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115th Congress    }                                 {    Rept. 115-115
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                 {           Part 1

======================================================================



 
              CAESAR SYRIA CIVILIAN PROTECTION ACT OF 2017

                                _______
                                

  May 11, 2017.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Royce of California, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1677]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Foreign Affairs, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 1677) to halt the wholesale slaughter of the Syrian 
people, encourage a negotiated political settlement, and hold 
Syrian human rights abusers accountable for their crimes, 
having considered the same, reports favorably thereon with an 
amendment and recommends that the bill as amended do pass.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
The Amendment....................................................     1
Purpose of Legislation...........................................    14
Background and Need for Legislation..............................    15
Summary of the Legislation.......................................    20
Hearings/Briefings...............................................    21
Committee Consideration..........................................    21
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................    21
New Budget Authority, Tax Expenditures, and Federal Mandates.....    22
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................    22
Directed Rule Making.............................................    23
Non-Duplication of Federal Programs..............................    24
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................    24
Congressional Accountability Act.................................    24
New Advisory Committees..........................................    24
Earmark Identification...........................................    24
Section-by-Section Analysis......................................    24
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............    29

                             The Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE AND TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Caesar Syria 
Civilian Protection Act of 2017''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title and table of contents.
Sec. 2. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 3. Statement of policy.

 TITLE I--ADDITIONAL ACTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY 
                         WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA

Sec. 101. Sanctions with respect to Central Bank of Syria and foreign 
persons that engage in certain transactions.
Sec. 102. Prohibitions with respect to the transfer of arms and related 
materials to Syria.
Sec. 103. Rule of construction.
Sec. 104. Definitions.

 TITLE II--AMENDMENTS TO SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2012

Sec. 201. Imposition of sanctions with respect to certain persons who 
are responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses committed 
against citizens of Syria or their family members.
Sec. 202. Imposition of sanctions with respect to the transfer of goods 
or technologies to Syria that are likely to be used to commit human 
rights abuses.
Sec. 203. Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons who hinder 
humanitarian access.
Sec. 204. Report on certain persons who are responsible for or 
complicit in certain human rights abuses in Syria.

TITLE III--REPORTS AND WAIVER FOR HUMANITARIAN-RELATED ACTIVITIES WITH 
                            RESPECT TO SYRIA

Sec. 301. Briefing on monitoring and evaluating of ongoing assistance 
programs in Syria and to the Syrian people.
Sec. 302. Assessment of potential methods to enhance the protection of 
civilians.
Sec. 303. Assistance to support entities taking actions relating to 
gathering evidence for investigations into war crimes or crimes against 
humanity in Syria since March 2011.

        TITLE IV--SUSPENSION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA

Sec. 401. Suspension of sanctions with respect to Syria.
Sec. 402. Waivers and exemptions.

       TITLE V--REGULATORY AUTHORITY, COST LIMITATION, AND SUNSET

Sec. 501. Implementation and regulatory authorities.
Sec. 502. Cost limitation.
Sec. 503. Authority to consolidate reports.
Sec. 504. Sunset.

SEC. 2. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) Bashar al-Assad's murderous actions against the people of 
        Syria have directly contributed to the deaths of more than 
        480,000 civilians, led to the destruction of more than 50 
        percent of Syria's critical infrastructure, and forced the 
        displacement of more than 14,000,000 people, precipitating one 
        of the worst humanitarian crises in more than 60 years;
          (2) international actions to protect vulnerable populations 
        from attack by uniformed and irregular forces associated with 
        the Assad regime, including Hezbollah, on land and by air, 
        including through the use of barrel bombs, chemical weapons, 
        mass starvation, industrial-scale torture and execution of 
        political dissidents, sniper attacks against pregnant women, 
        and the deliberate targeting of medical facilities, schools, 
        residential areas, and community gathering places, including 
        markets, have been insufficient to date;
          (3) Assad's use of chemical weapons, including chlorine, 
        against the Syrian people violates the Chemical Weapons 
        Convention, to which Syria is a party;
          (4) Assad's abhorrent use of chemical weapons, most recently 
        on April 4, 2017, in an attack on the town of Khan Shakhyn in 
        which more than 90 people died, including women and children, 
        and more than 600 hundred people were injured, is condemned in 
        the strongest terms;
          (5) violent attacks resulting in death, injury, imprisonment 
        or threat of prosecution against humanitarian aid workers and 
        diplomatic personnel, as well as attacks on humanitarian 
        supplies, facilities, transports, and assets, and acts to 
        impede the access and secure movement of all humanitarian 
        personnel are in violation of international humanitarian law 
        and impede the lifesaving work of humanitarian organizations 
        and diplomatic institutions; and
          (6) Assad's continued claim of leadership and war crimes in 
        Syria have served as a rallying point for the extremist 
        ideology of the Islamic State, Jabhat al-Nusra, and other 
        terrorist organizations.

SEC. 3. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

  It is the policy of the United States that all diplomatic and 
coercive economic means should be utilized to compel the government of 
Bashar al-Assad to immediately halt the wholesale slaughter of the 
Syrian people and to support an immediate transition to a democratic 
government in Syria that respects the rule of law, human rights, and 
peaceful co-existence with its neighbors.

 TITLE I--ADDITIONAL ACTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY 
                         WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA

SEC. 101. SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO CENTRAL BANK OF SYRIA AND FOREIGN 
                    PERSONS THAT ENGAGE IN CERTAIN TRANSACTIONS.

  (a) Application of Certain Measures to Central Bank of Syria.--Except 
as provided in subsections (a) and (b) of section 402, the President 
shall apply the measures described in section 5318A(b)(5) of title 31, 
United States Code, to the Central Bank of Syria.
  (b) Blocking Property of Foreign Persons That Engage in Certain 
Transactions.--
          (1) In general.--Beginning on and after the date that is 30 
        days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President 
        shall impose on a foreign person the sanctions described in 
        subsection (c) if the President determines that such foreign 
        person, on or after such date of enactment, knowingly engages 
        in an activity described in paragraph (2).
          (2) Activities described.--A foreign person engages in an 
        activity described in this paragraph if the foreign person--
                  (A) knowingly provides significant financial, 
                material or technological support to (including 
                engaging in or facilitating a significant transaction 
                or transactions with) or provides significant financial 
                services for--
                          (i) the Government of Syria (including 
                        government entities operating as a business 
                        enterprise) and the Central Bank of Syria, or 
                        any of its agencies or instrumentalities; or
                          (ii) a foreign person subject to sanctions 
                        pursuant to--
                                  (I) the International Emergency 
                                Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et 
                                seq.) with respect to Syria or any 
                                other provision of law that imposes 
                                sanctions with respect to Syria; or
                                  (II) a resolution that is agreed to 
                                by the United Nations Security Council 
                                that imposes sanctions with respect to 
                                Syria;
                  (B) knowingly--
                          (i) sells or provides significant goods, 
                        services, technology, information, or other 
                        support that directly and significantly 
                        facilitates the maintenance or expansion of the 
                        Government of Syria's domestic production of 
                        natural gas or petroleum or petroleum products 
                        of Syrian origin in areas controlled by the 
                        Government of Syria or associated forces;
                          (ii) sells or provides to the Government of 
                        Syria crude oil or condensate, refined 
                        petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, or 
                        petrochemical products that have a fair market 
                        value of $500,000 or more or that during a 12-
                        month period have an aggregate fair market 
                        value of $2,000,000 or more in areas controlled 
                        by the Government of Syria or associated 
                        forces;
                          (iii) sells or provides aircraft or spare 
                        parts, or provides significant goods, services, 
                        or technologies associated with the operation 
                        of such aircraft or air carriers to any foreign 
                        person operating in areas controlled by the 
                        Government of Syria or associated forces that 
                        are used, in whole or in part, for military 
                        purposes; or
                          (iv) sells or provides significant goods, 
                        services, or technology to a foreign person 
                        operating in the shipping (including ports and 
                        free trade zones), transportation, or 
                        telecommunications sectors in areas controlled 
                        by the Government of Syria or associated 
                        forces;
                  (C) knowingly facilitates efforts by a foreign person 
                to carry out an activity described in subparagraph (A) 
                or (B); or
                  (D) knowingly provides significant loans, credits, 
                including export credits, or financing to carry out an 
                activity described in subparagraph (A) or (B).
  (c) Sanctions Against a Foreign Person.--The sanctions to be imposed 
on a foreign person described in subsection (b) are the following:
          (1) In general.--The President shall exercise all of the 
        powers granted to the President under the International 
        Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to the 
        extent necessary to block and prohibit all transactions in 
        property and interests in property of the foreign person if 
        such property and interests in property are in the United 
        States, come within the United States, or are or come within 
        the possession or control of a United States person.
          (2) Aliens ineligible for visas, admission, or parole.--
                  (A) Visas, admission, or parole.--An alien who the 
                Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland 
                Security (or a designee of one of such Secretaries) 
                knows, or has reason to believe, meets any of the 
                criteria described in subsection (a) is--
                          (i) inadmissible to the United States;
                          (ii) ineligible to receive a visa or other 
                        documentation to enter the United States; and
                          (iii) otherwise ineligible to be admitted or 
                        paroled into the United States or to receive 
                        any other benefit under the Immigration and 
                        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).
                  (B) Current visas revoked.--
                          (i) In general.--The issuing consular 
                        officer, the Secretary of State, or the 
                        Secretary of Homeland Security (or a designee 
                        of one of such Secretaries) shall revoke any 
                        visa or other entry documentation issued to an 
                        alien who meets any of the criteria described 
                        in subsection (a) regardless of when issued.
                          (ii) Effect of revocation.--A revocation 
                        under clause (i)--
                                  (I) shall take effect immediately; 
                                and
                                  (II) shall automatically cancel any 
                                other valid visa or entry documentation 
                                that is in the alien's possession.
          (3) Exception to comply with united nations headquarters 
        agreement.--Sanctions under paragraph (2) shall not apply to an 
        alien if admitting the alien into the United States is 
        necessary to permit the United States to comply with the 
        Agreement regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, 
        signed at Lake Success June 26, 1947, and entered into force 
        November 21, 1947, between the United Nations and the United 
        States, or other applicable international obligations.
          (4) Penalties.--The penalties provided for in subsections (b) 
        and (c) of section 206 of the International Emergency Economic 
        Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) shall apply to a person that 
        knowingly violates, attempts to violate, conspires to violate, 
        or causes a violation of regulations promulgated under section 
        501(a) to carry out paragraph (1) of this subsection to the 
        same extent that such penalties apply to a person that 
        knowingly commits an unlawful act described in section 206(a) 
        of that Act.

SEC. 102. PROHIBITIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE TRANSFER OF ARMS AND RELATED 
                    MATERIALS TO SYRIA.

  (a) Sanctions.--
          (1) In general.--Beginning on and after the date that is 30 
        days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President 
        shall impose on a foreign person the sanctions described in 
        subsection (b) if the President determines that such foreign 
        person, on or after such date of enactment, knowingly exports, 
        transfers, or provides significant financial, material, or 
        technological support to the Government of Syria to--
                  (A) acquire or develop chemical, biological, or 
                nuclear weapons or related technologies;
                  (B) acquire or develop ballistic or cruise missile 
                capabilities;
                  (C) acquire or develop destabilizing numbers and 
                types of advanced conventional weapons; or
                  (D) acquire defense articles, defense services, or 
                defense information (as such terms are defined under 
                the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.)), 
                if the President determines that a significant type or 
                amount of such articles, services, or information has 
                been so acquired.
          (2) Applicability to other foreign persons.--The sanctions 
        described in subsection (b) shall also be imposed on any 
        foreign person that is a successor entity to a foreign person 
        described in paragraph (1).
  (b) Sanctions Against a Foreign Person.--The sanctions to be imposed 
on a foreign person described in subsection (a) are the following:
          (1) In general.--The President shall exercise all powers 
        granted by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 
        U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to the extent necessary to freeze and 
        prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in 
        property of the foreign person if such property and interests 
        in property are in the United States, come within the United 
        States, or are or come within the possession or control of a 
        United States person.
          (2) Aliens ineligible for visas, admission, or parole.--
                  (A) Visas, admission, or parole.--An alien who the 
                Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland 
                Security (or a designee of one of such Secretaries) 
                knows, or has reason to believe, meets any of the 
                criteria described in subsection (a) is--
                          (i) inadmissible to the United States;
                          (ii) ineligible to receive a visa or other 
                        documentation to enter the United States; and
                          (iii) otherwise ineligible to be admitted or 
                        paroled into the United States or to receive 
                        any other benefit under the Immigration and 
                        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).
                  (B) Current visas revoked.--
                          (i) In general.--The issuing consular 
                        officer, the Secretary of State, or the 
                        Secretary of Homeland Security (or a designee 
                        of one of such Secretaries) shall revoke any 
                        visa or other entry documentation issued to an 
                        alien who meets any of the criteria described 
                        in subsection (a) regardless of when issued.
                          (ii) Effect of revocation.--A revocation 
                        under clause (i)--
                                  (I) shall take effect immediately; 
                                and
                                  (II) shall automatically cancel any 
                                other valid visa or entry documentation 
                                that is in the alien's possession.
          (3) Exception to comply with united nations headquarters 
        agreement.--Sanctions under paragraph (2) shall not apply to an 
        alien if admitting the alien into the United States is 
        necessary to permit the United States to comply with the 
        Agreement regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, 
        signed at Lake Success June 26, 1947, and entered into force 
        November 21, 1947, between the United Nations and the United 
        States, or other applicable international obligations.
          (4) Penalties.--A person that violates, attempts to violate, 
        conspires to violate, or causes a violation of any regulation, 
        license, or order issued to carry out this section shall be 
        subject to the penalties set forth in subsections (b) and (c) 
        of section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers 
        Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) to the same extent as a person that 
        commits an unlawful act described in subsection (a) of that 
        section.

SEC. 103. RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.

  Nothing in this title shall be construed to limit the authority of 
the President pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers 
Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

SEC. 104. DEFINITIONS.

  In this title:
          (1) Admitted; alien.--The terms ``admitted'' and ``alien'' 
        have the meanings given such terms in section 101 of the 
        Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101).
          (2) Financial, material, or technological support.--The term 
        ``financial, material, or technological support'' has the 
        meaning given such term in section 542.304 of title 31, Code of 
        Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on the date 
        of the enactment of this Act.
          (3) Foreign person.--The term ``foreign person'' means any 
        citizen or national of a foreign country, or any entity not 
        organized solely under the laws of the United States or 
        existing solely in the United States.
          (4) Government of syria.--The term ``Government of Syria'' 
        has the meaning given such term in section 542.305 of title 31, 
        Code of Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on 
        the date of the enactment of this Act.
          (5) Knowingly.--The term ``knowingly'' has the meaning given 
        such term in section 566.312 of title 31, Code of Federal 
        Regulations, as such section was in effect on the date of the 
        enactment of this Act.
          (6) Person.--The term ``person'' means an individual or 
        entity.
          (7) Petroleum or petroleum products of syrian origin.--The 
        term ``petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin'' has 
        the meaning given such term in section 542.314 of title 31, 
        Code of Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on 
        the date of the enactment of this Act.
          (8) Significant transaction or transactions; significant 
        financial services.--A transaction or transactions or financial 
        services shall be determined to be a significant for purposes 
        of this section in accordance with section 566.404 of title 31, 
        Code of Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on 
        the date of the enactment of this Act.
          (9) Syria.--The term ``Syria'' has the meaning given such 
        term in section 542.316 of title 31, Code of Federal 
        Regulations, as such section was in effect on the date of the 
        enactment of this Act.
          (10) United states person.--The term ``United States person'' 
        means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, 
        entity organized under the laws of the United States (including 
        foreign branches), or any person in the United States.

 TITLE II--AMENDMENTS TO SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2012

SEC. 201. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN PERSONS WHO 
                    ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR OR COMPLICIT IN HUMAN RIGHTS 
                    ABUSES COMMITTED AGAINST CITIZENS OF SYRIA OR THEIR 
                    FAMILY MEMBERS.

  (a) In General.--Section 702(c) of the Syria Human Rights 
Accountability Act of 2012 (22 U.S.C. 8791(c)) is amended to read as 
follows:
  ``(c) Sanctions Described.--
          ``(1) In general.--The President shall exercise all powers 
        granted by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 
        U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to the extent necessary to freeze and 
        prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in 
        property of a person on the list required by subsection (b) if 
        such property and interests in property are in the United 
        States, come within the United States, or are or come within 
        the possession or control of a United States person.
          ``(2) Aliens ineligible for visas, admission, or parole.--
                  ``(A) Visas, admission, or parole.--An alien who the 
                Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland 
                Security (or a designee of one of such Secretaries) 
                knows, or has reason to believe, meets any of the 
                criteria described in subsection (b) is--
                          ``(i) inadmissible to the United States;
                          ``(ii) ineligible to receive a visa or other 
                        documentation to enter the United States; and
                          ``(iii) otherwise ineligible to be admitted 
                        or paroled into the United States or to receive 
                        any other benefit under the Immigration and 
                        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).
                  ``(B) Current visas revoked.--
                          ``(i) In general.--The issuing consular 
                        officer, the Secretary of State, or the 
                        Secretary of Homeland Security (or a designee 
                        of one of such Secretaries) shall revoke any 
                        visa or other entry documentation issued to an 
                        alien who meets any of the criteria described 
                        in subsection (b) regardless of when issued.
                          ``(ii) Effect of revocation.--A revocation 
                        under clause (i)--
                                  ``(I) shall take effect immediately; 
                                and
                                  ``(II) shall automatically cancel any 
                                other valid visa or entry documentation 
                                that is in the alien's possession.
          ``(3) Penalties.--A person that violates, attempts to 
        violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of this 
        section or any regulation, license, or order issued to carry 
        out this section shall be subject to the penalties set forth in 
        subsections (b) and (c) of section 206 of the International 
        Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) to the same 
        extent as a person that commits an unlawful act described in 
        subsection (a) of that section.
          ``(4) Regulatory authority.--The President shall, not later 
        than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this section, 
        promulgate regulations as necessary for the implementation of 
        this section.
          ``(5) Exception to comply with united nations headquarters 
        agreement.--Sanctions under paragraph (2) shall not apply to an 
        alien if admitting the alien into the United States is 
        necessary to permit the United States to comply with the 
        Agreement regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, 
        signed at Lake Success June 26, 1947, and entered into force 
        November 21, 1947, between the United Nations and the United 
        States, or other applicable international obligations.
          ``(6) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
        construed to limit the authority of the President pursuant to 
        the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 
        et seq.), relevant Executive orders, regulations, or other 
        provisions of law.''.
  (b) Serious Human Rights Abuses Described.--Section 702 of the Syria 
Human Rights Accountability Act of 2012 (22 U.S.C. 8791) is amended by 
adding at the end the following:
  ``(d) Serious Human Rights Abuses Described.--In subsection (b), the 
term `serious human rights abuses' includes--
          ``(1) the deliberate targeting of civilian infrastructure to 
        include schools, hospitals, markets, and other infrastructure 
        that is essential to human life, such as power and water 
        systems; and
          ``(2) the deliberate diversion, hindering, or blocking of 
        access for humanitarian purposes, including access across 
        conflict lines and borders.''.
  (c) Effective Date.--The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) 
shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act and shall 
apply with respect to the imposition of sanctions under section 702(a) 
of the Syria Human Rights Accountability Act of 2012 on after such date 
of enactment.

SEC. 202. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE TRANSFER OF GOODS 
                    OR TECHNOLOGIES TO SYRIA THAT ARE LIKELY TO BE USED 
                    TO COMMIT HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES.

  Section 703(b)(2)(C) of the Syria Human Rights Accountability Act of 
2012 (22 U.S.C. 8792(b)(2)(C)) is amended--
          (1) in clause (i), by striking ``or'' at the end;
          (2) in clause (ii), by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting a semicolon; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following:
                          ``(iii) any article--
                                  ``(I) designated by the President for 
                                purposes of the United States Munitions 
                                List under section 38(a)(1) of the Arms 
                                Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 
                                2778(a)(1)); and
                                  ``(II) with respect to which the 
                                President determines is significant for 
                                purposes of the imposition of sanctions 
                                under subsection (a); or
                          ``(iv) other goods or technologies that the 
                        President determines may be used by the 
                        Government of Syria to commit human rights 
                        abuses against the people of Syria.''.

SEC. 203. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PERSONS WHO HINDER 
                    HUMANITARIAN ACCESS.

  (a) In General.--The Syria Human Rights Accountability Act of 2012 
(22 U.S.C. 8791 et seq.) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating sections 705 and 706 as sections 706 and 
        707, respectively;
          (2) by inserting after section 704 the following:

``SEC. 705. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PERSONS WHO HINDER 
                    HUMANITARIAN ACCESS.

  ``(a) In General.--The President shall impose sanctions described in 
section 702(c) with respect to each person on the list required by 
subsection (b).
  ``(b) List of Persons Who Hinder Humanitarian Access.--
          ``(1) In general.--Not later than 120 days after the date of 
        the enactment of the Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 
        2017, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
        congressional committees a list of persons that the President 
        determines have engaged in deliberate diversion, hindering, or 
        blocking of access for humanitarian purposes for the United 
        Nations, its specialized agencies and implementing partners, 
        national and international nongovernmental organizations, and 
        all other actors engaged in humanitarian relief activities in 
        Syria, including through the deliberate targeting of such 
        humanitarian actors and activities in Syria and across conflict 
        lines and borders.
          ``(2) Updates of list.--The President shall submit to the 
        appropriate congressional committees an updated list under 
        paragraph (1)--
                  ``(A) not later than 300 days after the date of the 
                enactment of the Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act 
                of 2017 and every 180 days thereafter; and
                  ``(B) as new information becomes available.
          ``(3) Form.--The list required by paragraph (1) shall be 
        submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified 
        annex.''; and
          (3) in section 706 (as so redesignated), by striking ``or 
        704'' and inserting ``704, or 705''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents for the Syria Human 
Rights Accountability Act of 2012 is amended by inserting after the 
item relating to section 704 the following new item:

``Sec. 705. Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons who hinder 
humanitarian access.''.

SEC. 204. REPORT ON CERTAIN PERSONS WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR OR 
                    COMPLICIT IN CERTAIN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN SYRIA.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 120 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a detailed report with respect to whether each 
person described in subsection (c) meets the requirements described in 
section 702(b) of the Syria Human Rights Accountability Act of 2012 (22 
U.S.C. 8791(b)) for purposes of inclusion on the list of persons who 
are responsible for or complicit in certain human rights abuses under 
such section.
  (b) Justification.--The President shall include in the report 
required by subsection (a) a description of the reasons why any of the 
persons described in subsection (c) do not meet the requirements 
described in section 702(b) of the Syria Human Rights Accountability 
Act of 2012 (22 U.S.C. 8791(b)), including information on whether 
sufficient credible evidence of responsibility for such abuses was 
found or whether any of the persons described in subsection (c) have 
been designated pursuant to--
          (1) Executive Order 13572 of April 29, 2011 (76 Fed. Reg. 
        24787; relating to blocking property of certain persons with 
        respect to human rights abuses in Syria);
          (2) Executive Order 13573 of May 18, 2011 (76 Fed. Reg. 
        29143; relating to blocking property of senior officials of the 
        Government of Syria);
          (3) Executive Order 13582 of August 17, 2011 (76 Fed. Reg. 
        52209; relating to blocking property of the Government of Syria 
        and prohibiting certain transactions with respect to Syria); or
          (4) Executive Order 13606 of April 22, 2012 (77 Fed. Reg. 
        24571; relating to blocking the property and suspending entry 
        into the United States of certain persons with respect to grave 
        human rights abuses by the Governments of Iran and Syria via 
        information technology).
  (c) Persons Described.--The persons described in this subsection are 
the following:
          (1) Bashar Al-Assad.
          (2) Asma Al-Assad.
          (3) Rami Makhlouf.
          (4) Bouthayna Shaaban.
          (5) Walid Moallem.
          (6) Ali Al-Salim.
          (7) Wael Nader Al-Halqi.
          (8) Jamil Hassan.
          (9) Suhail Hassan.
          (10) Ali Mamluk.
          (11) Muhammed Khadour, Deir Ez Zor Military and Security.
          (12) Jamal Razzouq, Security Branch 243.
          (13) Munzer Ghanam, Air Force Intelligence.
          (14) Daas Hasan Ali, Branch 327.
          (15) Jassem Ali Jassem Hamad, Political Security.
          (16) Samir Muhammad Youssef, Military Intelligence.
          (17) Ali Ahmad Dayoub, Air Force Intelligence.
          (18) Khaled Muhsen Al-Halabi, Security Branch 335.
          (19) Mahmoud Kahila, Political Security.
          (20) Zuhair Ahmad Hamad, Provincial Security.
          (21) Wafiq Nasser, Security Branch 245.
          (22) Qussay Mayoub, Air Force Intelligence.
          (23) Muhammad Ammar Sardini, Political Security.
          (24) Fouad Hammouda, Military Security.
          (25) Hasan Daaboul, Branch 261.
          (26) Yahia Wahbi, Air Force Intelligence.
          (27) Okab Saqer, Security Branch 318.
          (28) Husam Luqa, Political Security.
          (29) Sami Al-Hasan, Security Branch 219.
          (30) Yassir Deeb, Political Security.
          (31) Ibrahim Darwish, Security Branch 220.
          (32) Nasser Deeb, Political Security.
          (33) Abdullatif Al-Fahed, Security Branch 290.
          (34) Adeeb Namer Salamah, Air Force Intelligence.
          (35) Akram Muhammed, State Security.
          (36) Reyad Abbas, Political Security.
          (37) Ali Abdullah Ayoub, Syrian Armed Forces.
          (38) Fahd Jassem Al-Freij, Defense Ministry.
          (39) Issam Halaq, Air Force.
          (40) Ghassan Al-Abdullah, General Intelligence Directorate.
          (41) Maher Al-Assad, Republican Guard.
          (42) Fahad Al-Farouch.
          (43) Rafiq Shahada, Military Intelligence.
          (44) Loay Al-Ali, Military Intelligence.
          (45) Nawfal Al-Husayn, Military Intelligence.
          (46) Muhammad Zamrini, Military Intelligence.
          (47) Muhammad Mahallah, Military Intelligence.
  (d) Form.--The report required by subsection (a) shall be submitted 
in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex if necessary.
  (e) Definition.--In this section, the term ``appropriate 
congressional committees'' means--
          (1) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
        Financial Services, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the 
        Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives; and
          (2) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on 
        Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee on Finance, 
        and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate.

TITLE III--REPORTS AND WAIVER FOR HUMANITARIAN-RELATED ACTIVITIES WITH 
                            RESPECT TO SYRIA

SEC. 301. BRIEFING ON MONITORING AND EVALUATING OF ONGOING ASSISTANCE 
                    PROGRAMS IN SYRIA AND TO THE SYRIAN PEOPLE.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State and the Administrator of 
the United States Agency for International Development shall brief the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on the monitoring and 
evaluation of ongoing assistance programs in Syria and for the Syrian 
people, including assistance provided through multilateral 
organizations.
  (b) Matters To Be Included.--The briefing required by subsection (a) 
shall include--
          (1) the specific project monitoring and evaluation efforts, 
        including measurable goals and performance metrics for 
        assistance in Syria;
          (2) a description of the memoranda of understanding entered 
        into by the Department of State, the United States Agency for 
        International Development, and their respective Inspectors 
        General and the multilateral organizations through which United 
        States assistance will be delivered that formalize requirements 
        for the sharing of information between such entities for the 
        conduct of audits, investigations, and evaluations; and
          (3) the major challenges to monitoring and evaluating such 
        programs.

SEC. 302. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL METHODS TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF 
                    CIVILIANS.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that--
          (1) assesses the potential effectiveness, risks, and 
        operational requirements of the establishment and maintenance 
        of a no-fly zone over part or all of Syria, including--
                  (A) the operational and legal requirements for United 
                States and coalition air power to establish a no-fly 
                zone in Syria;
                  (B) the impact a no-fly zone in Syria would have on 
                humanitarian and counterterrorism efforts in Syria and 
                the surrounding region; and
                  (C) the potential for force contributions from other 
                countries to establish a no-fly zone in Syria;
          (2) assesses the potential effectiveness, risks, and 
        operational requirements for the establishment of one or more 
        safe zones in Syria for internally displaced persons or for the 
        facilitation of humanitarian assistance, including--
                  (A) the operational and legal requirements for United 
                States and coalition forces to establish one or more 
                safe zones in Syria;
                  (B) the impact one or more safe zones in Syria would 
                have on humanitarian and counterterrorism efforts in 
                Syria and the surrounding region; and
                  (C) the potential for contributions from other 
                countries and vetted non-state actor partners to 
                establish and maintain one or more safe zones in Syria;
          (3) assesses the potential effectiveness, risks, and 
        operational requirements of other non-military means to enhance 
        the protection of civilians, especially civilians who are in 
        besieged areas, trapped at borders, or internally displaced; 
        and
          (4) describes the Administration's plan for recruitment, 
        training, and retention of partner forces, including--
                  (A) identification of the United States partner 
                forces operating on the ground;
                  (B) the primary source of strength for each armed 
                actor engaged in hostilities;
                  (C) the capabilities, requirements, and 
                vulnerabilities of each armed actor;
                  (D) the United States role in mitigating 
                vulnerabilities of partner forces; and
                  (E) the Administration's measures of success for 
                partner forces, including--
                          (i) increasing Syrian civilian security; and
                          (ii) working toward an end to the conflict in 
                        Syria.
  (b) Form.--The report required by subsection (a) shall be submitted 
in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex if necessary.
  (c) Consultation.--The report required by subsection (a) shall be 
informed by consultations with the Department of State, the United 
States Agency for International Development, the Department of Defense, 
and international and local organizations operating in Syria or in 
neighboring countries to alleviate the suffering of the Syrian people.
  (d) Definition.--In this section, the term ``appropriate 
congressional committees'' means--
          (1) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on 
        Armed Services of the House of Representatives; and
          (2) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on 
        Armed Services of the Senate.

SEC. 303. ASSISTANCE TO SUPPORT ENTITIES TAKING ACTIONS RELATING TO 
                    GATHERING EVIDENCE FOR INVESTIGATIONS INTO WAR 
                    CRIMES OR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN SYRIA SINCE 
                    MARCH 2011.

  (a) In General.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
Secretary of State, acting through the Assistant Secretary for 
Democracy, Human Rights and Labor and the Assistant Secretary for 
International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, is authorized to 
provide assistance to support entities that are conducting criminal 
investigations, building Syrian investigative capacity, supporting 
prosecutions in national courts, collecting evidence and preserving the 
chain of evidence for eventual prosecution against those who have 
committed war crimes or crimes against humanity in Syria, including the 
aiding and abetting of such crimes by foreign governments and 
organizations supporting the Government of Syria, since March 2011.
  (b) Briefing.--Not later than one year after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall brief the Committee 
on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Foreign Relations of the Senate on assistance provided under subsection 
(a).

        TITLE IV--SUSPENSION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA

SEC. 401. SUSPENSION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA.

  (a) Suspension of Sanctions.--
          (1) Negotiations not concluding in agreement.--If the 
        President determines that internationally recognized 
        negotiations to resolve the violence in Syria have not 
        concluded in an agreement or are likely not to conclude in an 
        agreement, the President may suspend, as appropriate, in whole 
        or in part, the imposition of sanctions otherwise required 
        under this Act or any amendment made by this Act for a period 
        not to exceed 120 days, and renewable for additional periods 
        not to exceed 120 days, if the President submits to the 
        appropriate congressional committees in writing a determination 
        and certification that the Government of Syria has ended 
        military attacks against and gross violations of the human 
        rights of the Syrian people, specifically--
                  (A) the air space over Syria is no longer being 
                utilized by the Government of Syria and associated 
                forces to target civilian populations through the use 
                of incendiary devices, including barrel bombs, chemical 
                weapons, and conventional arms, including air-delivered 
                missiles and explosives;
                  (B) areas besieged by the Assad regime and associated 
                forces, including Hezbollah and irregular Iranian 
                forces, are no longer cut off from international aid 
                and have regular access to humanitarian assistance, 
                freedom of travel, and medical care;
                  (C) the Government of Syria is releasing all 
                political prisoners forcibly held within the Assad 
                regime prison system, including the facilities 
                maintained by various security, intelligence, and 
                military elements associated with the Government of 
                Syria and allowed full access to the same facilities 
                for investigations by appropriate international human 
                rights organizations; and
                  (D) the forces of the Government of Syria and 
                associated forces, including Hezbollah, irregular 
                Iranian forces, and Russian government air assets, are 
                no longer engaged in deliberate targeting of medical 
                facilities, schools, residential areas, and community 
                gathering places, including markets, in flagrant 
                violation of international norms.
          (2) Negotiations concluding in agreement.--
                  (A) Initial suspension of sanctions.--If the 
                President determines that internationally recognized 
                negotiations to resolve the violence in Syria have 
                concluded in an agreement or are likely to conclude in 
                an agreement, the President may suspend, as 
                appropriate, in whole or in part, the imposition of 
                sanctions otherwise required under this Act or any 
                amendment made by this Act for a period not to exceed 
                120 days if the President submits to the appropriate 
                congressional committees in writing a determination and 
                certification that--
                          (i) in the case in which the negotiations are 
                        likely to conclude in an agreement--
                                  (I) the Government of Syria, the 
                                Syrian High Negotiations Committee or 
                                its internationally-recognized 
                                successor, and appropriate 
                                international parties are participating 
                                in direct, face-to-face negotiations; 
                                and
                                  (II) the suspension of sanctions 
                                under this Act or any amendment made by 
                                this Act is essential to the 
                                advancement of such negotiations; and
                          (ii) the Government of Syria has demonstrated 
                        a commitment to a significant and substantial 
                        reduction in attacks on and violence against 
                        the Syrian people by the Government of Syria 
                        and associated forces.
                  (B) Renewal of suspension of sanctions.--The 
                President may renew a suspension of sanctions under 
                subparagraph (A) for additional periods not to exceed 
                120 days if, for each such additional period, the 
                President submits to the appropriate congressional 
                committees in writing a determination and certification 
                that--
                          (i) the conditions described in clauses (i) 
                        and (ii) of subparagraph (A) are continuing to 
                        be met;
                          (ii) the renewal of the suspension of 
                        sanctions is essential to implementing an 
                        agreement described in subparagraph (A) or 
                        making progress toward concluding an agreement 
                        described in subparagraph (A);
                          (iii) the Government of Syria and associated 
                        forces have ceased attacks against Syrian 
                        civilians; and
                          (iv) the Government of Syria has publicly 
                        committed to negotiations for a transitional 
                        government in Syria and continues to 
                        demonstrate that commitment through sustained 
                        engagement in talks and substantive and 
                        verifiable progress towards the implementation 
                        of such an agreement.
          (3) Briefing and reimposition of sanctions.--
                  (A) Briefing.--Not later than 30 days after the 
                President submits to the appropriate congressional 
                committees a determination and certification in the 
                case of a renewal of suspension of sanctions under 
                paragraph (2)(B), and every 30 days thereafter, the 
                President shall provide a briefing to the appropriate 
                congressional committees on the status and frequency of 
                negotiations described in paragraph (2).
                  (B) Re-imposition of sanctions.--If the President 
                provides a briefing to the appropriate congressional 
                committees under subparagraph (A) with respect to which 
                the President indicates a lapse in negotiations 
                described in paragraph (2) for a period that equals or 
                exceeds 90 days, the sanctions that were suspended 
                under paragraph (2)(B) shall be re-imposed and any 
                further suspension of such sanctions is prohibited.
          (4) Definition.--In this subsection, the term ``appropriate 
        congressional committees'' means--
                  (A) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee 
                on Financial Services, the Committee on Ways and Means, 
                and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of 
                Representatives; and
                  (B) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee 
                on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee 
                on Finance, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
                Senate.
  (b) Sense of Congress To Be Considered for Determining a Transitional 
Government in Syria.--It is the sense of Congress that a transitional 
government in Syria is a government that--
          (1) is taking verifiable steps to release all political 
        prisoners and is providing full access to Syrian prisons for 
        investigations by appropriate international human rights 
        organizations;
          (2) is taking verifiable steps to remove former senior Syrian 
        Government officials who are complicit in the conception, 
        implementation, or cover up of war crimes, crimes against 
        humanity, or human rights abuses and any person subject to 
        sanctions under any provision of law from government positions;
          (3) is in the process of organizing free and fair elections 
        for a new government--
                  (A) to be held in a timely manner and scheduled while 
                the suspension of sanctions or the renewal of the 
                suspension of sanctions under this section is in 
                effect; and
                  (B) to be conducted under the supervision of 
                internationally recognized observers;
          (4) is making tangible progress toward establishing an 
        independent judiciary;
          (5) is demonstrating respect for and compliance with 
        internationally recognized human rights and basic freedoms as 
        specified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
          (6) is taking steps to verifiably fulfill its commitments 
        under the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Treaty on the 
        Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and is making tangible 
        progress toward becoming a signatory to Convention on the 
        Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of 
        Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their 
        Destruction, entered into force March 26, 1975, and adhering to 
        the Missile Technology Control Regime and other control lists, 
        as necessary;
          (7) has halted the development and deployment of ballistic 
        and cruise missiles; and
          (8) is taking verifiable steps to remove from positions of 
        authority within the intelligence and security services as well 
        as the military those who were in a position of authority or 
        responsibility during the conflict and who under the authority 
        of their position were implicated in or implicit in the 
        torture, extrajudicial killing, or execution of civilians, to 
        include those who were involved in decisionmaking or execution 
        of plans to use chemical weapons.

SEC. 402. WAIVERS AND EXEMPTIONS.

  (a) Exemptions.--The following activities and transactions shall be 
exempt from sanctions authorized under this Act or any amendment made 
by this Act:
          (1) Any activity subject to the reporting requirements under 
        title V of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3091 et 
        seq.), or to any authorized intelligence activities of the 
        United States.
          (2) Any transaction necessary to comply with United States 
        obligations under--
                  (A) the Agreement between the United Nations and the 
                United States of America regarding the Headquarters of 
                the United Nations, signed at Lake Success June 26, 
                1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947;
                  (B) the Convention on Consular Relations, done at 
                Vienna April 24, 1963, and entered into force March 19, 
                1967; or
                  (C) any other international agreement to which the 
                United States is a party.
  (b) Humanitarian, Stabilization, and Democracy Assistance Waiver.--
          (1) Statement of policy.--It shall be the policy of the 
        United States to fully utilize the waiver authority under this 
        subsection to ensure that adequate humanitarian relief or 
        support for stabilization and democracy promotion is provided 
        to the Syrian people.
          (2) Waiver.--Except as provided in paragraph (5) and 
        subsection (d), the President may waive, on a case-by-case 
        basis, for a period not to exceed one year, and renewable for 
        additional periods not to exceed one year, the application of 
        sanctions authorized under this Act with respect to a person if 
        the President submits to the appropriate congressional 
        committees a written determination that the waiver is necessary 
        for purposes of providing humanitarian or stabilization 
        assistance or support for democracy promotion to the people of 
        Syria.
          (3) Content of written determination.--A written 
        determination submitted under paragraph (2) with respect to a 
        waiver shall include a description of all notification and 
        accountability controls that have been employed in order to 
        ensure that the activities covered by the waiver are 
        humanitarian or stabilization assistance or support for 
        democracy promotion and do not entail any activities in Syria 
        or dealings with the Government of Syria not reasonably related 
        to humanitarian or stabilization assistance or support for 
        democracy promotion.
          (4) Clarification of permitted activities under waiver.--The 
        President may not impose sanctions authorized under this Act 
        against a humanitarian organization for--
                  (A) engaging in a financial transaction relating to 
                humanitarian assistance or for humanitarian purposes 
                pursuant to a waiver issued under paragraph (2);
                  (B) transporting goods or services that are necessary 
                to carry out operations relating to humanitarian 
                assistance or humanitarian purposes pursuant to such a 
                waiver; or
                  (C) having incidental contact, in the course of 
                providing humanitarian assistance or aid for 
                humanitarian purposes pursuant to such a waiver, with 
                individuals who are under the control of a foreign 
                person subject to sanctions under this Act or any 
                amendment made by this Act unless the organization or 
                its officers, members, representatives or employees 
                have engaged in (or the President knows or has 
                reasonable ground to believe is engaged in or is likely 
                to engage in) conduct described in section 
                212(a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI) of the Immigration and Nationality 
                Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI)).
          (5) Exception to waiver authority.--The President may not 
        exercise the waiver authority under paragraph (2) with respect 
        to a foreign person who has (or whose officers, members, 
        representatives or employees have) engaged in (or the President 
        knows or has reasonable ground to believe is engaged in or is 
        likely to engage in) conduct described in section 
        212(a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 
        U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI)).
  (c) Waiver.--
          (1) In general.--The President may, for periods not to exceed 
        120 days, waive the application of sanctions under this Act 
        with respect to a foreign person if the President certifies to 
        the appropriate congressional committees that such waiver is 
        vital to the national security interests of the United States.
          (2) Consultation.--
                  (A) Before waiver issued.--Not later than 5 days 
                before the issuance of a waiver under paragraph (1) is 
                to take effect, the President shall notify and brief 
                the appropriate congressional committees on the status 
                of the foreign person's involvement in activities 
                described in this Act.
                  (B) After waiver issued.--Not later than 90 days 
                after the issuance of a waiver under paragraph (1), and 
                every 120 days thereafter if the waiver remains in 
                effect, the President shall brief the appropriate 
                congressional committees on the status of the foreign 
                person's involvement in activities described in this 
                Act.
          (3) Definition.--In this subsection, the term ``appropriate 
        congressional committees'' means--
                  (A) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee 
                on Financial Services, the Committee on Ways and Means, 
                and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of 
                Representatives; and
                  (B) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee 
                on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee 
                on Finance, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
                Senate.
  (d) Codification of Certain Services in Support of Nongovernmental 
Organizations' Activities Authorized.--
          (1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), section 
        542.516 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to 
        certain services in support of nongovernmental organizations' 
        activities authorized), as in effect on the day before the date 
        of the enactment of this Act, shall--
                  (A) remain in effect on and after such date of 
                enactment; and
                  (B) in the case of a nongovernmental organization 
                that is authorized to export or reexport services to 
                Syria under such section on the day before such date of 
                enactment, shall apply to such organization on and 
                after such date of enactment to the same extent and in 
                the same manner as such section applied to such 
                organization on the day before such date of enactment.
          (2) Exception.--Section 542.516 of title 31, Code of Federal 
        Regulations, as codified under paragraph (1), shall not apply 
        with respect to a foreign person who has (or whose officers, 
        members, representatives or employees have) engaged in (or the 
        President knows or has reasonable ground to believe is engaged 
        in or is likely to engage in) conduct described in section 
        212(a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 
        U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI)).
  (e) Strategy Required.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the 
        appropriate congressional committees a report containing a 
        strategy to ensure that humanitarian organizations can access 
        financial services to ensure the safe and timely delivery of 
        assistance to communities in need in Syria.
          (2) Consideration of data from other countries and 
        nongovernmental organizations.--In preparing the strategy 
        required by paragraph (1), the President shall consider 
        credible data already obtained by other countries and 
        nongovernmental organizations, including organizations 
        operating in Syria.
          (3) Form.--The strategy required by paragraph (1) shall be 
        submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified 
        annex.

       TITLE V--REGULATORY AUTHORITY, COST LIMITATION, AND SUNSET

SEC. 501. IMPLEMENTATION AND REGULATORY AUTHORITIES.

  (a) Implementation Authority.--The President may exercise all 
authorities provided to the President under sections 203 and 205 of the 
International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702 and 1704) 
for purposes of carrying out this Act and the amendments made by this 
Act.
  (b) Regulatory Authority.--The President shall, not later than 90 
days after the date of the enactment of this Act, promulgate 
regulations as necessary for the implementation of this Act and the 
amendments made by this Act.
  (c) Briefing to Congress.--Not less than 10 days before the 
promulgation of regulations under subsection (a), the President shall 
brief the appropriate congressional committees on the proposed 
regulations and the provisions of this Act and the amendments made by 
this Act that the regulations are implementing.
  (d) Definition.--In this section, the term ``appropriate 
congressional committees'' means--
          (1) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on 
        Financial Services of the House of Representatives; and
          (2) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on 
        Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate.

SEC. 502. COST LIMITATION.

  No additional funds are authorized to carry out the requirements of 
this Act and the amendments made by this Act. Such requirements shall 
be carried out using amounts otherwise authorized.

SEC. 503. AUTHORITY TO CONSOLIDATE REPORTS.

  (a) In General.--Any reports required to be submitted to the 
appropriate congressional committees under this Act or any amendment 
made by this Act that are subject to a deadline for submission 
consisting of the same unit of time may be consolidated into a single 
report that is submitted to appropriate congressional committees 
pursuant to such deadline. The consolidated reports shall contain all 
information required under this Act or any amendment made by this Act, 
in addition to all other elements mandated by previous law.
  (b) Definition.--In this section, the term ``appropriate 
congressional committees'' means--
          (1) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on 
        Financial Services of the House of Representatives; and
          (2) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on 
        Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate.

SEC. 504. SUNSET.

  This Act shall cease to be effective beginning on December 31, 2021.

                         Purpose of Legislation

    H.R. 1677, the ``Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 
2017,'' is a response to the immense human suffering and 
regional instability created by the conflict in Syria. After 
more than six years of intense fighting, nearly 500,000 
civilian deaths, the destruction of more than 50 percent of 
Syria's critical infrastructure, and the forced displacement of 
more than 14,000,000 people, the Syrian conflict has 
precipitated one of the worst humanitarian crises in more than 
60 years. Failed efforts to negotiate an end to the conflict 
have demonstrated to the Committee the need to exert greater 
pressure on the Syrian regime and its enablers. This 
legislation seeks to create leverage for the United States to 
demand meaningful negotiations and provides tools to sanction 
those who fuel the Syrian regime's killing machine. This 
legislation builds on the ``Syria Human Rights and 
Accountability Act of 2012'' (contained in P.L. 112-158), to 
further sanction those who are responsible for or complicit in 
widespread human rights abuses and war crimes.

                  Background and Need for Legislation


Caesar

    The ``Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2017'' is 
named in honor of the courageous former Syrian military 
photographer, known by the pseudonym ``Caesar,'' who testified 
before the House Foreign Affairs Committee in 2014 in a 
briefing, entitled ``Assad's Killing Machine Exposed: 
Implications for U.S. Policy.'' Caesar, who appeared before the 
committee in disguise, smuggled out of Syria more than 50,000 
photographs that document the torture and execution of more 
than 10,000 political prisoners. This briefing was the first 
public setting in which Caesar shared his story. Since 2014, 
Caesar's photographs of torture victims inside Assad's prisons 
have been authenticated by the United States Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, displayed around the world, including at the 
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, the United Nations and various 
parliaments, and used as evidence in war crimes prosecutions 
against the Assad regime.

Assad's Continued Use of Chemical Weapons

    The brutal and indiscriminate use of chemical weapons has 
been a key element in the Assad regime's strategy to stay in 
power. The attack on April 4, 2017 saw Syrian regime aircraft 
conduct several air strikes using the chemical nerve agent, 
sarin gas. This attack is reported to have killed approximately 
100 people in the town of Khan Shaikhoun, including scores of 
children. A hospital treating victims of the chemical attack 
was later reportedly struck by conventional weapons from 
Russian aircraft. Evidence of the Russian follow-up attack has 
reportedly been corroborated by satellite and drone imagery. 
Some suggest that the Russians may have been trying to cover up 
evidence of the chemical attack when they fired on the 
hospital.
    This attack was the latest of several chemical weapons 
attacks against Syrian civilians, including chlorine attacks 
throughout the conflict and sarin gas attacks in the Aleppo 
suburbs and Eastern Ghouta in 2013. It came after President 
Obama said in a 2013 news conference, ``We have been very clear 
to the Assad regime, but also to other players on the ground, 
that a red line for us is we start seeing a whole bunch of 
chemical weapons moving around or being utilized. That would 
change my calculus. That would change my equation.''
    After the 2013 sarin gas attacks, the Obama Administration 
and the Russian Government announced an agreement that would 
provide for the elimination of Syria's declared stockpiles, 
manufacturing, and mixing equipment. This agreement avoided 
U.S. military action and was memorialized in U.N. Security 
Council Resolution 2118, which required the verification and 
destruction of Syria's chemical weapons stockpiles. The final 
shipment of Assad's declared chemical weapons materials left 
Syria on June 23, 2014, and the Organization for the 
Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) won the Nobel Peace 
Prize for their efforts to implement the Security Council 
Resolution.
    Despite these developments, many suspected that the Syrian 
Government maintained stockpiles of several tons of chemical 
weapons after June 2014. In the months that followed, it was 
confirmed by the Syrian Government that four more production 
sites and a ricin program had been undeclared and remained in 
the country--leading a high ranking Syrian official to call the 
agreement a ``victory'' for Assad's regime.
    The Russian Government was supposed to be the guarantor of 
Syrian adherence to the U.N. Security Council Resolution, but 
as Secretary of State Tillerson noted in remarks to the media 
after the sarin attack in Khan Shaikhoun: ``Russia has failed 
in its responsibility to deliver on that commitment from 2013. 
So either Russia has been complicit or Russia has been simply 
incompetent in its ability to deliver on its end of that 
agreement.''
    Assad's continued use of chemical weapons serves a tactical 
and strategic purpose. Tactically, the Syrian regime has been 
able to prevent the loss of key infrastructure and prevent 
losses from their own ranks while inflicting damage on others. 
Strategically, the repeated use of such weapons, which until 
recently was carried out with impunity, is meant to demoralize 
opposition fighters and Syrian civilians.
    Additionally, chlorine gas, a chemical with a number of 
commercial and medical applications, has been a consistent and 
deadly weapon for the Assad regime in its efforts to terrorize 
and kill civilians. In 2015, the committee heard testimony from 
Dr. Annie Sparrow of Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New 
York--a trainer of Syrian doctors--in which she stated that 
chlorine, a dual use chemical, is used by the Assad regime as a 
chemical weapon in indiscriminate attacks. She also noted the 
regime has used chlorine as an indirect biological weapon by 
withholding shipments to besieged areas, thus contributing to 
epidemics of polio, typhoid, hepatitis, and other contagious 
diseases.

Assad's Slaughter of the Syrian People

    While Assad's use of chemical weapons is a key topic of 
international outrage, it is only one method by which Assad 
targets civilians. The primary means of death in Syria remains 
conventional weaponry, including missiles, mortars, and bombs, 
including cluster munitions. The regime has also utilized the 
crude nature of a barrel bomb to indiscriminately target 
civilians. The civil defense group known as the White Helmets 
has reported countless incidents and provided evidence of 
aerial bombardments of civilian areas, including schools, 
hospitals, refugee camps and markets. The White Helmets' 
centers, ambulances and personnel have been deliberately 
targeted, and at least one White Helmets volunteer who has met 
with committee staff was subsequently killed in an airstrike in 
2016 as he was trying to rescue people trapped under rubble.
    Nowhere is Assad's disregard for life more visible than in 
the photographs smuggled out of Syria by the former police 
photographer who testified before the committee under the name 
``Caesar.'' These photographs include the images of men, women, 
and children tortured and murdered inside of the Syria prisons 
system. In his testimony before the House Foreign Affairs 
Committee in 2014, at the time that Caesar revealed his 
photographs to the world, renowned prosecutor David Crane said, 
``55,000 photographs which show the systematic torture, 
starvation, and execution of what our forensic team was able to 
verify of approximately 11,000 human beings, showing direct 
evidence, evidence that, if I were a prosecutor bringing this 
evidence in, would prove beyond a reasonable doubt of war 
crimes and crimes against humanity. We were stunned by the 
magnitude of this.'' Furthermore, the regime has tortured to 
death at least 12,000 people, according to the Syrian Network 
for Human Rights.
    One of the most shocking elements of the Caesar file of 
photographs is the diversity of victims. The Syrian regime has 
targeted individuals from all backgrounds and religious faiths. 
In fact, Caesar provided multiple photographs of Christian 
torture victims, while other prominent Christians continue to 
remain in government detention. In addition, according to a 
report by the Syrian Network for Human Rights, over 60 percent 
of Syrian churches have been targeted by government forces It 
is abundantly clear from the evidence that the Assad regime 
seeks to protect itself and neutralize any perceived threat to 
its survival regardless of religious or ethnic affiliations. 
Pope Francis has spoken out against the atrocities in Syria, 
delivering strong remarks after the sarin gas attacks: ``I 
firmly deplore the unacceptable carnage that took place 
yesterday in Idlib province, where scores of helpless people, 
including many children, were killed.'' He went on to appeal to 
those ``with political responsibility, both locally and 
internationally, to cease this tragedy and bring relief to that 
dear population which, for too long, has been exhausted by 
war.''

Assad's Supporting Role in the Rise of ISIS

    While Bashar al-Assad portrays himself and his regime as 
the only alternative to a Syria dominated by radical Sunni 
Islamists, he played a well-documented role in the development 
of ISIS in Iraq. As Charles Lister testified before this 
committee on April 27, 2017:

        ``As U.S. troops entered Iraq in March 2003, Assad's 
        personally appointed Grand Mufti issued a fatwa 
        declaring it religiously obligatory for all Muslims--
        male and female--to resist the invasion using any 
        available means, including suicide bombing. Iraq's then 
        foreign minister claimed 5,000 foreign fighters crossed 
        into the country from Syria in the first 11 days of the 
        invasion. Most of these were driven to the border on 
        Syrian Government buses, as Syrian border guards waved 
        them across unchecked. According to captured Islamic 
        State documents, more than 700 foreign jihadists 
        crossed into Iraq from Syria through one town alone in 
        a 12- month period between 2006-2007. Later in 2007, 
        U.S. intelligence estimated that as much as 90% of 
        Islamic State suicide bombers in Iraq had come through 
        Syria--many flying into Aleppo or Damascus airports and 
        then given free access to the Iraqi border. In mid-
        2009, the Syrian Government's military intelligence 
        service convened a meeting in the Syrian mountain town 
        of Zabadani, in which Assad regime officials sat 
        alongside leaders from the Islamic State and from 
        Iraq's deposed Baath Party and planned a series of 
        debilitating bombings aimed at crippling Prime Minister 
        Nouri al-Maliki's standing in Baghdad. Those attacks 
        took place in August 2009 and left over 700 killed and 
        wounded. It is quite possible that hundreds of American 
        troops would still be alive today had it not been for 
        Assad's explicit support for what was then known as the 
        Islamic State in Iraq.''

    Two of the four key leaders of al Nusra Front's seven 
founding members were released from prison by the Assad regime 
at the start of the conflict--when the opposition was still 
primarily a peaceful resistance with no major armed groups. 
Three of ISIS's most important leaders in Syria were also 
released, including the Emirs of Aleppo and Raqqa. Even today, 
the Assad regime and its backers use the pretext of fighting 
``terrorism'' to explain the deliberate targeting of medical 
facilities, rescue personnel, and civilian targets such as 
schools and market places.
    In reality, regime atrocities continue to be an effective 
propaganda tool for both Jabhat Fateh Al-Sham and ISIS, both 
outgrowths of Al Qaeda. Witnesses have testified to the 
committee that the only way to defeat terrorism in Syria is for 
President Assad to step aside and make way for the 
``transitional governing body'' that is called for under the 
Geneva Communique. As Ambassador Fred Hof said in his testimony 
on February 14, 2017 at the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Non-
Proliferation and Trade, ``ISIS and JFS can and should be 
defeated militarily. Terror, however, will be killed in Syria 
only when legitimate governance, reflecting inclusivity and 
rule of law, replaces family rule based on collective 
punishment and mass homicide. So long as the latter prevails 
responses to it will inevitably include appeals to 
sectarianism, extremism, and terror.''

Russian and Iranian Support and Protection

    Iran has long considered Bashar Al-Assad's Alawite 
government an ally against Saudi Arabia and other Sunni states 
in the region. Iran supports the Syrian regime by providing 
funding, weapons, Quds force advisors backed by Shiite 
militias, and Iranian ground troops. U.N. officials estimate 
that Iranian funding to Syria, even with sanctions on Iran in 
place, has averaged $6 billion annually. Iran has reportedly 
deployed at least 7,000 of its own fighters to Syria. These 
forces include elements of the IRGC-Ground Forces and Iranian 
`Artesh' that represent the first expeditionary deployment of 
conventional forces by Iran since the Iran-Iraq War. Iran also 
leads a coalition of roughly 20,000 foreign fighters in the 
country, including 6,000 to 8,000 from Lebanese Hezbollah, 
4,000 to 5,000 from Iraqi Shi'a militias, and 2,000 to 4,000 
Afghan Shi'a fighters. This coalition provides a 
disproportionate amount of the combat-capable infantry used in 
major pro-regime operations.
    While the relationship between Russia and Syria dates back 
to the 1950s, Russia's chief interest today is in maintaining 
access to the Syrian port of Tartus, which Moscow has utilized 
as a logistical hub supporting Russian naval operations in the 
Mediterranean, and playing a more active role in the region. 
Starting in the summer of 2015, Russia began an extensive 
military buildup of personnel, combat aircraft, and military 
equipment inside of Syria. This assistance came at a critical 
juncture in the conflict and has turned the tide of war in 
favor of Assad. With Russian assistance, Assad has been able to 
retake key areas, including the former opposition strongholds 
of Aleppo and Homs.
    Russian air support has played the largest role in 
reversing Assad's fortunes. While claiming to fight ISIS, 
Russia has in fact conducted the vast majority of air strikes 
against regime opponents and in the process, killed thousands 
of Syrian civilians. Russia's introduction of advanced air 
defense systems into Syria constrains the ability of other 
aircraft to operate freely in the area. Russia has killed 
thousands of Syrian civilians. Russia also continues to provide 
diplomatic protection for Syria by blocking multiple measures 
at the U.N. Security Council that would increase pressure on 
the Assad regime.
    It is unclear if Russia is unable or simply unwilling to 
control the Assad regime and force it to accept the kinds of 
concessions necessary to broker a political solution. Without 
additional mechanisms to reassert US authority, decisions 
regarding the future of Syria--including regional spheres of 
influence and dominance--will be decided without an eye toward 
U.S. interests. The relationship between Russia and Iran 
continues to deepen, and the committee remains very concerned 
about how this partnership in the future could negatively 
impact U.S. national security in the future.

Failed Diplomacy to Date

    The ``Geneva process,'' the U.N.-sponsored negotiations 
that took place in Geneva in 2012 and 2014, has not produced 
meaningful results. A few localized ceasefires, brokered 
through the U.N., have not lasted.
    Currently, Russia, Iran, and Turkey are the dominant state-
level actors in negotiations and they are focused on a series 
of Russian-sponsored talks in Astana, Kazakhtan. The ``Astana 
process'' meetings have been attended by some elements of the 
secular, Syrian military opposition as well as the Assad regime 
and representatives of Russia, Iran, and Turkey. During talks 
in Astana in early 2017, Russia proposed a new Syrian 
constitution. The Syrian opposition rejected the draft, saying 
that only Syrians should and can decide the future of Syria. 
The latest round of talks in Astana, held in early May 2017, 
led to the announcement of ``de-escalation'' zones in Syria--in 
which Assad and his backers would agree to reduce military 
operations with the exception of those ``targeting 
terrorists.'' The guarantors of peace in these zones would 
include the Syrian army and likely, associated forces. Such 
guarantors are unlikely to be able to create or keep the peace 
as they foment sectarian-based violence.

Legislative Response

    Syria has long been the subject of Congressional interest. 
In 2003 Congress passed the Syria Accountability and Lebanese 
Sovereignty Restoration Act (SALSRA) (P.L. 108-175) and 
expanded nonproliferation sanctions against the regime by 
adding Syria to the law now known as the Iran, North Korea, 
Syria Nonproliferation Act through the Iran Nonproliferation 
Amendments Act of 2005 (P.L.109-112). Congress continued to 
build economic pressure with the Iran Threat Reduction and 
Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-158). H.R. 1677 builds 
on those efforts by expanding sanctions to include those who 
provide the goods and materials used by the Assad war machine 
to target civilians.
    Legislation substantially similar to this bill passed the 
House unanimously during the 114th Congress, but the Senate 
failed to act before Congress adjourned.

                       Summary of the Legislation

    The goal of this legislation is to create leverage for the 
U.S. in future negotiations. The committee believes that the 
sanctions called for in this bill could help compel the parties 
to engage in meaningful negotiations, while the suspension of 
sanctions can be held out as a mechanism to reward positive 
movement towards resolving the crisis.
    This legislation seeks to disrupt the supply of goods and 
materials used by the Assad war machine to target civilians. It 
imposes sanctions on those who (1) provide significant 
financial, material, or technological support to Syria, 
including the Syrian intelligence services, security services, 
and armed forces; (2) support Syria's domestic petroleum 
industry--through which the regime cooperates with ISIS; (3) 
sell or provide aircraft, spare parts, or related goods, 
services, or technologies which are used in whole or in part 
for military operations; or (4) facilitate financing or funding 
for any of these activities.
    By targeting these key sectors, this legislation seeks to 
raise the risk of doing business with the Assad war machine and 
to cut off financial benefits to those who profit off the death 
and suffering of the Syrian people. The majority of those 
engaged in such activities are either war profiteers, members 
of the Assad regime or its cronies, or acting at the behest of 
one of Assad's state backers--such as Iran.
    The bill would authorize the imposition of certain 
sanctions by the President and amend current law to require the 
President to impose other sanctions on individuals he 
designates as eligible. The bill would require the President to 
submit an updated report on individuals alleged to be 
responsible for ``serious human rights abuses'' in Syria, which 
the bill would amend current law to define. The bill includes a 
national security waiver and negotiation or transition 
scenario-specific waiver authorities for the President. Its 
provisions would expire after five years.
    The first objective of this legislation is to decrease the 
violence against civilians by raising the cost of doing 
business with foreign entities engaged in aiding the Government 
of Syria. External support to the Assad regime has fueled this 
conflict and served as a lifeline for the Assad regime. Thus, 
this legislation imposes third-party sanctions on persons that 
are supporting the Government of Syria's military supply 
chain--from banking and fuel to defense articles, services and 
information--in order to make it costlier to acquire military 
resources.
    Second, this legislation is a means by which to target 
malignant efforts to create a terrorist safe haven in Syria 
through which armed groups, such as Lebanese Hezbollah, are 
able to move arms, money, and fighters to launch attacks 
against and destabilize U.S. allies in the region. The 
committee remains concerned about the increasing strength of 
Lebanese Hezbollah and the dangerous implications for the 
region when battle-hardened Hezbollah fighters return to 
Southern Lebanon.
    This legislation does not violate the United States' 
commitments under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action 
(JCPOA) and does not interfere with the U.S.'s ability to 
adhere to that agreement. Indeed, the previous Administration 
repeatedly asserted that the Iran agreement would not impact 
the ability of the United States to counter Iran's 
destabilizing activities. This legislation includes flexibility 
for the President to ensure that sanctions against individuals 
or entities that provide support for the Syrian regime are in 
the national security interest of the United States.

                           Hearings/Briefings

    During the present Congress, the committee has continued 
its active oversight regarding U.S. policy toward Syria, 
including one Full Committee hearing related to the content of 
H.R. 1677:
    April 27, 2017, Full Committee hearing on ``Syria After the 
Missile Strike: Policy Options'' (Michael Singh, Lane-Swig 
Senior Fellow and Managing Director, The Washington Institute 
for Near East Policy; Charles Lister, Senior Fellow, Middle 
East Institute; Dafna H. Rand, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, 
National Defense University).
    The Terrorism, Non-Proliferation, and Trade Subcommittee 
also held a hearing relating to the concerns addressed in H.R. 
1677:
    February 14, 2017, Subcommittee hearing on ``Defeating 
Terrorism in Syria: A New Way Forward'' (Mr. Hassan Hassan, 
Senior Fellow, The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy; The 
Honorable Frederic C. Hof, Director, Rafik Hariri Center for 
the Middle East, Atlantic Council; Ms. Melissa Dalton, Senior 
Fellow, Center for Strategic and International Studies).

                        Committee Consideration

    On May 3, 2017, the Committee on Foreign Affairs marked up 
H.R. 1677 in open session, pursuant to notice. An amendment in 
the nature of a substitute (offered by Ranking Member Engel) 
and one amendment to that amendment in the nature of a 
substitute (offered by Mr. Mast) were considered en bloc with 
the underlying bill, and were agreed to by voice vote.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of rules of 
the House of Representatives, the committee reports that 
findings and recommendations of the committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of House Rule X, are 
incorporated in the descriptive portions of this report, 
particularly in the ``Purpose of Legislation,'' ``Background 
and Need for Legislation,'' and ``Section-by-Section Analysis'' 
sections.

      New Budget Authority, Tax Expenditures, and Federal Mandates

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of House Rule XIII and 
the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (P.L. 104-4), the committee 
adopts as its own the estimate of new budget authority, 
entitlement authority, tax expenditure or revenues, and Federal 
mandates contained in the cost estimate prepared by the 
Director of the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate


                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                       Washington, DC, May 9, 2017.

Hon. Edward R. Royce, Chairman,
Committee on Foreign Affairs,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1677, the Caesar 
Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2017.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Sunita 
D'Monte, who can be reached at 226-2840.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall.
Enclosure

cc:
        Honorable Eliot L. Engel
        Ranking Member

H.R. 1677--Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2017.

    As ordered reported by the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs on May 3, 2017

    H.R. 1677 would require the Departments of State and the 
Treasury to impose sanctions on people and entities responsible 
for the security and humanitarian crisis in Syria or persons 
who engage in certain transactions with the government of 
Syria; that requirement would expire on December 31, 2021. The 
bill also would authorize the Department of State to assist 
entities that are investigating war crimes or crimes against 
humanity in Syria. Finally, the legislation would require 
briefings and reports to the Congress on the implementation of 
the act, ongoing assistance programs for the Syrian people, and 
the feasibility of various options to protect civilians in 
Syria.
    Based on an analysis of information from the Department of 
State, CBO expects the department would require three 
additional staff at an annual cost of about $200,000 per person 
to implement the act's sanctions and reporting provisions. CBO 
further estimates that other administrative costs to the 
Department of the Treasury would total less than $500,000 over 
the next five years. The Department of State is currently 
providing assistance to entities that are committed to 
investigating and preserving evidence of human right violations 
in Syria. While it is possible that the department would 
increase such assistance under the bill, CBO has no basis for 
estimating such additional amounts. In total, and incorporating 
the effects of inflation, CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 
1677 would cost $3 million over the 2018-2022 period; such 
spending would be subject to the availability of appropriated 
funds.
    Enacting H.R. 1677 would increase the number of people who 
would be denied visas by the Secretary of State and would be 
subject to civil or criminal penalties. Most visa fees are 
retained by the Department of State and spent without further 
appropriation, but some fees are deposited in the Treasury as 
revenues. Penalties also are recorded as revenues and a portion 
of those penalties can be spent without further appropriation. 
Pay-as-you-go procedures apply to this legislation because 
enacting it would affect direct spending and revenues. However, 
CBO estimates that implementing those sanction provisions would 
affect very few additional people and thus have insignificant 
effects on both revenues and direct spending.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 1677 would not increase 
net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    H.R. 1677 contains no intergovernmental mandates as defined 
in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would not affect 
the budgets of state, local, or tribal governments.
    The bill would expand sanctions on individuals and entities 
that provide support to the Syrian government. The expansion of 
sanctions would impose private-sector mandates, as defined in 
UMRA, on U.S. entities engaging in transactions that would be 
prohibited by the bill. In addition, individuals in the United 
States who engage in activities prohibited by the bill would 
have their visas revoked. The cost of the mandates would be any 
forgone income directly related to the newly prohibited 
actions. Because of the broad scope of existing U.S. sanctions 
involving Syria, CBO expects the number of entities and 
individuals in the United States affected by the legislation 
would be small. Further, CBO expects that the loss of income 
from the restrictions in the bill would be relatively low. 
Therefore, CBO estimates that the aggregate cost of the 
mandates would fall below the annual threshold established in 
UMRA for private-sector mandates ($156 million in 2017, 
adjusted annually for inflation).
    The CBO staff contacts for this estimate are Sunita D'Monte 
(for federal costs) and Logan Smith (for private-sector 
mandates). The estimate was approved by H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                          Directed Rule Making

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of House Rule XIII, as modified by 
section 3(i) of H. Res. 5 during the 115th Congress, the 
committee notes that H.R. 1677 contains no directed rule-making 
provisions.

                  Non-Duplication of Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(5) of House Rule XIII, the 
committee states that no provision of this bill establishes or 
reauthorizes a program of the Federal Government known to be 
duplicative of another Federal program, a program that was 
included in any report from the Government Accountability 
Office to Congress pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-
139, or a program related to a program identified in the most 
recent Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    The Act is intended to deprive the Assad regime of the 
resources necessary to slaughter Syrian civilians and to create 
the necessary pressures to force the Assad regime to engage in 
serious and substantive negotiations. Performance goals 
associated with these objectives include, but are not limited 
to, the following:

          A verifiable decrease in violence against 
        Syrian civilians;
          A verifiable decrease in deliberate targeting 
        of medical facilities and personnel by the Assad 
        regime, its backers, and associated forces; and
          Serious and sustained engagement by the Assad 
        regime in face-to-face, internationally recognized 
        negotiations with the Syrian High Negotiations 
        Committee, or its internationally-recognized successor, 
        and appropriate international parties to resolve the 
        violence in Syria.

                    Congressional Accountability Act

    H.R. 1677 does not apply to terms and conditions of 
employment or to access to public services or accommodations 
within the legislative branch.

                        New Advisory Committees

    H.R. 1677 does not establish or authorize any new advisory 
committees.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 1677 contains no congressional earmarks, limited tax 
benefits, or limited tariff benefits as described in clauses 
9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of House Rule XXI.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short Title and Table of Contents.

    States the short title of this Act is the ``Caesar Syria 
Civilian Protection Act of 2017'' and lists the table of 
contents for this Act.

Section 2. Sense of Congress.

    Highlights Bashar al-Assad's responsibility for the deaths 
of more than 480,000 civilians, the destruction of more than 
fifty percent of Syria's critical infrastructure, and the 
forced the displacement of more than 14,000,000 people, 
precipitating a humanitarian crisis. Of particular note are 
Assad's use of barrel bombs, chemical weapons, mass starvation 
campaigns, industrial-scale torture and execution of political 
dissidents, sniper attacks on pregnant women, and the 
deliberate targeting of medical facilities, schools, 
residential areas, and community gathering places, including 
markets.

Section 3. Statement of Policy.

    States that it is the policy of the United States that all 
diplomatic and coercive economic means should be used to compel 
the Assad regime to immediately halt the killing of Syrian 
civilians and actively work towards a transition to a 
democratic government in Syria.

 TITLE I--ADDITIONAL ACTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY 
                         WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA

Section 101. Sanctions with respect to foreign persons that engage in 
        certain transactions.

    Sanctions those who facilitate the Assad regime's 
acquisition of non-military goods, services or technologies 
that bolster the regime's military capabilities. Expands 
existing sanctions to cover third parties that provide 
petroleum products or technology to the Syrian regime that 
directly facilitates the regime's domestic oil production. 
Sanctions those who operate in areas controlled by the 
Government of Syria and who facilitate the Assad regime's 
acquisition of aircraft or spare parts, or goods, services or 
technologies associated with the operation of aircrafts 
utilized in whole or in part for military operations. Also 
sanctions persons or entities operating in the shipping, 
transportation, or telecommunications sectors within areas 
controlled by the Government of Syria.

Section 102. Prohibitions with respect to the transfer of arms and 
        related materials to Syria.

    This provision sanctions any foreign person that has 
knowingly exported, transferred, or otherwise provided to Syria 
financial, material, or technological support that contributes 
materially to the ability of the Government of Syria to:

          Acquire or develop chemical, biological, or 
        nuclear weapons or related technologies;
          Acquire or develop ballistic or cruise 
        missile capabilities;
          Acquire or develop destabilizing numbers and 
        types of advanced conventional weapons;
          Or any munitions that could be employed 
        against the people of Syria.

Section 103. Rule of construction.

    This provision states that the sanctions in this Act are 
additive, and do not limit the use of existing sanctions.

Section 104. Definitions.

 TITLE II--AMENDMENTS TO SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2012

Section 201. Imposition of sanctions with respect to certain persons 
        who are responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses 
        committed against citizens of Syria or their family members.

    Updates the Syria-related sanctions contained in the Iran 
Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, to deny 
U.S. visa issuance and transactions in property to persons 
responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses. States 
that the deliberate targeting of civilian infrastructure is a 
human rights violation.

Section 202. Imposition of sanctions with respect to the transfer of 
        goods or technologies to Syria that are likely to be used to 
        commit human rights abuses.

    This provision expands the prohibition against support for 
the Assad regime, to include the provision of munitions and any 
other item that the President determines may contribute to the 
Syrian regime's ability to commit gross human rights 
violations.

Section 203. Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons who hinder 
        humanitarian access.

    This provision amends the Syrian Human Rights 
Accountability Act of 2012 by including sanctions on 
individuals who attempt to deliberately divert, hinder, or 
block access for humanitarian purposes for the U.N., national 
and international NGOs and other actors engaged in humanitarian 
relief activities. Also included are those who deliberately 
target humanitarian actors with violence.

Section 204. Updated list of certain persons who are responsible for 
        human rights violations in Syria.

    Requires that the President submit an updated report of 
persons who are responsible for violations of human rights in 
Syria, as required under section 702 of the Syria Human Rights 
Accountability Act of 2012.

TITLE III--REPORTS AND WAIVER FOR HUMANITARIAN RELATED ACTIVITIES WITH 
                            RESPECT TO SYRIA

Section 301. Briefing on monitoring and evaluation of ongoing 
        assistance programs in Syria and to the Syrian people.

    Requires a briefing no more than 180 days after the 
enactment of the Act on the monitoring and evaluation of 
ongoing assistance programs to the Syrian people.

Section 302. Assessment of potential effectiveness of methods to 
        enhance the protection of civilians.

    Requires a report within 90 days from the President that 
assesses the potential effectiveness and risks and operational 
requirements of a no-fly or safe zone in Syria as well as other 
non-military means of providing additional civilian 
protections.

Section 303. Assistance to support entities taking actions relating to 
        gathering evidence for investigations into war crimes and 
        crimes against humanity in Syria since March 2011.

    Authorizes the Secretary of State to provide assistance to 
groups that are conducting criminal investigations, building 
investigative capacity, collecting evidence and supporting 
prosecutions against those who have committed war crimes or 
crimes against humanity in Syria since March 2011. Requires a 
briefing from the Secretary of State detailing the exact nature 
of any such assistance.

        TITLE IV--SUSPENSION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO SYRIA

Section 401. Suspension of sanctions with respect to Syria.

    This provision allows for the suspension of sanctions under 
this Act (and the renewal of this suspension at 120-day 
intervals) if the Government of Syria has taken certain actions 
as follows:

          The Government of Syria and associated forces 
        are no longer utilizing the air space over Syria to 
        target civilian populations through the use of 
        incendiary devices, including barrel bombs, chemical 
        weapons, and conventional arms, including air-delivered 
        missiles and explosives;
          Areas besieged by the Assad regime and 
        associated forces, including Hezbollah and irregular 
        Iranian forces, are no longer cut off from 
        international aid and have regular access to 
        humanitarian assistance, freedom of travel, and medical 
        care;
          The Government of Syria has released all 
        political prisoners forcibly held within its prison 
        system and allowed full access to those facilities for 
        investigations by appropriate international human 
        rights organizations;
          The forces of the Government of Syria and 
        associated forces, including Hezbollah, irregular 
        Iranian forces, and Russian Government air assets, are 
        no longer engaged in deliberate targeting of medical 
        facilities, schools, residential areas, and community 
        gathering places in violation of international norms; 
        and
          The Government of Syria has suspended its 
        support for foreign terrorist organizations.

    If the Government of Syria does not qualify for the above 
suspension of sanctions, but is engaged in internationally 
recognized negotiations to resolve violence in Syria, which 
negotiations have concluded in an agreement or are likely to 
conclude in an agreement, the President may suspend sanctions 
under this Act for an initial 120 days if: (1) the Government 
of Syria, the Syrian High Negotiations Committee, and 
appropriate international parties are participating in direct, 
face-to-face peace negotiations, and (2) there has been a 
substantial reduction in violence against civilians.
    This suspension for participation in negotiations may be 
renewed in 120 day increments if: (1) these initial 
requirements continue to be me, (2) the Government of Syria and 
associated forces have ceased all attacks against Syrian 
civilians, and (3) the Government of Syria has publically 
committed to negotiations for a transitional government.
    Any break in negotiations lasting longer than 90 days 
requires a re-imposition of sanctions and no further 
suspensions are allowed.
    Congress urges the Administration to consider the following 
when evaluating progress towards a post-Assad transitional 
government:

          The removal of former senior Syrian 
        Government officials who are complicit in the 
        conception, implementation, or cover up of war crimes, 
        crimes against humanity, or human rights abuses;
          The organization of free and fair elections 
        for a new government;
          Progress toward establishing an independent 
        judiciary;
          Respect for and compliance with 
        internationally-recognized human rights and basic 
        freedoms; and
          Fulfillment of commitments under the Chemical 
        Weapons Convention and the Treaty on the Non-
        Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and tangible progress 
        toward becoming a signatory to Convention on the 
        Prohibition of the Development, Production and 
        Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin 
        Weapons and on their Destruction, entered into force 
        March 26, 1975, and adherence to the Missile Technology 
        Control Regime;
          The end of all support for terrorism;
          The cessation of the development and 
        deployment of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic 
        missiles; and
          The removal from authority of those 
        responsible for torture, extrajudicial killings, or 
        execution of civilians during the conflict, including 
        the use of chemical weapons.

Section 402. Waivers and exemptions.

    Includes a case-by-case waiver for humanitarian and 
democracy building purposes, in light of the large number of 
aid organizations operating in areas controlled by the 
Government of Syria. Also includes a general national security 
waiver, the use of which requires written notification to the 
appropriate congressional committees.

Section 501. Regulatory Authority.

    This provision requires that the Administration promulgate 
the regulations necessary to implement the bill 180 days after 
the date of enactment.

Section 502. Cost Limitation.

    No additional funds are authorized to carry out the 
requirements of this Act.

Section 503. Authority to consolidate reports.

    The reports required by this Act can be submitted as a 
single entity if they are subject the same deadline for 
submission,

Section 504. Sunset.

    This provision sunsets the legislation after five years.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italics, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

             SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2012


SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Iran 
Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act 
is as follows:

     * * * * * * *

    TITLE VII--SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN SYRIA

     * * * * * * *
Sec. 705. Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons who hinder 
          humanitarian access.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE VII--SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN SYRIA

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 702. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN PERSONS WHO 
                    ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR OR COMPLICIT IN HUMAN RIGHTS 
                    ABUSES COMMITTED AGAINST CITIZENS OF SYRIA OR THEIR 
                    FAMILY MEMBERS.

    (a) In General.--The President shall impose sanctions 
described in subsection (c) with respect to each person on the 
list required by subsection (b).
    (b) List of Persons Who Are Responsible for or Complicit in 
Certain Human Rights Abuses.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 120 days after the 
        date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall 
        submit to the appropriate congressional committees a 
        list of persons who are officials of the Government of 
        Syria or persons acting on behalf of that Government 
        that the President determines, based on credible 
        evidence, are responsible for or complicit in, or 
        responsible for ordering, controlling, or otherwise 
        directing, the commission of serious human rights 
        abuses against citizens of Syria or their family 
        members, regardless of whether such abuses occurred in 
        Syria.
            (2) Updates of list.--The President shall submit to 
        the appropriate congressional committees an updated 
        list under paragraph (1)--
                    (A) not later than 300 days after the date 
                of the enactment of this Act and every 180 days 
                thereafter; and
                    (B) as new information becomes available.
            (3) Form of report; public availability.--
                    (A) Form.--The list required by paragraph 
                (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but 
                may contain a classified annex.
                    (B) Public availability.--The unclassified 
                portion of the list required by paragraph (1) 
                shall be made available to the public and 
                posted on the websites of the Department of the 
                Treasury and the Department of State.
            (4) Consideration of data from other countries and 
        nongovernmental organizations.--In preparing the list 
        required by paragraph (1), the President shall consider 
        credible data already obtained by other countries and 
        nongovernmental organizations, including organizations 
        in Syria, that monitor the human rights abuses of the 
        Government of Syria.
    [(c) Sanctions Described.--The sanctions described in this 
subsection are sanctions pursuant to the International 
Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), 
including blocking of property and restrictions or prohibitions 
on financial transactions and the exportation of property, 
subject to such regulations as the President may prescribe.]
    (c) Sanctions Described.--
            (1) In general.--The President shall exercise all 
        powers granted by the International Emergency Economic 
        Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to the extent 
        necessary to freeze and prohibit all transactions in 
        all property and interests in property of a person on 
        the list required by subsection (b) if such property 
        and interests in property are in the United States, 
        come within the United States, or are or come within 
        the possession or control of a United States person.
            (2) Aliens ineligible for visas, admission, or 
        parole.--
                    (A) Visas, admission, or parole.--An alien 
                who the Secretary of State or the Secretary of 
                Homeland Security (or a designee of one of such 
                Secretaries) knows, or has reason to believe, 
                meets any of the criteria described in 
                subsection (b) is--
                            (i) inadmissible to the United 
                        States;
                            (ii) ineligible to receive a visa 
                        or other documentation to enter the 
                        United States; and
                            (iii) otherwise ineligible to be 
                        admitted or paroled into the United 
                        States or to receive any other benefit 
                        under the Immigration and Nationality 
                        Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).
                    (B) Current visas revoked.--
                            (i) In general.--The issuing 
                        consular officer, the Secretary of 
                        State, or the Secretary of Homeland 
                        Security (or a designee of one of such 
                        Secretaries) shall revoke any visa or 
                        other entry documentation issued to an 
                        alien who meets any of the criteria 
                        described in subsection (b) regardless 
                        of when issued.
                            (ii) Effect of revocation.--A 
                        revocation under clause (i)--
                                    (I) shall take effect 
                                immediately; and
                                    (II) shall automatically 
                                cancel any other valid visa or 
                                entry documentation that is in 
                                the alien's possession.
            (3) Penalties.--A person that violates, attempts to 
        violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of 
        this section or any regulation, license, or order 
        issued to carry out this section shall be subject to 
        the penalties set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of 
        section 206 of the International Emergency Economic 
        Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) to the same extent as a 
        person that commits an unlawful act described in 
        subsection (a) of that section.
            (4) Regulatory authority.--The President shall, not 
        later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of 
        this section, promulgate regulations as necessary for 
        the implementation of this section.
            (5) Exception to comply with united nations 
        headquarters agreement.--Sanctions under paragraph (2) 
        shall not apply to an alien if admitting the alien into 
        the United States is necessary to permit the United 
        States to comply with the Agreement regarding the 
        Headquarters of the United Nations, signed at Lake 
        Success June 26, 1947, and entered into force November 
        21, 1947, between the United Nations and the United 
        States, or other applicable international obligations.
            (6) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this section 
        shall be construed to limit the authority of the 
        President pursuant to the International Emergency 
        Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), relevant 
        Executive orders, regulations, or other provisions of 
        law.
    (d) Serious Human Rights Abuses Described.--In subsection 
(b), the term ``serious human rights abuses'' includes--
            (1) the deliberate targeting of civilian 
        infrastructure to include schools, hospitals, markets, 
        and other infrastructure that is essential to human 
        life, such as power and water systems; and
            (2) the deliberate diversion, hindering, or 
        blocking of access for humanitarian purposes, including 
        access across conflict lines and borders.

SEC. 703. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE TRANSFER OF GOODS 
                    OR TECHNOLOGIES TO SYRIA THAT ARE LIKELY TO BE USED 
                    TO COMMIT HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES.

    (a) In General.--The President shall impose sanctions 
described in section 702(c) with respect to--
            (1) each person on the list required by subsection 
        (b); and
            (2) any person that--
                    (A) is a successor entity to a person on 
                the list;
                    (B) owns or controls a person on the list, 
                if the person that owns or controls the person 
                on the list had actual knowledge or should have 
                known that the person on the list engaged in 
                the activity described in subsection (b)(2) for 
                which the person was included in the list; or
                    (C) is owned or controlled by, or under 
                common ownership or control with, the person on 
                the list, if the person owned or controlled by, 
                or under common ownership or control with (as 
                the case may be), the person on the list 
                knowingly engaged in the activity described in 
                subsection (b)(2) for which the person was 
                included in the list.
    (b) List.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 120 days after the 
        date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall 
        submit to the appropriate congressional committees a 
        list of persons that the President determines have 
        knowingly engaged in an activity described in paragraph 
        (2) on or after such date of enactment.
            (2) Activity described.--
                    (A) In general.--A person engages in an 
                activity described in this paragraph if the 
                person--
                            (i) transfers, or facilitates the 
                        transfer of, goods or technologies 
                        described in subparagraph (C) to Syria; 
                        or
                            (ii) provides services with respect 
                        to goods or technologies described in 
                        subparagraph (C) after such goods or 
                        technologies are transferred to Syria.
                    (B) Applicability to contracts and other 
                agreements.--A person engages in an activity 
                described in subparagraph (A) without regard to 
                whether the activity is carried out pursuant to 
                a contract or other agreement entered into 
                before, on, or after the date of the enactment 
                of this Act.
                    (C) Goods or technologies described.--Goods 
                or technologies described in this subparagraph 
                are goods or technologies that the President 
                determines are likely to be used by the 
                Government of Syria or any of its agencies or 
                instrumentalities to commit human rights abuses 
                against the people of Syria, including--
                            (i) firearms or ammunition (as 
                        those terms are defined in section 921 
                        of title 18, United States Code), 
                        rubber bullets, police batons, pepper 
                        or chemical sprays, stun grenades, 
                        electroshock weapons, tear gas, water 
                        cannons, or surveillance technology; 
                        [or]
                            (ii) sensitive technology[.];
                            (iii) any article--
                                    (I) designated by the 
                                President for purposes of the 
                                United States Munitions List 
                                under section 38(a)(1) of the 
                                Arms Export Control Act (22 
                                U.S.C. 2778(a)(1)); and
                                    (II) with respect to which 
                                the President determines is 
                                significant for purposes of the 
                                imposition of sanctions under 
                                subsection (a); or
                            (iv) other goods or technologies 
                        that the President determines may be 
                        used by the Government of Syria to 
                        commit human rights abuses against the 
                        people of Syria.
                    (D) Sensitive technology defined.--
                            (i) In general.--For purposes of 
                        subparagraph (C), the term ``sensitive 
                        technology'' means hardware, software, 
                        telecommunications equipment, or any 
                        other technology, that the President 
                        determines is to be used specifically--
                                    (I) to restrict the free 
                                flow of unbiased information in 
                                Syria; or
                                    (II) to disrupt, monitor, 
                                or otherwise restrict speech of 
                                the people of Syria.
                            (ii) Exception.--The term 
                        ``sensitive technology'' does not 
                        include information or informational 
                        materials the exportation of which the 
                        President does not have the authority 
                        to regulate or prohibit pursuant to 
                        section 203(b)(3) of the International 
                        Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 
                        U.S.C. 1702(b)(3)).
            (3) Special rule to allow for termination of 
        sanctionable activity.--The President shall not be 
        required to include a person on the list required by 
        paragraph (1) if the President certifies in writing to 
        the appropriate congressional committees that--
                    (A) the person is no longer engaging in, or 
                has taken significant verifiable steps toward 
                stopping, the activity described in paragraph 
                (2) for which the President would otherwise 
                have included the person on the list; and
                    (B) the President has received reliable 
                assurances that the person will not knowingly 
                engage in any activity described in paragraph 
                (2) in the future.
            (4) Updates of list.--The President shall submit to 
        the appropriate congressional committees an updated 
        list under paragraph (1)--
                    (A) not later than 300 days after the date 
                of the enactment of this Act and every 180 days 
                thereafter; and
                    (B) as new information becomes available.
            (5) Form of report; public availability.--
                    (A) Form.--The list required by paragraph 
                (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but 
                may contain a classified annex.
                    (B) Public availability.--The unclassified 
                portion of the list required by paragraph (1) 
                shall be made available to the public and 
                posted on the websites of the Department of the 
                Treasury and the Department of State.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 705. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PERSONS WHO HINDER 
                    HUMANITARIAN ACCESS.

    (a) In General.--The President shall impose sanctions 
described in section 702(c) with respect to each person on the 
list required by subsection (b).
    (b) List of Persons Who Hinder Humanitarian Access.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 120 days after the 
        date of the enactment of the Caesar Syria Civilian 
        Protection Act of 2017, the President shall submit to 
        the appropriate congressional committees a list of 
        persons that the President determines have engaged in 
        deliberate diversion, hindering, or blocking of access 
        for humanitarian purposes for the United Nations, its 
        specialized agencies and implementing partners, 
        national and international nongovernmental 
        organizations, and all other actors engaged in 
        humanitarian relief activities in Syria, including 
        through the deliberate targeting of such humanitarian 
        actors and activities in Syria and across conflict 
        lines and borders.
            (2) Updates of list.--The President shall submit to 
        the appropriate congressional committees an updated 
        list under paragraph (1)--
                    (A) not later than 300 days after the date 
                of the enactment of the Caesar Syria Civilian 
                Protection Act of 2017 and every 180 days 
                thereafter; and
                    (B) as new information becomes available.
            (3) Form.--The list required by paragraph (1) shall 
        be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a 
        classified annex.

SEC. [705.]  706. WAIVER.

    The President may waive the requirement to include a person 
on a list required by section 702, 703, [or 704] 704, or 705 or 
to impose sanctions pursuant to any such section if the 
President--
            (1) determines that such a waiver is in the 
        national security interests of the United States; and
            (2) submits to the appropriate congressional 
        committees a report on the reasons for that 
        determination.

SEC. [706.]  707. TERMINATION.

    (a) In General.--The provisions of this title and any 
sanctions imposed pursuant to this title shall terminate on the 
date on which the President submits to the appropriate 
congressional committees--
            (1) the certification described in subsection (b); 
        and
            (2) a certification that--
                    (A) the Government of Syria is 
                democratically elected and representative of 
                the people of Syria; or
                    (B) a legitimate transitional government of 
                Syria is in place.
    (b) Certification Described.--A certification described in 
this subsection is a certification by the President that the 
Government of Syria--
            (1) has unconditionally released all political 
        prisoners;
            (2) has ceased its practices of violence, unlawful 
        detention, torture, and abuse of citizens of Syria 
        engaged in peaceful political activity;
            (3) has ceased its practice of procuring sensitive 
        technology designed to restrict the free flow of 
        unbiased information in Syria, or to disrupt, monitor, 
        or otherwise restrict the right of citizens of Syria to 
        freedom of expression;
            (4) has ceased providing support for foreign 
        terrorist organizations and no longer allows such 
        organizations, including Hamas, Hezbollah, and 
        Palestinian Islamic Jihad, to maintain facilities in 
        territory under the control of the Government of Syria; 
        and
            (5) has ceased the development and deployment of 
        medium- and long-range surface-to-surface ballistic 
        missiles;
            (6) is not pursuing or engaged in the research, 
        development, acquisition, production, transfer, or 
        deployment of biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons, 
        and has provided credible assurances that it will not 
        engage in such activities in the future; and
            (7) has agreed to allow the United Nations and 
        other international observers to verify that the 
        Government of Syria is not engaging in such activities 
        and to assess the credibility of the assurances 
        provided by that Government.
    (c) Suspension of Sanctions After Election of Democratic 
Government.--If the President submits to the appropriate 
congressional committees the certification described in 
subsection (a)(2), the President may suspend the provisions of 
this title and any sanctions imposed under this title for not 
more than 180 days to allow time for a certification described 
in subsection (b) to be submitted.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


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