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115th Congress      }                                        {     Report
                            HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session         }                                        {    115-555

======================================================================



 
        ACCELERATING AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IN SCIENCE ACT OF 2017

                                _______
                                

 February 13, 2018.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 4377]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 4377) to direct the Secretary of 
Energy to carry out an upgrade to research equipment and 
construct research user facilities, and for other purposes, 
having considered the same, report favorably thereon without 
amendment and recommend that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................     2
Section-by-Section...............................................     6
Explanation of Amendments........................................     7
Committee Consideration..........................................     7
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................     7
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................     7
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............     7
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................     8
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................     8
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................     8
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................     8
Earmark Identification...........................................     8
Committee Estimate...............................................     8
Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate...     8

                     Committee Statement and Views


                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The purpose of H.R. 4377, the ``Accelerating American 
Leadership in Science Act of 2017,'' is to provide for 
technological innovation through the prioritization of upgrades 
and additions of key user facilities at Department of Energy 
(DOE) national labs from the existing Federal investment in 
basic research and fundamental scientific discovery by the DOE 
Office of Science.
    The bill authorizes an upgrade to the Advanced Photon 
Source (APS-U) at Argonne National Laboratory, a proton power 
upgrade and a second target station upgrade to the Spallation 
Neutron Source (SNS-PPU and SNS-STS) at Oak Ridge National 
Laboratory (ORNL), and the construction of the Long Baseline 
Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at Fermi National Accelerator 
Laboratory (Fermilab).

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    DOE is the leading Federal sponsor of research in the 
physical sciences, and operates world-class, open-access user 
facilities around the country at the DOE national laboratories. 
These facilities include the supercomputers, x-ray light 
sources, photon sources, and neutron sources necessary to 
conduct ground-breaking basic research, and host approximately 
30,000 researchers annually from around the world.
    The Committee recognizes that these best-in-the-world 
science facilities uniquely enable research conducted through 
the DOE Office of Science and other Federal sponsors of basic 
research and facilitate revolutionary discoveries about the 
atomic structure, properties, and dynamics of materials. The 
next transformative breakthroughs in innovative energy 
technologies will likely arise from a strong foundation in 
basic research, particularly in the study of and development of 
unique materials, for which the facilities authorized in this 
bill provide critical capabilities.
    This legislation relies on the assessments of the 
Department and the scientific community, primarily through the 
long-range planning function of the DOE Office of Science Basic 
Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) and the High Energy 
Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP). Both advisory committees, 
chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and 
comprised of representatives from universities, national 
laboratories, and industries involved in relevant areas of 
research, provide official technical advice to the Department 
and other Federal agencies on the national program priorities 
for basic energy sciences and high-energy science research.
    Based on the recommendations provided in the most recent 
reports issued from each advisory committee, H.R. 4377 
authorizes the completion of upgrades and construction of 
scientific user facilities necessary to undertake the next 
generation of transformative research in these areas. Under 
this legislation, the Secretary of Energy is directed to 
provide for an upgrade to the APS at Argonne National 
Laboratory in IL, as well as a proton power upgrade and the 
construction of a second target station for the SNS at ORNL 
under the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program within the DOE 
Office of Science. The Secretary is also directed to construct 
the LBNF underground sites at Fermilab in Batavia, IL, and the 
Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD, under 
the High Energy Physics (HEP) program within the DOE Office of 
Science.
    The APS is one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation 
research facilities in the world. The APS produces ultra-
bright, high-energy, storage ring-generated x-ray beams which 
enable scientists to study the structure and behavior of 
physical and biological materials. This research enables 
innovation in many fields, including materials synthesis and 
pharmaceutical development. The APS-U will increase the 
brightness of the APS hard x-ray beams, which allows more x-
rays to be focused onto a smaller area and provides more 
detailed data for researchers in less time. Hard x-rays, like 
those produced at the APS, are optimal for determining the 
atomic structure of materials and penetrating into condensed 
phase media.
    The SNS is a one-of-a-kind neutron scattering research 
facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in 
the world for scientific research and industrial development. 
This source of brighter and more intense neutrons enables 
unprecedented research opportunities, allowing scientists to 
make sensitive measurements in complex sample environments, 
with higher resolution and speed than any existing neutron 
facility.
    The SNS-PPU will update the SNS accelerator complex, 
doubling the power of its proton beam and greatly increasing 
the flux (the neutron density (n) multiplied by neutron 
velocity (v)) on SNS's existing First Target Station neutron 
beamlines. This will correspondingly increase the capacity and 
capability of these neutron beamlines to power important 
experiments and analyses.
    The SNS-PPU will also provide power for the SNS-STS. In 
order to maintain its leadership in the field of neutron 
science, the SNS requires a second target station to provide 
opportunity to a growing research community. The STS will 
double the number of beamlines at SNS, significantly expanding 
the number of instrument stations and opportunities for 
cutting-edge neutron scattering research at this facility. 
Combined, the PPU and the STS will allow SNS to reach its full 
potential and provide for world-leading neutron science here in 
the U.S.
    The Department's longstanding support and prioritization of 
both the APS upgrade and the two upgrades to the SNS are 
documented in a publication of the Office of Science titled, 
``Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year 
Outlook,'' published November 2003, and its publication of 
``Four Years Later: An Interim Report on Facilities for the 
Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook,'' published August 
2007. In June, 2016, the BESAC released a report titled, 
``Report on Facility Upgrades,'' which identified the APS-U, 
SNS-PPU, and SNS-STS as three of the five priority upgrade 
projects within BES. In this report, the BESAC determined that 
these projects are absolutely central to U.S. contributions to 
world-leading science.
    The HEP program is tasked with conducting the theoretical 
and experimental particle physics and accelerator science and 
technology in order to discover the most elementary 
constituents of matter and energy, the basic nature of space 
and time, and interactions between the two. The LBNF project is 
a critical component to pursuing these long-term research 
goals.
    The LBNF is an internationally coordinated project, 
designed to build the world's highest intensity neutrino beam 
and a suite of cryogenic near detectors at Fermilab. This 
facility will be used to run the Deep Underground Neutrino 
Experiment (DUNE), which will measure the neutrino beamline 
generated at LBNF on cutting-edge, far detectors located 800 
miles away at the SURF in South Dakota.
    Longstanding support for construction of this world-leading 
neutrino facility is documented in the HEPAP report titled, 
``US Particle Physics: Scientific Opportunities, A Strategic 
Plan for the Next Ten Years, Report of the Particle Physics 
Project Prioritization Panel,'' published May 2008, and in its 
publication titled, ``Major High Energy Physics Facilities 
2014-2024, Input to the prioritization of proposed scientific 
user facilities for the Office of Science,'' published March 
2013. In May 2014, HEPAP named the execution of the LBNF at 
Fermilab as ``the highest priority large project in its 
timeframe,'' in its publication titled, ``Building for 
Discovery: Strategic Plan for U.S. Particle Physics in the 
Global Context, Report of the Particle Physics Prioritization 
Panel.''
    Further, this legislation requires that, to the maximum 
extent practicable, the Secretary of Energy shall ensure that 
the start of full operations of the APS-U and the SNS-PPU 
occurs before December 31, 2025, the start of full operations 
of the LBNF occurs before December 31, 2026, and the start of 
full operations of the SNS-STS occurs before December 31, 2030.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    On November 18, 2015, the Energy Subcommittee held a 
hearing titled, ``Recommendations of the Commission to Review 
the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories.'' 
Witnesses were: Mr. TJ Glauthier, Co-Chair, Commission to 
Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories; 
Dr. Jared L. Cohon, Co-Chair, Commission to Review the 
Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories; Dr. Peter 
Littlewood, Director, Argonne National Laboratory.
    On March 22, 2016, the Committee held a hearing titled, 
``An Overview of the Budget Proposal for the Department of 
Energy for Fiscal Year 2017.'' The witness was The Honorable 
Ernest Moniz, Secretary of Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.
    On June 15, 2016, the Energy Subcommittee held a hearing 
titled, ``Innovation in Solar Fuels, Electricity Storage, and 
Advanced Materials.'' Witnesses were: Dr. Nate Lewis, 
Professor, California Institute of Technology; Dr. Daniel 
Scherson, Professor, Case Western Reserve University; Dr. 
Collin Broholm, Professor, Johns Hopkins University; Dr. Daniel 
Hallinan Jr., Assistant Professor, Florida A&M University--
Florida State University College of Engineering.
    On June 28, 2017, the Energy Subcommittee and the Research 
and Technology Subcommittee held a hearing titled, ``Material 
Science: Building the Future.'' Witnesses were: Dr. Matthew 
Tirrell, Deputy Laboratory Director for Science and Chief 
Research Officer, Argonne National Laboratory; Dr. Laurie 
Locascio, Acting Associate Director for Laboratory Programs and 
Director, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute 
of Standards and Technology; Dr. Adam Schwartz, Director, Ames 
Laboratory; Dr. Fred Higgs, John and Ann Doerr Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering, Rice University.
    On July 19, 2017, the Committee held a hearing titled, 
``Energy Innovation: Letting Technology Lead.'' Witnesses were: 
Dr. Jacob DeWitte, President and CEO, Oklo; Dr. Gaurav N. Sant, 
Associate Professor and Henry Samueli Fellow, Department of 
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Henry Samueli School of 
Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los 
Angeles; Dr. Venky Narayanamurti, Benjamin Peirce Research 
Professor of Technology and Public Policy, John A. Paulson 
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University; 
Mr. Kiran Kumaraswamy, Market Development Director, AES Energy 
Storage.
    On November 13, 2017, Rep. Randy Hultgren introduced H.R. 
4377, which was referred solely to the Committee.
    On November 15, 2017, the Committee approved and ordered 
reported H.R. 4377 by voice vote.

                            COMMITTEE VIEWS

Advanced Photon Source upgrade

    H.R. 4377 authorizes a six-year upgrade to the APS as 
described in the publication approved by the BESAC on June 9, 
2016, titled, ``Report on Facility Upgrades.'' This includes 
the development of a multi-bend achromat lattice to produce a 
high flux of coherent x-rays within the hard x-ray energy 
region and a suite of beamlines optimized for this source. The 
Committee concurs with the assessment of the Department and the 
most recent BESAC report that the completion of this upgrade is 
essential to maintaining world-leading science here in the 
United States.
    The APS upgrade authorized in this legislation will harness 
new advances in storage ring technologies to increase the 
brightness of the APS beamline. These improved capabilities 
will yield a vast increase in imaging output, allowing 
researchers to observe materials under real conditions at 
extremely small scales. In order to ensure the on-schedule, on-
budget construction of this project, the Committee included a 
timeline and sufficient annual authorizations in this 
legislation requiring the Department to complete the APS 
upgrade by the close of 2025.

Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility

    Finally, H.R. 4377 authorizes construction of the LBNF to 
facilitate the international DUNE and enable a program in 
neutrino physics to measure the fundamental properties of 
neutrinos, explore physics beyond the Standard Model, and 
better clarify the nature of matter and anti-matter. The 
Committee concurs with the assessment of the Department and the 
most recent HEPAP report that the completion of this project is 
the highest priority large project within HEP and is essential 
to maintaining world-leading science here in the United States.
    The construction of the LBNF and subsequent experiments 
will increase the fundamental knowledge of neutrinos and their 
properties--providing valuable insight into cosmic phenomena 
and theoretical particle physics. With initial construction of 
LBNF just beginning in 2017, the Committee believes that an 
authorization of specific annual funding for all remaining 
construction and necessary instrumentation is required to 
ensure this vital project is completed on time and on budget by 
the close of 2026.
    Upon completion, LBNF will be the first internationally-
funded science facility hosted in the United States. The 
Committee supports the Department's continuing efforts to 
solicit international contributions for the construction of the 
project, and recognizes the importance of funds already 
committed to the project, including the September 2017 
commitment of $88 million from the UK Minister of State for 
Universities, Science, Research and Innovation.
    Recommendations for, and coordination of, Federal high 
energy physics underground science and neutrino research was 
authorized in the American Innovation and Competitiveness Act, 
signed into law January 6th, 2017, as P.L. 114-329.

Spallation Neutron Source Proton Power Upgrade and Second Target 
        Station

    H.R. 4377 authorizes two upgrades to the SNS as described 
in the publication approved by the BESAC on June 9, 2016, 
titled, ``Report on Facility Upgrades.'' The Committee concurs 
with the assessment of the Department and the most recent BESAC 
report that the completion of these upgrades are essential to 
maintaining world-leading science here in the United States.
    Currently, the SNS is the most powerful pulsed neutron user 
facility in the world. However, the Committee finds that 
without the upgrades authorized in this legislation, this 
leading facility will be surpassed by the European Spallation 
Source, which is currently under construction in Sweden and is 
expected to provide approximately an order of magnitude higher 
neutron flux than the SNS by 2024. Upon completion, the SNS-PPU 
and SNS-STS will ensure that the SNS remains the leading site 
for research in soft matter, biology, and polymer science that 
is facilitated by neutron experiments.
    The June 2016 BESAC report also concluded that ORNL must 
resolve ``significant scientific/engineering challenges'' in 
order to ensure that the planned upgrades would effectively 
increase the repetition rate and average brightness at the SNS, 
and that more engagement with the neutron science user 
community was required to ensure the development of a 
compelling and robust set of ``first experiments'' for the 
upgraded SNS before initiating construction. However, following 
discussions with Department officials and ORNL leadership, the 
Committee finds that ORNL has provided the necessary responses 
to the Department in order to proceed with the construction of 
this project.
    In order to ensure the on-schedule, on-budget construction 
of these projects, the Committee included timelines and 
sufficient annual authorizations in this legislation requiring 
the Department to complete the SNS-PPU by the close of 2025 and 
the SNS-STS by the close of 2030.

                           Section-by-Section


Sec. 1. Short title

    Accelerating American Leadership in Science Act of 2017.

Sec. 2. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    This section authorizes the APS-U over six years. This 
upgrade will ensure that DOE can maintain APS's status as a 
world class x-ray facility and allow scientists to study the 
structure and behavior of materials at extremely small scales.

Sec. 3. Long Baseline Neutrino Facility for Deep Underground Neutrino 
        Experiment

    This section authorizes the construction of the LBNF over 
nine years. This facility will be used to conduct DUNE, which 
will enable fundamental research of neutrinos and their 
properties.

Sec. 4. Spallation Neutron Source proton power upgrade

    This section authorizes a proton power upgrade to the SNS 
over seven years. This upgrade will provide higher resolution 
and speed than any existing neutron facility.

Sec. 5. Spallation Neutron Source second target station

    This section authorizes a second target station upgrade to 
the SNS over eleven years. This upgrade will double the number 
of beamlines at SNS, significantly expanding opportunities for 
cutting-edge neutron scattering research at this facility.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    There were no amendments to this bill.

                        Committee Consideration

    On November 15, 2017, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, H.R. 4377, by voice vote, 
a quorum being present.

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill provides for technological innovation through the 
prioritization of Federal investment in basic research and 
fundamental scientific discovery through the upgrade of key 
user facilities at DOE. As such, this bill does not relate to 
employment or access to public services and accommodations.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    H.R. 4377 provides for technological innovation through the 
prioritization of Federal investment in basic research and 
fundamental scientific discovery through the upgrade of key 
user facilities at DOE.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 4377 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that enacting H.R. 4377 does not 
direct the completion of any specific rule makings within the 
meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not establish 
or authorize the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b).

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandate Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 4377 does not include any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of rule XXI.

                           Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs that would be incurred in carrying out 
H.R. 4377. However, clause 3(d)(3)(B) of that rule provides 
that this requirement does not apply when the Committee has 
included in its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the 
bill prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act.

     Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has received 
the following cost estimate for H.R. 4377 from the Director of 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                 Washington, DC, December 18, 2017.
Hon. Lamar Smith,
Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 4377, the 
Accelerating American Leadership in Science Act of 2017.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Janani 
Shankaran.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 4377--Accelerating American Leadership in Science Act of 2017

    Summary: H.R. 4377 would authorize the appropriation of 
funds to support construction of and upgrades to research 
equipment and facilities administered by the Department of 
Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science. CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 4377 would cost about $1.5 billion over the 
2018-2022 period, assuming appropriation of the authorized 
amounts.
    Enacting H.R. 4377 would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 4377 would not increase 
net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    H.R. 4377 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of H.R. 4377 is shown in the following table. 
The cost of this legislation falls within budget function 250 
(general science, space, and technology).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2018      2019      2020      2021      2022    2018-2022
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Advanced Photon Source Upgrade:
    Authorization Level............................        93       130       152       150        74        599
    Estimated Outlays..............................        51        99       137       148       108        543
Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility:a
    Authorization Level............................        45       160       195       195       200        795
    Estimated Outlays..............................        25       102       162       190       198        676
Proton Power Upgrade:
    Authorization Level............................        26        71        34        41        21        192
    Estimated Outlays..............................        14        47        44        43        29        176
Second Target Station:
    Authorization Level............................         5        10        15        25        50        105
    Estimated Outlays..............................         3         7        12        20        37         79
    Total:
        Authorization Level........................       169       371       396       411       345      1,691
        Estimated Outlays..........................        93       255       354       400       372      1,474
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A Numbers may not add up to totals because of rounding.
aH.R. 4377 would authorize the appropriation of $95 million in 2018 for construction of the Long-Baseline
  Neutrino Facility. On an annualized basis, Public Law 115-90 provided $50 million in 2018 for that project. As
  a result, CBO estimates that H.R. 4377 would increase the amount authorized to be appropriated in 2018 by $45
  million, the difference between the authorized amount and the annualized appropriated amount.

    Basis of estimate: DOE's Office of Science supports basic 
research in the physical sciences and operates a system of 
national scientific user facilities. The office received an 
appropriation of $5.4 billion in 2017 and the same amount on an 
annualized basis for 2018; that amount includes funding for 
construction of and upgrades to equipment and research 
facilities. Under current law, no specific sums are authorized 
to be appropriated to DOE for those purposes after 2018.
    H.R. 4377 would authorize appropriations totaling $1.7 
billion over the 2018-2022 period for the following specific 
projects:
           $599 million for upgrades to the Advanced 
        Photon Source;
           $795 million for construction of the Long-
        Baseline Neutrino Facility;
           $192 million for a proton power upgrade at 
        the Spallation Neutron Source; and
           $105 million for a second target station at 
        the Spallation Neutron Source.
    The bill also would authorize the appropriation of $2 
billion over the 2023-2028 period for those projects. Of that 
amount, $1.4 billion would be for the construction of a second 
target station at the Spallation Neutron Source.
    In 2017, DOE spent $37 million for construction of the 
Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility. According to the agency, the 
upgrades to the Advanced Photon Source and Spallation Neutron 
Source are in the design phase. In recent years, the agency 
received appropriations of $40 million a year for those 
projects.
    Based on historical spending patterns, CBO estimates that 
if the authorized amounts are appropriated, implementing H.R. 
4377 would cost $1.5 billion over the 2018-2022 period and $2.2 
billion after 2022.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 4377 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    Mandates: H.R. 4377 contains no intergovernmental or 
private-sector mandates as defined in UMRA.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Janani Shankaran; 
Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate approved by: H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.