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115th Congress    }                                   {         Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                   {         115-30

======================================================================



 
         PACIFIC NORTHWEST EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS ACT OF 2017

                                _______
                                

 March 9, 2017.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Shuster, from the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 654]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 654) to direct the Administrator of 
the Federal Emergency Management Agency to carry out a plan for 
the purchase and installation of an earthquake early warning 
system for the Cascadia Subduction Zone, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do 
pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Purpose of Legislation...........................................     4
Background and Need for Legislation..............................     4
Hearings.........................................................     7
Legislative History and Consideration............................     8
Committee Votes..................................................     8
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................     8
New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures........................     8
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................     8
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................     9
Advisory of Earmarks.............................................    10
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    10
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    10
Federal Mandate Statement........................................    10
Preemption Clarification.........................................    10
Advisory Committee Statement.....................................    10
Applicability of Legislative Branch..............................    10
Section-by-Section Analysis of Legislation.......................    11
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............    11
    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; DEFINITION.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Pacific Northwest 
Earthquake Preparedness Act of 2017''.
  (b) Cascadia Subduction Zone Defined.--In this Act, the term 
``Cascadia Subduction Zone'' means the landward-dipping fault that is 
approximately 684 miles long, separates the Juan de Fuca and North 
America plates, and stretches along a portion of the western coast of 
the United States beginning off Cape Mendocino, California, along the 
State of Oregon, the State of Washington, to Northern Vancouver Island, 
British Columbia.

SEC. 2. EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR CASCADIA SUBDUCTION ZONE.

  (a) Plan for Purchase and Installation.--
          (1) Development and funding.--The Administrator of the 
        Federal Emergency Management Agency shall--
                  (A) develop a plan for the purchase and installation 
                of an earthquake early warning system for the Cascadia 
                Subduction Zone; and
                  (B) identify the funds necessary for implementation 
                of the plan.
          (2) Submission to congress.--Not later than 90 days after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit 
        to the appropriate committees of Congress a copy of the plan.
  (b) Report to Congress.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
appropriate committees of Congress a report that summarizes the actions 
taken to implement the plan.
  (c) Definitions.--In this section, the following definitions apply:
          (1) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term 
        ``appropriate committees of Congress'' means the Committee on 
        Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and 
        Governmental Affairs of the Senate.
          (2) Earthquake early warning system.--The term ``earthquake 
        early warning system'' includes--
                  (A) improvements to regional and geodetic networks 
                that support building a capability for an earthquake 
                early warning system; and
                  (B) seismometers, Global Positioning System 
                receivers, and associated infrastructure.

SEC. 3. EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI TASK FORCE.

  (a) In General.--The President shall establish an Earthquake and 
Tsunami Task Force for the purpose of developing a comprehensive 
strategy and recommendations on how the Nation should prepare and plan 
for, mitigate against, respond to, recover from, and more successfully 
adapt to a covered event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
  (b) Task Force.--
          (1) Membership.--The membership of the Task Force shall 
        include a cross section of subject matter experts representing 
        the following:
                  (A) Relevant Federal agencies.
                  (B) The States of Oregon, Washington, and California.
                  (C) Indian tribes, local governments, and private 
                sector representatives that may be impacted by a 
                covered event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
                  (D) Universities, academia, and research institutions 
                with expertise in topics relevant to the work of the 
                Task Force.
          (2) Chairperson.--The Administrator (or the Administrator's 
        designee) shall serve as the chairperson of the Task Force.
          (3) Detailed employees.--Members of the Task Force may detail 
        employees to assist the Administrator (or the Administrator's 
        designee) in fulfilling the responsibilities of the Task Force.
  (c) Comprehensive Strategy.--
          (1) Strategy.--The comprehensive strategy to be developed 
        under subsection (a) shall include the following:
                  (A) A description of how Federal agencies will 
                coordinate to develop the ability to prepare and plan 
                for, mitigate against, respond to, recover from, and 
                more successfully adapt to the impacts of a covered 
                event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
                  (B) A strategy to ensure collaboration between the 
                Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, 
                the Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers, and other 
                Federal agencies, as appropriate, for purposes of--
                          (i) completing a needs assessment of Federal 
                        facilities in need of hardening for a covered 
                        event; and
                          (ii) developing a strategic plan to mitigate 
                        and retrofit Federal, State, tribal, and local 
                        critical assets for freight, energy, and 
                        transit purposes to withstand a covered event 
                        and to help save lives during and immediately 
                        after a covered event.
                  (C) A strategy--
                          (i) to assist State, tribal, and local 
                        governments in developing and implementing a 
                        coordinated and comprehensive plan to 
                        prioritize Federal, State, tribal, local, and 
                        private investments and activities to develop 
                        the ability to prepare and plan for, mitigate 
                        against, respond to, recover from, and more 
                        successfully adapt to the impacts of a covered 
                        event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone; and
                          (ii) to link any existing statewide 
                        mitigation plan with such a coordinated and 
                        comprehensive plan.
                  (D) With respect to the strategy described in 
                subparagraph (C), an examination of the feasibility of 
                the public sector, the private sector, and individuals 
                to acquire earthquake insurance.
                  (E) An identification of funding opportunities to 
                implement the comprehensive strategy and any 
                recommendations made by the Task Force, including--
                          (i) existing funding opportunities across 
                        Federal agencies and other sources; and
                          (ii) potential new funding opportunities.
                  (F) An identification of barriers to obtaining 
                funding for the implementation of the comprehensive 
                strategy and recommendations on how to remove the 
                barriers.
                  (G) A strategy for appropriate Federal agencies to 
                collaborate with and assist State, tribal, and local 
                governments in developing recommendations for cost-
                effective mitigation alternatives for aging State, 
                tribal, and locally owned critical infrastructure.
                  (H) A strategy for assisting State, tribal, and local 
                governments in developing a recovery plan prior to a 
                covered event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone that 
                addresses how State, tribal, and local governments may 
                want to rebuild after the event.
                  (I) An identification of the steps taken to date to 
                develop an onshore and offshore earthquake early 
                warning system and a description of the purpose and 
                scope of such a system.
                  (J) An evaluation of the types of offshore earthquake 
                early warning systems and recommendations and a cost 
                estimate for an earthquake early warning system 
                appropriate for the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
                  (K) Recommendations on how an earthquake early 
                warning system should operate, including whether and 
                how the system should interface with the private 
                sector.
                  (L) A description of appropriate roles and 
                responsibilities for Federal, State, local, and tribal 
                governments, including who should operate and maintain 
                an earthquake early warning system, the cost of the 
                system, and possible funding sources for the system.
                  (M) A plan on how to integrate an earthquake early 
                warning system into existing and new public alert 
                warning systems and technologies, including mobile 
                systems.
          (2) Use of existing plans.--In developing the comprehensive 
        strategy, the Task Force may use existing plans, studies, and 
        other resources.
  (d) Recommendations.--The recommendations to be developed by the Task 
Force under subsection (a) shall include recommendations on--
          (1) potential administrative or legislative changes required 
        to implement the comprehensive strategy;
          (2) the funding required to implement the comprehensive 
        strategy and the recommendations; and
          (3) the order of priority for implementation of the 
        comprehensive strategy.
  (e) National Academies.--
          (1) Collaboration.--The Task Force shall work simultaneously 
        and collaboratively with the National Academies.
          (2) Agreement.--The Task Force shall enter into an agreement 
        with the National Academies under which the National Academies 
        shall develop recommendations for a Federal research strategy 
        to advance scientific understanding of a Cascadia Subduction 
        Zone earthquake and resulting tsunami preparedness, including 
        the following:
                  (A) Geologic conditions, ground motions, and tsunami 
                hazards.
                  (B) Implications of an effective automated early 
                warning system.
                  (C) Effects of mega-earthquake and tsunami events on 
                the built and natural environment.
                  (D) Social and behavioral factors for effective 
                disaster preparedness and response.
                  (E) Cost-effective mitigation alternatives for legacy 
                and aging infrastructure.
                  (F) Strategic planning for freight, energy, and 
                transit network robustness.
                  (G) Tools that help communities invest their 
                resources for the greatest benefit.
                  (H) Any other topics identified as necessary by the 
                Task Force or the National Academies.
  (f) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on 
Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the 
Senate a report of the Task Force that includes the following:
          (1) The comprehensive strategy to be developed under 
        subsection (a).
          (2) The recommendations to be developed under subsections 
        (a), (d), and (e).
  (g) Definitions.--In this section, the following definitions apply:
          (1) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
          (2) Covered event.--The term ``covered event'' means an 
        earthquake, tsunami, or combined earthquake and tsunami event.
          (3) Task force.--The term ``Task Force'' means the Federal 
        interagency task force to be established under subsection (a).

SEC. 4. NATIONAL PREPARATION AND RESPONSE EFFORTS RELATING TO 
                    EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS.

  The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall be 
responsible for the Nation's efforts to reduce the loss of life and 
property, and to protect the Nation, from an earthquake, tsunami, or 
combined earthquake and tsunami event by developing the ability to 
prepare and plan for, mitigate against, respond to, recover from, and 
more successfully adapt to such an event.

SEC. 5. ADDITIONAL HAZARD MITIGATION ACTIVITIES.

  Section 404 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency 
Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170c) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
  ``(f) Use of Assistance.--Recipients of hazard mitigation assistance 
provided under this section and section 203 may use the assistance to 
conduct activities to help reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, 
loss, or suffering in any area affected by earthquake hazards, 
including--
          ``(1) improvements to regional seismic networks in support of 
        building a capability for earthquake early warning;
          ``(2) improvements to geodetic networks in support of 
        building a capability for earthquake early warning; and
          ``(3) improvements to seismometers, Global Positioning System 
        receivers, and associated infrastructure in support of building 
        a capability for earthquake early warning.''.

                         Purpose of Legislation

    H.R. 654, as amended, would direct the Administrator of the 
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to carry out a plan 
for the purchase and installation of an earthquake early 
warning system for the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ).

                  Background and Need for Legislation


FEMA's role in earthquake preparedness, mitigation, response, and 
        recovery

    FEMA was established in 1979 as the centralized location 
for federal disaster assistance and coordination of the federal 
government's disaster activities. FEMA is the federal 
government's lead agency for preparing for, mitigating, 
responding to, and recovering from disasters and emergencies 
related to all hazards, whether natural or man-made. The Post 
Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (P.L. 109-295) requires 
FEMA to perform national level exercises to test and evaluate 
federal, state, local, and tribal governments' ability to 
respond and recover in a coordinated and unified manner to 
catastrophic incidents.
    In the last four years, FEMA has organized several 
exercises focused on earthquake hazards. In 2016, FEMA along 
with other federal agencies, state, tribal, and local partners, 
and private sector participants conducted a preparedness 
exercise called Cascadia Rising. This exercise was based on a 
large earthquake on the CSZ and a resulting tsunami. One goal 
of this exercise was to train and test the effective 
coordination and integration of governments at all levels plus 
the private sector to ensure successful life-saving and life-
sustaining response operations in the aftermath of a CSZ 
disaster.
            National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program
    The federal government has supported efforts to assess and 
monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States under 
the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) since 
1977. The four federal agencies that have responsibility for 
long-term earthquake risk reduction are FEMA, the U.S. 
Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology. These agencies 
coordinate their activities to assess U.S. earthquake hazards 
and conduct research to help reduce overall U.S. vulnerability 
to earthquakes.
    FEMA is responsible for translating research and lessons 
learned from earthquakes into guidance, training, support for 
states and multistate consortia, and other program 
implementation activities. FEMA works with national model codes 
and standards groups; promotes better building code practices; 
assists states in developing mitigation, preparedness, and 
response plans; aids in the development of multistate groups; 
and supports comprehensive earthquake education and awareness. 
FEMA also develops and disseminates earthquakeresistant design 
guidance for new and existing buildings and lifelines and aids 
in the development of performancebased design guidelines and 
methods. FEMA applies earthquake hazards reduction measures, 
where applicable, to other natural and manmade hazards; 
provides preparedness, response, and mitigation recommendations 
to communities; and establishes demonstration projects on 
earthquake hazard mitigation to link earthquake research and 
mitigation with emergency management programs.

Pacific Northwest seismic hazards

    Every state has the potential for earthquakes, and the U.S. 
Geological Survey estimates that ``42 of the 50 states have a 
reasonable chance of experiencing damaging ground shaking from 
an earthquake in 50 years (the typical lifetime of a 
building).'' Petersen, M.D., et al., 2014, Documentation for 
the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard 
maps: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1091, 243 
p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20141091. Earthquakes also 
pose a national challenge because 75 million Americans live in 
areas of significant seismic risk. Unlike hurricanes, tornados, 
and other storms, earthquakes strike without warning and may 
trigger devastating secondary effects, such as landslides, 
fires, tsunamis, and nuclear meltdowns. The damage wrought by 
earthquakes can have a significant impact on people, 
infrastructure, and the economy.
    Oregon, Washington, and northern California are at 
particular risk of an earthquake on the CSZ. Recent subduction 
zone earthquakes around the world underscore the catastrophic 
impacts the Pacific Northwest and the Nation will face when the 
next CSZ earthquake and tsunami occurs. Earthquakes on similar 
subduction zones include the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Indonesia 
earthquake and resulting tsunami that caused 228,000 
fatalities; the 2010 magnitude 8.8 Chile earthquake that caused 
500 fatalities; and the 2011 Japan earthquake and resulting 
tsunami that caused 18,000 fatalities.
    States in the Pacific Northwest are partnering with the 
federal government to increase preparedness for the next 
earthquake with the goal of reducing earthquake losses, 
damages, and overall disaster losses. However, much more work 
is needed to establish an earthquake early warning system and 
to encourage smart building and mitigation measures that will 
ultimately drive down the costs of these disasters.
    Scientists have recently discovered new faults and continue 
to apply new data, raising earthquake hazard estimates for 
several areas in California and increasing the likelihood of a 
magnitude 9.3 earthquake along the CSZ.
    January 26, 2017, marked the 317th anniversary of the last 
great earthquake along the CSZ. The earthquake, which took 
place in 1700, is estimated to have been around 9.0 in 
magnitude. For years, scientists have warned residents in the 
Pacific Northwest that the area is due for another massive 
earthquake. An event of this magnitude has historically 
occurred approximately every 300 years.
            Earthquake warning system
    Today, the technology exists to detect earthquakes so 
quickly that an alert can reach some areas before strong 
shaking arrives. Since 2006, earthquake experts with the U.S. 
Geological Survey and a coalition of university partners, 
including the California Institute of Technology and the 
University of California at Berkeley, have been developing an 
onshore earthquake early warning system for the West Coast. 
Using a network of sensors across the state, the system, called 
ShakeAlert, began sending notifications of quakes in 2012 to a 
selected group of test users including California emergency 
management agencies, transit agencies, utilities, and private 
companies. An earthquake warning system began testing in the 
Pacific Northwest earlier this year.
    The purpose of an earthquake early warning system is to 
identify and characterize an earthquake a few seconds after it 
begins, calculate the likely intensity of ground shaking that 
will result, and deliver warnings to people and infrastructure 
in harm's way. Studies of earthquake early warning methods in 
California have shown that the warning time could range from a 
few seconds to a few tens of seconds, depending on the distance 
to the epicenter of the earthquake.
    For very large events like those expected on the San 
Andreas fault or the CSZ, the warning time could be much longer 
because the affected area is much larger. ShakeAlert can give 
enough time to slow and stop trains and taxiing planes, to 
prevent cars from entering bridges and tunnels, to move away 
from dangerous machines or chemicals in work environments, and 
to take cover under a desk, or to automatically shut down and 
isolate industrial systems. Very little work, however, has been 
done to implement an off-shore earthquake early warning system.
    Taking these actions before shaking starts can 
significantly reduce damage and casualties during an 
earthquake. It can also prevent cascading failures in the 
aftermath of an event. For example, isolating utilities before 
shaking starts can reduce the number of fires after the 
earthquake.

Pacific Northwest Earthquake Preparedness Act of 2017

    H.R. 654, as amended, directs FEMA to identify funding to 
purchase and install an earthquake early warning system. It 
also directs the President to establish an Earthquake and 
Tsunami Task Force that will develop a strategy to protect and 
prepare for major earthquakes and tsunamis on the CSZ. H.R. 
654, as amended, also clarifies that activities to help reduce 
the risk of future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in an 
area affected by earthquake hazards are eligible for hazard 
mitigation grant program assistance from FEMA.
    The Committee urges FEMA to encourage states at high risk 
from earthquake hazards to allocate hazard mitigation 
assistance to communities to conduct activities to reduce 
potential earthquake damage and loss. The Committee also 
expects that FEMA will continue to share with the Committee the 
lessons learned and after-action reports from the earthquake 
and tsunami related exercises.

                                Hearings

    The Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings, 
and Emergency Management, held the following hearings and 
roundtable discussions on subjects related to matters contained 
in H.R. 654, as amended, during the 114th Congress:
    ``Rebuilding after the Storm: Lessening Impacts and 
Speeding Recovery'' held on January 27, 2015. The purpose of 
the hearing was to launch an assessment of the rising costs of 
disasters, the cost effectiveness of disaster assistance, 
strategies to reduce disaster losses, and the appropriate roles 
of government and the private sector, and to consider reforms 
to save lives through improved alerts and warning systems and 
search and rescue.
    ``Pacific Northwest Seismic Hazards: Planning and Preparing 
for the Next Disaster'' held on May 19, 2015. The purpose of 
the hearing was to assess the FEMA's role in earthquake hazard 
preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, and to 
examine the efforts of the Pacific Northwest and seismic hazard 
experts to reduce disaster impacts and build stronger 
communities.
    ``Earthquake Early Warning in the Pacific Northwest: 
Preparing for the Big One'' held on September 22, 2015. The 
purpose of the roundtable was to convene federal, state and 
local officials and academics to discuss earthquake resiliency 
programs and efforts, the Shake Alert earthquake early warning 
system, and next steps for developing an offshore earthquake 
early warning system.

                 Legislative History and Consideration

    On January 24, 2017, Committee on Transportation and 
Infrastructure Ranking Member Representative Peter DeFazio (D-
OR) introduced H.R. 654, a bill to direct the Administrator of 
the FEMA to carry out a plan for the purchase and installation 
of an earthquake early warning system for the CSZ.
    On February 28, 2017, the Committee on Transportation and 
Infrastructure met in open session to consider H.R. 654. The 
Committee considered and adopted one amendment by voice vote--
an amendment offered by Ranking Member DeFazio. The Committee 
ordered the bill, as amended, reported favorably to the House 
by voice vote with a quorum present.

                            Committee Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each committee report to include the 
total number of votes cast for and against on each record vote 
on a motion to report and on any amendment offered to the 
measure or matter, and the names of those members voting for 
and against. There were no recorded votes taken in connection 
with consideration of H.R. 654, as amended, or ordering the 
measure reported. A motion to order H.R. 654, as amended, 
reported favorably to the House was agreed to by voice vote 
with a quorum present.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(1) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
Committee's oversight findings and recommendations are 
reflected in this report.

               New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures

    Clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives does not apply where a cost estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 has been timely submitted prior to the filing of the 
report and is included in the report. Such a cost estimate is 
included in this report.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirement of clause 3(c)(3) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has 
received the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 654, as amended, 
from the Director of the Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, March 8, 2017.
Hon. Bill Shuster,
Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 654, the Pacific 
Northwest Earthquake Preparedness Act of 2017.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Robert Reese.
            Sincerely,
                                                        Keith Hall.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 654--Pacific Northwest Earthquake Preparedness Act of 2017

    H.R. 654 would direct the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency (FEMA) to develop a plan to purchase and install an 
early warning system for earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction 
Zone (a fault line that spans parts of California and all of 
Oregon and Washington State). FEMA would be required to submit 
this plan to the Congress as well as an additional report 
summarizing the plans implementation within one year of the 
bills enactment. The bill would not require FEMA to implement 
the plan nor would it authorize the appropriation of funds to 
do so. H.R. 654 also would direct the President to establish an 
earthquake and tsunami task force, for which the FEMA 
Administrator would be the chair, to develop and submit to the 
Congress a strategy and recommendations for preparing for, 
mitigating against, responding to, and recovering from an 
earthquake or tsunami in the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The task 
force would include individuals from the federal government, 
the Oregon, Washington, and California state governments, local 
governments, and private institutions.
    Based on an analysis of information provided by FEMA, CBO 
estimates that preparing a plan for the development of an early 
warning system and for participating on a task force would cost 
less than $500,000 annually over the 2018-2022 period.
    Finally, the bill would stipulate that recipients of FEMA 
Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) and Pre-disaster Mitigation 
Assistance (PMA) could use the assistance to reduce the risk of 
damage from earthquakes. Because this assistance is currently 
provided to areas affected by earthquakes, CBO estimates that 
implementing this subsection would have no effect on the 
federal budget.
    Enacting the legislation would not affect direct spending 
and revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply. 
CBO estimates that enacting the legislation would not increase 
net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    H.R. 654 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Robert Reese. 
The estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    With respect to the requirement of clause 3(c)(4) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
performance goal and objective of this legislation, as amended, 
is to direct the Administrator of the FEMA to develop a plan 
for the purchase and installation of an earthquake early 
warning system for the CSZ.

                          Advisory of Earmarks

    Pursuant to clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives, the Committee is required to include a list 
of congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited 
tariff benefits as defined in clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of 
rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives. No 
provision in the bill, as amended, includes an earmark, limited 
tax benefit, or limited tariff benefit under clause 9(e), 9(f), 
or 9(g) of rule XXI.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(5) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee finds that no provision 
of H.R. 654, as amended, establishes or reauthorizes a program 
of the federal government known to be duplicative of another 
federal program, a program that was included in any report from 
the Government Accountability Office to Congress pursuant to 
section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program related to a 
program identified in the most recent Catalog of Federal 
Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    Pursuant to section 3(i) of H. Res. 5, 115th Cong. (2017), 
the Committee finds that enacting H.R. 654, as amended, does 
not direct the completion of a specific rule making within the 
meaning of section 551 of title 5, United States Code.

                       Federal Mandate Statement

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of federal 
mandates prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act (Public Law 104-4).

                        Preemption Clarification

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 
requires the report of any Committee on a bill or joint 
resolution to include a statement on the extent to which the 
bill or joint resolution is intended to preempt state, local, 
or tribal law. The Committee states that H.R. 654, as amended, 
does not preempt any state, local, or tribal law.

                      Advisory Committee Statement

    No advisory committees within the meaning of section 5(b) 
of the Federal Advisory Committee Act are created by this 
legislation.

                  Applicability of Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that the legislation, as amended, does 
not relate to the terms and conditions of employment or access 
to public services or accommodations within the meaning of 
section 102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act 
(Public Law 104-1).

               Section-by-Section Analysis of Legislation


Section 1: Short title; Definition

    Section 1 designates the short title as the ``Pacific 
Northwest Earthquake Preparedness Act of 2017'' and defines the 
Cascadia Subduction Zone.

Section 2: Earthquake early warning system for cascadia subduction zone

    This section directs the Administrator of FEMA to develop 
and submit to Congress a plan for the purchase and installation 
of an earthquake early warning system for the CSZ and to 
identify the funds necessary for implementation of the plan.

Section 3: Earthquake and Tsunami Task Force

    This section directs the President to establish an 
Earthquake and Tsunami Task Force charged with developing a 
comprehensive strategy and recommendations on how the Nation 
should prepare and plan for, mitigate against, respond to, 
recover from, and more successfully adapt to a CSZ event.

Section 4: National preparation and response efforts relating to 
        earthquakes and tsunamis

    This section states that the Administrator of FEMA is 
responsible for the Nation's efforts to reduce the loss of life 
and property, and to protect the Nation, from an earthquake, 
tsunami, or combined event.

Section 5: Additional hazard mitigation activities

    This section amends the Stafford Act to articulate eligible 
uses of mitigation assistance to include activities that help 
reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering 
in an area affected by earthquake hazards.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (new matter is 
printed in italic and existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

ROBERT T. STAFFORD DISASTER RELIEF AND EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ACT

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TITLE IV--MAJOR DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

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SEC. 404. HAZARD MITIGATION.

  (a) In General.--The President may contribute up to 75 
percent of the cost of hazard mitigation measures which the 
President has determined are cost-effective and which 
substantially reduce the risk of future damage, hardship, loss, 
or suffering in any area affected by a major disaster. Such 
measures shall be identified following the evaluation of 
natural hazards under section 322 and shall be subject to 
approval by the President. Subject to section 322, the total of 
contributions under this section for a major disaster shall not 
exceed 15 percent for amounts not more than $2,000,000,000, 10 
percent for amounts of more than $2,000,000,000 and not more 
than $10,000,000,000, and 7.5 percent on amounts of more than 
$10,000,000,000 and not more than $35,333,000,000 of the 
estimated aggregate amount of grants to be made (less any 
associated administrative costs) under this Act with respect to 
the major disaster.
  (b) Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance.--
          (1) General authority.--In providing hazard 
        mitigation assistance under this section in connection 
        with flooding, the Administrator of the Federal 
        Emergency Management Agency may provide property 
        acquisition and relocation assistance for projects that 
        meet the requirements of paragraph (2).
          (2) Terms and conditions.--An acquisition or 
        relocation project shall be eligible to receive 
        assistance pursuant to paragraph (1) only if--
                  (A) the applicant for the assistance is 
                otherwise eligible to receive assistance under 
                the hazard mitigation grant program established 
                under subsection (a); and
                  (B) on or after the date of enactment of this 
                subsection, the applicant for the assistance 
                enters into an agreement with the Administrator 
                that provides assurances that--
                          (i) any property acquired, accepted, 
                        or from which a structure will be 
                        removed pursuant to the project will be 
                        dedicated and maintained in perpetuity 
                        for a use that is compatible with open 
                        space, recreational, or wetlands 
                        management practices;
                          (ii) no new structure will be erected 
                        on property acquired, accepted or from 
                        which a structure was removed under the 
                        acquisition or relocation program other 
                        than--
                                  (I) a public facility that is 
                                open on all sides and 
                                functionally related to a 
                                designated open space;
                                  (II) a rest room; or
                                  (III) a structure that the 
                                Administrator approves in 
                                writing before the commencement 
                                of the construction of the 
                                structure; and
                          (iii) after receipt of the 
                        assistance, with respect to any 
                        property acquired, accepted or from 
                        which a structure was removed under the 
                        acquisition or relocation program--
                                  (I) no subsequent application 
                                for additional disaster 
                                assistance for any purpose will 
                                be made by the recipient to any 
                                Federal entity; and
                                  (II) no assistance referred 
                                to in subclause (I) will be 
                                provided to the applicant by 
                                any Federal source.
          (3) Statutory construction.--Nothing in this 
        subsection is intended to alter or otherwise affect an 
        agreement for an acquisition or relocation project 
        carried out pursuant to this section that was in effect 
        on the day before the date of enactment of this 
        subsection.
  (c) Program Administration by States.--
          (1) In general.--A State desiring to administer the 
        hazard mitigation grant program established by this 
        section with respect to hazard mitigation assistance in 
        the State may submit to the President an application 
        for the delegation of the authority to administer the 
        program.
          (2) Criteria.--The President, in consultation and 
        coordination with States and local governments, shall 
        establish criteria for the approval of applications 
        submitted under paragraph (1). Until such time as the 
        Administrator promulgates regulations to implement this 
        paragraph, the Administrator may waive notice and 
        comment rulemaking, if the Administrator determines 
        doing so is necessary to expeditiously implement this 
        section, and may carry out this section as a pilot 
        program. The criteria shall include, at a minimum--
                  (A) the demonstrated ability of the State to 
                manage the grant program under this section;
                  (B) there being in effect an approved 
                mitigation plan under section 322; and
                  (C) a demonstrated commitment to mitigation 
                activities.
          (3) Approval.--The President shall approve an 
        application submitted under paragraph (1) that meets 
        the criteria established under paragraph (2).
          (4) Withdrawal of approval.--If, after approving an 
        application of a State submitted under paragraph (1), 
        the President determines that the State is not 
        administering the hazard mitigation grant program 
        established by this section in a manner satisfactory to 
        the President, the President shall withdraw the 
        approval.
          (5) Audits.--The President shall provide for periodic 
        audits of the hazard mitigation grant programs 
        administered by States under this subsection.
  (d) Streamlined Procedures.--
          (1) In general.--For the purpose of providing 
        assistance under this section, the President shall 
        ensure that--
                  (A) adequate resources are devoted to ensure 
                that applicable environmental reviews under the 
                National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and 
                historic preservation reviews under the 
                National Historic Preservation Act are 
                completed on an expeditious basis; and
                  (B) the shortest existing applicable process 
                under the National Environmental Policy Act of 
                1969 and the National Historic Preservation Act 
                is utilized.
          (2) Authority for other expedited procedures.--The 
        President may utilize expedited procedures in addition 
        to those required under paragraph (1) for the purpose 
        of providing assistance under this section, such as 
        procedures under the Prototype Programmatic Agreement 
        of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, for the 
        consideration of multiple structures as a group and for 
        an analysis of the cost-effectiveness and fulfillment 
        of cost-share requirements for proposed hazard 
        mitigation measures.
  (e) Advance Assistance.--The President may provide not more 
than 25 percent of the amount of the estimated cost of hazard 
mitigation measures to a State grantee eligible for a grant 
under this section before eligible costs are incurred.
  (f) Use of Assistance.--Recipients of hazard mitigation 
assistance provided under this section and section 203 may use 
the assistance to conduct activities to help reduce the risk of 
future damage, hardship, loss, or suffering in any area 
affected by earthquake hazards, including--
          (1) improvements to regional seismic networks in 
        support of building a capability for earthquake early 
        warning;
          (2) improvements to geodetic networks in support of 
        building a capability for earthquake early warning; and
          (3) improvements to seismometers, Global Positioning 
        System receivers, and associated infrastructure in 
        support of building a capability for earthquake early 
        warning.

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