
Federation pursuant to Section 243 of the CAATSA.
    On December 20, 2018, the Department of Commerce sent to 
the Committee a report to Congress on Russia Anti-Bribery 
Reporting and Assistance as required by Section 202(b)(1) of 
the Russia and Moldova Jackson-Vanik Repeal and Sergei 
Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act of 2012.
            e. Other
    On August 3, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its report describing the 2016 performance of the 
United States Kimberly Process Authority (USKPA), which issues 
Kimberley Process certificates for U.S. exports of rough 
diamonds in accordance with Section 5 of the Clean Diamond 
Trade Act (19 U.S.C 3904).
    On August 3, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its report describing the rough diamond export 
control measures of those countries participating in the 
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme that exported rough 
diamonds to the U.S. in 2016. The report was sent in accordance 
with Section 12 of the Clean Diamond Trade Act (19 U.S.C 3911).
    On August 4, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a map of mineral-rich zones under the control of 
armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo produced 
pursuant to P.L. 111-203, Section 1502 (c)(2) of the Dodd-Frank 
Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
    On September 20, 2017, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report on politically motivated ``boycotts of, 
divestment from, and sanctions against Israel,'' in accordance 
with Section 909(d) of the Trade Facilitation and Trade 
Enforcement Act of 2015.
    On December 28, 2017, the United States Department of 
Commerce sent to the Committee its report including a listing 
of all known conflict mineral processing facilities worldwide 
pursuant to Section 1502(d)(3) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street 
Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
    On January 29, 2018, the Department of Treasury sent to the 
Committee a report as required under Section 104(e) of the 
CAATSA.
    On April 5, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee a report on the coordination of sanctions between the 
United States and the European Union.
    On July 23, 2018, the Department of State sent to the 
Committee its report describing the 2017 performance of the 
United States Kimberly Process Authority (USKPA), which issues 
Kimberley Process certificates for U.S. exports of rough 
diamonds in accordance with Section 5 of the Clean Diamond 
Trade Act (19 U.S.C 3904).

                    15. TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE

Actions taken

    On September 6, 2018, the United States Department of 
Commerce sent to the Committee its report on Trade Adjustment 
Assistance for Firms for FY 2017 in compliance with Section 
255A of the Trade Act of 1974.

 16. PRIORITIES OF THE OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE

Actions taken

    On January 31, 2017, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations convened within 30 days of the convening of 
Congress as required by the Bipartisan Congressional Trade 
Priorities and Accountability (TPA) Act of 2015 to discuss the 
trade agenda during the 115th Congress, including consulting 
with USTR on the determination of appropriate negotiating 
partners; the formulation of specific objectives, negotiating 
strategies, and positions; and compliance and enforcement of 
the negotiated commitments under U.S. trade agreements.
    On March 3, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its 2017 Trade Policy Agenda and the 2016 
Annual Report.
    On March 16, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On March 21, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United 
States Trade Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade 
agenda.
    On March 28, 2017, the Committee met with Secretary of 
Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United States Trade 
Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade agenda.
    On March 21, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and Acting United 
States Trade Representative Stephen Vaughn to discuss the trade 
agenda.
    On April 28, 2017, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its Special 301 Report on IP enforcement.
    On May 17, 2017, the Committee met with United States Trade 
Representative Robert Lighthizer and Secretary of Commerce 
Wilbur Ross as required by TPA prior to sending to Congress 
notification of intent to commence negotiations with Canada and 
Mexico regarding modernization of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement (NAFTA).
    On May 17, 2017, the House Advisory Group on Negotiations 
met with United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer 
and Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross as required by TPA prior 
to sending to Congress notification of intent to initiate 
negotiations with Canada and Mexico regarding modernization of 
NAFTA.
    On June 6, 2017, the Office of the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its FY 2018 Congressional 
Budget Submission.
    On June 22, 2017, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were the 
structure, content, and prospect for NAFTA negotiations. 
Ambassador Lighthizer testified before the Committee on the 
Administration's views.
    On September 27, 2017, the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee a copy of the charter 
extending the Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee 
(TEPAC) for two years, in accordance with Section 9(c) of the 
Federal Advisory Committee Act and the U.S. General Services 
Administration implementing regulation.
    On February 7, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss U.S. trade policy including negotiations 
with Mexico and Canada.
    On February 16, 2018, the Office of the United States Trade 
Representative sent to the Committee its FY 2019 Congressional 
Budget Submission.
    On March 21, 2018, the Committee held a hearing on the U.S. 
Trade Policy Agenda. Among the trade issues covered were the 
structure, content, and prospect for negotiations with Mexico 
and Canada. Ambassador Lighthizer testified before the 
Committee on the Administration's views on these issues.
    On June 6, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss trade developments, including progress on 
the NAFTA negotiations.
    On July 31, 2018, the United States Trade Representative 
sent to the Committee its Enforcement Priorities Report.
    On August 31, 2018, Ambassador Lighthizer sent a letter 
under TPA notifying Congress of his intent to sign a trade 
agreement with Mexico, and with Canada if it is willing, after 
90 days.
    On September 27, 2018, the Committee met with Ambassador 
Lighthizer to discuss the trade agenda, including Member views 
on the negotiations, as required by TPA prior to signing the 
agreement.
    On September 27, 2018, the House Advisory Group on 
Negotiations met with Ambassador Lighthizer to discuss the 
trade agenda, including Member views on the negotiations, as 
required by TPA prior to signing the agreement.
    On September 30, the Administration posted the text of the 
United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) on a publicly 
available website.
    On October 2, 2018, the Committee had a bipartisan call 
with Ambassador Lighthizer to discuss the United States-Mexico-
Canada Agreement (USMCA).
    On December 21, 2018, the U.S. Small Business 
Administration sent to the Committee its Small Business Report 
on the Modernization of the North American Free Trade Agreement 
pursuant to Section 502 of the Trade Facilitation and Trade 
Enforcement Act of 2015 (TFTEA).

            17. PRIORITIES OF CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION

Actions taken

    On February 1, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Land Port Entry 
Needs pursuant to the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement 
Act of 2015 (TFTEA).
    On February 28, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its Commercial and Trade 
Functions in the Office of Field Operations (OFO) report 
pursuant to the language set forth in section 403 of the 
Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006, Pub. L. 
No. 109-347.
    On April 11, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Centers of 
Excellence and Expertise for FY2017 pursuant to TFTEA.
    On April 11, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its International Trade 
Committee Report for FY2017.
    On May 31, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its Congressional Budget 
Justification for FY2018.
    On July 25, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee a report on Integrated 
Scanning System Operations pursuant to the Security and 
Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 (SAFE Port Act).
    On August 3, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee a letter regarding the renewal 
of the charter for the Technical Mapping Advisory Council, a 
statutory committee pursuant to the Biggert-Waters Flood 
Insurance Reform Act of 2012.
    On September 9, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on its Resource 
Optimization Model for FY 2017 pursuant to the SAFE Port Act.
    On October 3, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on CBP Staffing for 
FY 2017.
    On November 3, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its biannual report on 
Methamphetamine and Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals 
pursuant to the SAFE Port Act.
    On November 15, 2017, the United States Customs and Border 
sent to the Committee its report on Changes to Customs Policies 
and Regulations by CBP for FY2017 pursuant to TFTEA.
    On December 22, 2017, the United States Government 
Accountability Office sent to the Committee a draft report 
regarding CBP public-private partnerships as provided in the 
Cross-Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2017.
    On February 5, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on CBP and ICE 
Educational Seminars pursuant to TFTEA.
    On February 5, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Customs and 
Trade Partnership pursuant to TFTEA.
    On February 9, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on updates to 
Integrated Scanning System Operations for FY2017 pursuant to 
the SAFE Port Act.
    On February 12, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its Congressional Budget 
Justification for FY2019.
    On February 13, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Trade and Travel 
for FY2017 pursuant to TFTEA.
    On February 27, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its Report on CBP Trade Alerts 
for FY18 pursuant to TFTEA.
    On March 27, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Personal and 
Real Property Donations pursuant to TFTEA.
    On March 28, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee a letter and a report 
regarding the re-establishment of the charter for the Homeland 
Security Academic Advisory Council pursuant to the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act.
    On April 3, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Public and 
Private Partnership Activities and Fee Agreements pursuant to 
the Cross-Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2016.
    On April 10, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on the 
International Trade Committee for FY2018.
    On April 10, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on changes to 
Customs Policies and Regulations by CBP pursuant to TFTEA.
    On April 16, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Wait Time 
Transparency for FY2018 pursuant to TFTEA.
    On April 17, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its annual Commercial and 
Trade Functions report for FY2018.
    On May 5, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its Section 907 Report for 
Reimbursable Agreements pursuant to TFTEA.
    On July 19, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its initial report on Social 
Security Number Fraud Prevention Act as required by the Social 
Security Number Fraud Prevention Act of 2017.
    On November 2, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its initial report on 
Compliance with Section 307 of the Tariff Act of 1930.
    On November 5, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report regarding 
compliance with Section 414 of the Tariff Act of 1930 as 
required by TFTEA.
    On December 10, 2018, the United States Customs and Border 
Protection sent to the Committee its report on Personal and 
Real Property Donations pursuant to TFTEA.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the United States Customs 
and Border Protection sent to the Committee numerous letters 
regarding: its annual charter renewal for the Commercial 
Customs Operations Advisory Committee (COAC); its annual report 
on COAC; its annual reports regarding Automated Commercial 
Environment; and its quarterly reports on CBP Preclearance 
Operations Staffing.

  18. PRIORITIES OF THE UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 
                                 (ITC)

Actions taken

    On February 10, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee a 
management letter on potential changes to its process for 
evaluating conflicts of interest.
    On April 12, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee its annual 
Budget Justification Executive Summary for Fiscal Year 2018.
    On May 23, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee its Annual 
Performance Report for FY 2016 and Annual Performance Plan for 
FY 2017-18.
    On May 30, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee its 
Inspector General semiannual report.
    On June 9, 2017, the Committee received from the ITC the 
preliminary report on miscellaneous tariff petitions it 
received under AMCA.
    On June 26, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee a letter on 
the Commission's investigation No. 332-557, Aluminum: 
Competitive Conditions Affecting the U.S. Industry, in response 
to the Chairman's request letter of February 24, 2016, under 
section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332(4)).
    On July 21, 2017, Chairman Kevin Brady and Ranking Member 
Richard Neal, along with Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch 
and Ranking Member Ron Wyden, sent a letter to the ITC 
providing comments on the MTB preliminary report in preparation 
for the issuance of the final report.
    On July 25, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee a report on 
the operation of the trade agreements program pursuant to 
section 163(c) of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On August 8, 2017, the Committee received from the ITC the 
final report on miscellaneous tariff petitions it received 
under AMCA.
    On October 16, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee a report 
on the Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints.
    On November 13, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee its 
two-volume report on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells 
pursuant to Section 202(b) of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On November 15, 2017, the USITC sent to the Committee the 
Commission's Agency Financial Report for FY 2017.
    On November 15, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee the 
Commission's Agency Financial Report for FY 2017.
    On November 21, 2017, the ITC sent to the Committee a 
report on the Digital Accountability and Transparency Act 
Audit.
    On December 4, 2017, the United States International Trade 
Commission sent to the Committee its report on Large 
Residential Washers pursuant to Section 202(b) of the Trade Act 
of 1974.
    On February 12, 2018, the ITC sent to the Committee its 
annual Budget Justification Executive Summary for Fiscal Year 
2018.
    On February 12, 2018, the ITC sent to the Committee the 
USITC's Annual Performance Report for FY 2016 and Annual 
Performance Plan for FY 2017-18.
    On August 21, 2018, the ITC sent to the Committee a report 
on the operation of the trade agreements program pursuant to 
section 163(c) of the Trade Act of 1974.
    On November 13, 2018, the ITC set to the Committee its 
Agency Financial Report for FY 2018.

                          SUBCOMMITTEE ON TAX

Actions Taken

                        FULL COMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On May 18, 2017, the Committee received testimony on how 
tax reform will grow our economy and create jobs from: (i) John 
J. Stephens, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief 
Financial Officer, AT&T Inc.; (ii) Zachary Mottl, Chief 
Alignment Officer, Atlas Tool Works, Inc.; (iii) David N. Farr, 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Emerson Electric Co.; 
(iv) Douglas L. Peterson, President and Chief Executive 
Officer, S&P Global Inc.; (v) Steven Rattner, Chairman, Willett 
Advisors LLC.
    On May 23, 2017, the committee received testimony on 
increasing U.S. competitiveness and preventing American jobs 
from moving overseas from: (i) Juan Luciano, President and 
Chief Executive Officer, Archer Daniels Midland Company; (ii) 
Brian Cornell, Board Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, 
Target Corporation; (iii) William Simon, Former President and 
Chief Executive Officer, Walmart U.S.; (iv) Lawrence B. 
Lindsey, President and CEO, The Lindsey Group; (v) Kimberly 
Clausing, Thormund A. Miller and Walter Mintz Professor of 
Economics, Reed College.
    On May 24, 2017, the Committee received testimony on the 
President's Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Proposals from U.S. 
Secretary of the Treasury, Steven Mnuchin.
    On February 15, 2018, the Committee received testimony on 
the President's Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Proposals from U.S. 
Secretary of the Treasury, Steven Mnuchin.
    On May 16, 2018, the Committee received testimony on tax 
reform, growing our economy, and creating jobs from: (i) 
Douglas Holtz-Eakin, President, American Action Forum; (ii) 
Zachary Mottl, Chief Alignment Officer, Atlas Tool Works, Inc.; 
(iii) David Farr, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, 
Emerson; (iv) Steven Rattner, Chairman and Chief Executive 
Officer, Willett Advisors LLC.

                         SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS:

    On July 13, 2017, the Subcommittee on Tax Policy received 
testimony on how tax reform will help America's small 
businesses grow and create new jobs from: (i) Teresa Meares, 
President, DGG Uniform and Work Apparel; (ii) Scott E. 
VanderWal, Owner, VanderWal Farms; (iii) Rebecca Boenigk, Chief 
Executive Officer, Neutral Posture; (iv) Chye-Ching Huang, 
Deputy Director--Federal Tax Policy, Center on Budget and 
Policy Priorities.
    On July 19, 2017, the Subcommittee on Tax Policy received 
testimony on how tax reform will simplify our broken tax code 
and help individuals and families from: (i) The Honorable Bill 
Archer, Former Chairman, Committee on Ways and Means; (ii) 
Bernard F. McKay, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Council 
for Electronic Revenue Communication Advancement; (iii) Jania 
Stout, Practice Leader and Co-Founder, Fiduciary Plan Advisors 
at HighTower; (iv) Eric Rodriguez, Vice President--Office of 
Research, Advocacy, and Legislation, UnidosUS.
    On March 14, 2018, the Subcommittee on Tax Policy received 
testimony on the post tax reform evaluation of recently expired 
tax provisions from: (i) The Honorable Rick Lazio, Senior Vice 
President, Alliantgroup; (ii) Henry Chamberlain, President and 
Chief Operating Officer, Building Owners and Managers 
Association International; (iii) Daniel Bresette, Vice 
President for Policy and Research, Alliance to Save Energy; 
(iv) Lisa Jacobson, President, Business Council for Sustainable 
Energy; (v) Sam Paschel, Chief Executive Officer, Zero 
Motorcycles Inc.; (vi) Andrew West, Founder and Chief Executive 
Officer, American Natural Gas, LLC; (vii) Daniel Gage, 
President, NGVAmerica; (viii) Stuart Weidie, President and 
Chief Executive Officer, The Blossman Companies; (ix) Michael 
Dungan, Director of Sales and Marketing, RES Polyflow; (x) 
Robbie Diamond, President and Chief Executive Officer, Securing 
America's Future Energy; (xi) Morry Markowitz, President, Fuel 
Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association; (xii) David Burton, 
Senior Fellow in Economic Policy, The Heritage Foundation; 
(xiii) Richard Phillips, Senior Policy Analyst, Institute on 
Taxation and Economic Policy; (xiv) Ryan Alexander, President, 
Taxpayers for Common Sense; (xv) Maya MacGuineas, President, 
Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget; (xvi) Seth Hanlon, 
Senior Fellow, Center for American Progress; (xvii) Cal Meyer, 
Group Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Ag Processing 
Inc.; (xviii) Michael McAdams, President, Advanced Biofuels 
Association; (xix) Edward Hubbard, General Counsel, Renewable 
Fuels Association; (xx) Judy Petry, Chair, American Short Line 
and Regional Railroad Association; (xxi) Barry Grooms, Realtor 
and Co-Owner, SaraBay Real Estate Inc.
    On May 23, 2018, the subcommittee on Tax Policy received 
testimony on tax reform and small businesses, growing our 
economy, and creating jobs from: (i) Larry Gray, Owner, 
Alftermann Gray & Co. CPAs, LLC; (ii) Michael Baach, President 
and Chief Executive Officer, Philpott Solutions Group; (iii) 
John Horne, Owner and President, Anna Maria Oyster Bars; (iv) 
Philip Homan, President and Chief Executive Officer, LORAM 
Maintenance of Way, Inc.; (v) John Arensmeyer, Founder and 
Chief Executive Officer, Small Business Majority.

                    SUBCOMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES

Actions Taken

                        FULL COMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On April 17, 2018, the Committee received testimony on Jobs 
and Opportunity: Federal Perspectives on the Jobs Gap from the 
Honorable R. Alexander Acosta, Secretary, U.S. Department of 
Labor.

                         SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On February 15, 2017, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on The Geography of Poverty from (i) 
Elizabeth Kneebone, Fellow, Metropolitan Policy Program, 
Brookings Institution; (ii) Mark Partridge, Professor, Swank 
Chair in Rural-Urban Policy, Department of Agricultural, 
Environmental, and Development Economics, The Ohio State 
University; (iii) William Leavy, Executive Director, Greater 
West Town Project, Chicago, IL, accompanied by Linda Thomas, 
Director of Client Services, Greater West Town Project, 
Chicago, IL; (iv) Tammy Slater, CEO, Goodwill Industries of 
Greater Nebraska.
    On March 15, 2017, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on the Reauthorization of the Maternal, 
Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program 
from: (i) Beth Russell, Nurse Home Visitor, Penn Medicine 
Lancaster General Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), PA; (ii) Rosa 
Valentin, Client, Penn Medicine Lancaster General Nurse-Family 
Partnership (NFP), PA; (iii) Eric Bellamy, Home Visiting 
Manager, Children's Trust of South Carolina; (iv) Diana Rauner, 
President, The Ounce of Prevention Fund.
    On May 17, 2017, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on Opportunities for Youth and Young Adults 
to Break the Cycle of Poverty from: (i) Gerald Chertavian, 
Founder and CEO, Year Up; (ii) Jameela Roland, Graduate, Year 
Up; (iii) Martrice Manuel, Senior Program Director, Youth 
Scholars, Skills, and Services Program, Chicago, IL; (iv) 
Cheryl A. Oldham, Vice President of Education Policy, U.S. 
Chamber of Commerce.
    On September 6, 2017, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on Missing from the Labor Force: Examining 
Declining Employment among Working-Age Men from: (i) Brent 
Orrell, Vice President, Family and Economic Stability, ICF 
International, Inc.; (ii) Mike Henderson, President and CEO, 
Associated Builder and Contractors (ABC) Baltimore, MD; (iii) 
Tyrone Ferrens, Graduate, Project JumpStart; (iv) Anthony 
Lowery, Director, Policy & Advocacy, Safer Foundation, Chicago, 
IL.
    On April 12, 2018, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on Jobs and Opportunity: Local Perspectives 
on the Jobs Gap, the difference between the demand for workers 
from employers to keep the economy growing and the supply of 
workers from the labor force at a time when labor force 
participation has been at historic lows, from: (i) Connie 
Wilhelm, Chief Executive Officer, Home Builders Association of 
Central Arizona; (ii) Toby Thomas, President, Austin Electric, 
LLC, Avondale, AZ; (iii) Brian Potaczek, Employee, Austin 
Electric, LLC, Mesa, AZ, (iv) Kelly Tessitore, Vice President 
of Advancement, Jewish Vocational Service, Boston, MA; (v) 
Heather Terenzio, CEO, Techtonic Group, LLC, Boulder, CO; (vi) 
Justin Welner, Vice President, Human Resources, Spirit 
AeroSystems, Wichita, KS; (vii) Andrew Wells, Director of 
Workforce Development, The Chicago Urban League; (viii) Peter 
Barrett, Senior Vice President, Marketing and Corporate 
Development, Smoker Craft, Inc, New Paris, IN.
    On April 25, 2018, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on Jobs and Opportunity: Employer 
Perspectives on the Jobs Gap from: (i) David Ard, Senior Vice 
President and Global Head of People and Communications, Gap, 
Inc, New York, NY; (ii) Julie Shapiro, Executive Director, The 
Door, New York, NY; (iii) Steve Staub, President and Owner, 
Staub Manufacturing Solutions, Dayton, OH; (iv) Dr. Dan Lustig, 
Psy.D. CAADC MISA II, President and CEO, Haymarket Center, 
Chicago, IL; (v) Glenn Johnson, Manufacturing Workforce 
Development Leader, BASF Corporation, Houston, TX; (vi) Barb 
Pilarski, Head of Human Resources, FCA (Fiat-Chrysler) US LLC, 
Auburn Hills, MI.
    On May 9, 2018, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on Jobs and Opportunity: Legislative Options 
to Address the Jobs Gap from: (i) Jennifer Meek Eells, 
Executive Director, Workforce Development Board, OhioMeansJobs 
Stark and Tuscarawas Counties; (ii) Nisha Patel, Institute 
Fellow, Urban Institute; (iii) Robert Doar, Morgridge Fellow in 
Poverty Studies, American Enterprise Institute.
    On July 24, 2018, the Subcommittee on Human Resources 
received testimony on The Opioid Crisis: Implementation of the 
Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA) from Jerry Milner, 
Associate Commissioner, Children's Bureau, and Acting 
Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, 
United States Department of Health and Human Services.

                         SUBCOMMITTEE ON HEALTH

Actions Taken

                        FULL COMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On June 8, 2017, the Committee received testimony on the 
Department of Health and Human Services Fiscal Year 2018 Budget 
Request from Honorable Thomas E. Price, M.D., Secretary, U.S. 
Department of Health and Human Services.
    On February 14, 2018, the Committee received testimony on 
the Department of Health and Human Services' Fiscal Year 2019 
Budget Request from Honorable Alex Michael Azar II, Secretary, 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

                         SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On May 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on the current status of the Medicare Program, 
payment systems, and extenders from: Mark Miller, Executive 
Director, Medicare Payment Advisory Commission.
    On June 7, 2017, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on promoting integrated and coordinated care for 
Medicare beneficiaries from: (i) Gretchen Jacobson, PhD, 
Associate Director, Kaiser Family Foundation's Program on 
Medicare Policy; (ii) Cheryl Wilson, RN, Chief Executive 
Officer, St. Paul's Senior Services; (iii) David Grabowski, 
PhD, Professor of Health Care Policy, Department of Health Care 
Policy at Harvard Medical School; (iv) A. Mark Fendrick, MD, 
Executive Director, University of Michigan Center for Value-
Based Insurance Design.
    On February 6, 2018, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on the Opioid Crisis removing barriers to prevent and 
treat opioid abuse and dependence in Medicare from: (i) Phil 
Scott, Governor, State of Vermont, joined by Al Gobeille, 
Secretary of Human Services; (ii) Dr. Ramsin M. Benyamin, M.D., 
President and Founder, Millennium Pain Center; Board of 
Directors, American Board of Interventional Pain Physicians; 
(iii) Jason Kletter, Ph.D., President, BayMark Health Services 
and Bay Area Addiction Research and Treatment (BAART); (iv) 
Harold L. Paz, M.D., M.S., Executive Vice President and Chief 
Medical Officer, Aetna; (v) Laura Hungiville, PharmD, Chief 
Pharmacy Officer, WellCare Health Plans, Inc.
    On March 21, 2018, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on implementation of MACRA's physician payment 
policies from: Demetrios L. Kouzoukas, Principal Deputy 
Administrator, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 
joined by Dr. Kate Goodrich, Chief Medical Officer, Centers for 
Medicare and Medicaid Services.
    On April 26, 2018, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on innovation in health care from: (i) Matthew S. 
Philip, M.D., Physician, Breakthrough Care Center, DuPage 
Medical Group joined by Paul F. Merrick, M.D., President, 
DuPage Medical Group; (ii) Oliver Kharraz, M.D., Chief 
Executive Officer & Founder, Zocdoc; (iii) Becki Hafner-
Fogarty, M.D., Senior Vice President, Policy and Strategy, 
Zipnosis, Inc.; (iv) Dan Paoletti, Chief Executive Officer, The 
Ohio Health Information Partnership; (v) Sean Cavanaugh, Chief 
Administrative Officer Aledade.
    On May 8, 2018, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on the current status of and quality in the Medicare 
Advantage Program from: (i) Karoline Mortensen, Ph.D., 
Associate Professor, Health Sector Management & Policy, 
University of Miami Business School; (ii) Andrew Toy, Chief 
Technology Officer, Clover Health; (iii) Daphne Klausner, 
Senior Vice President, Senior Markets, Independence Blue Cross; 
(iv) Jack Hoadley, Ph.D., Georgetown University Health Policy 
Institute.
    On June 6, 2018, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on lowering costs and expanding access to health care 
through consumer-directed health plans from (i) Roy Ramthun, 
President and Founder, HSA Consulting Services, LLC; (ii) Matt 
Eyles, President & CEO, America's Health Insurance Plans 
(AHIP); (iii) Jody Dietel, Chief Compliance Officer, WageWorks, 
Inc.; (iv) Sherry Glied, Dean, New York University, Robert F. 
Wagner Graduate School of Public Service.
    On July 17, 2018, the Subcommittee on Health received 
testimony on modernizing Stark Law to ensure the successful 
transition from volume to value in the Medicare program from: 
(i) Eric Hargan, Deputy Secretary, Department of Health and 
Human Services; (ii) Gary M. Kirsh, M.D., President, The 
Urology Group; (iii) Mike Lappin, Chief Integration Officer, 
AdvocateAuroraHealth; (iv) Brian DeBusk, Ph.D., M.B.A., 
President and Chief Executive Officer, DeRoyal; (v) Claire M. 
Sylvia, Partner, Phillips & Cohen LLP.

                    SUBCOMMITTEE ON SOCIAL SECURITY

Actions Taken

                         SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS

    On February 7, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
and the Subcommittee on Oversight received testimony at a 
hearing entitled ``Examining the Social Security 
Administration's Representative Payee Program: Determining Who 
Needs Help'' from: (i) Marianna LaCanfora, Acting Deputy 
Commissioner, Office of Retirement and Disability Policy, 
Social Security Administration; (ii) Dr. Paul Appelbaum, 
Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of Psychiatry, Medicine & Law, 
Columbia University; (iii) Lindsay Nichols, Senior Attorney, 
The Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence/Americans for 
Responsible Solutions; (iv) Gale Stallworth Stone, Acting 
Inspector General, Social Security Administration. The hearing 
focused on the capability determination process used by the 
Social Security Administration (SSA) to assess whether an 
individual needs a representative payee to manage benefit 
payments on their behalf. The witnesses discussed how 
capability determinations are made, concerns with the SSA's 
current process, and recommendations for improvement.
    On March 22, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight and the 
Subcommittee on Social Security received testimony on Social 
Security's Representative Payee Program from: (i) Marianna 
LaCanfora, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Office of Retirement and 
Disability Policy, Social Security Administration; (ii) Gale 
Stallworth Stone, Acting Inspector General, Social Security 
Administration; (iii) Marty Ford, Senior Executive Officer, 
Public Policy, The Arc, on behalf of the Consortium for 
Citizens with Disabilities Social Security Task Force; (iv) 
Brenda Uekert, Principal Court Research Consultant, National 
Center for State Courts; (v) David Slayton, Administrative 
Director, Office of Court Administration, Texas Judicial 
Branch. This was the second hearing on the Representative Payee 
Program and was entitled ``Examining the Social Security 
Administration's Representative Payee Program: Who Provides 
Help.'' Witnesses discussed how the SSA selects and monitors 
payees as well as concerns with how the SSA administers its own 
rules and regulations. Witnesses also discussed state 
guardianship programs and how these programs can inform the 
SSA's efforts to improve the representative payee program.
    On April 26, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Stopping Disability 
Fraud: Risk, Prevention, and Detection'' from: (i) Sean Brune, 
Assistant Deputy Commissioner, Office of Budget, Finance, 
Quality and Management, Social Security Administration; (ii) 
Seto J. Bagdoyan, Director, Forensic Audits and Investigative 
Service, Government Accountability Office. The hearing focused 
on the agency's ability to identify and manage fraud risk, and 
the status of the SSA's antifraud initiatives. Witnesses 
discussed what the SSA has done to improve its fraud detection 
and prevention, as well as the steps that need to be taken to 
improve the agency's fraud risk management.
    On May 23, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security and 
the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Subcommittee 
on Information Technology received testimony at a hearing 
entitled ``Protecting Americans' Identities: Examining Efforts 
to Limit the Use of Social Security Numbers'' from: (i) Gregory 
C. Wilshusen, Director, Information Security Issues, Government 
Accountability Office; (ii) Marianna LaCanfora, Acting Deputy 
Commissioner, Office of Retirement and Disability Policy, 
Social Security Administration; (iii) David DeVries, Chief 
Information Officer, Office of Personnel Management; (iv) Karen 
Jackson, Deputy Chief Operating Officer, Centers for Medicare 
and Medicaid Services; (v) John Oswalt, Executive Director for 
Privacy, Office of Information and Technology, Department of 
Veterans Affairs. The hearing focused on efforts by federal 
agencies to reduce the use of Social Security numbers (SSNs) 
and the challenges these agencies face in doing so. The panel 
discussed the origin of the SSN and its widespread use as a 
personal identifier. The witnesses also discussed the internal 
and external challenges that agencies face in reducing SSN use 
and the progress that has been made to date.
    On June 29, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security and 
the Subcommittee on Oversight received testimony at a hearing 
entitled ``The Complexities and Challenges of Social Security 
Coverage and Payroll Tax Compliance for State and Local 
Governments'' from: (i) Marianna LaCanfora, Acting Deputy 
Commissioner, Office of Retirement and Disability Policy, 
Social Security Administration; (ii) Sunita Lough, 
Commissioner, Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division, 
Internal Revenue Service; (iii) Maryann Motza, Ph.D., 
Legislative Committee Chair and Past President, National 
Conference of State Social Security Administrators. The hearing 
focused on the roles the SSA, the Internal Revenue Service 
(IRS), and State Social Security Administrators play in 
administering Social Security coverage for state and local 
governments. Members discussed how the SSA, IRS and State 
Social Security Administrators can improve coordination to 
ensure proper administration of Section 218 agreements and 
increase payroll tax compliance.
    On July 14, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony on Social Security's Trust Funds at a 
hearing entitled ``Social Security's Solvency Challenge: Status 
of the Social Security Trust Funds'' from Stephen C. Goss, 
Chief Actuary, Social Security Administration. The hearing 
focused on the findings in the 2017 Annual Report of the Board 
of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and 
Federal Disability Trust Funds and the demographic and economic 
factors that affect the financial condition of Social 
Security's Trusts Funds. The Social Security Trustees project 
the combined Trust Funds will be exhausted in 2034. The 
Trustees also project that the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust 
Fund will be exhausted in 2028, 5 years later than the 2016 
projection. The 75-year unfunded liability increased from $11.4 
trillion in 2016 to $12.5 trillion in 2017.
    On September 6, 2017, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Determining 
Eligibility for Disability Benefits: Challenges Facing the 
Social Security Administration'' from: (i) Bea Disman, Acting 
Chief of Staff, Social Security Administration; (ii) Kathryn 
Larin, Director of Education, Workforce, and Income Security 
Issues, Government Accountability Office; (iii) Elizabeth 
McLaren, Bureau Chief, Iowa Disability Determination Services 
on behalf of National Council of Disability Determination 
Directors; (iv) Marilyn Zahm, President, Association of 
Administrative Law Judges; (v) Lisa Ekman, Director of 
Government Affairs, National Organization of Social Security 
Claimants' Representatives on behalf of the Consortium for 
Citizens with Disabilities Social Security Task Force. The 
hearing focused on the SSA's plan to reduce the hearing backlog 
and claimant wait times, other efforts to modernize and improve 
the disability determination process, and tools available to 
expedite decisions for those with certain severe conditions. 
Witnesses discussed the SSA's plan to reduce the disability 
hearing backlog and methods to improve the disability 
determination process. At the hearing, Members and witnesses 
agreed that the record high hearing backlog of more than one 
million pending cases and wait times of approximately 600 days 
for a hearing decision were unacceptable. Members and witnesses 
also discussed the need for the SSA to use the resources they 
have more efficiently.
    On February 7, 2018, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Ensuring Social 
Security Serves America's Veterans'' from Gina Clemons, 
Associate Commissioner, Office of Disability Policy, Social 
Security Administration. The witness discussed how the SSA 
expedites veterans' DI claims and uses electronic health 
records to reduce wait times, as well as the SSA's efforts to 
hire veterans. The witness also discussed the SSA's outreach 
efforts to educate veterans about DI for service members and 
the SSA's updated medical listing for war injuries. The Members 
discussed ways to improve the DI claims process and how the SSA 
can increase efficiencies to help veterans and non-veterans as 
workloads continue to increase.
    On March 7, 2018, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Lacking a Leader: 
Challenges Facing the SSA after over 5 Years of Acting 
Commissioners'' from: (i) Elizabeth Curda, Director, Education, 
Workforce, and Income Security, Government Accountability 
Office; (ii) Valerie Brannon, Legislative Attorney, 
Congressional Research Service; (iv) Max Richtman, President 
and CEO, National Committee to Preserve Social Security and 
Medicare; (v) Max Stier, President and CEO, Partnership for 
Public Service. The hearing focused on the need for a Senate-
confirmed Commissioner to lead the SSA, the challenges and 
limitations faced by the SSA when it is led by an Acting 
Commissioner, and the legal framework that governs a vacancy at 
the SSA. Prior to the hearing, on March 6, 2018, the Government 
Accountability Office (GAO) issued an opinion that the SSA has 
been in violation of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 
since November 17, 2017. Witnesses discussed the negative 
impact of being without a Senate-confirmed Commissioner for 
more than five years, as well as the challenges facing the 
agency. Witnesses also discussed the interaction between the 
Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 and Section 702 of the 
Social Security Act which provide the statutory framework for 
filling a vacancy at the SSA. Members expressed concern with 
the complexity of the statutory framework and the limited 
ability of an Acting Commissioner to address problems at the 
SSA.
    On May 17, 2018, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Securing Americans' 
Identities: The Future of the Social Security Number'' from: 
(i) Nancy Berryhill, Acting Commissioner, Social Security 
Administration; (ii) Elizabeth Curda, Director, Education, 
Workforce, and Income Security, Government Accountability 
Office; (iii) Samuel Lester, Consumer Privacy Counsel, 
Electronic Privacy Information Center; (iv) Paul Rosenzweig, 
Senior Fellow, R Street Institute; (v) Steve Grobman, Senior 
Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, McAfee, LLC; (vi) 
Jeremy A. Grant, Coordinator, Better Identity Coalition; (vii) 
James Lewis, Senior Vice President, Technology Policy Program, 
Center for Strategic and International Studies. The hearing 
focused on the dangers of the use of the SSN as both an 
identifier and authenticator, and examined policy 
considerations and possible solutions to mitigate the 
consequences of SSN loss or theft. Members and witnesses 
discussed the SSN's continued use as an identifier and the 
danger of the use of SSNs as an authenticator. Witnesses also 
discussed options, such as publication of all SSNs, to make the 
use of SSNs safer. Additionally, Members and witnesses 
discussed the use of the Social Security card and the need to 
improve the SSA's policies to make it easier for identity theft 
victims to receive new SSNs.
    On June 7, 2018, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Examining Social 
Security's Solvency Challenge: The Status of Social Security's 
Trust Funds'' from Stephen C. Goss, Chief Actuary, Social 
Security Administration. The hearing focused on the findings in 
the 2018 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal 
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability 
Insurance Trust Funds and the factors that affect the actuarial 
condition of Social Security's Trust Funds. Mr. Goss discussed 
the main changes from the 2017 Trustees Report to the 2018 
Trustees Report, including the increase in Social Security's 
75-year actuarial deficit and 75-year unfunded liability and 
the improvement in the DI Trust Fund. Social Security's 
actuarial deficit increased from 2.83 percent of taxable 
payroll in 2017 to 2.84 percent of taxable payroll in 2018 and 
the program's unfunded liability increased from $12.5 trillion 
to $13.2 trillion over this time period, while the projected 
reserve depletion date for the DI Trust Fund improved from 2028 
to 2032. Mr. Goss noted that the solvency improvement for the 
DI Trust Fund is due to a decrease in DI applications and 
awards, but the reason for the decline in DI applications is 
still not well understood. The hearing also clarified that the 
Trustees Report's economic assumptions do not account for the 
effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act since these assumptions 
were finalized prior to the law's passage.
    On July 25, 2018, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``Examining Changes to 
Social Security's Disability Appeals Process'' from: Patricia 
Jonas, Deputy Commissioner, Analytics, Review, and Oversight, 
Social Security Administration; (ii) Elizabeth Curda, Director, 
Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, Government 
Accountability Office; (iii) Will Morton, Analyst in Income 
Security, Congressional Research Service; (iv) Jeff Price, 
Legislative Director, National Association of Disability 
Examiners; (v) Lisa Ekman, Director of Government Affairs, 
National Organization of Social Security Claimants' 
Representatives, on behalf of the Consortium for Citizens with 
Disabilities Social Security Task Force; (vi) Hon. Ronald A. 
Cass, President, Cass & Associates, PC. The hearing focused on 
recent and planned changes to the SSA's disability appeals 
process, how the SSA evaluates process changes, and the 
progress the SSA has made in reducing the disability backlog. 
At the hearing, Members and witnesses discussed the SSA's 
decision to reinstate the reconsideration stage of appeal 
nationwide with Members expressing bipartisan concern regarding 
that decision.
    On September 27, 2018, the Subcommittee on Social Security 
received testimony at a hearing entitled ``The State of Social 
Security's Information Technology'' from: (i) Rajive Mathur, 
Deputy Commissioner of Systems and Chief Information Officer, 
Social Security Administration; (ii) Gale Stallworth Stone, 
Acting Inspector General, Social Security Administration; (iii) 
Carol C. Harris, Director, Information Technology Management 
Issues, Government Accountability Office. The hearing focused 
on the SSA's efforts to modernize the agency's information 
technology (IT) systems. Members and witnesses discussed the 
challenges posed by the SSA's out of date systems, the need for 
the SSA to engage with the private sector to identify solutions 
to its IT needs, and the progress the SSA has made after the 
release of its modernization plan in October 2017.

                          III. PUBLIC HEARINGS

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee on Ways and Means 
along with its six Subcommittees held numerous public hearings. 
Many of these hearings dealt with broad subject matter 
including the President's fiscal year 2019 budget proposals, 
tax reform, trade, health and Social Security issues.
    As the statistics below indicate, during the 115th 
Congress, the full Committee and its six Subcommittees held 
public hearings aggregating a total of 56 days, during which 
time 244 witnesses testified. There was one field hearing.
    The following table specifies the statistical data on the 
number of days and witnesses on each of the subjects covered by 
public hearings in the full Committee during the 115th 
Congress.

  TABLE 1--PUBLIC HEARINGS CONDUCTED BY THE FULL COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND
                                  MEANS
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Number of--
               Subject and Date                -------------------------
                                                    Days      Witnesses
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2017:
    Hearing on How Tax Reform Will Grow Our               1            5
     Economy and Create Jobs, May 18..........
    Hearing on Increasing U.S. Competitiveness            1            5
     and Preventing American Jobs from Moving
     Overseas, May 23.........................
    Hearing on the President's Fiscal Year                1            1
     2018 Budget Proposals with U.S. Secretary
     of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin, May 24...
    Hearing on the Department of Health and               1            1
     Human Services' Fiscal Year 2018 Budget
     Request, June 8..........................
    Hearing on U.S. Trade Policy Agenda, June             1            1
     22.......................................
        Total for 2017........................            5           13
2018:
    Hearing on the Department of Health and               1            1
     Human Services' Fiscal Year 2019 Budget
     Request, February 14.....................
    Hearing on FY 2019 Budget Proposals for               1            1
     the Department of Treasury, February 15..
    Hearing on U.S. Trade Policy Agenda, March            1            1
     21.......................................
    Hearing with Commerce Secretary Ross,                 1            1
     March 22.................................
    Hearing on the Effects of Tariff Increases            1            7
     on the U.S. Economy and Jobs, April 12...
    Hearing on Jobs and Opportunity: Federal              1            1
     Perspectives on the Jobs Gap, April 17...
    Hearing Series on Tax Reform: Growing Our             1            4
     Economy and Creating Jobs, May 16........
        Total for 2018........................            7           16
          Total for 115th Congress............           12           29
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The six Subcommittees of the Committee on Ways and Means 
were also very active in conducting public hearings during the 
115th Congress. The following table specifies in detail the 
number of days and witnesses for each of the Subcommittees.

TABLE 2--PUBLIC HEARINGS CONDUCTED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEES OF THE COMMITTEE
                            ON WAYS AND MEANS
                    [January 3, 2017-January 3, 2019]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Number of--
               Subject and Date                -------------------------
                                                    Days      Witnesses
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    SUBCOMMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES
 
2017:
    Hearing on the Geography of Poverty,                  1            4
     February 15..............................
    Hearing on the Reauthorization of the                 1            4
     Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood
     Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program, March 15.
    Hearing on Opportunities for Youth and                1            4
     Young Adults to Break the Cycle of
     Poverty, May 17..........................
    Hearing on Missing from the Labor Force:              1            4
     Examining Declining Employment among
     Working-Age Men, September 6.............
        Total for 2017........................            4           16
2018:
    Hearing on Jobs and Opportunity: Local                1            9
     Perspectives on the Jobs Gap, April 12...
    Hearing on Jobs and Opportunity: Employer             1            6
     Perspectives on the Jobs Gap, April 25...
    Hearing on Jobs and Opportunity:                      1            3
     Legislative Options to Address the Jobs
     Gap, May 9...............................
    Hearing on the Opioid Crisis:                         1            1
     Implementation of the Family First
     Prevention Services Act (FFPSA), July 24.
        Total for 2018........................            4           19
          Total for 115th Congress............            8           35
 
                       SUBCOMMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT
2017:
    Hearing on Examining the Effectiveness of             1            3
     the Individual Mandate under the
     Affordable Care Act, January 24..........
    Joint Hearing on Social Security's                    1            5
     Representative Payee Program, March 22...
    Hearing on the 2017 Tax Filing Season,                1            3
     April 26.................................
    Hearing with the National Taxpayer                    1            1
     Advocate, May 19.........................
    Hearing on Efforts to Combat Waste, Fraud,            1            2
     and Abuse in the Medicare Program, July
     19.......................................
    Hearing on the Internal Revenue Service's             1            3
     Record Retention Policies, July 25.......
    Hearing on Reforming How the IRS Resolves             1            4
     Taxpayer Disputes, September 13..........
    Hearing on the Internal Revenue Service's             1            4
     Information Technology Modernization
     Efforts, October 4.......................
    Hearing on the Taxpayer Experience with               1            4
     the Internal Revenue Service, December 13
        Total for 2017........................            9           29
2018:
    Hearing on ``The Opioid Crisis: The                   1            3
     Current Landscape and CMS Actions to
     Prevent Opioid Misuse'', January 17......
    Hearing on Legislation to Improve Tax                 1            7
     Administration, January 30...............
    Hearing on Internal Revenue Service and               1            2
     U.S. Department of Justice Efforts to
     Return Taxpayers' Seized Funds, June 20..
    Hearing on Combating Fraud in Medicare: A             1            3
     Strategy for Success, July 17............
    Hearing on the Internal Revenue Service's             1            4
     Taxpayer Online Authentication Efforts,
     September 26.............................
        Total for 2018........................            5           19
          Total for 115th Congress............           14           48
 
                     SUBCOMMITTEE ON SOCIAL SECURITY
 
2017:
    Joint Hearing on Social Security's                    1            4
     Representative Payee Program, February 7.
    Hearing on Stopping Disability Fraud:                 1            2
     Risk, Prevention, and Detection, April 26
    Hearing on Protecting Americans'                      1            5
     Identities: Examining Efforts to Limit
     the Use of Social Security Numbers (Joint
     with OGR), May 23........................
    Joint Hearing on the Complexities and                 1            3
     Challenges of Social Security Coverage
     and Payroll Tax Compliance for State and
     Local Governments, June 29...............
    Hearing on Social Security's Solvency                 1            1
     Challenge: Status of the Social Security
     Trust Funds, July 14.....................
    Hearing on Determining Eligibility for                1            5
     Disability Benefits: Challenges Facing
     the Social Security Administration,
     September 6..............................
        Total for 2017........................            6           20
2018:
    Hearing on Ensuring Social Security Serves            1            1
     America's Veterans, February 7...........
    Lacking a Leader: Challenges Facing the               1            4
     SSA after over 5 Years of Acting
     Commissioners, March 7...................
    Hearing on Securing Americans' Identities:            1            7
     The Future of the Social Security Number,
     May 17...................................
    Hearing on Examining Social Security's                1            1
     Solvency Challenge: The Status of Social
     Security's Trust Funds, June 7...........
    Hearing on Examining Changes to Social                1            6
     Security's Disability Appeals Process,
     July 25..................................
    Hearing on the State of Social Security's             1            3
     Information Technology, September 27.....
        Total for 2018........................            6           22
          Total for 115th Congress............           12           42
 
                       SUBCOMMMITTEE ON TAX POLICY
2017:
    Hearing on How Tax Reform Will Help                   1            4
     America's Small Businesses Grow and
     Create New Jobs, July 13.................
    Hearing on How Tax Reform Will Simplify               1            4
     Our Broken Tax Code and Help Individuals
     and Families, July 19....................
        Total for 2017........................            2            8
2018:
    Hearing on Post Tax Reform Evaluation of              1           21
     Recently Expired Tax Provisions, March 14
    Hearing on Tax Reform and Small                       1            5
     Businesses: Growing Our Economy and
     Creating Jobs, May 23....................
        Total for 2018........................            2           26
          Total for 115th Congress............            4           34
 
                         SUBCOMMMITTEE ON TRADE
 
2017:
    Hearing on Modernization of the North                 1            9
     American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),
     July 18..................................
    Hearing on Opportunities to Expand U.S.               1            5
     Trade Relationships in the Asia-Pacific
     Region, October 11.......................
    Hearing on the Miscellaneous Tariff Bill:             1            3
     Providing Tariff Relief to U.S.
     Manufacturers Through the New MTB
     Process, October 25......................
        Total for 2017........................            3           17
2018:
    Hearing on the Opioid Crisis: Stopping the            1            2
     Flow of Synthetic Opioids in the
     International Mail System, April 25......
    Hearing on the Effects of Tariffs on U.S.             1            6
     Agriculture and Rural Communities, July
     18.......................................
    Hearing on Product Exclusion Process for              1            5
     Section 232 Tariffs on Steel and
     Aluminum, July 24........................
        Total for 2018........................            3           13
          Total for 115th Congress............            6           30
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              IV. MARKUPS


   TABLE 3--PUBLIC MARKUPS CONDUCTED BY THE FULL COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND
                                  MEANS
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Number of--
               Subject and Date                -------------------------
                                                    Days        Bills
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2017:
    Ways and Means Announces Organizational               1        - - -
     Meeting, January 12......................
        --Consideration of Committee Rules for
         115th Congress.......................
    Ways and Means to Hold Meeting, February              1        - - -
     14.......................................
        --Ways and Means Committee
         Authorization and Oversight Plan for
         115th Congress.......................
        --Ways and Means Committee Views and
         Estimates on the Fiscal Year 2018
         Federal Budget.......................
        --Ratification of Ways and Means
         Committee Subcommittee assignments...
        --Ratification of Appointments to the
         Joint Committee on Taxation..........
    Budget Reconciliation Recommendations to              1        - - -
     Repeal and Replace Obamacare, March 8....
        --Budget Reconciliation Legislative
         Recommendations Relating to
         Remuneration from Certain Insurers...
        --Budget Reconciliation Legislative
         Recommendations Relating to Repeal of
         Tanning Tax..........................
        --Budget Reconciliation Legislative
         Recommendations Relating to Repeal of
         Certain Consumer Taxes...............
        --Budget Reconciliation Legislative
         Recommendations Relating to Repeal of
         Net Investment Income Tax............
        --Budget Reconciliation Legislative
         Recommendations Relating to Repeal
         and Replace of Health-Related Tax
         Policy...............................
    Markup of H. Res. 186, ``Of inquiry                   1            1
     directing the Secretary of the Treasury
     to provide to the House of
     Representatives the tax returns and other
     specified financial information of
     President Donald J. Trump.'', March 28...
        --H. Res. 186, ``Of inquiry directing
         the Secretary of the Treasury to
         provide to the House of
         Representatives the tax returns and
         other specified financial information
         of President Donald J. Trump.''......
    Markup of Legislation to Further Expand               1            3
     Health Care Options for Americans, May 24
        --H.R. 2372, ``Veterans Equal
         Treatment Ensures Relief and Access
         Now Act''............................
        --H.R. 2579, ``Broader Options for
         Americans Act''......................
        --H.R. 2581, ``Verify First Act''.....
    Markup of Bipartisan Bills to Strengthen              1            6
     Families, June 14........................
        --H.R. 2742, ``Modernizing the
         Interstate Placement of Children in
         Foster Care Act''....................
        --H.R. 2857, ``Supporting Families in
         Substance Abuse Treatment Act''......
        --H.R. 2834, ``Partnership Grants to
         Strengthen Families Affected by
         Parental Substance Abuse Act''.......
        --H.R. 2866, ``Reducing Barriers for
         Relative Foster Parents Act''........
        --H.R. 2847, ``Improving Services for
         Older Youth in Foster Care Act''.....
        --H.R. 2842, ``Accelerating
         Individuals into the Workforce Act''.
    Markup of Legislation to Modify the                   1            1
     Nuclear Production Tax Credit, June 15...
        --H.R. 1551, ``To amend the Internal
         Revenue Code of 1986 to modify the
         credit for production from advanced
         nuclear power facilities''...........
    Markup of Bills to Strengthen Medicare                1            3
     Programs and Protect Taxpayers, July 13..
        --H.R. 3178, ``Medicare Part B
         Improvement Act of 2017''............
        --H.R. 3168, ``SNP Reauthorization Act
         of 2017''............................
        --H.R. 1843, ``Restraining Excessive
         Seizure of Property through the
         Exploitation of Civil Forfeiture
         Tools Act''..........................
    Markup of H. Res. 479, ``Of Inquiry                   1            1
     directing the Secretary of the Treasury
     to provide to the House of
     Representatives the tax return
     information of President Donald J. Trump
     as well as the tax returns of each
     business entity disclosed by Donald J.
     Trump on his Office of Government Ethics
     Form 278e'', September 7.................
        --H. Res. 479, ``Of inquiry directing
         the Secretary of the Treasury to
         provide to the House of
         Representatives the tax return
         information of President Donald J.
         Trump as well as the tax returns of
         each business entity disclosed by
         Donald J. Trump on his Office of
         Government Ethics Form 278e.''.......
    Markup of Legislation to Improve Medicare             1            5
     Programs and Policies, Expand Evidence-
     Based Welfare Solutions, September 13....
        --H.R. 3726, ``Stark Administrative
         Simplification Act of 2017''.........
        --H.R. 3727, ``ITAM Act''.............
        --H.R. 3729, ``Comprehensive
         Operations, Sustainability, and
         Transport Act of 2017''..............
        --H.R. 2824, ``Increasing Opportunity
         through Evidence-Based Home Visiting
         Act''................................
        --H.R. 2792, ``Control Unlawful
         Fugitive Felons Act of 2017''........
    Markup of Bill to Improve Senior's access             1            1
     to Medicare: H.R. 849, ``Protecting
     Seniors' Access to Medicare Act of
     2017'', October 4........................
        --H.R. 849, ``Protecting Seniors'
         Access to Medicare Act of 2017''.....
    Markup of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, November             4            1
     6........................................
        --H.R. 1, Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.......
            Total for 2017....................           15           22
2018:
    Ways and Means to Hold Meeting, February              1        - - -
     27.......................................
        --Views and Estimates on the Fiscal
         Year 2019 Federal Budget.............
    Markup of Bills to Better Serve and                   1           12
     Protect Taxpayers, April 11..............
        --H.R. 5444, ``To amend the Internal
         Revenue Code of 1986 to modernize and
         improve the Internal Revenue Service,
         and for other purposes.''............
        --H.R. 5445, ``To amend the Internal
         Revenue Code of 1986 to improve
         cybersecurity and taxpayer identity
         protection, and modernize the
         information technology of the
         Internal Revenue Service, and for
         other purposes.''....................
        --H.R. 2901, ``Volunteer Income Tax
         Assistance Permanence Act of 2017''..
        --H.R. 5440, ``To require notice from
         the Secretary of the Treasury in the
         case of any closure of a Taxpayer
         Assistance Center.''.................
        --H.R. 5438, ``To amend the Internal
         Revenue Code of 1986 to allow
         officers and employees of the
         Department of the Treasury to provide
         to taxpayers information regarding
         low-income taxpayer clinics.''.......
        --H.R. 5446, ``To amend the Internal
         Revenue Code of 1986 to restrict the
         immediate sale of seized property by
         Secretary of the Treasury to
         perishable goods.''..................
        --H.R. 5437, ``To require the
         Secretary of the Treasury to
         establish a program for the issuance
         of identity protection personal
         identification numbers.''............
        --H.R. 5439, ``To provide for a single
         point of contact at the Internal
         Revenue Service for the taxpayers who
         are victims of tax-related identity
         theft.''.............................
        --H.R. 5443, ``To amend the Internal
         Revenue Code of 1986 to require
         electronic filing of the annual
         returns of exempt organizations and
         provide for making such returns
         available for public inspection.''...
        --H.R. 4403, ``Moving Americans
         Privacy Protection Act''.............
        --H.R. 1512, ``Social Security Child
         Protection Act of 2017''.............
        --H.R. 5192, ``Protecting Children
         from Identity Theft Act''............
    Markup of Bills to Combat the Opioid                  1            7
     Crisis, May 16...........................
        --H.R. 5774,``Combating Opioid Abuse
         for Care in Hospitals (COACH) Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 5775, ``Providing Reliable
         Options for Patients and Educational
         Resources (PROPER) Act of 2018''.....
        --H.R. 5776, ``Medicare and Opioid
         Safe Treatment (MOST) Act''..........
        --H.R. 5773, ``Preventing Addiction
         for Susceptible Seniors (PASS) Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 5676, ``Stop Excessive
         Narcotics in our Retirement (SENIOR)
         Communities Protection Act of 2018''.
        --H.R. 5723, ``Expanding Oversight of
         Opioid Prescribing and Payment Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 5788, ``STOP Act of 2018''.....
    Markup of H.R. 5861, the Jobs and                     2            1
     Opportunity with Benefits and Services
     (JOBS) for Success Act, May 23...........
        --H.R. 5861, The ``Jobs and
         Opportunity with Benefits and
         Services (JOBS) for Success Act''....
    Markup of Bills from the Subcommittees on             1            6
     Tax Policy, Health, Social Security, and
     Oversight, June 21.......................
        --H.R. 6138, ``Ambulatory Surgical
         Center Payment Transparency Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 4952, ``Improving Seniors'
         Access to Quality Benefits Act''.....
        --H.R. 3500, The ``Ensuring Integrity
         in the IRS Workforce Act of 2017''...
        --H.R. 519, The ``Water and
         Agriculture Tax Reform Act of 2017''.
        --H.R. 6124, The ``Tribal Social
         Security Fairness Act of 2018''......
        --H.R. 6084, The ``Improving Social
         Security's Service to Victims of
         Identity Theft Act''.................
    Full Committee Markup, July 11............            2           11
        --H.R. 6301, ``Promoting High-Value
         Health Care Through Flexibility for
         High Deductible Health Plans Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 6317, ``Primary Care
         Enhancement Act of 2018''............
        --H.R. 6305, ``Bipartisan HSA
         Improvement Act of 2018''............
        --H.R. 6312, ``Personal Health
         Investment Today (PHIT) Act''........
        --H.R. 6309, ``Allowing Working
         Seniors to Keep Their Health Savings
         Accounts Act of 2018''...............
        --H.R. 6199, ``Restoring Access to
         Medication and Modernizing Health
         Savings Accounts Act of 2018''.......
        --H.R. 6306, ``Health Care Security
         Act of 2018''........................
        --H.R. 6313, ``Responsible Additions
         and Increases to Sustain Employee
         Health Benefits Act of 2018''........
        --H.R. 4616, ``Employer Relief Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 6314, ``Health Savings Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 6311, ``Increasing Access to
         Lower Premium Plans and Expanding
         Health Savings Accounts Act of 2018''
    Full Committee Markup of Bills from the               1            2
     Subcommittees on Social Security and Tax
     Policy, July 18..........................
        --H.R. 3309, ``Social Security Online
         Tools Innovation Act''...............
        --H.R. 6377, ``Save Community
         Newspaper Act of 2018''..............
    Full Committee Markup, September 5........            1            4
        --H.R. 6662, ``Empowering Seniors'
         Enrollment Decision Act of 2018''....
        --H.R. 6690, ``Fighting Fraud to
         Protect Care for Seniors Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 6561, ``Comprehensive Care for
         Seniors Act of 2018''................
        --H.R. 3635, ``Local Coverage
         Determination Clarification Act of
         2017''...............................
        --H. Res. 1018, ``Requesting the
         President to transmit to the House of
         Representatives certain documents in
         the possession of the President
         relating to the determination to
         impose certain tariffs and to the
         strategy of the United States with
         respect to China.''..................
    Full Committee Markup for Tax Reform 2.0,             1            3
     September 13.............................
        --H.R. 6760, ``Protecting Family and
         Small Business Tax Cuts Act of 2018''
        --H.R. 6757, ``Family Savings Act of
         2018''...............................
        --H.R. 6756, ``American Innovation Act
         of 2018''............................
    Total for 2018............................           11           46
      Total for 115th Congress................           26           68
------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Appendix I. Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means


                          A. U.S. Constitution

    Article I, Section 7, of the Constitution of the United 
States provides as follows:
          All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the 
        House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or 
        concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

    In addition, Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution of 
the United States provides the following:

          The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect 
        Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts 
        and . . . To borrow Money on the credit of the United 
        States.

       B. Rule X, Clause 1, Rules of the House of Representatives

    Rule X, clause 1(t), of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, in effect during the 110th Congress, provides 
for the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, as 
follows:

          (t) Committee on Ways and Means.
                  (1) Customs revenue, collection districts, 
                and ports of entry and delivery.
                  (2) Reciprocal trade agreements.
                  (3) Revenue measures generally.
                  (4) Revenue measures relating to insular 
                possessions.
                  (5) Bonded debt of the United States, subject 
                to the last sentence of clause 4(f). Clause 
                4(f) requires the Committee on Ways and Means 
                to include in its annual report to the 
                Committee on the Budget a specific 
                recommendation, made after holding public 
                hearings, as to the appropriate level of the 
                public debt that should be set forth in the 
                concurrent resolution on the budget.
                  (6) Deposit of public monies.
                  (7) Transportation of dutiable goods.
                  (8) Tax exempt foundations and charitable 
                trusts.
                  (9) National Social Security (except health 
                care and facilities programs that are supported 
                from general revenues as opposed to payroll 
                deductions and except work incentive programs).

            C. Brief Description of Committee's Jurisdiction

    The foregoing recitation of the provisions of House Rule X, 
clause 1, paragraph (t), does not convey the comprehensive 
nature of the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. 
The following summary provides a more complete description:

          (1) Federal revenue measures generally--The Committee 
        on Ways and Means has the responsibility for raising 
        the revenue required to finance the Federal Government. 
        This includes individual and corporate income taxes, 
        excise taxes, estate taxes, gift taxes, and other 
        miscellaneous taxes.
          (2) The bonded debt of the United States--The 
        Committee on Ways and Means has jurisdiction over the 
        authority of the Federal Government to borrow money. 
        Title 31 of Chapter 31 of the U.S. Code authorizes the 
        Secretary of the Treasury to conduct any necessary 
        public borrowing subject to a maximum limit on the 
        amount of borrowing outstanding at any one time. On 
        October 17, 2013, the President signed into law H.R. 
        2775, ``The Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014'' 
        (Public Law 113-46) suspending the statutory limit on 
        the amount of public debt (``the debt ceiling'') until 
        February 7, 2014. All debt occurred during the time 
        period of October 17, 2013 and February 7, 2014, will 
        be added to the previous debt ceiling of $16.699 
        trillion. The Committee's jurisdiction also includes 
        conditions under which the U.S. Department of the 
        Treasury manages the Federal debt, such as restrictions 
        on the conditions under which certain debt instruments 
        are sold.
          (3) National Social Security program--The Committee 
        on Ways and Means has jurisdiction over most of the 
        programs authorized by the Social Security Act, which 
        includes not only those programs that are normally 
        referred to colloquially as ``Social Security'' but 
        also social insurance programs and a whole series of 
        grant-in-aid programs to State governments for a 
        variety of purposes. The Social Security Act, as 
        amended, contains 21 titles (a few of which have either 
        expired or have been repealed). The principal programs 
        established by the Social Security Act and under the 
        jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means in the 
        112th Congress can be outlined as follows:
                  (a) Old-age, survivors, and disability 
                insurance (Title II)--At present, there are 
                approximately 163 million workers in employment 
                covered by the program, and for calendar year 
                2012, $774.8 billion in benefits were paid 
                almost 57 million individuals.
                  (b) Medicare (Title XVIII)--Finances health 
                care benefits through the Hospital Insurance 
                trust fund for 41.8 million persons over the 
                age of 65 and for 8.5 million disabled persons. 
                Finances voluntary health care benefits through 
                the Supplementary Medical Insurance trust fund 
                for 38.7 million aged persons and 7.7 million 
                disabled persons. Total program outlays through 
                these trust funds were $574.2 billion in 2012.
                  (c) Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (Title 
                XVI)--The SI program was inaugurated in January 
                1974 under the provisions of P.L. 92-603, as 
                amended. It replaced the former Federal-State 
                programs for the needy aged, blind, and 
                disabled. In January 2011, 8.9 million 
                individuals received Federal SSI benefits on a 
                monthly basis. Of these 8.9 million persons, 
                approximately 2.1 million were eligible on the 
                basis of age, and 6.8 million on the basis of 
                blindness or disability. Federal expenditures 
                for cash SSI payments in 2012 totaled $48.8 
                billion, while State expenditures for federally 
                administered SSI supplements totaled $3.3 
                billion.
                  (d) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families 
                (TANF) (part A of Title IV)--The TANF program 
                is a block grant of about $16.5 billion awarded 
                to States to provide income assistance to poor 
                families, to end dependency on welfare benefits 
                to prevent non-marital births, and to encourage 
                marriage, among other purposes. In most cases, 
                Federal TANF benefits for individuals are 
                limited to 5 years and individuals must work to 
                maintain their eligibility. In June 2013, about 
                1.7 million families and 4.0 million 
                individuals received benefits from the TANF 
                program.
                  (e) Child support enforcement (Part D of 
                Title IV)--In fiscal year 2012 Federal 
                administrative expenditures totaled $5.6 
                billion for child support enforcement program. 
                Child support collections for the year totaled 
                $27.7 billion.
                  (f) Child welfare, foster care, and adoption 
                assistance (parts B and E of Title IV)--Titles 
                IV B and E provide funds to States for child 
                welfare services for abused and neglected 
                children; foster care for children who meet Aid 
                to Families with Dependent Children eligibility 
                criteria; and adoption assistance for children 
                with special needs. In fiscal year 2013, 
                Federal funding for child welfare services 
                totaled $688 million. Federal funding for 
                foster care and adoption assistance were 
                approximately $6.7 billion.
                  (g) Unemployment compensation programs 
                (Titles III, IX, and XII)--These titles 
                authorize the Federal-State unemployment 
                compensation program and the permanent extended 
                benefits program. In fiscal year 2012, an 
                estimated $68.0 billion was paid in 
                unemployment compensation, with approximately 
                8.3 million workers receiving their first 
                unemployment compensation payment.
                  (h) Social services (Title XX)--Title XX 
                authorizes the Federal Government to reimburse 
                the States for money spent to provide persons 
                with various services. Generally, the specific 
                services provided are determined by each State. 
                In fiscal year 2012, $1.7 billion was 
                appropriated. These funds are allocated on the 
                basis of population.
          (4) Trade and tariff legislation--The Committee on 
        Ways and Means has responsibility over legislation 
        relating to tariffs, import trade, and trade 
        negotiations. In the early days of the Republic, tariff 
        and customs receipts were major sources of revenue for 
        the Federal Government. As the Committee with 
        jurisdiction over revenue-raising measures, the 
        Committee on Ways and Means thus evolved as the primary 
        Committee responsible for international trade policy.
    The Constitution vests the power to levy tariffs and to 
regulate international commerce specifically in the Congress as 
one of its enumerated powers. Statutes including the Reciprocal 
Trade Agreements Acts beginning in 1934, Trade Expansion Act of 
1962, Trade Act of 1974, Trade Agreements Act of 1979, Trade 
and Tariff Act of 1984, Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act 
of 1988, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 
Implementation Act, Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Trade Act of 
2002, and other legislation implementing U.S. obligations under 
trade agreements implementing bills provide the basis for U.S. 
bargaining with other countries and the means to achieve the 
mutual reduction of tariff and nontariff trade barriers under 
reciprocal trade agreements.
    The Committee's jurisdiction includes the following 
authorities and programs:
          (a) The tariff schedules and all tariff preference 
        programs, such as the General System of Preferences, 
        the Caribbean Basin Initiative, the Africa Growth and 
        Opportunity Act, the Andean Trade Preferences Act, and 
        the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Growth Act;
          (b) Laws dealing with unfair trade practices, 
        including the antidumping law, countervailing duty law, 
        section 301, and section 337;
          (c) Other laws dealing with import trade, including 
        section 201 (escape clause), section 232 national 
        security controls, section 22 agricultural 
        restrictions, international commodity agreements, 
        textile restrictions under section 204, and any other 
        restrictions or sanctions affecting imports;
          (d) General and specific trade negotiating authority, 
        as well as implementing authority for trade agreements 
        and the grant of normal-trade-relations (NTR) status;
          (e) Trade Adjustment Assistance programs for workers, 
        firms, farmers, and communities;
          (f) Customs administration and enforcement, including 
        rules of origin and country-of origin marking, customs 
        classification, customs valuation, customs user fees, 
        and U.S. participation in the World Customs 
        Organization (WCO);
          (g) Trade and customs revenue functions of the 
        Department of Homeland Security and the Department of 
        the Treasury; and
          (h) Authorization of the budget for the International 
        Trade Commission (ITC), functions of the Department of 
        Homeland Security under the Committee's jurisdiction 
        (including the Bureaus of Customs and Border Protection 
        (CBP) and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 
        and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR).

   D. Revenue Originating Prerogative of the House of Representatives

    The Constitutional Convention debated adopting the British 
model in which the House of Lords could not amend revenue 
legislation sent to it from the House of Commons. Eventually, 
however, the Convention proposed and the States later ratified 
the Constitution providing that ``All bills for raising revenue 
shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate 
may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.'' 
(Article 1, Section 7, clause 1.)
    In order to pass constitutional scrutiny under this 
``origination clause,'' a tax bill must be passed first by the 
House of Representatives. After the House has completed action 
on a bill and approved it by a majority vote, the bill is 
transmitted to the Senate for formal action. The Senate may 
have already reviewed issues raised by the bill before its 
transmission. For example, the Senate Committee on Finance 
frequently holds hearings on tax legislative proposals before 
the legislation embodying those proposals is transmitted from 
the House of Representatives. On occasion, the Senate will 
consider a revenue bill in the form of a Senate or ``S.'' bill, 
and then await passage of a revenue ``H.R.'' bill from the 
House. The Senate then will add or substitute provisions of the 
``S.'' bill as an amendment to the ``H.R.'' bill and send the 
``H.R.'' bill back to the House of Representatives for its 
concurrence or for conference on the differing provisions.

   E. The House's Exercise of its Constitutional Prerogative: ``Blue 
                               Slipping''

    When a Senate bill or amendment to a House bill infringes 
on the constitutional prerogative of the House to originate 
revenue measures, that infringement may be raised in the House 
as a matter of privilege. That privilege has also been asserted 
on a Senate amendment to a House amendment to a Senate bill 
(see 96th Congress, 1st Session, November 8, 1979, 
Congressional Record p. H10425).
    Note that the House in its sole discretion may determine 
that legislation passed by the Senate infringes on its 
prerogative to originate revenue legislation. In the absence of 
such determination by the House, the Federal courts are 
occasionally asked to rule a certain revenue measure to be 
unconstitutional as not having originated in the House (see 
U.S. v. Munoz-Flores, 495 U.S. 385 (1990).
    Senate bills or amendments to non-revenue bills infringe on 
the House's prerogative even if they do not raise or reduce 
revenue. Such infringements are referred to as ``revenue 
affecting.'' Thus, any import ban which could result in lost 
customs tariffs must originate in the House (100th Congress, 
1st Session, July 30, 1987 100th Congress, 2nd Session, June 
16, 1988, Congressional Record p. H4356). Offending bills and 
amendments are returned to the Senate through the passage in 
the House of a House Resolution which states that the Senate 
provision: ``in the opinion of the House, contravenes the first 
clause of the seventh section of the first article of the 
Constitution of the United States and is an infringement of the 
privilege of the House and that such bill be respectfully 
returned to the Senate with a message communicating this 
resolution'' (e.g., 100th Congress, 1st Session, July 30, 1987, 
Congressional Record p. H6808). This practice is referred to as 
``blue slipping'' because the resolution returning the 
offending bill to the Senate is printed on blue paper. In other 
cases, the Committee of the Whole House has passed a similar or 
identical House bill in lieu of a Senate bill or amendment 
(e.g., 91st Congress, 2nd Congress, May 11, 1970, Congressional 
Record pp. H14951-14960). The Committee on Ways and Means has 
also reported bills to the House which were approved and sent 
to the Senate in lieu of Senate bills (e.g., 93rd Congress, 1st 
Session, November 6, 1973, Congressional Record pp. 36006-
36008). In other cases, the Senate has substituted a House bill 
or delayed action on its own legislation to await a proper 
revenue affecting bill or amendment from the House (see 95th 
Congress, 2nd Session, September 22, 1978, Congressional Record 
p. H30960; January 22, 1980, Congressional Record p. S107).
    Any Member may offer a resolution seeking to invoke Article 
I, Section 7. However, the determination that a bill violates 
the Origination Clause has been traditionally made by Members 
of the Committee on Ways and Means, and the resolution has been 
offered by the Chairman or another Member of the Committee on 
Ways and Means. Because Article I, Section 7 involves the 
privileges of the House, a blue-slip resolution offered by the 
Chairman or other Members of the Committee on Ways and Means 
has been typically adopted by voice vote on the House Floor. 
There have been instances where the House has agreed to not 
deal directly with the issue by tabling a resolution.\1\ \2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\In cases where the Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means 
did not believe that the bill in question violated the Origination 
Clause or the objection had been dealt with in another manner, 
resolutions offered by other Members of the House have been tabled. 
[See adoption of motion by Representative Rostenkowski to table H. res. 
571, 97-2, p. 22127.]
    \2\This was an instance where the Chairman of the Committee on Ways 
and Means raised a question of the privilege of the House pursuant to 
Article I, Section 7, of the U.S. Constitution on H.R. 4516, 
Legislative Branch Appropriations. The motion was laid on the table.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    On July 24, 2018, through House Resolution 1019, Chairman 
Brady raised a question of the privileges of the House as the 
conference report accompanying H.R. 5515, to authorize 
appropriations for fiscal year 2019 for military activities of 
the Department of Defense, for military personnel strengths for 
such fiscal year, and for other purposes contravened the first 
clause of the seventh section of the first article of the 
Constitution of the United States and was an infringement of 
the privileges of this House. House Resolution 1019 was agreed 
to without objection, and H.R. 5515 was therefore recommitted 
to the Committee on Conference. House Resolution 1019 marked 
the first time the House adopted a resolution that assessed a 
committee on conference had ``originated'' a revenue measure.
 Appendix II. Statistical Review of the Activities of the Committee on 
                             Ways and Means


      A. Number of Bills and Resolutions Referred to the Committee

    During the 115th Congress, through December 14, 2018, a 
total of 1,497 bills were referred to the Committee, 
representing 167.9 percent of all the public bills introduced 
in the House of Representatives.
    The following table gives a more complete statistical 
review since 1967.

          TABLE 1--NUMBER OF BILLS AND RESOLUTION REFERRED TO THE COMMITTEE 90TH THROUGH 115TH CONGRESS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Introduced in       Referred to
                                                                     House            Committee       Percentage
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
90th Congress................................................            24,227               3,806         15.7
91st Congress................................................            23,575               3,442         14.6
92nd Congress................................................            20,458               3,157         15.4
93rd Congress................................................            21,096               3,370           16
94th Congress................................................            19,371               3,747         19.3
95th Congress................................................            17,800               3,922           22
96th Congress................................................            10,196               2,337         22.9
97th Congress................................................             9,909               2,377         26.4
98th Congress................................................             8,104               1,904         23.5
99th Congress................................................             7,522               1,568         20.8
100th Congress...............................................             7,043               1,419         22.1
101st Congress...............................................             7,640               1,737         22.7
102nd Congress...............................................             7,771               1,972         25.4
103rd Congress...............................................             6,645               1,496         22.5
104th Congress...............................................             5,329               1,071         20.1
105th Congress...............................................             5,976               1,509         25.2
106th Congress...............................................             6,942               1,762         25.3
107th Congress...............................................             7,029               1,941         27.6
108th Congress...............................................             6,953               1,541         22.2
109th Congress...............................................             8,152               2,152         26.4
110th Congress...............................................             9,319               2,386         25.6
111th Congress...............................................             8,780               1,764         20.1
112th Congress...............................................             7,842               2,581         32.9
113th Congress...............................................            15,908               1,380          8.7
114th Congress...............................................             6,529               1,559         23.9
115th Congress...............................................             8,856               1,497         16.9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. Number and Final Status of Bills Reported From the Committee on Ways 
                    and Means in the 115Th Congress

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee reported to the 
House a total of 115 bills favorably. There were 56 bills 
containing provisions within the purview of the Committee that 
were passed by the House; 53 were enacted into law. This is not 
indicative of the total number of bills considered by the 
Committee.
     Appendix III. Chairmen of the Committee on Ways and Means and 
 Membership of the Committee from the 1st through the 115th Congresses


    A. Chairmen of the Committee on Ways and Means, 1789 to Present


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                Name                           State                    Party               Term of Service
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thomas Fitzsimons...................  Pennsylvania...........  Federalist............  1789
William L. Smith....................  South Carolina.........  Federalist............  1794 to 1797
Robert G. Harper....................  South Carolina.........  Federalist............  1797 to 1800
Roger Griswold......................  Connecticut............  Federalist............  1800 to 1801
John Randolph.......................  Virginia...............  Jeffersonian            1801 to 1805, 1827
                                                                Republican.
Joseph Clay.........................  Pennsylvania...........  Jeffersonian            1805 to 1807
                                                                Republican.
George W. Campbell..................  Tennessee..............  Jeffersonian            1807 to 1809
                                                                Republican.
John W. Eppes.......................  Virginia...............  Jeffersonian            1809 to 1811
                                                                Republican.
Ezekiel Bacon.......................  Massachusetts..........  Jeffersonian            1811 to 1812
                                                                Republican.
Langdon Cheves......................  South Carolina.........  Jeffersonian            1812 to 1813
                                                                Republican.
John W. Eppes.......................  Virginia...............  Jeffersonian            1813 to 1815
                                                                Republican.
William Lowndes.....................  South Carolina.........  Jeffersonian            1815 to 1818
                                                                Republican.
Samuel Smith........................  Maryland...............  Jeffersonian            1818 to 1822
                                                                Republican.
Louis McLane........................  Delaware...............  Jeffersonian            1822 to 1827
                                                                Republican.
George McDuffie.....................  South Carolina.........  Democrat..............  1827 to 1832
Gulian C. Verplanck.................  New York...............  Democrat..............  1832 to 1833
James K. Polk.......................  Tennessee..............  Democrat..............  1833 to 1835
C. C. Cambreleng....................  New York...............  Democrat..............  1835 to 1839
John W. Jones.......................  Virginia...............  Democrat..............  1839 to 1841
Millard Fillmore....................  New York...............  Whig..................  1841 to 1843
James Iver McKay....................  North Carolina.........  Democrat..............  1843 to 1847
Samuel F. Vinton....................  Ohio...................  Whig..................  1847 to 1849
Thomas H. Bayly.....................  Virginia...............  Democrat..............  1849 to 1851
George S. Houston...................  Alabama................  Democrat..............  1851 to 1855
Lewis D. Campbell...................  Ohio...................  Republican............  1855 to 1857
J. Glancy Jones.....................  Pennsylvania...........  Democrat..............  1857 to 1858
John S. Phelps......................  Missouri...............  Democrat..............  1858 to 1859
John Sherman........................  Ohio...................  Republican............  1859 to 1861
Thaddeus Stevens....................  Pennsylvania...........  Republican............  1861 to 1865
Justin S. Morrill...................  Vermont................  Republican............  1865 to 1867
Robert C. Schneck...................  Ohio...................  Republican............  1867 to 1871
Samuel D. Hooper....................  Massachusetts..........  Republican............  1871
Henry L. Dawes......................  Massachusetts..........  Republican............  1871 to 1875
William R. Morrison.................  Illinois...............  Democrat..............  1875 to 1877
Fernando Wood.......................  New York...............  Democrat..............  1877 to 1881
John R. Tucker......................  Virginia...............  Democrat..............  1881
William D. Kelley...................  Pennsylvania...........  Republican............  1881 to 1883
William R. Morrison.................  Illinois...............  Democrat..............  1883 to 1887
Roger Q. Mills......................  Texas..................  Democrat..............  1887 to 1889
William McKinley, Jr................  Ohio...................  Republican............  1889 to 1891
William M. Springer.................  Illinois...............  Democrat..............  1891 to 1893
William L. Wilson...................  West Virginia..........  Democrat..............  1893 to 1895
Nelson Dingley, Jr..................  Maine..................  Republican............  1895 to 1899
Sereno E. Payne.....................  New York...............  Republican............  1899 to 1911
Oscar W. Underwood..................  Alabama................  Democrat..............  1911 to 1915
Claude Kitchin......................  North Carolina.........  Democrat..............  1915 to 1919
Joseph W. Fordney...................  Michigan...............  Republican............  1919 to 1923
William R. Green....................  Iowa...................  Republican............  1923 to 1928
Willis C. Hawley....................  Oregon.................  Republican............  1929 to 1931
James W. Collier....................  Mississippi............  Democrat..............  1931 to 1933
Robert L. Doughton..................  North Carolina.........  Democrat..............  1933 to 1947, 1949 to
                                                                                        1953
Harold Knutson......................  Minnesota..............  Republican............  1947 to 1949
Daniel A. Reed......................  New York...............  Republican............  1953 to 1955
Jere Cooper.........................  Tennessee..............  Democrat..............  1955 to 1957
Wilbur D. Mills.....................  Arkansas...............  Democrat..............  1957 to 1975
Al Ullman...........................  Oregon.................  Democrat..............  1975 to 1981
Dan Rostenkowski....................  Illinois...............  Democrat..............  1981 to 1994
Sam Gibbons, Acting Chairman........  Florida................  Democrat..............  1994 to 1995
Bill Archer.........................  Texas..................  Republican............  1995 to 2001
William W. Thomas...................  California.............  Republican............  2001 to 2007
Charles B. Rangel...................  New York...............  Democrat..............  2007 to 2010
Sander M. Levin, Acting Chairman....  Michigan...............  Democrat..............  2010 to 2011
Dave Camp...........................  Michigan...............  Republican............  2011 to 2015
Paul Ryan...........................  Wisconsin..............  Republican............  2015
Kevin Brady.........................  Texas..................  Republican............  2015 to 2018
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             B. Tables Showing Membership of the Committee


  MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS FROM THE 1ST THROUGH THE 
                        115TH CONGRESS, BY STATE

[Beginning with the 104th Congress, Intra-Congress Committee Membership 
                         changes are footnoted]


------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    MEMBERS                            CONGRESS(ES)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama:
    John McKinley..............................                       23
    David Hubbard..............................                       26
    Dixon H. Lewis.............................                    27-28
    George S. Houston..........................             29-30, 32-33
    James F. Dowdell...........................                       35
    Hilary A. Herbert..........................                       48
    Joseph Wheeler.............................                    53-55
    Oscar W. Underwood.........................                56, 59-63
    Ronnie G. Flippo...........................                   98-101
    Arthur Davis...............................                  110-111
    Terri Sewell...............................                     115-
Arizona:
    J.D. Hayworth..............................                  105-109
    David Schweikert...........................                     115-
Arkansas:
    James K. Jones.............................                       48
    Clifton R. Breckinridge....................                49-51, 53
    William A. Oldfield........................                    64-70
    Heartsill Ragon............................                    70-73
    William J. Driver..........................                       72
    Claude A. Fuller...........................                    73-75
    Wilbur D. Mills............................                    77-94
    Jim Guy Tucker, Jr.........................                       94
    Beryl Anthony, Jr..........................                       95
    Tim Griffin................................                      113
California:
    Joseph McKenna.............................                    51-52
    Victor H. Metcalf..........................                    57-58
    James C. Needham...........................                    58-62
    William H. Evans...........................                       73
    Frank H. Buck..............................                    74-77
    Bertrand W. Gearhart.......................                    76-80
    Cecil R. King..............................             78-79, 81-90
    James B. Utt...............................                83, 86-91
    James C. Corman............................                    90-96
    Jerry L. Pettis............................                    91-94
    William M. Ketchum.........................                    94-95
    Fortney Pete Stark.........................                   94-112
    John H. Rousselot..........................                    95-97
    Robert T. Matsui...........................                  i97-104
    William M. Thomas..........................                   98-109
    Wally Herger...............................                  103-112
    Xavier Becerra.............................                  103-114
    Mike Thompson..............................                      109
    Devin Nunes................................                   ii109-
    Linda Sanchez..............................                      113
    Judy Chu...................................                  iii115-
Colorado:
    Robert W. Bonynge..........................                       60
    Charles B. Timberlake......................                    66-72
    John A. Carroll............................                       81
    Donald G. Brotzman.........................                    92-93
    George H. ``Hank'' Brown...................                  100-101
    Scott McInnis..............................                  106-108
    Bob Beauprez...............................                      109
Connecticut:
    Jeremiah Watson............................                        1
    Uriah Tracy................................                        3
    James Hillhouse............................                        4
    Nathaniel Smith............................                      4-5
    Joshua Coit................................                        5
    Roger Griswold.............................                      5-8
    John Davenport.............................                        8
    Jonathon O. Moseley........................                9, 14, 16
    Benjamin Tallmadge.........................                    10-11
    Timothy Pitkin.............................                12-13, 15
    Ralph I. Ingersoll.........................                    21-22
    Samuel D. Hubbard..........................                       30
    James Phelps...............................                    45-46
    Charles A. Russel..........................                    54-57
    Ebenezer J. Hill...........................             58-62, 64-65
    John Q. Tilson.............................                    66-68
    Antoni N. Sadlak...........................                    83-85
    William R. Cotter..........................                    94-97
    Barbara B. Kennelly........................                   98-105
    Nancy L. Johnson...........................                  101-109
    John B. Larson.............................                     109-
Delaware:
    John Vining................................                        1
    Henry Latimer..............................                        3
    John Patten................................                        4
    James A. Bayard, Sr........................                     5, 7
    Caesar A. Rodney...........................                        8
    Louis McLane...............................                    16-19
Florida:
    A. S. Herlong, Jr..........................                    84-90
    Sam M. Gibbons.............................                   91-104
    L. A. ``Skip'' Bafalis.....................                    94-97
    E. Clay Shaw, Jr...........................                  100-109
    Karen L. Thurman...........................                  105-107
    Mark Foley.................................                iv104-109
    Kendrick Meek..............................                  110-111
    Ginny Brown-Waite..........................                      111
    Vern Buchanan..............................                     112-
    Carlos Curbelo.............................                      115
Georgia:
    James Jackson..............................                        1
    Abraham Baldwin............................                      3-5
    Benjamin Taliaferro........................                        6
    John Milledge..............................                        7
    David Meriwether...........................                      8-9
    William W. Bibb............................                    12-13
    Joel Abbott................................                       15
    Joel Crawford..............................                    15-16
    Wiley Thompson.............................                    17-18
    George R. Gilmer...........................                       20
    Richard H. Wilde...........................                    22-23
    George W. Owens............................                    24-25
    Charles E. Haynes..........................                       25
    Mark A. Cooper.............................                       26
    Absalom H. Chappell........................                       28
    Seaborn Jones..............................                       29
    Robert Toombs..............................                    30-31
    Alexander H. Stephens......................                31-31, 33
    Marshall J. Wellborn.......................                       31
    Howell Cobb................................                       34
    Martin J. Crawford.........................                    35-36
    Benjamin H. Hill...........................                       44
    Henry R. Harris............................                   45, 49
    William H. Felton..........................                       46
    Emory Speer................................                       47
    James H. Blount............................                       48
    Henry G. Turner............................                    50-54
    Charles F. Crisp...........................                       54
    James M. Griggs............................                    60-61
    William G. Brantley........................                    61-62
    Charles R. Crisp...........................                    64-72
    Albert S. Camp.............................                    78-83
    Phillip M. Landrum.........................                    89-94
    Ed Jenkins.................................                   95-102
    Wyche Fowler, Jr...........................                    96-99
    John Lewis.................................                     103-
    Mac Collins................................                  104-108
    John Linder................................                  109-111
    Tom Price..................................                 v112-115
Hawaii:
    Cecil ``Cec'' Heftel.......................                    96-99
Illinois:
    Daniel P. Cook.............................                       19
    John A. McClernand.........................                       37
    John Wentworth.............................                       39
    John A. Logan..............................                       40
    Samuel S. Marshall.........................                       41
    Horatio C. Burchard........................                    42-45
    William R. Morrison........................                44, 46-49
    William M. Springer........................                       52
    Albert J. Hopkins..........................                    52-57
    Henry S. Boutell...........................                    58-61
    Henry T. Rainey............................             62-66, 68-72
    John A. Sterling...........................                       65
    Ira C. Copley..............................                    66-67
    Carl R. Chindblom..........................                    68-72
    Chester C. Thompson........................                    74-75
    Raymond S. McKeough........................                    76-77
    Charles S. Dewey...........................                       78
    Thomas J. O'Brien..........................                79, 81-88
    Noah M. Mason..............................                    80-87
    Harold C. Collier..........................                    88-93
    Dan Rostenkowski...........................                   88-103
    Abner J. Mikva.............................                    94-96
    Philip M. Crane............................                   94-108
    Marty Russo................................                   96-102
    Mel Reynolds...............................                      103
    Jerry Weller...............................                  105-110
    Rahm Emanuel...............................                  109-110
    Danny K. Davis.............................                 111, 113
    Peter Roskam...............................                     111-
    Aaron Schock...............................                  112-114
    Robert J. Dold.............................                      114
    Darin LaHood...............................                   vi115-
Indiana:
    David Wallace..............................                       27
    Cyrus L. Dunham............................                       32
    William E. Niblack.........................                   40, 43
    Godlove S. Orth............................                       41
    Michael C. Kerr............................                       42
    Thomas M. Browne...........................                    48-50
    William D. Bynum...........................                   50, 53
    Benjamin F. Shively........................                       52
    George W. Steele...........................                    54-57
    James E. Watson............................                    58-60
    Edgar D. Crumpacker........................                    60-61
    Lincoln Dixon..............................                    62-65
    Harry C. Canfield..........................                    71-72
    John W. Boehne, Jr.........................                    73-77
    Robert A. Grant............................                       80
    Andy Jacobs, Jr............................                   94-104
    Chris Chocola..............................                      109
    Todd Young.................................                  113-114
    Jackie Walorski............................                     115-
Iowa:
    John A. Kasson.............................            38, 43, 47-48
    William B. Allison.........................                    39-41
    John H. Gear...............................                   51, 53
    Jonathon P. Dolliver.......................                    54-56
    William R. Green...........................                    63-70
    C. William Ramseyer........................                    70-71
    Otha D. Wearin.............................                       75
    Lloyd Thurston.............................                       75
    Thomas E. Martin...........................                    80-83
    Fred Grandy................................                  102-103
    Jim Nussel.................................                  104-109
Kansas:
    Dudley C. Haskell..........................                       47
    Chester I. Long............................                    56-57
    Charles Curtis.............................                    58-59
    William A. Calderhead......................                    60-61
    Victor Murdock.............................                       63
    Guy T. Helvering...........................                    64-65
    Frank Carlson..............................                    76-79
    Martha E. Keys.............................                    94-95
    Lynn Jenkins...............................                  112-115
Kentucky:
    Alexander D. Orr...........................                        3
    Christopher Greenup........................                        4
    Thomas T. Davis............................                        5
    John Boyle.................................                        8
    Richard M. Johnson.........................                    11-12
    Thomas Montgomery..........................                       13
    David Trimble..............................                    15-16
    Nathan Gaither.............................                       22
    John Pope..................................                       25
    Thomas F. Marshall.........................                       27
    Garrett Davis..............................                       28
    Charles S. Morehead........................                    30-31
    John C. Breckinridge.......................                       33
    Robert Mallory.............................                       38
    James B. Beck..............................                    42-43
    Henry Watterson............................                       44
    John G. Carlisle...........................                46-47, 51
    Joseph C.S. Blackburn......................                       48
    William C.P. Breckinridge..................                    49-50
    Alexander B. Montgomery....................                    52-53
    Walter Evans...............................                    54-55
    Ollie M. James.............................                       62
    Augustus O. Stanley........................                       63
    Frederick M. Vinson........................                    72-75
    Noble J. Gregory...........................                    78-85
    John C. Watts..............................                    86-92
    Jim Bunning................................                  102-105
    Ron Lewis..................................                  106-110
    Geoff Davis................................               vii110-112
Louisiana:
    Thomas B. Robertson........................                       14
    William L. Brent...........................                    19-20
    Walter H. Overton..........................                       21
    Lionel A. Sheldon..........................                       43
    Randall L. Gibson..........................                    45-46
    Charles J. Boatner.........................                       54
    Samuel F. Robertson........................                    55-59
    Robert F. Boussard.........................                       61
    Whitmell P. Martin.........................                    65-70
    Paul H. Mahoney............................                76, 78-79
    Thomas Hale Boggs, Sr......................                    81-91
    Joe D. Waggonner, Jr.......................                    92-95
    W. Henson Moore III........................                    96-99
    William J. Jefferson.......................         103, viii105-109
    Jim McCrery................................                  103-110
    Jimmy Hayes................................                    ix104
    Charles W. Boustany, Jr....................                  111-114
Maine:
    Peleg Sprague..............................                    19-20
    Francis O.J. Smith.........................                       24
    George Evans...............................                       26
    Israel Washburn, Jr........................                       36
    James G. Blaine............................                       44
    William P. Frye............................                       46
    Thomas B. Reed.............................             48-50, 52-53
    Nelson Dingley, Jr.........................                51, 54-55
    Daniel J. McGillicuddy.....................                       64
Maryland:
    William Smith..............................                        1
    Gabriel Christie...........................                        3
    William Vans Murray........................                        4
    William Hindman............................                      4-5
    William Craik..............................                        5
    Joseph H. Nicholson........................                      6-9
    Nicholas R. Moore..........................                        8
    Roger Nelson...............................                        9
    John Montgomery............................                    10-11
    Alexander McKim............................                       13
    Stevenson Archer...........................                       13
    Samuel Smith...............................                    14-17
    Isaac McKim................................                18, 23-25
    Henry W. Davis.............................                    34-36
    Phillip F. Thomas..........................                       44
    David J. Lewis.............................                    72-75
    Rogers C.B. Morton.........................                    91-92
    Benjamin L. Cardin.........................                  101-109
Massachusetts:
    Elbridge Gerry.............................                        1
    Fisher Ames................................                        3
    Theodore Sedgwick..........................                        4
    Theophilus Bradbury........................                        4
    Harrison Gray Otis.........................                      5-6
    Samuel Sewall..............................                        5
    Isaac Parker...............................                        5
    Bailey Bartlett............................                        6
    Nathan Read................................                        7
    Seth Hastings..............................                        8
    Josiah Quincy..............................                        9
    Ezekial Bacon..............................                    11-12
    Ebenezer Seaver............................                       11
    Henry Shaw.................................                       16
    Henry W. Dwight............................                    19-21
    Benjamin Gorham............................                       23
    Abbott Lawrence............................                   24, 26
    Richard Fletcher...........................                       25
    George N. Briggs...........................                       25
    Leverett Saltonstall.......................                       26
    Robert C. Winthrop.........................                       29
    Charles Hudson.............................                       30
    George Ashmun..............................                       31
    William Appleton...........................                32-33, 37
    Alexander De Witt..........................                       34
    Nathaniel P. Banks.........................                   35, 45
    Samuel Hooper..............................                    37-41
    Henry L. Dawes.............................                    42-43
    Chester W. Chapin..........................                       44
    William A. Russell.........................                    47-48
    Moses T. Stevens...........................                    52-53
    Samuel W. McCall...........................                    56-62
    Andrew J. Peters...........................                    62-63
    Augustus P. Gardner........................                    63-65
    John T. Mitchell...........................                       63
    Allen T. Treadway..........................                    65-78
    Peter F. Tague.............................                    67-68
    John W. McCormack..........................                    72-76
    Arthur D. Healey...........................                       77
    Charles L Gifford..........................                    79-80
    Angier L. Goodwin..........................                80, 82-83
    James A. Burke.............................                    87-95
    James M. Shannon...........................                    96-98
    Brian J. Donnelly..........................                   99-102
    Richard E. Neal............................                     103-
Michigan:
    William A. Howard..........................                    34-36
    Austin Blair...............................                       41
    Henry Waldron..............................                       43
    Omar D. Conger.............................                       46
    Jay A. Hubbell.............................                       47
    William C. Maybury.........................                       49
    Julius C. Burrows..........................                    50-53
    Justin R. Whiting..........................                    52-53
    William A. Smith...........................                       59
    Joseph W. Fordney..........................                    60-67
    James C. McLaughlin........................                    68-72
    Roy O. Woodruff............................                    73-82
    John D. Dingell............................                    74-84
    Victor A. Knox.............................                83, 86-88
    Thaddeus M. Machrowicz.....................                    84-87
    Martha W. Griffiths........................                    87-93
    Charles E. Chamberlain.....................                    91-93
    Richard F. Vander Veen.....................                    93-94
    Guy Vander Jagt............................                   94-102
    William M. Brodhead........................                    95-97
    Sander M. Levin............................                     100-
    Dave Camp..................................                  103-113
    Mike Bishop................................                     x115
Minnesota:
    Mark A. Dunnell............................                    46-47
    James A. Tawney............................                    54-58
    James T. McCleary..........................                       59
    Winfield S. Hammond........................                    62-63
    Sydney Anderson............................                       63
    Harold Knutson.............................                    73-80
    Eugene J. McCarthy.........................                    84-85
    Joseph E. Karth............................                    92-94
    Bill Frenzel...............................                   94-101
    Jim Ramstad................................                  104-110
    Erik Paulsen...............................                  111-115
Mississippi:
    Jacob Thompson.............................                       31
    John Sharp Williams........................                    58-59
    James W. Collier...........................                    63-72
    Aaron Lane Ford............................                       77
Missouri:
    James S. Green.............................                       31
    John S. Phelps.............................                    32-37
    Henry T. Blow..............................                       38
    John Hogan.................................                       39
    Gustavus A. Finkelburg.....................                       42
    John C. Tarsney............................                    53-54
    Seth W. Cobb...............................                       54
    Champ Clark................................                    58-61
    Dorsey W. Shackleford......................                    62-63
    Clement C. Dickinson.......................      63-66, 68-70, 72-73
    Charles L. Faust...........................                    69-70
    Richard M. Duncan..........................                    74-77
    Thomas B. Curtis...........................                    83-90
    Frank M. Karsten...........................                    84-90
    Richard A. Gephardt........................                   95-101
    Mel Hancock................................                  103-104
    Kenny Hulshof..............................                  105-110
    Jason Smith................................                      114
Montana:
    Lee W. Metcalf.............................                       86
    James F. Battin............................                    89-91
Nebraska:
    William J. Bryan...........................                    52-53
    Charles H. Sloan...........................                    63-65
    Ashton C. Shallenberger....................                       73
    Carl T. Curtis.............................                    79-83
    Hal Daub...................................                   99-100
    Peter Hoagland.............................                      103
    Jon Christensen............................                  104-105
    Adrian Smith...............................                     112-
Nevada:
    Francis G. Newlands........................                    56-57
    John Ensign................................                  104-105
    Jon Porter.................................                  109-110
    Shelley Berkley............................                  110-112
    Dean Heller................................                xi111-112
New Hampshire:
    Samuel Livermore...........................                        1
    Nicholas Gilman............................                      3-4
    Abiel Foster...............................                        5
    Nathaniel A. Haven.........................                       11
    Henry Hubbard..............................                       23
    Charles G. Atherton........................                    25-27
    Moses Norris, Jr...........................                    28-29
    Harry Hibbard..............................                    31-33
    Judd A. Gregg..............................                   99-100
New Jersey:
    Lambert Cadwalader.........................                        1
    Elias Boudinot.............................                        3
    Isaac Smith................................                        4
    Thomas Sinnickson..........................                        5
    James H. Imlay.............................                        6
    William Coxe, Jr...........................                       13
    John L. N. Stratton........................                       37
    William Hughes.............................                       62
    Isaac Bacharach............................                    66-74
    Donald H. McLean...........................                    76-78
    Robert W. Kean.............................                    78-85
    Henry Helstoski............................                       94
    Frank J. Guarini...........................                   96-102
    Dick Zimmer................................                      104
    Bill Pascrell..............................                     110-
New Mexico:
    Clinton P. Anderson........................                       79
New York:
    John Laurance..............................                        1
    John Watts.................................                        3
    Ezekial Gilbert............................                        4
    James Cochran..............................                        5
    Hezekiah L. Hosmer.........................                        5
    Jonas Platt................................                        6
    Killian K. Van Rensselaer..................                        7
    Joshua Sands...............................                        8
    Erastus Root...............................                       11
    John W. Taylor.............................                       13
    Jonathon Fisk..............................                       13
    Thomas J. Oakley...........................                       13
    James W. Wilkin............................                       14
    James Tallmadge, Jr........................                       15
    Albert H. Tracy............................                       16
    Nathaniel Pitcher..........................                       17
    Churchill C. Cambreleng....................             17-18, 23-25
    Dudley Marvin..............................                       19
    Gulian C. Verplanck........................                    20-22
    Aaron Vanderpoel...........................                       26
    Millard Filmore............................                       27
    Daniel D. Barnard..........................                       28
    David L. Seymour...........................                       28
    George O. Rathbun..........................                       28
    Orville Hungerford.........................                       29
    Henry Nicoll...............................                       30
    James Brooks...............................         31-32, 39-40, 42
    William Duer...............................                       31
    Solomon G. Haven...........................                       33
    Russell Sage...............................                       34
    John Kelly.................................                       35
    William B. MacLay..........................
    Elbridge G. Spaulding......................                    36-37
    Erastus Corning............................                       37
    Reuben E. Fenton...........................                       38
    De Witt C. Littlejohn......................                       38
    Henry G. Stebbins..........................                       38
    John V. L. Pruyn...........................                       38
    Roscoe Conkling............................                       39
    Charles H. Winfield........................                       39
    John A. Griswold...........................                       40
    Dennis McCarthy............................                       41
    Ellis H. Roberts...........................                    42-43
    Fernando Wood..............................                    43-46
    Abram S. Hewitt............................                    48-49
    Frank Hiscock..............................                    48-49
    Sereno E. Payne............................                    51-63
    Roswell P. Flower..........................                       51
    William B. Cochran.........................             52-53, 58-60
    George B. McClellan........................                    55-58
    John W. Dwight.............................                       61
    Francis B. Harrison........................                    61-63
    Michael F. Conry...........................                       64
    George W. Fairchild........................                    64-65
    John F. Carew..............................                    65-71
    Luther W. Mott.............................                    66-67
    Alanson B. Houghton........................                       67
    Ogden L. Mills.............................                    67-69
    Frank Crowther.............................                    68-77
    Thaddeus C. Sweet..........................                       70
    Frederick M. Davenport.....................                    70-71
    Thomas H. Cullen...........................                    71-78
    Christopher D. Sullivan....................                    72-76
    Daniel A. Reed.............................                    73-86
    Walter A. Lynch............................                    78-81
    Eugene J. Keogh............................                    82-89
    Albert H. Bosch............................                       86
    Steven B. Derounin.........................                    87-88
    Barber B. Conable, Jr......................                    90-98
    Jacob H. Gilbert...........................                    90-91
    Hugh L. Carey..............................                    91-93
    Otis G. Pike...............................                    93-95
    Charles B. Rangel..........................                   94-114
    Thomas J. Downey...........................                   96-102
    Raymond J. McGrath.........................                   99-102
    Michael R. McNulty.........................          103, xii104-110
    Amo Houghton...............................                  103-108
    Thomas M. Reynolds.........................                  109-110
    Joseph Crowley.............................                  110-115
    Brian Higgins..............................                      111
    Christopher Lee............................                 xiii112-
    Tom Reed...................................                  xiv112-
North Carolina:
    William B. Grove...........................                        3
    Thomas Blount..............................                      4-5
    Robert Williams............................                        5
    David Stone................................                        6
    James Holland..............................                        7
    Willis Alston..............................                10-11, 13
    William Gaston.............................                    13-14
    Abraham Rencher............................                   25, 27
    Henry W. Conner............................                       26
    James I. McKay.............................                    28-30
    Edward Stanly..............................                       32
    William M. Robbins.........................                       45
    Edward W. Pou..............................                    60-61
    Claude Kitchin.............................                    62-67
    Robert L. Doughton.........................                    69-82
    James G. Martin............................                    94-98
    Bob Etheridge..............................                      111
    George Holding.............................                     114-
North Dakota:
    Martin N. Johnson..........................                    54-55
    George M. Young............................                    66-68
    Byron L. Dorgan............................                   98-102
    Earl Pomeroy...............................                  107-111
    Rick Berg..................................                      112
Ohio:
    William Creighton, Jr......................                       13
    Thomas R. Ross.............................                       16
    Thomas Corwin..............................                    23-24
    Thomas L. Hamer............................                       25
    Taylor Webster.............................                       25
    Samson Mason...............................                    26-27
    John B. Weller.............................                       28
    Samuel F. Vinton...........................                    29-31
    Lewis B. Campbell..........................                    34-35
    John Sherman...............................                       36
    Valentine B. Horton........................                       37
    George B. Pendleton........................                       38
    James A. Garfield..........................                39, 44-46
    Robert C. Schenck..........................                    40-41
    Charles Foster.............................                       43
    Milton Sayler..............................                       45
    William McKinley, Jr.......................             46-47, 49-51
    Frank H. Hurd..............................                       48
    Charles H. Grosvenor.......................                    53-59
    Nicholas Longworth.........................             60-62, 64-67
    Timothy T. Ansberry........................                    62-63
    Alfred G. Allen............................                       64
    George White...............................                       65
    Charles C. Kearns..........................                    68-71
    Charles F. West............................                       73
    Thomas A. Jenkins..........................                    73-85
    Arthur P. Lamneck..........................                    74-75
    Stephen M. Young...........................                       81
    Jackson E. Betts...........................                    86-92
    Donald D. Clancy...........................                    93-94
    Charles A. Vanik...........................                    89-96
    Bill Gradison..............................                   95-103
    Don J. Please..............................                   97-102
    Rob Portman................................                xv104-109
    Stephanie Tubbs Jones......................               xvi108-110
    Pat Tiberi.................................              xvii110-115
    Jim Renacci................................                  113-115
    Brad Wenstrup..............................                xviii115-
Oklahoma:
    Thomas A. Chandler.........................                       67
    James V. McClintic.........................                       73
    Wesley E. Disney...........................                    74-78
    James R. Jones.............................                    94-99
    Bill K. Brewster...........................                      103
    Wes Watkins................................                  105-107
Oregon:
    William R. Ellis...........................                       61
    Willis C. Hawkley..........................                    65-72
    Albert C. Ullman...........................                    87-96
    Mike Kopetski..............................                      103
    Earl Blumenauer............................                     110-
Pennsylvania:
    Thomas Fitzsimons..........................                     1, 3
    Albert Gallatin............................                      4-6
    Henry Woods................................                        6
    John Smilie................................               6-7, 10-12
    Joseph Clay................................                      8-9
    John Rea...................................                       11
    Jonathon Roberts...........................                    12-13
    Samuel D. Ingham...........................                13-14, 18
    John Sergeant..............................                   15, 25
    John Tod...................................                       17
    John Gilmore...............................                    21-22
    Horace Binney..............................                       23
    Richard Biddle.............................                       26
    Joseph R. Insersoll........................                24, 27-29
    James Pollock..............................                       30
    Moses Hampton..............................                       31
    J. Glancy Jones............................                   32, 35
    John Robbins...............................                       33
    James H. Campbell..........................                       34
    Henry M. Phillips..........................                       35
    Thaddeus Stevens...........................                    36-38
    James K. Moorehead.........................                    39-40
    William D. Kelley..........................                    41-50
    Russell Errett.............................                       47
    Samuel J. Randall..........................                       47
    William L. Scott...........................                       50
    Thomas M. Bayne............................                       51
    John Dalzell...............................                    52-62
    John J. Casey..............................                   64, 68
    Henry W. Watson............................                    66-73
    Harris J. Bixler...........................                       69
    Harry A. Estep.............................                    70-72
    Thomas C. Cochran..........................                       73
    Joshua T. Brooks...........................                       74
    Patrick J. Bolland.........................                    76-77
    Benjamin Jarrett...........................                    76-77
    James P. McGranery.........................                    77-78
    Herman P. Eberharter.......................                    78-85
    Richard M. Simpson.........................                    78-86
    William J. Green, Jr.......................                    86-88
    John A. Lafore, Jr.........................                       86
    Walter M. Mumma............................                    86-87
    George M. Rhodes...........................                    88-90
    Herman T. Schneebeli.......................                    87-94
    William J. Green, III......................                    90-94
    Raymond F. Lederer.........................                    95-96
    Dick Schulze...............................                   95-102
    Donald A. Bailey...........................                       97
    William J. Coyne...........................                   99-107
    Rick Santorum..............................                      103
    Philip S. English..........................                  104-110
    Melissa A. Hart............................                      109
    Alyson V. Schwartz.........................             110-111, 113
    Jim Gerlach................................                  112-113
    Mike Kelly.................................                     113-
    Pat Meehan.................................               xix114-115
Rhode Island:
    Benjamin Bourne............................                      3-4
    Francis Malbone............................                        4
    Elisha R. Potter...........................                        4
    Christopher G. Champlin....................                        5
    John Brown.................................                        6
    Joseph Stanton, Jr.........................                        8
    Daniel L. D. Granger.......................                    59-60
    George F. O'Shaunessy......................                       65
    Richard S. Aldrich.........................                    69-72
    Aime J. Forand.............................                    78-86
South Carolina:
    William L. Smith...........................                      3-5
    Robert Goodloe Harper......................                      5-6
    Abraham Nott...............................                        6
    David R. Williams..........................                        9
    Langdon Cheves.............................                       12
    Theodore Gourdin...........................                       13
    William Lowndes............................                    13-15
    John Taylor................................                       14
    Thomas R. Mitchell.........................                       17
    George McDuffie............................                    18-22
    R. Barnwell Rhett..........................                    25-26
    Francis W. Pickens.........................                       27
    John L. McLaurin...........................                    54-55
    Ken Holland................................                    95-97
    Carroll A. Campbell, Jr....................                    98-99
    Tom Rice...................................                      114
South Dakota:
    Kristi Noem................................                  114-115
Tennessee:
    Andrew Jackson.............................                        4
    William C.C. Claibrone.....................                        5
    William Dickson............................                     7, 9
    George W. Campbell.........................                       10
    Bennett H. Henderson.......................                       14
    Francis Jones..............................                    16-17
    James K. Polk..............................                    22-23
    Cave Johnson...............................                       24
    George W. Jones............................                    31-34
    Horace Maynard.............................                37, 40-42
    Benton McMillan............................                    49-55
    James D. Richardson........................                    55-57
    Cordell Hull...............................             62-66, 68-71
    Edward E. Eslick...........................                       72
    Jere Cooper................................                    72-85
    Howard H. Baker............................                    83-88
    James B. Frazier, Jr.......................                    85-87
    Ross Bass..................................                       88
    Richard H. Fulton..........................                    89-94
    John J. Duncan.............................                   92-100
    Harold E. Ford.............................                   94-104
    Don Sundquist..............................                  101-103
    John S. Tanner.............................                  105-111
    Diane Black................................                  112-115
Texas:
    John Hancock...............................                       44
    Roger Q. Mills.............................                46, 48-51
    Joseph W. Bailey...........................                       55
    Samuel B. Cooper...........................                    56-58
    Choice B. Randell..........................                    60-62
    John N. Gardner............................                    63-71
    Morgan G. Sanders..........................                    72-75
    Milton H. West.............................                    76-80
    Jesse M. Combs.............................                    81-82
    Frank N. Ikard.............................                    84-87
    Bruce Alger................................                    86-88
    Clark W. Thompson..........................                    87-89
    George H.W. Bush...........................                    90-91
    Omar T. Burleson...........................                    90-95
    Bill Archer................................                   93-106
    J.J. Pickle................................                   94-103
    Kent R. Hance..............................                    97-98
    Michael A. Andrews.........................                   99-103
    Sam Johnson................................                  104-115
    Greg Laughlin..............................                    xx104
    Lloyd Doggett..............................                     104-
    Kevin Brady................................                     107-
    Max Sandlin................................                      108
    Kenny Marchant.............................                  xxi112-
Utah:
    Walter K. Granger..........................                       82
Vermont:
    Daniel Buck................................                        4
    Israel Smith...............................                   3-4, 7
    Lewis R. Morris............................                        5
    James Fisk.................................                   10, 12
    Horace Everett.............................                       25
    Justin S. Morrill..........................                    35-39
Virginia:
    James Madison..............................                   1, 3-4
    William B. Giles...........................                        5
    Richard Brent..............................                        5
    Walter Jones...............................                        5
    Leven Powell...............................                        6
    John Nicholas..............................                        6
    John Randolph..............................                  7-9, 20
    James M. Garnett...........................                        9
    John W. Eppes..............................                10-11, 13
    William A. Burwell.........................                12, 14-16
    James Pleasants............................                    12-13
    John Tyler.................................                       16
    Andrew Stevenson...........................                    17-19
    Alexander Smyth............................                    20-21
    Philip P. Barbour..........................                       21
    Mark Alexander.............................                    21-22
    George Loyall..............................                    23-24
    John W. Jones..............................                    25-27
    John M. Botts..............................                       27
    Thomas W. Gilmore..........................                       27
    Thomas H. Bayly............................                   28, 31
    George C. Dromgoole........................                    28-29
    James McDowell.............................                       30
    John Letcher...............................                    34-35
    John S. Millson............................                       36
    John R. Tucker.............................                    44-47
    Claude A. Swanson..........................                    55-58
    A. Willis Robertson........................                    75-79
    Burr P. Harrison...........................                82, 84-87
    W. Pat Jennings............................                    88-89
    Joel T. Broyhill...........................                    88-93
    Joseph L. Fisher...........................                    94-96
    L.F. Payne.................................                  103-104
    Eric Cantor................................                  108-111
Washington:
    Francis W. Cushman.........................                       61
    Lindley H. Hadley..........................                    66-72
    Samuel B. Hill.............................                    71-74
    Knute Hill.................................                       77
    Otis H. Holmes.............................                    80-85
    Rodney D. Chandler.........................                  100-102
    Jim McDermott..............................                     102-
    Jennifer Dunn..............................                  104-108
    Dave Reichert..............................                  110-115
    Suzan DelBene..............................                      115
West Virginia:
    William L. Wilson..........................                50, 52-53
    Joseph H. Gaines...........................                    60-61
    George M. Bowers...........................                    66-67
    Hubert S. Ellis............................                       80
Wisconsin:
    Charles Billinghurst.......................                       34
    Robert M. La Follette......................                        1
    Joseph W. Babcock..........................                    57-59
    James A. Frear.............................             66-68, 71-73
    Thaddeus F.B. Wasielewski..................                    78-79
    John W. Byrnes.............................                    80-92
    William A. Steiger.........................                    94-95
    Jim Moody..................................                  100-102
    Gerald D. Kleczka..........................                  103-105
    Paul Ryan..................................                  106-114
    Ron Kind...................................                     114-
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\i\Reelected to the 109th Congress, died January 1, 2005.
\ii\Appointed May 5, 2005.
\iii\Appointed February 7, 2017.
\iv\Resigned September 29, 2006.
\v\Resigned February 10, 2017.
\vi\Appointed January 9, 2018.
\vii\Resigned July 31, 2012.
\viii\Appointed January 25, 1996.
\ix\Appointed January 25, 1996.
\x\Appointed February 14, 2017.
\xi\Appointed to Senate April 27, 2011.
\xii\Died, August 20, 2008.
\xiii\Resigned February 9, 2011.
\xiv\Appointed June 13, 2011.
\xv\Resigned April 29, 2005.
\xvi\Died August 21, 2008.
\xvii\Resigned January 15, 2018.
\xviii\Appointed May 16, 2018.
\xix\Resigned April 27, 2018.
\xx\Appointed July 10, 1995.
\xxi\Appointed March 15, 2011.

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