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115th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                     115-787

======================================================================



 
        DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SCIENCE AND INNOVATION ACT OF 2018

                                _______
                                

 June 27, 2018.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 5905]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 5905) to authorize basic research 
programs in the Department of Energy Office of Science for 
fiscal years 2018 and 2019, having considered the same, report 
favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill 
as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................    15
Section-by-Section...............................................    28
Explanation of Amendments........................................    30
Committee Consideration..........................................    30
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................    30
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................    30
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............    31
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    31
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    31
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................    31
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................    31
Earmark Identification...........................................    31
Committee Estimate...............................................    31
Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate...    32
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill as Reported.............    34

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Department 
of Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is 
as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.
Sec. 3. Mission.
Sec. 4. Basic energy sciences.
Sec. 5. Advanced scientific computing research.
Sec. 6. High energy physics.
Sec. 7. Biological and environmental research.
Sec. 8. Fusion energy.
Sec. 9. Nuclear physics.
Sec. 10. Science laboratories infrastructure program.
Sec. 11. Authorization of appropriations.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Department.--The term ``Department'' means the Department 
        of Energy.
          (2) Director.--The term  means the Director of the 
        Office of Science of the Department.
          (3) National laboratory.--The term ``National Laboratory'' 
        has the meaning given that term in section 2 of the Energy 
        Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801).
          (4) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of 
        Energy.

SEC. 3. MISSION.

  Section 209 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 
7139) is amended by adding at the end the following:
  ``(c) Mission.--The mission of the Office of Science shall be the 
delivery of scientific discoveries, capabilities, and major scientific 
tools to transform the understanding of nature and to advance the 
energy, economic, and national security of the United States.''.

SEC. 4. BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES.

  (a) Program.--The Director shall carry out a program in basic energy 
sciences, including materials sciences and engineering, chemical 
sciences, physical biosciences, and geosciences, for the purpose of 
providing the scientific foundations for new energy technologies.
  (b) Mission.--The mission of the program described in subsection (a) 
shall be to support fundamental research to understand, predict, and 
ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and 
molecular levels in order to provide the foundations for new energy 
technologies and to support Department missions in energy, environment, 
and national security.
  (c) Basic Energy Sciences User Facilities.--
          (1) In general.--The Director shall carry out a program for 
        the development, construction, operation, and maintenance of 
        national user facilities.
          (2) Requirements.--To the maximum extent practicable, the 
        national user facilities developed, constructed, operated, or 
        maintained under paragraph (1) shall serve the needs of the 
        Department, industry, the academic community, and other 
        relevant entities to create and examine materials and chemical 
        processes for the purpose of improving the competitiveness of 
        the United States.
          (3) Included facilities.--The national user facilities 
        developed, constructed, operated, or maintained under paragraph 
        (1) shall include--
                  (A) x-ray light sources;
                  (B) neutron sources;
                  (C) nanoscale science research centers; and
                  (D) such other facilities as the Director considers 
                appropriate, consistent with section 209 of the 
                Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7139).
  (d) Basic Energy Sciences Research Infrastructure.--
          (1) Advanced photon source upgrade.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for the 
                upgrade to the Advanced Photon Source described in the 
                publication approved by the Basic Energy Sciences 
                Advisory Committee on June 9, 2016, titled ``Report on 
                Facility Upgrades'', including the development of a 
                multi-bend achromat lattice to produce a high flux of 
                coherent x-rays within the hard x-ray energy region and 
                a suite of beamlines optimized for this source.
                  (B) Definitions.--In this paragraph:
                          (i) Flux.--The term ``flux'' means the rate 
                        of flow of photons.
                          (ii) Hard x-ray.--The term ``hard x-ray'' 
                        means a photon with energy greater than 20 
                        kiloelectron volts.
                  (C) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the 
                maximum extent practicable, ensure that the start of 
                full operations of the upgrade under this paragraph 
                occurs before December 31, 2025.
                  (D) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 for Basic Energy 
                Sciences, there shall be made available to the 
                Secretary to carry out the upgrade under this 
                paragraph--
                          (i) $93,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          (ii) $130,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.
          (2) Spallation neutron source proton power upgrade.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for a 
                proton power upgrade to the Spallation Neutron Source.
                  (B) Definition of proton power upgrade.--For the 
                purposes of this paragraph, the term ``proton power 
                upgrade'' means the Spallation Neutron Source power 
                upgrade described in--
                          (i) the publication of the Office of Science 
                        of the Department of Energy titled ``Facilities 
                        for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year 
                        Outlook'', published December 2003;
                          (ii) the publication of the Office of Science 
                        of the Department of Energy titled ``Four Years 
                        Later: An Interim Report on Facilities for the 
                        Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook'', 
                        published August 2007; and
                          (iii) the publication approved by the Basic 
                        Energy Sciences Advisory Committee on June 9, 
                        2016, titled ``Report on Facility Upgrades''.
                  (C) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the 
                maximum extent practicable, ensure that the start of 
                full operations of the upgrade under this paragraph 
                occurs before December 31, 2025.
                  (D) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 for Basic Energy 
                Sciences, there shall be made available to the 
                Secretary to carry out the upgrade under this 
                paragraph--
                          (i) $36,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          (ii) $60,800,000 for fiscal year 2019.
          (3) Spallation neutron source second target station.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for a 
                second target station for the Spallation Neutron 
                Source.
                  (B) Definition of second target station.--For the 
                purposes of this paragraph, the term ``second target 
                station'' means the Spallation Neutron Source second 
                target station described in--
                          (i) the publication of the Office of Science 
                        of the Department of Energy titled ``Facilities 
                        for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year 
                        Outlook'', published December 2003;
                          (ii) the publication of the Office of Science 
                        of the Department of Energy titled ``Four Years 
                        Later: An Interim Report on Facilities for the 
                        Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook'', 
                        published August 2007; and
                          (iii) the publication approved by the Basic 
                        Energy Sciences Advisory Committee on June 9, 
                        2016, titled ``Report on Facility Upgrades''.
                  (C) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the 
                maximum extent practicable, ensure that the start of 
                full operations of the second target station under this 
                paragraph occurs before December 31, 2030, with the 
                option for early operation in 2028.
                  (D) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 for Basic Energy 
                Sciences, there shall be made available to the 
                Secretary to carry out activities, including 
                construction, under this paragraph--
                          (i) $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          (ii) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.
          (4) Advanced light source upgrade.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for the 
                upgrade to the Advanced Light Source described in the 
                publication approved by the Basic Energy Sciences 
                Advisory Committee on June 9, 2016, titled ``Report on 
                Facility Upgrades'', including the development of a 
                multi-bend achromat lattice to produce a high flux of 
                coherent x-rays within the soft x-ray energy region.
                  (B) Definitions.--In this paragraph:
                          (i) Flux.--The term ``flux'' means the rate 
                        of flow of photons.
                          (ii) Soft x-ray.--The term ``soft x-ray'' 
                        means a photon with energy in the range from 50 
                        to 2,000 electron volts.
                  (C) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the 
                maximum extent practicable, ensure that the start of 
                full operations of the upgrade under this paragraph 
                occurs before December 31, 2026.
                  (D) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 for Basic Energy 
                Sciences, there shall be made available to the 
                Secretary to carry out the upgrade under this 
                paragraph--
                          (i) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          (ii) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.
          (5) Linac coherent light source ii high energy upgrade.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for the 
                upgrade to the Linac Coherent Light Source II facility 
                described in the publication approved by the Basic 
                Energy Sciences Advisory Committee on June 9, 2016, 
                titled ``Report on Facility Upgrades'', including the 
                development of experimental capabilities for high 
                energy x-rays to reveal fundamental scientific 
                discoveries. The Secretary shall ensure the upgrade 
                under this paragraph enables the production and use of 
                high energy, ultra-short pulse x-rays delivered at a 
                high repetition rate.
                  (B) Definitions.--In this paragraph:
                          (i) High energy x-ray.--The term a ``high 
                        energy x-ray'' means a photon with an energy at 
                        or exceeding 12 kiloelectron volts.
                          (ii) High repetition rate.--The term ``high 
                        repetition rate'' means the delivery of x-ray 
                        pulses up to one million pulses per second.
                          (iii) Ultra-short pulse x-rays.--The term 
                        ``ultra-short pulse x-rays'' means x-ray bursts 
                        capable of durations of less than one hundred 
                        femtoseconds.
                  (C) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the 
                maximum extent practicable, ensure that the start of 
                full operations of the upgrade under this paragraph 
                occurs before December 31, 2025.
                  (D) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 for Basic Energy 
                Sciences, there shall be made available to the 
                Secretary to carry out the upgrade under this 
                paragraph--
                          (i) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          (ii) $55,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.
  (e) Accelerator Research and Development.--The Director shall carry 
out research and development on advanced accelerator and storage ring 
technologies relevant to the development of Basic Energy Sciences user 
facilities, in consultation with the Office of Science's High Energy 
Physics and Nuclear Physics programs.
  (f) Solar Fuels Research Initiative.--
          (1) In general.--Section 973 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 
        (42 U.S.C. 16313) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 973. SOLAR FUELS RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  ``(a) Initiative.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a research 
        initiative, to be known as the `Solar Fuels Research 
        Initiative' (referred to in this section as the `Initiative') 
        to expand theoretical and fundamental knowledge of 
        photochemistry, electrochemistry, biochemistry, and materials 
        science useful for the practical development of experimental 
        systems to convert solar energy to chemical energy.
          ``(2) Leveraging.--In carrying out programs and activities 
        under the Initiative, the Secretary shall leverage expertise 
        and resources from--
                  ``(A) the Basic Energy Sciences Program and the 
                Biological and Environmental Research Program of the 
                Office of Science; and
                  ``(B) the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
                Energy.
          ``(3) Teams.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In carrying out the Initiative, 
                the Secretary shall organize activities among 
                multidisciplinary teams to leverage, to the maximum 
                extent practicable, expertise from the National 
                Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and the 
                private sector.
                  ``(B) Goals.--The multidisciplinary teams described 
                in subparagraph (A) shall pursue aggressive, milestone-
                driven, basic research goals.
                  ``(C) Resources.--The Secretary shall provide 
                sufficient resources to the multidisciplinary teams 
                described in subparagraph (A) to achieve the goals 
                described in subparagraph (B) over a period of time to 
                be determined by the Secretary.
          ``(4) Additional activities.--The Secretary may organize 
        additional activities under this subsection through Energy 
        Frontier Research Centers, Energy Innovation Hubs, or other 
        organizational structures.
  ``(b) Artificial Photosynthesis.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under the 
        Initiative a program to support research needed to bridge 
        scientific barriers to, and discover knowledge relevant to, 
        artificial photosynthetic systems.
          ``(2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  ``(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
                Sciences shall support basic research to pursue 
                distinct lines of scientific inquiry, including--
                          ``(i) photoinduced production of hydrogen and 
                        oxygen from water; and
                          ``(ii) the sustainable photoinduced reduction 
                        of carbon dioxide to fuel products including 
                        hydrocarbons, alcohols, carbon monoxide, and 
                        natural gas; and
                  ``(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency 
                and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
                research, development, and validation of physical 
                concepts developed under the program.
          ``(3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in paragraph 
        (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(4) Funding.--
                  ``(A) In general.--From within funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 of the Department of 
                Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Basic 
                Energy Sciences, the Secretary shall make available for 
                carrying out activities under this subsection 
                $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the program 
                described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy technology.
  ``(c) Biochemistry, Replication of Natural Photosynthesis, and 
Related Processes.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under the 
        Initiative a program to support research needed to replicate 
        natural photosynthetic processes by use of artificial 
        photosynthetic components and materials.
          ``(2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  ``(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
                Sciences shall support basic research to expand 
                fundamental knowledge to replicate natural synthesis 
                processes, including--
                          ``(i) the photoinduced reduction of 
                        dinitrogen to ammonia;
                          ``(ii) the absorption of carbon dioxide from 
                        ambient air;
                          ``(iii) molecular-based charge separation and 
                        storage;
                          ``(iv) photoinitiated electron transfer; and
                          ``(v) catalysis in biological or biomimetic 
                        systems;
                  ``(B) the Associate Director of Biological and 
                Environmental Research shall support systems biology 
                and genomics approaches to understand genetic and 
                physiological pathways connected to photosynthetic 
                mechanisms; and
                  ``(C) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency 
                and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
                research, development, and validation of physical 
                concepts developed under the program.
          ``(3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in paragraph 
        (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(4) Funding.--
                  ``(A) In general.--From within funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 of the Department of 
                Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Basic 
                Energy Sciences and Biological and Environmental 
                Research, the Secretary shall make available for 
                carrying out activities under this subsection 
                $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the program 
                described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy technology.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--The table of contents for the 
        Energy Policy Act of 2005 is amended by striking the item 
        relating to section 973 and inserting the following:

``Sec. 973. Solar fuels research initiative.''.

  (g) Electricity Storage Research Initiative.--
          (1) In general.--Section 975 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 
        (42 U.S.C. 16315) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 975. ELECTRICITY STORAGE RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  ``(a) Initiative.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a research 
        initiative, to be known as the `Electricity Storage Research 
        Initiative' (referred to in this section as the `Initiative')--
                  ``(A) to expand theoretical and fundamental knowledge 
                to control, store, and convert--
                          ``(i) electrical energy to chemical energy; 
                        and
                          ``(ii) chemical energy to electrical energy; 
                        and
                  ``(B) to support scientific inquiry into the 
                practical understanding of chemical and physical 
                processes that occur within systems involving 
                crystalline and amorphous solids, polymers, and organic 
                and aqueous liquids.
          ``(2) Leveraging.--In carrying out programs and activities 
        under the Initiative, the Secretary shall leverage expertise 
        and resources from--
                  ``(A) the Basic Energy Sciences Program, the Advanced 
                Scientific Computing Research Program, and the 
                Biological and Environmental Research Program of the 
                Office of Science; and
                  ``(B) the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
                Energy.
          ``(3) Teams.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In carrying out the Initiative, 
                the Secretary shall organize activities among 
                multidisciplinary teams to leverage, to the maximum 
                extent practicable, expertise from the National 
                Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and the 
                private sector.
                  ``(B) Goals.--The multidisciplinary teams described 
                in subparagraph (A) shall pursue aggressive, milestone-
                driven, basic research goals.
                  ``(C) Resources.--The Secretary shall provide 
                sufficient resources to the multidisciplinary teams 
                described in subparagraph (A) to achieve the goals 
                described in subparagraph (B) over a period of time to 
                be determined by the Secretary.
          ``(4) Additional activities.--The Secretary may organize 
        additional activities under this subsection through Energy 
        Frontier Research Centers, Energy Innovation Hubs, or other 
        organizational structures.
  ``(b) Multivalent Systems.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under the 
        Initiative a program to support research needed to bridge 
        scientific barriers to, and discover knowledge relevant to, 
        multivalent ion materials in electric energy storage systems.
          ``(2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  ``(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
                Sciences shall investigate electrochemical properties 
                and the dynamics of materials, including charge 
                transfer phenomena and mass transport in materials; and
                  ``(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency 
                and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
                research, development, and validation of physical 
                concepts developed under the program.
          ``(3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in paragraph 
        (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(4) Funding.--
                  ``(A) In general.--From within funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 of the Department of 
                Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Basic 
                Energy Sciences and Biological and Environmental 
                Research, the Secretary shall make available for 
                carrying out activities under this subsection 
                $50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2018 through 
                2019.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the program 
                described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy technology.
  ``(c) Electrochemistry Modeling and Simulation.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under the 
        Initiative a program to support research to model and simulate 
        organic electrolytes, including the static and dynamic 
        electrochemical behavior and phenomena of organic electrolytes 
        at the molecular and atomic level in monovalent and multivalent 
        systems.
          ``(2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  ``(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
                Sciences, in coordination with the Associate Director 
                of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, shall 
                support the development of high performance 
                computational tools through a joint development process 
                to maximize the effectiveness of current and projected 
                high performance computing systems; and
                  ``(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency 
                and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
                research, development, and validation of physical 
                concepts developed under the program.
          ``(3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in paragraph 
        (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(4) Funding.--
                  ``(A) In general.--From within funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 of the Department of 
                Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Basic 
                Energy Sciences and Advanced Scientific Computing 
                Research, the Secretary shall make available for 
                carrying out activities under this subsection 
                $30,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2018 through 
                2019.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the program 
                described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy technology.
  ``(d) Mesoscale Electrochemistry.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under the 
        Initiative a program to support research needed to reveal 
        electrochemistry in confined mesoscale spaces, including 
        scientific discoveries relevant to--
                  ``(A) bio-electrochemistry and electrochemical energy 
                conversion and storage in confined spaces; and
                  ``(B) the dynamics of the phenomena described in 
                subparagraph (A).
          ``(2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  ``(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy 
                Sciences and the Associate Director of Biological and 
                Environmental Research shall investigate phenomena of 
                mesoscale electrochemical confinement for the purpose 
                of replicating and controlling new electrochemical 
                behavior; and
                  ``(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency 
                and Renewable Energy shall support translational 
                research, development, and validation of physical 
                concepts developed under the program.
          ``(3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in paragraph 
        (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.
          ``(4) Funding.--
                  ``(A) In general.--From within funds authorized to be 
                appropriated under section 11 of the Department of 
                Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Basic 
                Energy Sciences and Biological and Environmental 
                Research, the Secretary shall make available for 
                carrying out activities under this subsection 
                $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  ``(B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the program 
                described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended 
                for commercial application of energy technology.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--The table of contents for the 
        Energy Policy Act of 2005 is amended by striking the item 
        relating to section 975 and inserting the following:

``Sec. 975. Electricity storage research initiative.''.

  (h) Energy Frontier Research Centers.--
          (1) In general.--The Director shall carry out a program to 
        provide awards, on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, to 
        multi-institutional collaborations or other appropriate 
        entities to conduct fundamental and use-inspired energy 
        research to accelerate scientific breakthroughs.
          (2) Collaborations.--A collaboration receiving an award under 
        this subsection may include multiple types of institutions and 
        private sector entities.
          (3) Selection and duration.--
                  (A) In general.--A collaboration under this 
                subsection shall be selected for a period of 4 years.
                  (B) Existing centers.--An Energy Frontier Research 
                Center in existence and supported by the Director on 
                the date of enactment of this Act may continue to 
                receive support for a period of 4 years beginning on 
                the date of establishment of that center.
                  (C) Reapplication.--After the end of the period 
                described in subparagraph (A) or (B), as applicable, a 
                recipient of an award may reapply for selection on a 
                competitive, merit-reviewed basis.
                  (D) Termination.--Consistent with the existing 
                authorities of the Department, the Director may 
                terminate an underperforming center for cause during 
                the performance period.
  (i) Materials Research Database.--
          (1) In general.--As part of the program in materials sciences 
        and engineering, the Director shall support the development of 
        a web-based platform to provide access to a database of 
        computed information on known and predicted materials 
        properties and computational tools to accelerate breakthroughs 
        in materials discovery and design.
          (2) In carrying out this section, the Director shall--
                  (A) conduct cooperative research with industry, 
                academia, and other research institutions to facilitate 
                the design of novel materials;
                  (B) leverage existing high performance computing 
                systems to conduct high-throughput calculations, and 
                develop computational and data mining algorithms for 
                the prediction of material properties;
                  (C) advance understanding, prediction, and 
                manipulation of materials;
                  (D) strengthen the foundation for new technologies 
                and advanced manufacturing; and
                  (E) drive the development of advanced materials for 
                applications that span the Department's missions in 
                energy, environment, and national security.
          (3) In carrying out this section, the Director shall leverage 
        programs and activities across the Department.

SEC. 5. ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING RESEARCH.

  (a) Program.--The Director shall carry out a research, development, 
and demonstration program to advance computational and networking 
capabilities to analyze, model, simulate, and predict complex phenomena 
relevant to the development of new energy technologies and the 
competitiveness of the United States.
  (b) American Super Computing Leadership.--
          (1) Renaming of act.--
                  (A) In general.--Section 1 of the Department of 
                Energy High-End Computing Revitalization Act of 2004 
                (15 U.S.C. 5501 note; Public Law 108-423) is amended by 
                striking ``Department of Energy High-End Computing 
                Revitalization Act of 2004'' and inserting ``American 
                Super Computing Leadership Act''.
                  (B) Conforming amendment.--Section 976(a)(1) of the 
                Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16316(1)) is 
                amended by striking ``Department of Energy High-End 
                Computing Revitalization Act of 2004'' and inserting 
                ``American Super Computing Leadership Act''.
          (2) Definitions.--Section 2 of the American Super Computing 
        Leadership Act (15 U.S.C. 5541), as renamed by paragraph (1), 
        is amended--
                  (A) by redesignating paragraphs (2) through (5) as 
                paragraphs (3) through (6), respectively;
                  (B) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the 
                following:
          ``(1) Department.--The term `Department' means the Department 
        of Energy.
          ``(2) Exascale computing.--The term `exascale computing' 
        means computing through the use of a computing machine that 
        performs near or above 10 to the 18th power operations per 
        second.''; and
                  (C) in paragraph (6) (as redesignated by subparagraph 
                (A)), by striking ``, acting through the Director of 
                the Office of Science of the Department of Energy''.
          (3) Department of energy high-end computing research and 
        development program.--Section 3 of the American Super Computing 
        Leadership Act (15 U.S.C. 5542), as renamed by paragraph (1), 
        is amended--
                  (A) in subsection (a)(1), by striking ``program'' and 
                inserting ``coordinated program across the 
                Department'';
                  (B) in subsection (b)(2), by striking ``, which may'' 
                and all that follows through ``multithreading 
                architectures''; and
                  (C) by striking subsection (d) and inserting the 
                following:
  ``(d) Exascale Computing Program.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct a research 
        program (referred to in this subsection as the `Program') for 
        exascale computing, including the development of two or more 
        exascale computing machine architectures, to promote the 
        missions of the Department.
          ``(2) Execution.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In carrying out the Program, the 
                Secretary shall--
                          ``(i) establish a National Laboratory 
                        partnership for industry partners and 
                        institutions of higher education for codesign 
                        of exascale hardware, technology, software, and 
                        applications across all applicable 
                        organizations of the Department;
                          ``(ii) acquire multiple exascale computing 
                        systems at the existing Departmental facilities 
                        that represent at least two distinct technology 
                        options developed under clause (i);
                          ``(iii) develop such advancements in hardware 
                        and software technology as are required to 
                        fully realize the potential of an exascale 
                        production system in addressing Department 
                        target applications and solving scientific 
                        problems involving predictive modeling and 
                        simulation, large scale data analytics and 
                        management, and artificial intelligence;
                          ``(iv) explore the use of exascale computing 
                        technologies to advance a broad range of 
                        science and engineering; and
                          ``(v) provide, as appropriate, on a 
                        competitive, merit-reviewed basis, access for 
                        researchers in industries in the United States, 
                        institutions of higher education, National 
                        Laboratories, and other Federal agencies to the 
                        exascale computing systems developed pursuant 
                        to clause (i).
                  ``(B) Selection of partners.--The Secretary shall 
                select the partnerships with the computing facilities 
                of the Department under subparagraph (A) through a 
                competitive, peer-review process.
          ``(3) Codesign and application development.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The Secretary shall--
                          ``(i) carry out the Program through an 
                        integration of applications, computer science, 
                        applied mathematics, and computer hardware 
                        architecture using the partnerships established 
                        pursuant to paragraph (2) to ensure that, to 
                        the maximum extent practicable, two or more 
                        exascale computing machine architectures are 
                        capable of solving Department target 
                        applications and broader scientific problems, 
                        including predictive modeling and simulation, 
                        large scale data analytics and management, and 
                        artificial intelligence; and
                          ``(ii) conduct outreach programs to increase 
                        the readiness for the use of such platforms by 
                        domestic industries, including manufacturers.
                  ``(B) Report.--(i) The Secretary shall submit to 
                Congress a report describing how the integration under 
                subparagraph (A) is furthering application science data 
                and computational workloads across application 
                interests, including national security, material 
                science, physical science, cybersecurity, biological 
                science, the Materials Genome and BRAIN Initiatives of 
                the President, advanced manufacturing, and the national 
                electric grid.
                  ``(ii) The roles and responsibilities of National 
                Laboratories and industry, including the definition of 
                the roles and responsibilities within the Department to 
                ensure an integrated program across the Department.
          ``(4) Project review.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The exascale architectures 
                developed pursuant to partnerships established pursuant 
                to paragraph (2) shall be reviewed through a project 
                review process.
                  ``(B) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date 
                of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall 
                submit to Congress a report on--
                          ``(i) the results of the review conducted 
                        under subparagraph (A); and
                          ``(ii) the coordination and management of the 
                        Program to ensure an integrated research 
                        program across the Department.
          ``(5) Annual reports.--At the time of the budget submission 
        of the Department for each fiscal year, the Secretary, in 
        consultation with the members of the partnerships established 
        pursuant to paragraph (2), shall submit to Congress a report 
        that describes funding for the Program as a whole by functional 
        element of the Department and critical milestones.''.
  (c) High-performance Computing and Networking Research.--The Director 
shall support research in high-performance computing and networking 
relevant to energy applications, including modeling, simulation, 
machine learning, and advanced data analytics for basic and applied 
energy research programs carried out by the Secretary.
  (d) Applied Mathematics and Software Development for High-end 
Computing Systems, Computational, and Computer Sciences Research.--
          (1) In general.--The Director shall carry out activities to 
        develop, test, and support--
                  (A) mathematics, models, statistics, and algorithms 
                for complex systems and programming environments; and
                  (B) tools, languages, and operations for high-end 
                computing systems (as defined in section 2 of the 
                American Super Computing Leadership Act (15 U.S.C. 
                5541), as renamed by this section).
          (2) Portfolio balance.--The Director shall maintain a 
        balanced portfolio within the advanced scientific computing 
        research and development program established under section 976 
        of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16316) that 
        supports robust investment in applied mathematical, 
        computational, and computer sciences research while 
        accommodating necessary investments in high-performance 
        computing hardware and facilities.
  (e) Workforce Development.--The Director of the Office of Advanced 
Scientific Computing Research shall support the development of a 
computational science workforce through a program that--
          (1) facilitates collaboration between university students and 
        researchers at the National Laboratories; and
          (2) endeavors to advance science in areas relevant to the 
        mission of the Department through the application of 
        computational science.

SEC. 6. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS.

  (a) Program.--The Director shall carry out a research program on the 
fundamental constituents of matter and energy and the nature of space 
and time.
  (b) Mission.--The mission of the program described in subsection (a) 
shall be to support theoretical and experimental research in both 
elementary particle physics and fundamental accelerator science and 
technology to understand fundamental properties of the universe.
  (c) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of the Congress that--
          (1) the Director should incorporate the findings and 
        recommendations of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization 
        Panel's report entitled ``Building for Discovery: Strategic 
        Plan for U.S. Particle Physics in the Global Context'', into 
        the Department's planning process as part of the program 
        described in subsection (a);
          (2) the Director should prioritize domestically hosted 
        research projects that will maintain the United States position 
        as a global leader in particle physics and attract the world's 
        most talented physicists and foreign investment for 
        international collaboration; and
          (3) the nations that lead in particle physics by hosting 
        international teams dedicated to a common scientific goal 
        attract the world's best talent and inspire future generations 
        of physicists and technologists.
  (d) Neutrino Research.--As part of the program described in 
subsection (a), the Director shall carry out research activities on 
rare decay processes and the nature of the neutrino, which may include 
collaborations with the National Science Foundation or international 
collaborations.
  (e) Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for Deep Underground Neutrino 
Experiment.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for a Long-
        Baseline Neutrino Facility to facilitate the international Deep 
        Underground Neutrino Experiment to enable a program in neutrino 
        physics to measure the fundamental properties of neutrinos, 
        explore physics beyond the Standard Model, and better clarify 
        the nature of matter and antimatter.
          (2) Facility capabilities.--The Secretary shall ensure that 
        the facility described in paragraph (1) will provide, at a 
        minimum, the following capabilities:
                  (A) A broad-band neutrino beam capable of 1.2 
                megawatts (MW) of beam power and upgradable to 2.4 MW 
                of beam power.
                  (B) Four caverns excavated for a forty kiloton 
                fiducial detector mass and supporting surface buildings 
                and utilities.
                  (C) Neutrino detector facilities at both the Far Site 
                in South Dakota and the Near Site in Illinois to 
                categorize and study neutrinos on their 800-mile 
                journey between the two sites.
                  (D) Cryogenic systems to support neutrino detectors.
          (3) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the maximum 
        extent practicable, ensure that the start of full operations of 
        the facility under this subsection occurs before December 31, 
        2026.
          (4) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be appropriated 
        under section 11 for High Energy Physics, there shall be made 
        available to the Secretary to carry out activities, including 
        construction of the facility, under this subsection--
                  (A) $95,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                  (B) $175,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.
          (5) Dark energy and dark matter research.--As part of the 
        program described in paragraph (1), the Director shall carry 
        out research activities on the nature of dark energy and dark 
        matter, which may include collaborations with the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration or the National Science 
        Foundation, or international collaborations.
          (6) International collaboration.--The Director, as 
        practicable and in coordination with other appropriate Federal 
        agencies as necessary, shall ensure the access of United States 
        researchers to the most advanced accelerator facilities and 
        research capabilities in the world, including the Large Hadron 
        Collider.

SEC. 7. BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH.

  (a) Program.--The Director shall carry out a program of basic 
research in the areas of biological systems science and environmental 
science relevant to the development of new energy technologies and to 
support Department missions in energy, environment, and national 
security.
  (b) Biological Systems.--The Director shall carry out research and 
development activities in fundamental, structural, computational, and 
systems biology to increase systems-level understanding of the complex 
biological systems, which may include activities--
          (1) to accelerate breakthroughs and new knowledge that would 
        enable the cost-effective, sustainable production of--
                  (A) biomass-based liquid transportation fuels;
                  (B) bioenergy; and
                  (C) biobased materials;
          (2) to improve understanding of the global carbon cycle, 
        including processes for removing carbon dioxide from the 
        atmosphere, through photosynthesis and other biological 
        processes, for sequestration and storage; and
          (3) to understand the biological mechanisms used to 
        transform, immobilize, or remove contaminants from subsurface 
        environments.
  (c) Bioenergy Research Centers.--
          (1) In general.--In carrying out activities under subsection 
        (a), the Director shall select and establish up to 4 bioenergy 
        research centers to conduct basic and fundamental research in 
        plant and microbial systems biology, bio imaging and analysis, 
        and genomics to inform the production of fuels, chemicals from 
        sustainable biomass resources, and to facilitate the 
        translation of basic research results to industry.
          (2) Selection.--The Director shall select centers under 
        paragraph (1) on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis. The 
        Director shall consider applications from National 
        Laboratories, multi-institutional collaborations, and other 
        appropriate entities.
          (3) Duration.--A center established under this subsection 
        shall receive support for a period of not more than 5 years, 
        subject to the availability of appropriations.
          (4) Existing centers.--The Director may select a center for 
        participation under this subsection that is in existence, or 
        undergoing a renewal process, on the date of enactment of this 
        Act. Such center shall be eligible to receive support for the 
        duration the 5-year period beginning on the date of 
        establishment of such center.
          (5) Renewal.--Upon the expiration of any period of support of 
        a center under this subsection, the Director may renew support 
        for the center, on a merit-reviewed basis, for a period of not 
        more than 5 years.
          (6) Termination.--Consistent with the existing authorities of 
        the Department, the Director may terminate an underperforming 
        center for cause during the performance period.
  (d) Low Dose Radiation Research Program.--
          (1) In general.--Subtitle G of title IX of the Energy Policy 
        Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16311 et seq.) is amended by inserting 
        after section 977 the following new section:

``SEC. 977A. LOW-DOSE RADIATION RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  ``(a) In General.--The Secretary shall carry out a basic research 
program on low-dose radiation to--
          ``(1) enhance the scientific understanding of, and reduce 
        uncertainties associated with, the effects of exposure to low-
        dose radiation; and
          ``(2) inform improved risk-assessment and risk-management 
        methods with respect to such radiation.
  ``(b) Program Components.--In carrying out the program required under 
subsection (a), the Secretary shall--
          ``(1) formulate scientific goals for low-dose radiation basic 
        research in the United States;
          ``(2) identify ongoing scientific challenges for 
        understanding the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on 
        biological systems;
          ``(3) develop a long-term strategic and prioritized basic 
        research agenda to address such scientific challenges in 
        coordination with other research efforts;
          ``(4) leverage the collective body of knowledge from existing 
        low-dose radiation research; and
          ``(5) engage with other Federal agencies, research 
        communities, and potential users of information produced under 
        this section, including institutions concerning radiation 
        research, medical physics, radiology, health physics, and 
        emergency response.
  ``(c) Coordination.--In carrying out the program, the Secretary, in 
coordination with the Physical Science Subcommittee of the National 
Science and Technology Council, shall--
          ``(1) support the directives under section 106 of the 
        American Innovation and Competitiveness Act (42 U.S.C. 6601 
        note);
          ``(2) ensure that the Office of Science of the Department of 
        Energy consults with the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the 
        Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, the 
        Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Homeland 
        Security;
          ``(3) advise and assist the National Science and Technology 
        Council on policies and initiatives in radiation biology, 
        including enhancing scientific knowledge of the effects of low-
        dose radiation on biological systems to improve radiation risk-
        assessment and risk-management methods; and
          ``(4) identify opportunities to stimulate international 
        cooperation relating to low-dose radiation and leverage 
        research and knowledge from sources outside of the United 
        States.
  ``(d) Research Plan.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a 4-year 
research plan that identifies and prioritizes basic research needs 
relating to low-dose radiation. In developing such plan, the Secretary 
shall incorporate the components described in subsection (b).
  ``(e) Definition of Low-dose Radiation.--In this section, the term 
`low-dose radiation' means a radiation dose of less than 100 
millisieverts.
  ``(f) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to subject any research carried out by the Secretary for the 
program under this section to any limitations described in 977(e) of 
the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16317(e)).
  ``(g) Funding.--From within funds authorized to be appropriated under 
section 11 of the Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act of 
2018, for Biological and Environmental Research, the Secretary make 
available to carry out this section--
          ``(1) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
          ``(2) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--The table of contents for subtitle 
        G of title IX of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 is amended by 
        inserting after the item relating to section 977 the following:

``977A. Low-dose radiation research program.''.

  (e) Modeling Research.--As part of the activities described in 
subsection (a), the Director is authorized to carry out research to 
develop multiscale computational models that incorporate and examine 
interactions among human and earth systems.
  (f) Limitation for Research Funds.--The Director shall not approve 
new climate science-related initiatives without making a determination 
that such work is well-coordinated with any relevant work carried out 
by other Federal agencies.

SEC. 8. FUSION ENERGY.

  (a) Program.--The Director shall carry out a fusion energy sciences 
research program to expand the understanding of plasmas and matter at 
very high temperatures and densities and build the science and 
engineering foundation needed to develop a fusion energy source.
  (b) Inertial Fusion Energy Research and Development Program.--The 
Secretary shall carry out a program of research and technology 
development in inertial fusion for energy applications, including ion 
beam, laser, and pulsed power fusion systems.
  (c) Tokamak Research and Development.--
          (1) In general.--The Director shall support research and 
        development activities and facility operations to optimize the 
        tokamak approach to fusion energy.
          (2) International thermonuclear experimental reactor 
        construction.--Section 972 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 
        U.S.C. 16312) is amended by adding at the end the following new 
        paragraph:
          ``(7) ITER construction.--
                  ``(A) In general.--There is authorized United States 
                participation in the construction and operations of the 
                ITER project, as agreed to under the April 25, 2007 
                `Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER 
                International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint 
                Implementation of the ITER Project.'.
                  ``(B) Facility requirements.--The Secretary shall 
                ensure that the mission-oriented user facility will 
                enable the study of a burning plasma, and shall be 
                built to have the following characteristics in its full 
                configuration:
                          ``(i) A tokamak device with a plasma radius 
                        of 6.2 meters and a magnetic field of 5.3 T.
                          ``(ii) Capable of creating and sustaining a 
                        15-million-Ampere plasma current for greater 
                        than 300 seconds.
                  ``(C) Authorization of appropriations.--From within 
                funds authorized to be appropriated under section 11 of 
                the Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act of 
                2018, for Fusion Energy Sciences, there is authorized 
                for in-kind contributions under this paragraph--
                          ``(i) $122,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          ``(ii) $163,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.
                  ``(D) Authorization of appropriations.--From within 
                funds authorized to be appropriated under section 11 of 
                the Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act of 
                2018, for Fusion Energy Sciences, there is authorized 
                for cash contributions under this paragraph--
                          ``(i) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                          ``(ii) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.''.
  (d) Alternative and Enabling Concepts.--
          (1) In general.--As part of the program described in 
        subsection (a), the Director shall support research and 
        development activities and facility operations at United States 
        universities, national laboratories, and private facilities for 
        a portfolio of alternative and enabling fusion energy concepts 
        that may provide solutions to significant challenges to the 
        establishment of a commercial magnetic fusion power plant, 
        prioritized based on the ability of the United States to play a 
        leadership role in the international fusion research community. 
        Fusion energy concepts and activities explored under this 
        paragraph may include--
                  (A) high magnetic field approaches facilitated by 
                high temperature superconductors;
                  (B) advanced stellarator concepts;
                  (C) non-tokamak confinement configurations operating 
                at low magnetic fields;
                  (D) magnetized target fusion energy concepts;
                  (E) liquid metals to address issues associated with 
                fusion plasma interactions with the inner wall of the 
                encasing device;
                  (F) immersion blankets for heat management and fuel 
                breeding;
                  (G) advanced scientific computing activities; and
                  (H) other promising fusion energy concepts identified 
                by the Director.
          (2) Coordination with arpa-e.--The Under Secretary and the 
        Director shall coordinate with the Director of the Advanced 
        Research Projects Agency-Energy (in this paragraph referred to 
        as ``ARPA-E'') to--
                  (A) assess the potential for any fusion energy 
                project supported by ARPA-E to represent a promising 
                approach to a commercially viable fusion power plant;
                  (B) determine whether the results of any fusion 
                energy project supported by ARPA-E merit the support of 
                follow-on research activities carried out by the Office 
                of Science; and
                  (C) avoid unintentional duplication of activities.
  (e) Fairness in Competition for Solicitations for International 
Project Activities.--Section 33 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 
U.S.C. 2053) is amended by inserting before the first sentence the 
following: ``In this section, with respect to international research 
projects, the term `private facilities or laboratories' means 
facilities or laboratories located in the United States.''.
  (f) Identification of Priorities.--
          (1) Report.--
                  (A) In general.--Not later than 2 years after the 
                date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall 
                submit to Congress a report on the fusion energy 
                research and development activities that the Department 
                proposes to carry out over the 10-year period following 
                the date of the report under not fewer than 3 realistic 
                budget scenarios, including a scenario based on 3-
                percent annual growth in the non-ITER portion of the 
                budget for fusion energy research and development 
                activities.
                  (B) Inclusions.--The report required under 
                subparagraph (A) shall--
                          (i) identify specific areas of fusion energy 
                        research and enabling technology development, 
                        including activities to advance inertial and 
                        alternative fusion energy concepts, in which 
                        the United States can and should establish or 
                        solidify a lead in the global fusion energy 
                        development effort;
                          (ii) identify priorities for initiation of 
                        facility construction and facility 
                        decommissioning under each of the three budget 
                        scenarios described in subparagraph (A); and
                          (iii) assess the ability of the fusion 
                        workforce of the United States to carry out the 
                        activities identified under clauses (i) and 
                        (ii), including the adequacy of programs at 
                        institutions of higher education in the United 
                        States to train the leaders and workers of the 
                        next generation of fusion energy researchers.
          (2) Process.--In order to develop the report required under 
        paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall leverage best practices 
        and lessons learned from the process used to develop the most 
        recent report of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization 
        Panel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel.
          (3) Requirement.--No member of the Fusion Energy Sciences 
        Advisory Committee shall be excluded from participating in 
        developing or voting on final approval of the report required 
        under paragraph (1)(A).

SEC. 9. NUCLEAR PHYSICS.

  (a) Program.--The Director shall carry out a program of experimental 
and theoretical research, and support associated facilities, to 
discover, explore, and understand all forms of nuclear matter.
  (b) Isotope Development and Production for Research Applications.--
The Director--
          (1) may carry out a program for the production of isotopes, 
        including the development of techniques to produce isotopes, 
        that the Secretary determines are needed for research, medical, 
        industrial, or related purposes; and
          (2) shall ensure that isotope production activities carried 
        out under the program under this paragraph do not compete with 
        private industry unless the Director determines that critical 
        national interests require the involvement of the Federal 
        Government.
  (c) Renaming of the Rare Isotope Accelerator.--Section 981 of the 
Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16321) is amended--
          (1) in the section heading, by striking ``rare isotope 
        accelerator'' and inserting ``facility for rare isotope 
        beams''; and
          (2) by striking ``Rare Isotope Accelerator'' each place it 
        appears and inserting ``Facility for Rare Isotope Beams''.
  (d) Facility for Rare Isotope Beams.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall provide for a Facility 
        for Rare Isotope Beams to advance the understanding of rare 
        nuclear isotopes and the evolution of the cosmos.
          (2) Facility capability.--In carrying out paragraph (1), the 
        Secretary shall provide for, at a minimum, a rare isotope beam 
        facility capable of 400 kW of beam power.
          (3) Start of operations.--The Secretary shall, to the maximum 
        extent practicable, ensure that the start of full operations of 
        the facility under this subsection occurs before June 30, 2022, 
        with early operation in 2018.
          (4) Funding.--Out of funds authorized to be appropriated 
        under section 11 for Nuclear Physics, there shall be made 
        available to the Secretary to carry out activities, including 
        construction of the facility, under this subsection--
                  (A) $101,200,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
                  (B) $86,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.

SEC. 10. SCIENCE LABORATORIES INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Director shall carry out a program to improve 
the safety, efficiency, and mission readiness of infrastructure at 
Office of Science laboratories. The program shall include projects to--
          (1) renovate or replace space that does not meet research 
        needs;
          (2) replace facilities that are no longer cost effective to 
        renovate or operate;
          (3) modernize utility systems to prevent failures and ensure 
        efficiency;
          (4) remove excess facilities to allow safe and efficient 
        operations; and
          (5) construct modern facilities to conduct advanced research 
        in controlled environmental conditions.
  (b) Approach.--In carrying out this section, the Director shall 
utilize all available approaches and mechanisms, including capital line 
items, minor construction projects, energy savings performance 
contracts, utility energy service contracts, alternative financing, and 
expense funding, as appropriate.

SEC. 11. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  (a) Fiscal Year 2018.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
Secretary for the Office of Science for fiscal year 2018 
$6,259,903,000, of which--
          (1) $2,090,000,000 shall be for Basic Energy Science;
          (2) $908,000,000 shall be for High Energy Physics;
          (3) $673,000,000 shall be for Biological and Environmental 
        Research;
          (4) $684,000,000 shall be for Nuclear Physics;
          (5) $810,000,000 shall be for Advanced Scientific Computing 
        Research;
          (6) $532,111,000 shall be for Fusion Energy Sciences;
          (7) $257,292,000 shall be for Science Laboratories 
        Infrastructure;
          (8) $183,000,000 shall be for Science Program Direction;
          (9) $103,000,000 shall be for Safeguards and Security; and
          (10) $19,500,000 shall be for Workforce Development for 
        Teachers and Scientists.
  (b) Fiscal Year 2019.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
Secretary for the Office of Science for fiscal year 2019 
$6,600,000,000, of which--
          (1) $2,129,233,000 shall be for Basic Energy Science;
          (2) $1,004,510,000 shall be for High Energy Physics;
          (3) $673,000,000 shall be for Biological and Environmental 
        Research;
          (4) $690,000,000 shall be for Nuclear Physics;
          (5) $899,010,000 shall be for Advanced Scientific Computing 
        Research;
          (6) $640,000,000 shall be for Fusion Energy Sciences;
          (7) $257,292,000 shall be for Science Laboratories 
        Infrastructure;
          (8) $181,345,000 shall be for Science Program Direction;
          (9) $106,110,000 shall be for Safeguards and Security; and
          (10) $19,500,000 shall be for Workforce Development for 
        Teachers and Scientists.

                     Committee Statement and Views


                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The purpose of H.R. 5905, the ``Department of Energy 
Science and Innovation Act of 2018,'' is to provide for 
technological innovation through the prioritization of Federal 
investment in basic research and fundamental scientific 
discovery, and to make reforms to Federal science policy at the 
Department of Energy to ensure future United States economic 
competitiveness and security.
    This bill authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE)'s 
Office of Science for fiscal years (FY) 2018 and 2019, 
including fundamental research in basic energy sciences (BES), 
advanced scientific computing research (ASCR), high energy 
physics (HEP), biological and environmental research (BER), 
fusion energy science (FES), and nuclear physics (NP). It also 
specifically authorizes basic research programs in solar fuels, 
electricity storage, exascale computing, bioenergy research, 
materials research, and low dose radiation.
    This legislation also authorizes upgrades to and 
construction of seven major DOE user facilities and provides 
funds to secure U.S. participation in a critical international 
fusion research project.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    Federal policies that focus on scientific and technological 
advancement have been a recurring subject of congressional 
attention since the founding of the United States. Among the 
major post-World War II legislation in this area are the Atomic 
Energy Act of 1954 (P.L. 83-703), the Department of Energy 
Organization Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-91), the Energy Policy Act of 
1992 (P.L. 102-486), the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-
58), and the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully 
Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science 
(COMPETES) Act (P.L. 110-69).
    In 2010, Congress passed and the President signed into law, 
the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-
358). This authorization included limited provisions directing 
programs within the Department of Energy, including the DOE 
Office of Science, and expired at the end of 2014.
    H.R. 5905 authorizes all Office of Science basic research 
programs, and if enacted, would be the first comprehensive DOE 
basic research authorization in law. This legislation also 
authorizes specific basic research in exascale computing, 
chemistry and materials science relevant to advanced 
electricity storage systems, chemistry and materials science 
relevant to experimental solar fuels systems, and low dose 
radiation research.
    The Office of Science within the Department of Energy (DOE) 
is the largest federal sponsor of basic research in the 
physical sciences. It conducts research in high performance 
computing, basic energy sciences, biological and environmental 
research, high energy physics, fusion energy, and nuclear 
physics.
    DOE also operates world-class, open-access user facilities 
around the country at the DOE national laboratories. These 
facilities include the supercomputers, x-ray light sources, 
photon sources, and neutron sources necessary to conduct 
ground-breaking basic research, and host approximately 30,000 
researchers annually from around the world.
    The Committee recognizes that these best-in-the-world 
science facilities uniquely enable research conducted through 
the DOE Office of Science and other federal sponsors of basic 
research, and facilitate revolutionary discoveries about the 
atomic structure, properties, and dynamics of materials. Future 
transformative breakthroughs in innovative energy technologies 
will likely arise from a strong foundation in basic research, 
particularly in the study of and development of unique 
materials, for which the facilities authorized in this bill 
provide critical capabilities. For this reason, this 
legislation specifically authorizes funding to provide for 
upgrades and construction for these critical science research 
facilities.

Research infrastructure

    This legislation relies on the assessments of the 
Department and the scientific community, primarily through the 
long-range planning function of the DOE Office of Science Basic 
Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC), the Nuclear Science 
Advisory Committee (NSAC), and the High Energy Physics Advisory 
Panel (HEPAP). These advisory committees, chartered under the 
Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and comprised of 
representatives from universities, national laboratories, and 
industries involved in relevant areas of research, provide 
official technical advice to the Department and other federal 
agencies on the national program priorities for basic energy 
sciences, nuclear science research, and high-energy physics 
research.
    Based on the recommendations provided in the most recent 
reports issued from each advisory committee, H.R. 5905 
authorizes the completion of upgrades and construction of 
scientific user facilities necessary to undertake the next 
generation of transformative research in these areas. Under 
this legislation, the Secretary of Energy is authorized to 
provide for an upgrade to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at 
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and a high energy 
upgrade to the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) at 
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center National Laboratory (SLAC), 
an upgrade to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne 
National Laboratory in IL, as well as a Proton Power Upgrade 
(PPU) and the construction of a Second Target Station (STS) for 
the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National 
Laboratory (ORNL) under the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program 
within the DOE Office of Science.
    The Secretary is also authorized to complete the 
construction of Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), located 
at Michigan State University, funded through the Office of 
Nuclear Physics (NP), and to construct the Long-Baseline 
Neutrino Facility (LBNF) underground sites at Fermi National 
Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, IL, and the 
Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD, in 
order to complete the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment 
(DUNE) funded by the High Energy Physics (HEP) program within 
the DOE Office of Science.
    The ALS is a specialized particle accelerator that 
generates bright beams of x-ray light for scientific research. 
Electron bunches travel at nearly the speed of light in a 
circular path, emitting ultraviolet and x-ray light in the 
process. The light is directed through about 40 beamlines to 
numerous experimental end-stations, where scientists conduct 
research in a wide variety of fields, including materials 
science, biology, chemistry, physics, and the environmental 
sciences. The ALS-U will employ new technology to produce 
highly focused beams of soft x-ray light that are up to 1000 
times brighter than current capability. Soft x-rays, like those 
produced at the ALS, are optimal for probing the electronic 
structure of chemicals and materials.
    LCLS-II is the world's first hard x-ray free-electron 
laser. Scientists use its strobe-like pulses to take crisp 
pictures of atomic motions, watch chemical reactions unfold, 
probe the properties of materials and explore fundamental 
processes in living things. The LCLS-II high energy upgrade 
(LCLS-II-HE) will build on the success of LCLS-II to ensure 
that the U.S. maintains a world-leading capability for advanced 
research in chemistry, materials, biology and energy. LCLS-II-
HE will provide a major jump in capability--moving from 120 
pulses per second to 1 million pulses per second, and will 
enable researchers to perform experiments in a wide range of 
fields that are now impossible.
    The APS is one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation 
research facilities in the world. The APS produces ultra-
bright, high-energy, storage ring-generated x-ray beams which 
enable scientists to study the structure and behavior of 
physical and biological materials. This research enables 
innovation in many fields, including materials synthesis and 
pharmaceutical development. The APS-U will increase the 
brightness of the APS hard x-ray beams, which allows more x-
rays to be focused onto a smaller area and provides more 
detailed data for researchers in less time. Hard x-rays, like 
those produced at the APS, are optimal for determining the 
atomic structure of materials and penetrating into condensed 
phase media.
    The SNS is a one-of-a-kind neutron scattering research 
facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in 
the world for scientific research and industrial development. 
This source of brighter and more intense neutrons enables 
unprecedented research opportunities, allowing scientists to 
make sensitive measurements in complex sample environments, 
with higher resolution and speed than any existing neutron 
facility.
    The SNS-PPU will update the SNS accelerator complex, 
doubling the power of its proton beam and greatly increasing 
the flux (the neutron density (n) multiplied by neutron 
velocity (v)) on SNS's existing First Target Station neutron 
beamlines. This will correspondingly increase the capacity and 
capability of these neutron beamlines to power important 
experiments and analyses.
    The SNS-PPU will also provide power for the SNS-STS. In 
order to maintain its leadership in the field of neutron 
science, the SNS requires a second target station to provide 
opportunity to a growing research community. The STS will 
double the number of beamlines at SNS, significantly expanding 
the number of instrument stations and opportunities for 
cutting-edge neutron scattering research at this facility. 
Combined, the PPU and the STS will allow SNS to reach its full 
potential and provide for world-leading neutron science here in 
the U.S.
    The Department's longstanding support and prioritization of 
the ALS upgrade, the high energy upgrade to LCLS-II, the APS 
upgrade, and the two upgrades to the SNS is documented in a 
publication of the Office of Science titled, ``Facilities for 
the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook,'' published 
November 2003, and its publication of ``Four Years Later: An 
Interim Report on Facilities for the Future of Science: A 
Twenty-Year Outlook,'' published August 2007. In June 2016, the 
BESAC released a report titled, ``Report on Facility 
Upgrades,'' which identified the ALS-U, the LCLS-II-HE, the 
APS-U, SNS-PPU, and SNS-STS as the five priority upgrade 
projects within BES. In this report, the BESAC determined that 
these facilities are absolutely central to U.S. contributions 
to world leading science.
    DOE nuclear physics research programs support the 
experimental and theoretical research needed to discover, 
explore, and understand all forms of nuclear matter. Within the 
area of low energy nuclear physics research, FRIB will advance 
the understanding of rare nuclear isotopes and the evolution of 
the cosmos. FRIB, which is currently under construction, is a 
one-of-a-kind, linear accelerator user facility that will use 
fast, stopped, and reaccelerated rare isotope beams to allow 
researchers to study a variety of rare isotopes and their 
properties.
    FRIB will expand the foundational understanding of nuclear 
structure, the atomic interactions of nuclear species, and the 
origin of elements, and will enable critical nuclear science 
research across a wide breadth of fields, ranging from medicine 
to astrophysics.
    The Department's longstanding support of the construction 
of a rare isotope accelerator is documented in a publication of 
NSAC titled, ``Opportunities in Nuclear Science, A Long-Range 
Plan for the Next Decade,'' published April 2002. In December 
2007, NSAC recommended the construction of FRIB in its 
publication of ``The Frontiers of Nuclear Science, A Long Range 
Plan,'' and in October 2015, NSAC listed the completion of FRIB 
construction as one of the committee's highest priorities in 
its publication titled, ``Reaching for the Horizon: The 2015 
Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science.''
    The HEP program is tasked with conducting the theoretical 
and experimental particle physics and accelerator science and 
technology in order to discover the most elementary 
constituents of matter and energy, the basic nature of space 
and time, and interactions between the two. The LBNF project is 
a critical component of these long-term research goals.
    The LBNF is an internationally coordinated project, 
designed to build the world's highest intensity neutrino beam 
and a suite of cryogenic near detectors at Fermilab. This 
facility will be used to run the Deep Underground Neutrino 
Experiment (DUNE), which will measure the neutrino beamline 
generated at LBNF on cutting-edge, far detectors located 800 
miles away at the SURF in South Dakota.
    Longstanding support for construction of this world-leading 
neutrino facility is documented in the HEPAP report titled, 
``US Particle Physics: Scientific Opportunities, A Strategic 
Plan for the Next Ten Years, Report of the Particle Physics 
Project Prioritization Panel,'' published May 2008, and in its 
publication titled, ``Major High Energy Physics Facilities 
2014-2024, Input to the prioritization of proposed scientific 
user facilities for the Office of Science,'' published March 
2013. In May 2014, HEPAP named the execution of the LBNF at 
Fermilab as ``the highest priority large project in its 
timeframe,'' in its publication titled, ``Building for 
Discovery: Strategic Plan for U.S. Particle Physics in the 
Global Context, Report of the Particle Physics Prioritization 
Panel.''

Basic research priorities

    H.R. 5905 also identifies and authorizes critical basic 
research initiatives throughout the Office of Science. This 
includes programs in electricity storage, solar fuels, 
materials science, high performance computing, low dose 
radiation research, and fusion energy.
    Within the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, H.R. 5905 
authorizes basic research in chemistry and materials science 
relevant to advanced electricity storage systems and 
experimental solar fuels systems. It directs DOE to organize 
its efforts to advance scientific knowledge relevant to 
advanced electricity storage concepts under the new Electricity 
Storage Basic Research Initiative, and to advance artificial 
photosynthesis, photosynthesis replication, and related 
processes to produce chemical energy, under the new Solar Fuels 
Basic Research Initiative.
    Another key area of basic research authorized in this 
legislation is high performance computing, authorized within 
the Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. High 
performance computation maintains U.S. competitiveness in the 
global market for scientific research and development. The next 
generation of high performance computing facilities, also known 
as exascale computing systems, will require new developments in 
hardware and software. The capabilities provided by exascale 
systems will be significantly more advanced than current 
capabilities and serve as a mechanism to greatly enhance 
scientific research and will also support DOE's nuclear weapons 
stockpile stewardship mission.
    Accordingly, this legislation provides the Department with 
statutory authority to build and operate first-of-a-kind 
exascale computing systems incorporating increased resiliency 
features and optimized power requirements.
    This legislation also authorizes a specific program in low 
dose radiation research within the Biological and Environmental 
Research (BER) program.
    There is wide consensus among the radiobiology community 
that more research is necessary for physicians and related 
experts to make better informed decisions regarding the health 
risks associated with low doses of ionizing radiation. This 
consensus is referenced in the June 2005 publication of The 
National Academies Press titled, ``Health Risks From Exposure 
to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2,'' and in 
the 2012 publication of the National Council on Radiation 
Protection and Measurements titled, ``Report No. 171--
Uncertainties in the Estimation of Radiation Risks and 
Probability of Disease Causation'', and in a September 2017 
publication of the Government Accountability Office (GAO) 
titled, ``Low Dose Radiation: Interagency Collaboration on 
Planning Research Could Improve Information on Health 
Effects,'' which recommends that DOE lead the development of a 
mechanism for interagency collaboration on research of the 
health effects linked to low dose radiation exposures. Based on 
the recommendations provided in the GAO publication, as well as 
consistent feedback provided to this Committee by researchers 
and stakeholders in the radiation biology and medical 
communities, H.R. 5905 reinstates the Department's historical 
leadership in this field and authorizes DOE to re-start the 
low-dose radiation basic research program.
    Within the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program, H.R. 5905 
authorizes both tokamak fusion research and inertial fusion 
research. Specifically, this legislation asserts Congressional 
support for the International Thermonuclear Experimental 
Reactor (ITER) Project. Considered the leading research 
initiative in fusion science, the goal of ITER project is to 
design, build, and operate the world's first net-energy 
producing fusion device. The ITER project is a critical step on 
the path to achieving commercial fusion energy, a 
transformative clean energy technology for the next generation. 
Appropriately, this legislation prioritizes the Department's 
contribution to this critical field of basic research.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    During the 114th and 115th Congresses, the House Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology held 16 hearings relevant to 
the activities authorized in this bill.
    On January 7, 2015, H.R. 35, the Low-Dose Radiation 
Research Act of 2015, passed the House under suspension of the 
rules.
    On January 28, 2015, the Subcommittee on Energy held a 
hearing entitled, ``Super Computing and American Technology 
Leadership.'' The purpose of this hearing was to assess the 
Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program within 
the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science as a 
mechanism to support technological advancement in the United 
States. This hearing examined DOE high performance computing 
(HPC) facilities' unique ability to accelerate innovation and 
inform the Committee regarding the applications and benefits 
from sustained investment in the ASCR program. Witnesses 
included Mr. Norman Augustine, Board Member, Bipartisan Policy 
Center; Dr. Roscoe Giles, Chairman, DOE Advanced Scientific 
Computing Advisory Committee; Mr. David Turek, Vice President, 
Technical Computing, IBM; and Dr. James Crowley, Executive 
Director, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
    On February 25, 2015, the Full Committee held a hearing 
entitled, ``An Overview of the Budget Proposal for the 
Department of Energy for Fiscal Year 2016.'' The purpose of 
this hearing was to examine the Department of Energy's science 
and technology priorities and their impact on the allocation of 
funding within the Department's research, development, 
demonstration, and commercialization activities. The witness 
was The Honorable Ernest Moniz, Secretary, U.S. Department of 
Energy.
    On April 15, 2015, H.R. 1806 was introduced by 
Representative Lamar Smith, with Mr. Lucas, Mrs. Comstock, Mr. 
Weber of Texas, Mr. Moolenaar, Mr. Palazzo, Mr. Hultgren, Mr. 
Knight, Mr. Babin, and Mr. Loudermilk.
    On May 1, 2015, the Subcommittee on Energy held a hearing 
titled ``Innovations in Battery Storage for Renewable Energy,'' 
which explored the state of large-scale battery storage and key 
technology breakthroughs achieved through research and 
development at the national labs and the Department of Energy, 
and how innovative energy storage companies use basic science 
research to develop and move breakthrough battery storage 
technology to the energy market.
    On May 20, 2015, H.R. 1806, the America COMPETES 
Reauthorization Act of 2015, passed the House.
    On June 17, 2015, the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology held a hearing titled 
``Department of Energy Oversight: Energy Innovation Hubs,'' 
which scrutinized the effectiveness of the DOE's model for 
energy innovation by leveraging expertise from the DOE 
laboratories, universities, and the private sector.
    On November 18, 2015, the Energy Subcommittee held a 
hearing titled, ``Recommendations of the Commission to Review 
the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories.'' 
Witnesses were: Mr. TJ Glauthier, Co-Chair, Commission to 
Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories; 
Dr. Jared L. Cohon, Co-Chair, Commission to Review the 
Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories; Dr. Peter, 
Littlewood, Director, Argonne National Laboratory.
    On March 22, 2016, the Committee held a hearing titled, 
``An Overview of the Budget Proposal for the Department of 
Energy for Fiscal Year 2017.'' The witness was The Honorable 
Ernest Moniz, Secretary of Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.
    On June 15, 2016, the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology held a hearing titled, 
``Innovation in Solar Fuels, Electricity Storage, and Advanced 
Materials,'' which explored opportunities in basic and early 
stage research and development for experimental solar fuels 
systems.
    On September 21, 2016, the Oversight Subcommittee and the 
Energy Subcommittee held a joint hearing titled, ``Examining 
Misconduct and Intimidation of Scientists by Senior DOE 
Officials.'' Witnesses were: Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax, Associate 
Director, Biological and Environmental Research, U.S. 
Department of Energy; Dr. Noelle Metting, Radiation Biologist, 
U.S. Department of Energy.
    On January 6, 2017, S. 3084, the American Innovation and 
Competitiveness Act, which includes authority for DOE to 
formulate scientific goals for future low-dose radiation 
research and to ensure coordination between Federal agencies 
for research in radiation biology, was signed into law (P.L. 
114-329).
    On January 24, 2017, H.R. 589, the Department of Energy 
Research and Innovation Act, which includes policy directives 
for the DOE Office of Science, passed the House without 
amendment.
    On June 28, 2017, the Energy Subcommittee and the Research 
and Technology Subcommittee held a hearing titled, ``Material 
Science: Building the Future.'' Witnesses were: Dr. Matthew 
Tirrell, Deputy Laboratory Director for Science and Chief 
Research Officer, Argonne National Laboratory; Dr. Laurie 
Locascio, Acting Associate Director for Laboratory Programs and 
Director, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute 
of Standards and Technology; Dr. Adam Schwartz, Director, Ames 
Laboratory; Dr. Fred Higgs, John and Ann Doerr Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering, Rice University.
    On July 19, 2017, the Committee held a hearing titled, 
``Energy Innovation: Letting Technology Lead.'' Witnesses were: 
Dr. Jacob DeWitte, President and CEO, Oklo; Dr. Gaurav N. Sant, 
Associate Professor and Henry Samueli Fellow, Department of 
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Henry Samueli School of 
Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los 
Angeles; Dr. Venky Narayanamurti, Benjamin Peirce Research 
Professor of Technology and Public Policy, John A. Paulson 
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University; 
Mr. Kiran Kumaraswamy, Market Development Director, AES Energy 
Storage.
    On November 1, 2017, the Energy Subcommittee held a hearing 
titled, ``The Future of Low Dose Radiation Research.'' 
Witnesses were: Mr. John Neumann, Director of Science and 
Technology Issues, Government Accountability Office; Dr. Gayle 
Woloschak, Professor of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, 
Northwestern University; Dr. James Brink, Professor of 
Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Radiologist-in-Chief, 
Massachusetts General Hospital.
    On November 13, 2017, Energy Subcommittee Vice Chair 
Stephen Knight introduced H.R. 4376, the Department of Energy 
Research Infrastructure Act of 2018, and Rep. Randy Hultgren 
introduced H.R. 4377, the Accelerating American Innovation in 
Science Act of 2018, which were referred solely to the 
Committee.
    On November 15, 2017, the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology approved and ordered reported H.R. 4376 and H.R. 
4377 by voice vote.
    On December 3, 2017, Rep. Roger Marshall introduced H.R. 
4675, the Low Dose Radiation Research Act of 2018 which was 
referred solely to the Committee.
    On January 30, 2018, the Committee held a hearing titled, 
``Department of Energy: Management and Priorities.'' Witnesses 
were the Honorable Paul Dabbar, Under Secretary for Science, 
U.S. Department of Energy, and the Honorable Mark Menezes, 
Under Secretary of Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.
    On February 13, 2018, H.R. 4376, H.R. 4377, and H.R. 4675 
passed the House under suspension of the rules.
    On March 6, 2018, the Energy Subcommittee held a hearing 
titled, ``The Future of U.S. Fusion Energy Research.'' 
Witnesses were Dr. Bernard Bigot, Director General of the ITER 
Organization, Dr. James Van Dam, Acting Associate Director of 
Fusion Energy Sciences, Department of Energy Office of Science, 
Dr. Mickey Wade, the Director of Advanced Fusion Systems, 
Magnetic Fusion Energy Division at General Atomics, and Dr. 
Mark Herrmann, the Director of the National Ignition Facility 
at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    On March 13, 2018, the Committee held a hearing titled, 
``National Laboratories: World-Leading Innovation in Science.'' 
Witnesses were Dr. Mark Peters, the Director of Idaho National 
Laboratory, Dr. Susan Seestrom, the Advanced Science and 
Technology Associate Laboratory Director and Chief Research 
Officer at Sandia National Laboratory, Dr. Mary E. Maxon, the 
Associate Laboratory Director for Biosciences at Lawrence 
Berkeley National Laboratory, Dr. Chi-Chang Kao, the Director 
of Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, National Accelerator 
Laboratory, and Dr. Paul Kearns, the Director of Argonne 
National Laboratory.
    On May 9, 2018, the Committee held a hearing titled, ``An 
Overview of the Budget Proposal for the Department of Energy 
for Fiscal Year 2019.'' The witness was The Honorable Rick 
Perry, Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy.

                            COMMITTEE VIEWS

Basic Energy Sciences

    The Committee recognizes the importance of the Basic Energy 
Sciences (BES) mission to support basic research in materials 
science, chemical science, and physical bioscience and 
geoscience to provide the scientific foundations for future 
energy technologies.
    H.R. 5905 reauthorizes the Energy Frontier Research Centers 
(EFRCs), which will continue to support Office of Science's 
basic research mission by convening talented groups of 
researchers to confront fundamental challenges for potentially 
transformative energy technologies. The Committee acknowledges 
the contributions of the following reports: the BESAC ``Grand 
Challenges'' report, the BESAC ``From Quanta to the Continuum: 
Opportunities for Mesoscale Science'' report, and the ``Basic 
Energy Sciences Basic Research Needs'' workshop report.
    The Committee finds that the Department should prioritize 
key areas of basic research, including research in fundamental 
science that could support the development of new technologies 
in electricity storage and solar fuels. The Committee 
encourages DOE to consider new mechanisms to efficiently make 
accessible the milestone driven research that will result from 
initiatives in these areas in order to most effectively engage 
with the research community.
    The Committee also recognizes the importance of the BES 
contribution to the high performance computing research through 
its Computational Materials Sciences activities. The Committee 
encourages the DOE to coordinate research efforts between BES 
and the Exascale Computing Initiative, in order to accelerate 
the development of advanced computing architectures in the 
United States. The Committee supports the integration of BES 
materials science disciplines with advanced computing 
initiatives, including research that incorporates machine 
learning to expedite the processing and application of 
experimental materials data.
    The Committee urges the BES program to aggressively pursue 
a strategy to maintain and expand upon its world-class, open-
access user facilities, including x-ray light sources, neutron 
sources, and nanoscale science research centers. The Committee 
recognizes that these facilities uniquely enable research to 
provide useful information and revolutionary discovery about 
the atomic structure and dynamics in materials.
    H.R. 5905 prioritizes BES funding and supports the upgrade 
to the ALS, the LCLS-II-HE, the APS upgrade, the SNS-PPU, and 
the SNS-STS.

Advanced Light Source upgrade

    H.R. 5905 authorizes the upgrade to the ALS described in 
the publication approved by the BESAC on June 9, 2016, titled, 
``Report on Facility Upgrades.'' This includes the development 
of a multi-bend achromat lattice to produce a high flux of 
coherent x-rays within the soft x-ray energy region and a suite 
of beamlines optimized for this source. The Committee concurs 
with the assessment of the Department and the most recent BESAC 
report that the completion of this upgrade is essential to 
maintaining world-leading science here in the United States.
    The ALS upgrade authorized in this legislation will utilize 
new advances in accelerator technologies to produce soft x-ray 
beams that are several orders of magnitude brighter than the 
current ALS beamlines. In order to ensure the on-schedule, on-
budget construction of this project, the Committee includes 
sufficient annual authorizations for FY 2018 and 2019 in this 
legislation and recommends future sufficient annual funding 
requiring the Department to complete the ALS upgrade by the 
close of 2026.

Linac Coherent Light Source High Energy upgrade

    H.R. 5905 authorizes the LCLS-II-HE upgrade described in 
the June 9, 2016, BESAC ``Report on Facility Upgrades,'' 
including the development of experimental capabilities for high 
energy x-rays to reveal fundamental scientific discoveries. The 
Committee concurs with the assessment of the Department and 
this most recent BESAC report that the completion of this 
upgrade is essential to maintaining world-leading science here 
in the United States.
    The LCLS-II-HE upgrade authorized in this legislation will 
provide researchers with the imaging capability necessary to 
advance discoveries in chemistry, materials science, biology, 
and energy. In order to ensure the on-schedule, on-budget 
construction of this project, the Committee includes sufficient 
annual authorizations for FY 2018 and 2019 in this legislation 
and recommends future sufficient annual funding requiring the 
Department to complete the LCLS-II-HE upgrade by the close of 
2025.

Advanced Photon Source upgrade

    H.R. 5905 authorizes an upgrade to the APS as described in 
the publication approved by the BESAC on June 9, 2016, titled, 
``Report on Facility Upgrades.'' This includes the development 
of a multi-bend achromat lattice to produce a high flux of 
coherent x-rays within the hard x-ray energy region and a suite 
of beamlines optimized for this source. The Committee concurs 
with the assessment of the Department and the most recent BESAC 
report that the completion of this upgrade is essential to 
maintaining world-leading science here in the United States.
    The APS upgrade authorized in this legislation will harness 
new advances in storage ring technologies to increase the 
brightness of the APS beamline. These improved capabilities 
will yield a vast increase in imaging output, allowing 
researchers to observe materials under real conditions at 
extremely small scales. In order to ensure the on-schedule, on-
budget construction of this project, the Committee includes 
sufficient annual authorizations for FY 2018 and 2019 in this 
legislation and recommends future sufficient annual funding 
requiring the Department to complete the APS upgrade by the 
close of 2025.

Spallation Neutron Source Proton Power upgrade and Second Target 
        Station

    H.R. 5905 authorizes two upgrades to the SNS as described 
in the publication approved by the BESAC on June 9, 2016, 
titled, ``Report on Facility Upgrades.'' The Committee concurs 
with the assessment of the Department and the most recent BESAC 
report that the completion of these upgrades are essential to 
maintaining world-leading science here in the United States.
    Currently, the SNS is the most powerful pulsed neutron user 
facility in the world. However, the Committee finds that 
without the upgrades authorized in this legislation, this 
leading facility will be surpassed by the European Spallation 
Source, which is currently under construction in Sweden and is 
expected to provide approximately an order of magnitude higher 
neutron flux than the SNS by 2024. Upon completion, the SNS-PPU 
and SNS-STS will ensure that the SNS remains the leading site 
for research in soft matter, biology, and polymer science that 
is facilitated by neutron experiments.
    The June 2016 BESAC report also concluded that ORNL must 
resolve ``significant scientific/engineering challenges'' in 
order to ensure that the planned upgrades would effectively 
increase the repetition rate and average brightness at the SNS, 
and that more engagement with the neutron science user 
community was required to ensure the development of a 
compelling and robust set of ``first experiments'' for the 
upgraded SNS before initiating construction. However, following 
discussions with Department officials and ORNL leadership, the 
Committee finds that ORNL has provided the necessary responses 
to the Department in order to proceed with the construction of 
this project.
    In order to ensure the on-schedule, on-budget construction 
of these projects, the Committee includes sufficient annual 
authorizations for FY 2018 and 2019 in this legislation and 
recommends future sufficient annual funding requiring the 
Department to complete the SNS-PPU by the close of 2025 and the 
SNS-STS by the close of 2030.

Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    The Committee recognizes that high performance computing 
(HPC) modeling supports nearly every area of technological 
advancement and encourages the Department to develop next 
generation computing facilities through its ASCR program within 
the Office of Science. High performance computation keeps the 
United States competitive in the global market for scientific 
research and development and, therefore, is another priority 
funding area in H.R. 5905.
    H.R. 5905 authorizes Department of Energy programs to 
operate first-of-a-kind computing systems incorporating 
increased resiliency features and optimized power requirements. 
H.R. 5905 specifically authorizes an Exascale Computing Program 
that promotes the missions of the Department and requires the 
delivery of two or more exascale computing systems. The 
Committee finds that the Department should continue efforts in 
computer science and supporting research fields, and 
accordingly authorizes continued research in computer science, 
applied mathematics, and computer hardware architecture, in 
order to maintain a balanced portfolio that supports research 
outside of exascale delivery and facilitates workforce 
development.

High Energy Physics

    The Committee supports the Particle Physics Projects 
Prioritization Panel's report entitled ``Building for 
Discovery: Strategic Plan for U.S. Particle Physics in the 
Global Context.'' The Committee encourages the High Energy 
Physics (HEP) program within the Office of Science to work 
towards regaining the United States' global leadership position 
in neutrino science and anticipates the completion of the Long 
Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF). The Committee also 
recognizes the importance of continued support for smaller-
scale projects, including the Dark Energy Spectroscopic 
Instrument (DESI) and upgrades such as the Proton Improvement 
Plan II (PIP-II).

Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility

    H.R. 5905 authorizes the construction of the Long-Baseline 
Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at Fermi National Accelerator 
Laboratory (Fermilab) to facilitate the international DUNE and 
enable a program in neutrino physics to measure the fundamental 
properties of neutrinos, explore physics beyond the Standard 
Model, and better clarify the nature of matter and anti-matter. 
The Committee concurs with the assessment of the Department and 
the most recent HEPAP report that the completion of this 
project is the highest priority large project within HEP and is 
essential to maintaining world-leading science here in the 
United States.
    The construction of the LBNF and subsequent experiments 
will increase the fundamental knowledge of neutrinos and their 
properties--providing valuable insight into cosmic phenomena 
and theoretical particle physics. With initial construction of 
LBNF just beginning in 2017, the Committee includes sufficient 
annual authorizations for FY 2018 and 2019 in this legislation 
and believes that an authorization of specific annual funding 
for all remaining construction and necessary instrumentation is 
required to ensure this vital project is completed on time and 
on budget by the close of 2026.
    Upon completion, LBNF will be the first internationally-
funded science facility hosted in the United States. The 
Committee supports the Department's continuing efforts to 
solicit international contributions for the construction of the 
project, and recognizes the importance of funds already 
committed to the project, including the September 2017 
commitment of $88 million from the United Kingdom, and the 
April 2018 LBNF collaboration agreement between the U.S. and 
India.

Biological and Environmental Research

    The Committee recognizes the importance of the BER 
program's mission to support basic research and scientific user 
facilities to increase the knowledge base for complex 
biological and environmental systems. The Committee is 
concerned, however, about the trend within BER towards 
increased emphasis on climate modeling seemingly at the expense 
of physical science programs, including genomic and 
radiological sciences.
    H.R. 5905 rebalances these priorities by requiring 
increased accountability and transparency for BER's climate 
modeling budget. It authorizes the existing Bioenergy Research 
Centers (BRCs) to conduct basic research in microbial systems 
biology and genomics to inform the production of fuels, 
chemicals, and biomass resource, and authorizes a comprehensive 
research program on the health effects of exposure to low dose 
radiation.

Low-Dose Radiation Research Program

    The Committee recognizes the Department's unique capability 
to conduct research at the intersection of biological systems 
and radiological sciences. H.R. 5905 authorizes a basic 
research program on low dose radiation within BER. This 
legislation directs the Secretary of Energy to identify ongoing 
scientific challenges in low dose radiation research and to 
develop a long-term basic research plan that addresses these 
challenges.

Fusion Energy Sciences

    The Committee supports the FES mission to expand the 
fundamental understanding of the behavior of plasmas and matter 
at very high temperatures. Additionally, the Committee 
recognizes the monumental challenges and questions of physics 
associated with controlling plasmas, generating and 
manipulating very strong electromagnetic fields, and developing 
materials that can withstand extreme conditions.
    The Committee supports continuing the U.S. commitment to 
the ITER project. In order to maintain U.S. energy independence 
and its global standing as the leader in science, the Committee 
recommends full funding for U.S. contributions to the ITER 
project. H.R. 5905 authorizes critical investments to meet the 
U.S. commitment to the ITER project, for both in-kind and cash 
contributions, for FY 2018 and 2019.

Nuclear Physics

    The Committee acknowledges the uniqueness of the Nuclear 
Physics (NP) program's support for fundamental nuclear science, 
including the Nuclear Theory subprogram which increases the 
knowledge base that will ultimately identify new frontiers for 
future experiments. H.R. 5905 supports the operation of user 
facilities such as the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System 
(ATLAS), including the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade 
(CARIBU) and the construction of the Facility for Rare Isotope 
Beams (FRIB), a new user facility to support research on 
aspects of the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics.
    The Committee encourages NP to continue its research 
efforts to explore novel concepts and rare decay processes 
relevant for the production of critical isotopes that support 
medical applications among other things.

Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    H.R. 5905 authorizes completion of the FRIB to advance the 
understanding of rare nuclear isotopes and the evolution of the 
cosmos. This facility could also potentially be used to produce 
medical isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic needs. While 
construction of the FRIB began in fiscal year 2014 and is 
already over 70 percent complete, the Committee includes 
sufficient annual authorizations for FY 2018 and 2019 in this 
legislation and believes that an authorization of specific 
annual funding for the remaining construction and necessary 
instrumentation is required to ensure this vital project is 
completed on time and on budget by June 2022.
    The Committee also acknowledges the essential support for 
fundamental nuclear science from DOE NP, including the Nuclear 
Theory subprogram which increases the knowledge base that will 
ultimately identify new frontiers for future experiments in 
nuclear science. The Committee also encourages NP to continue 
its research efforts to explore novel concepts and rare decay 
processes relevant for the production of critical isotopes that 
support medical applications.

                           Section-by-Section


Sec. 1. Short title; Table of contents

    Section 1 provides a short title: ``Department of Energy 
Science and Innovation Act.''

Sec. 2. Definitions

    Section 2 provides relevant definitions.

Sec. 3. Mission

    Section 3 amends the Mission of the Department of Energy 
Office of Science.

Sec. 4. Basic energy sciences

    Section 4 authorizes a program in basic energy sciences, 
including materials sciences and engineering, chemical 
sciences, physical biosciences, and geosciences in order to 
understand, predict, and control matter and energy at the 
electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Within this program, 
Section 4 authorizes upgrades and construction of basic energy 
sciences infrastructure, including the Advanced Photon Source 
upgrade, Spallation Neutron Source proton power upgrade, 
Spallation Neutron Source second target station, Advanced Light 
Source upgrade, and Linac Coherent Light Source II high energy 
upgrade.
    This section also specifically authorizes research programs 
in Solar Fuels Research Initiative, Electricity Storage 
Research Initiative, the Materials Research Database, and the 
Energy Frontier Research Centers.

Sec. 5. Advanced scientific computing research

    Section 5 authorizes a program to develop an exascale 
computing capability through the support of one or more 
National Laboratory-industry-university partnerships to conduct 
integrated research, development, and engineering of multiple 
exascale architectures. This section instructs the Director to 
support research in high-performance computing and networking 
relevant to energy applications, including modeling, 
simulation, machine learning, and advanced data analytics for 
basic and applied energy research programs carried out by the 
Department. This section also authorizes research and 
development activities in applied mathematics and high-end 
computing software development, including mathematics, models, 
and algorithms for complex systems as well as programming 
environments, tools, languages, and operating systems for high-
end computing systems.

Sec. 6. High energy physics

    Section 6 establishes a program to research the fundamental 
constituents of matter, energy, and the nature of space and 
time to support both elementary particle physics and 
fundamental accelerator science and technology. It establishes 
a sense of Congress that the Director incorporate the most 
recent report of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization 
Panel into the planning process of the Department. 
Additionally, as part of this program, the Director is 
instructed to ensure the access of U.S. researchers to the most 
advanced accelerator facilities and research capabilities in 
the world, including the Large Hadron Collider, and to support 
research into the nature of the neutrino, dark energy, and dark 
matter.
    Within this program, Section 6 authorizes the construction 
of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) over nine years. 
This facility will be used to run the Deep Underground Neutrino 
Experiment (DUNE), which will enable fundamental research of 
neutrinos and their properties.

Sec. 7. Biological and environmental research

    Section 7 authorizes biological systems science research 
activities to increase understanding of complex biological 
systems to accelerate breakthroughs in the sustainable 
production of biomass-based liquid transportation fuels, 
bioenergy, and biobased materials. This section authorizes the 
selection and establishment of four Bioenergy Research Centers 
to conduct basic and fundamental research in these areas.
    This section specifically authorizes a basic research 
program on low-dose radiation within the Office of Science at 
the Department of Energy (DOE) over four years. It directs DOE 
to develop a long term basic research plan for low dose 
radiation research using existing scientific knowledge and 
engagement with the international research community, ensuring 
consultation between the DOE Office of Science and NASA, NIH, 
EPA, DoD, NRC, and DHS.

Sec. 8. Fusion energy

    Section 8 directs the Director to carry out a fusion energy 
sciences research program to expand the fundamental 
understanding of plasmas and matter at very high temperatures 
and densities and to build the scientific foundation necessary 
to enable fusion power. This section also authorizes the 
research and development activities and facility operations to 
optimize the tokamak approach to fusion energy, including 
funding for U.S. cash and in-kind contributions to the ITER 
project.

Sec. 9. Nuclear physics

    Section 9 directs the Director to carry out a program to 
discover, explore, and understand all forms of nuclear matter, 
including a program for the production of isotopes that the 
Secretary determines are needed for research purposes.
    This section specifically authorizes the construction of 
the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) over five years, in 
order to enable the study of a variety of rare isotopes and 
their properties, in order to expand our understanding of 
nuclear structure, the atomic interactions of nuclear species, 
and the origin of elements.

Sec. 10. Science laboratories and infrastructure program

    Section 10 requires the Director to carry out a program to 
improve safety, efficiency, and mission readiness of 
infrastructure at Office of Science laboratories.

Sec. 11. Authorization of appropriations

    Section 11 authorizes appropriations for fiscal year 2018 
and 2019 for the Office of Science, which includes Basic Energy 
Sciences, Advanced Scientific Computing Research, High Energy 
Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy 
Sciences, and Nuclear Physics.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    A manager's amendment offered by Representative Randy Weber 
was adopted by the Committee. The amendment made minor and 
technical changes.

                        Committee Consideration

    On May 23, 2018, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, H.R. 5905, by voice vote, 
a quorum being present.

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of 
Science for fiscal years (FY) 2018 and 2019. It provides policy 
direction and authorizes funding for Office of Science basic 
research programs and authorizes research infrastructure 
upgrades and construction of major user facilities at the DOE 
national labs. As such, this bill does not relate to employment 
or access to public services and accommodations.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    H.R. 5905 authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE)'s 
Office of Science for fiscal years (FY) 2018 and 2019. It 
provides policy direction and authorizes funding for Office of 
Science basic research programs and authorizes research 
infrastructure upgrades and construction of major user 
facilities at the DOE national labs.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 5905 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that enacting H.R. 5905 does not 
direct the completion of any specific rule makings within the 
meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not establish 
or authorize the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b).

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandate Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 5905 does not include any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of rule XXI.

                           Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs that would be incurred in carrying out 
H.R. 5905. However, clause 3(d)(3)(B) of that rule provides 
that this requirement does not apply when the Committee has 
included in its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the 
bill prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act.

     Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has received 
the following cost estimate for H.R. 5905 from the Director of 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, June 25, 2018.
Hon. Lamar Smith,
Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 5905, the 
Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Janani 
Shankaran.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 5905--Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act of 2018

    Summary: H.R. 5905 would authorize appropriations for the 
Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science and would 
codify existing activities under that office. CBO estimates 
that implementing the bill would cost $6.6 billion over the 
2019-2023 period, assuming appropriation of the authorized 
amounts.
    Enacting H.R. 5905 could affect direct spending; therefore, 
pay-as-you-go procedures apply. The bill would direct DOE to 
use all available approaches and mechanisms including 
``alternative financing'' to upgrade infrastructure at its 
national laboratories. CBO considers the costs of alternative 
financing (that is, financing provided by nonfederal entities 
and not provided in annual appropriations acts) as direct 
spending. However, in CBO's view the legislation does not 
clearly expand DOE's existing alternative financing authority. 
Enacting the bill would not affect revenues.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 5905 would not increase 
net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    H.R. 5905 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of H.R. 5905 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of the legislation fall within budget function 250 
(general science, space, and technology).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             2018      2019      2020      2021      2022      2023    2019-2023
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Authorization Level......................     6,260     6,600         0         0         0         0      6,600
Estimated Outlays........................         0     3,630     1,980       990         0         0      6,600
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
H.R. 5905 would authorize the appropriation of about $6.3 billion in 2018 for activities in the Department of
  Energy's Office of Science. CBO does not estimate any outlays for that authorization because appropriations
  for 2018 have already been provided.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
5905 will be enacted near the end of 2018 and that the 
authorized amounts will be appropriated.
    H.R. 5905 would authorize the appropriation of $6.6 billion 
in 2019 for DOE's Office of Science, which supports basic 
research in the physical sciences and operates a system of 
national science user facilities. In 2018, DOE received an 
appropriation of $6.3 billion for those programs. Under current 
law, no specific sums are authorized to be appropriated to DOE 
for those purposes after 2018. Based on historical spending 
patterns, CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 5905 would cost 
$6.6 billion over the 2019-2023 period.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: Section 10 would direct DOE 
to use all available approaches and mechanisms, including 
alternative financing, to upgrade infrastructure at the 
national laboratories. The bill does not define alternative 
financing; however, CBO expects that such arrangements could 
include use of funds provided through third-party financing 
(funds raised by a nonfederal entity). DOE and other federal 
agencies have existing authority to use certain types of third-
party financing mechanisms including energy savings performance 
contracts, utility energy service contracts, and enhanced-use 
leases. CBO treats the costs of such transactions as direct 
spending and believes that the full cost of such long-term 
commitments that obligate the government to make payments in 
future years should be recorded in the budget upfront.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\For more information on the budgetary treatment of third-party 
financing, see Congressional Budget Office, Third-Party Financing of 
Federal Projects (June 2005), www.cbo.gov/publication/16554.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Under a strict interpretation of the provision in section 
10, DOE would continue to use existing authorities that it 
considers to be alternative financing (which would result in no 
additional direct spending). However, DOE could interpret 
section 10 as providing new or expanded authority that would 
allow the agency to expand its use of third-party financing 
mechanisms to build and improve facilities at its national 
laboratories. The 17 national laboratories comprise a large 
portion of DOE's real property portfolio. In 2015, the agency 
reported a backlog of $5.4 billion in maintenance and 
improvements across its facilities.\2\ Using new alternative 
financing mechanisms to finance a portion of that backlog of 
projects would increase direct spending, however, in CBO's view 
the legislation does not clearly expand DOE's existing 
authorities.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Report on the State of the DOE 
National Laboratories (January 2017), p.86, www.energy.gov/downloads/
annual-report-state-doe-national-laboratories.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 5905 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    Mandates: H.R. 5905 contains no intergovernmental or 
private-sector mandates as defined in UMRA.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Janani Shankaran; 
Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim P. Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORGANIZATION ACT




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE II--ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                           office of science

  Sec. 209. (a) There shall be within the Department an Office 
of Science to be headed by a Director, who shall be appointed 
by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, and who shall be compensated at the rate provided for 
level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 
5, United States Code.
  (b) It shall be the duty and responsibility of the Director--
          (1) to advise the Secretary with respect to the 
        physical research program transferred to the Department 
        from the Energy Research and Development 
        Administration;
          (2) to monitor the Department's energy research and 
        development programs in order to advise the Secretary 
        with respect to any undesirable duplication or gaps in 
        such programs;
          (3) to advise the Secretary with respect to the well-
        being and management of the multipurpose laboratories 
        under the jurisdiction of the Department, excluding 
        laboratories that constitute part of the nuclear 
        weapons complex;
          (4) to advise the Secretary with respect to education 
        and training activities required for effective short- 
        and long-term basic and applied research activities of 
        the Department;
          (5) to advise the Secretary with respect to grants 
        and other forms of financial assistance required for 
        effective short- and long-term basic and applied 
        research activities of the Department; and
          (6) to carry out such additional duties assigned to 
        the Office by the Secretary.
  (c) Mission.--The mission of the Office of Science shall be 
the delivery of scientific discoveries, capabilities, and major 
scientific tools to transform the understanding of nature and 
to advance the energy, economic, and national security of the 
United States.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                       ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Energy 
Policy Act of 2005''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is 
as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
     * * * * * * *

                   TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

     * * * * * * *

                           Subtitle G--Science

Sec. 971. Science.
Sec. 972. Fusion energy sciences program.
[Sec. 973. Catalysis research program.]
Sec. 973. Solar fuels research initiative.
Sec. 974. Hydrogen.
[Sec. 975. Solid state lighting.]
Sec. 975. Electricity storage research initiative.
Sec. 976. Advanced scientific computing for energy missions.
Sec. 977. Systems biology program.
Sec. 977A. Low-dose radiation research program.
Sec. 978. Fission and fusion energy materials research program.
Sec. 979. Energy and water supplies.
Sec. 980. Spallation Neutron Source.
Sec. 981. Rare isotope accelerator.
Sec. 982. Office of Scientific and Technical Information.
Sec. 983. Science and engineering education pilot program.
Sec. 984. Energy research fellowships.
Sec. 984A. Science and technology scholarship program.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle G--Science

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 972. FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES PROGRAM.

  (a) Declaration of Policy.--It shall be the policy of the 
United States to conduct research, development, demonstration, 
and commercial applications to provide for the scientific, 
engineering, and commercial infrastructure necessary to ensure 
that the United States is competitive with other countries in 
providing fusion energy for its own needs and the needs of 
other countries, including by demonstrating electric power or 
hydrogen production for the United States energy grid using 
fusion energy at the earliest date.
  (b) Planning.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall 
        submit to Congress a plan (with proposed cost 
        estimates, budgets, and lists of potential 
        international partners) for the implementation of the 
        policy described in subsection (a) in a manner that 
        ensures that--
                  (A) existing fusion research facilities are 
                more fully used;
                  (B) fusion science, technology, theory, 
                advanced computation, modeling, and simulation 
                are strengthened;
                  (C) new magnetic and inertial fusion research 
                and development facilities are selected based 
                on scientific innovation and cost 
                effectiveness, and the potential of the 
                facilities to advance the goal of practical 
                fusion energy at the earliest date practicable;
                  (D) facilities that are selected are funded 
                at a cost-effective rate;
                  (E) communication of scientific results and 
                methods between the fusion energy science 
                community and the broader scientific and 
                technology communities is improved;
                  (F) inertial confinement fusion facilities 
                are used to the extent practicable for the 
                purpose of inertial fusion energy research and 
                development;
                  (G) attractive alternative inertial and 
                magnetic fusion energy approaches are more 
                fully explored; and
                  (H) to the extent practicable, the 
                recommendations of the Fusion Energy Sciences 
                Advisory Committee in the report on workforce 
                planning, dated March 2004, are carried out, 
                including periodic reassessment of program 
                needs.
          (2) Costs and schedules.--The plan shall also address 
        the status of and, to the extent practicable, costs and 
        schedules for--
                  (A) the design and implementation of 
                international or national facilities for the 
                testing of fusion materials; and
                  (B) the design and implementation of 
                international or national facilities for the 
                testing and development of key fusion 
                technologies.
  (c) United States Participation in ITER.--
          (1) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                  (A) Construction.--
                          (i) In general.--The term 
                        ``construction'' means--
                                  (I) the physical construction 
                                of the ITER facility; and
                                  (II) the physical 
                                construction, purchase, or 
                                manufacture of equipment or 
                                components that are 
                                specifically designed for the 
                                ITER facility.
                          (ii) Exclusions.--The term 
                        ``construction'' does not include the 
                        design of the facility, equipment, or 
                        components.
                  (B) ITER.--The term ``ITER'' means the 
                international burning plasma fusion research 
                project in which the President announced United 
                States participation on January 30, 2003, or 
                any similar international project.
          (2) Participation.--The United States may participate 
        in the ITER only in accordance with this subsection.
          (3) Agreement.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary may negotiate 
                an agreement for United States participation in 
                the ITER.
                  (B) Contents.--Any agreement for United 
                States participation in the ITER shall, at a 
                minimum--
                          (i) clearly define the United States 
                        financial contribution to construction 
                        and operating costs, as well as any 
                        other costs associated with a project;
                          (ii) ensure that the share of high-
                        technology components of the ITER 
                        manufactured in the United States is at 
                        least proportionate to the United 
                        States financial contribution to the 
                        ITER;
                          (iii) ensure that the United States 
                        will not be financially responsible for 
                        cost overruns in components 
                        manufactured in other ITER 
                        participating countries;
                          (iv) guarantee the United States full 
                        access to all data generated by the 
                        ITER;
                          (v) enable United States researchers 
                        to propose and carry out an equitable 
                        share of the experiments at the ITER;
                          (vi) provide the United States with a 
                        role in all collective decisionmaking 
                        related to the ITER; and
                          (vii) describe the process for 
                        discontinuing or decommissioning the 
                        ITER and any United States role in that 
                        process.
          (4) Plan.--
                  (A) Development.--The Secretary, in 
                consultation with the Fusion Energy Sciences 
                Advisory Committee, shall develop a plan for 
                the participation of United States scientists 
                in the ITER that shall include--
                          (i) the United States research agenda 
                        for the ITER;
                          (ii) methods to evaluate whether the 
                        ITER is promoting progress toward 
                        making fusion a reliable and affordable 
                        source of power; and
                          (iii) a description of how work at 
                        the ITER will relate to other elements 
                        of the United States fusion program.
                  (B) Review.--The Secretary shall request a 
                review of the plan by the National Academy of 
                Sciences.
          (5) Limitation.--No Federal funds shall be expended 
        for the construction of the ITER until the Secretary 
        has submitted to Congress--
                  (A) the agreement negotiated in accordance 
                with paragraph (3) and 120 days have elapsed 
                since that submission;
                  (B) a report describing the management 
                structure of the ITER and providing a fixed 
                dollar estimate of the cost of United States 
                participation in the construction of the ITER, 
                and 120 days have elapsed since that 
                submission;
                  (C) a report describing how United States 
                participation in the ITER will be funded 
                without reducing funding for other programs in 
                the Office of Science (including other fusion 
                programs), and 60 days have elapsed since that 
                submission; and
                  (D) the plan required by paragraph (4) (but 
                not the National Academy of Sciences review of 
                that plan), and 60 days have elapsed since that 
                submission.
          (6) Alternative to iter.--
                  (A) In general.--If at any time during the 
                negotiations on the ITER, the Secretary 
                determines that construction and operation of 
                the ITER is unlikely or infeasible, the 
                Secretary shall submit to Congress, along with 
                the budget request of the President submitted 
                to Congress for the following fiscal year, a 
                plan for implementing a domestic burning plasma 
                experiment such as the Fusion Ignition Research 
                Experiment, including costs and schedules for 
                the plan.
                  (B) Administration.--The Secretary shall--
                          (i) refine the plan in full 
                        consultation with the Fusion Energy 
                        Sciences Advisory Committee; and
                          (ii) transmit the plan to the 
                        National Academy of Sciences for 
                        review.
          (7) ITER construction.--
                  (A) In general.--There is authorized United 
                States participation in the construction and 
                operations of the ITER project, as agreed to 
                under the April 25, 2007 ``Agreement on the 
                Establishment of the ITER International Fusion 
                Energy Organization for the Joint 
                Implementation of the ITER Project.''.
                  (B) Facility requirements.--The Secretary 
                shall ensure that the mission-oriented user 
                facility will enable the study of a burning 
                plasma, and shall be built to have the 
                following characteristics in its full 
                configuration:
                          (i) A tokamak device with a plasma 
                        radius of 6.2 meters and a magnetic 
                        field of 5.3 T.
                          (ii) Capable of creating and 
                        sustaining a 15-million-Ampere plasma 
                        current for greater than 300 seconds.
                  (C) Authorization of appropriations.--From 
                within funds authorized to be appropriated 
                under section 11 of the Department of Energy 
                Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Fusion 
                Energy Sciences, there is authorized for in-
                kind contributions under this paragraph--
                          (i) $122,000,000 for fiscal year 
                        2018; and
                          (ii) $163,000,000 for fiscal year 
                        2019.
                  (D) Authorization of appropriations.--From 
                within funds authorized to be appropriated 
                under section 11 of the Department of Energy 
                Science and Innovation Act of 2018, for Fusion 
                Energy Sciences, there is authorized for cash 
                contributions under this paragraph--
                          (i) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; 
                        and
                          (ii) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 
                        2019.

[SEC. 973. CATALYSIS RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  [(a) Establishment.--The Secretary, acting through the Office 
of Science, shall support a program of research and development 
in catalysis science consistent with the statutory authorities 
of the Department related to research and development.
  [(b) Components.--The program shall include efforts to--
          [(1) enable catalyst design using combinations of 
        experimental and mechanistic methodologies coupled with 
        computational modeling of catalytic reactions at the 
        molecular level;
          [(2) develop techniques for high throughput 
        synthesis, assay, and characterization at nanometer and 
        subnanometer scales in-situ under actual operating 
        conditions;
          [(3) synthesize catalysts with specific site 
        architectures;
          [(4) conduct research on the use of precious metals 
        for catalysis; and
          [(5) translate molecular understanding to the design 
        of catalytic compounds.
  [(c) Duties of the Office of Science.--In carrying out the 
program, the Director of the Office of Science shall--
          [(1) support both individual investigators and 
        multidisciplinary teams of investigators to pioneer new 
        approaches in catalytic design;
          [(2) develop, plan, construct, acquire, share, or 
        operate special equipment or facilities for the use of 
        investigators in collaboration with national user 
        facilities, such as nanoscience and engineering 
        centers;
          [(3) support technology transfer activities to 
        benefit industry and other users of catalysis science 
        and engineering; and
          [(4) coordinate research and development activities 
        with industry and other Federal agencies.
  [(d) Assessment.--Not later than 3 years after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall enter into an 
arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to--
          [(1) review the catalysis program to measure--
                  [(A) gains made in the fundamental science of 
                catalysis; and
                  [(B) progress towards developing new fuels 
                for energy production and material fabrication 
                processes; and
          [(2) submit to Congress a report describing the 
        results of the review.]

SEC. 973. SOLAR FUELS RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  (a) Initiative.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
        research initiative, to be known as the ``Solar Fuels 
        Research Initiative'' (referred to in this section as 
        the ``Initiative'') to expand theoretical and 
        fundamental knowledge of photochemistry, 
        electrochemistry, biochemistry, and materials science 
        useful for the practical development of experimental 
        systems to convert solar energy to chemical energy.
          (2) Leveraging.--In carrying out programs and 
        activities under the Initiative, the Secretary shall 
        leverage expertise and resources from--
                  (A) the Basic Energy Sciences Program and the 
                Biological and Environmental Research Program 
                of the Office of Science; and
                  (B) the Office of Energy Efficiency and 
                Renewable Energy.
          (3) Teams.--
                  (A) In general.--In carrying out the 
                Initiative, the Secretary shall organize 
                activities among multidisciplinary teams to 
                leverage, to the maximum extent practicable, 
                expertise from the National Laboratories, 
                institutions of higher education, and the 
                private sector.
                  (B) Goals.--The multidisciplinary teams 
                described in subparagraph (A) shall pursue 
                aggressive, milestone-driven, basic research 
                goals.
                  (C) Resources.--The Secretary shall provide 
                sufficient resources to the multidisciplinary 
                teams described in subparagraph (A) to achieve 
                the goals described in subparagraph (B) over a 
                period of time to be determined by the 
                Secretary.
          (4) Additional activities.--The Secretary may 
        organize additional activities under this subsection 
        through Energy Frontier Research Centers, Energy 
        Innovation Hubs, or other organizational structures.
  (b) Artificial Photosynthesis.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under 
        the Initiative a program to support research needed to 
        bridge scientific barriers to, and discover knowledge 
        relevant to, artificial photosynthetic systems.
          (2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  (A) the Director of the Office of Basic 
                Energy Sciences shall support basic research to 
                pursue distinct lines of scientific inquiry, 
                including--
                          (i) photoinduced production of 
                        hydrogen and oxygen from water; and
                          (ii) the sustainable photoinduced 
                        reduction of carbon dioxide to fuel 
                        products including hydrocarbons, 
                        alcohols, carbon monoxide, and natural 
                        gas; and
                  (B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy 
                Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support 
                translational research, development, and 
                validation of physical concepts developed under 
                the program.
          (3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in 
        paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical 
        milestones.
          (4) Funding.--
                  (A) In general.--From within funds authorized 
                to be appropriated under section 11 of the 
                Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act 
                of 2018, for Basic Energy Sciences, the 
                Secretary shall make available for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection $50,000,000 
                for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the 
                program described in paragraph (1) may be 
                obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.
  (c) Biochemistry, Replication of Natural Photosynthesis, and 
Related Processes.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under 
        the Initiative a program to support research needed to 
        replicate natural photosynthetic processes by use of 
        artificial photosynthetic components and materials.
          (2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  (A) the Director of the Office of Basic 
                Energy Sciences shall support basic research to 
                expand fundamental knowledge to replicate 
                natural synthesis processes, including--
                          (i) the photoinduced reduction of 
                        dinitrogen to ammonia;
                          (ii) the absorption of carbon dioxide 
                        from ambient air;
                          (iii) molecular-based charge 
                        separation and storage;
                          (iv) photoinitiated electron 
                        transfer; and
                          (v) catalysis in biological or 
                        biomimetic systems;
                  (B) the Associate Director of Biological and 
                Environmental Research shall support systems 
                biology and genomics approaches to understand 
                genetic and physiological pathways connected to 
                photosynthetic mechanisms; and
                  (C) the Assistant Secretary for Energy 
                Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support 
                translational research, development, and 
                validation of physical concepts developed under 
                the program.
          (3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in 
        paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical 
        milestones.
          (4) Funding.--
                  (A) In general.--From within funds authorized 
                to be appropriated under section 11 of the 
                Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act 
                of 2018, for Basic Energy Sciences and 
                Biological and Environmental Research, the 
                Secretary shall make available for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection $50,000,000 
                for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the 
                program described in paragraph (1) may be 
                obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 975. SOLID STATE LIGHTING.

  [The Secretary shall conduct a program of fundamental 
research on solid state lighting in support of the Next 
Generation Lighting Initiative carried out under section 912.]

SEC. 975. ELECTRICITY STORAGE RESEARCH INITIATIVE.

  (a) Initiative.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
        research initiative, to be known as the ``Electricity 
        Storage Research Initiative'' (referred to in this 
        section as the ``Initiative'')--
                  (A) to expand theoretical and fundamental 
                knowledge to control, store, and convert--
                          (i) electrical energy to chemical 
                        energy; and
                          (ii) chemical energy to electrical 
                        energy; and
                  (B) to support scientific inquiry into the 
                practical understanding of chemical and 
                physical processes that occur within systems 
                involving crystalline and amorphous solids, 
                polymers, and organic and aqueous liquids.
          (2) Leveraging.--In carrying out programs and 
        activities under the Initiative, the Secretary shall 
        leverage expertise and resources from--
                  (A) the Basic Energy Sciences Program, the 
                Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, 
                and the Biological and Environmental Research 
                Program of the Office of Science; and
                  (B) the Office of Energy Efficiency and 
                Renewable Energy.
          (3) Teams.--
                  (A) In general.--In carrying out the 
                Initiative, the Secretary shall organize 
                activities among multidisciplinary teams to 
                leverage, to the maximum extent practicable, 
                expertise from the National Laboratories, 
                institutions of higher education, and the 
                private sector.
                  (B) Goals.--The multidisciplinary teams 
                described in subparagraph (A) shall pursue 
                aggressive, milestone-driven, basic research 
                goals.
                  (C) Resources.--The Secretary shall provide 
                sufficient resources to the multidisciplinary 
                teams described in subparagraph (A) to achieve 
                the goals described in subparagraph (B) over a 
                period of time to be determined by the 
                Secretary.
          (4) Additional activities.--The Secretary may 
        organize additional activities under this subsection 
        through Energy Frontier Research Centers, Energy 
        Innovation Hubs, or other organizational structures.
  (b) Multivalent Systems.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under 
        the Initiative a program to support research needed to 
        bridge scientific barriers to, and discover knowledge 
        relevant to, multivalent ion materials in electric 
        energy storage systems.
          (2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  (A) the Director of the Office of Basic 
                Energy Sciences shall investigate 
                electrochemical properties and the dynamics of 
                materials, including charge transfer phenomena 
                and mass transport in materials; and
                  (B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy 
                Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support 
                translational research, development, and 
                validation of physical concepts developed under 
                the program.
          (3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in 
        paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical 
        milestones.
          (4) Funding.--
                  (A) In general.--From within funds authorized 
                to be appropriated under section 11 of the 
                Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act 
                of 2018, for Basic Energy Sciences and 
                Biological and Environmental Research, the 
                Secretary shall make available for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection $50,000,000 
                for each of the fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the 
                program described in paragraph (1) may be 
                obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.
  (c) Electrochemistry Modeling and Simulation.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under 
        the Initiative a program to support research to model 
        and simulate organic electrolytes, including the static 
        and dynamic electrochemical behavior and phenomena of 
        organic electrolytes at the molecular and atomic level 
        in monovalent and multivalent systems.
          (2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  (A) the Director of the Office of Basic 
                Energy Sciences, in coordination with the 
                Associate Director of Advanced Scientific 
                Computing Research, shall support the 
                development of high performance computational 
                tools through a joint development process to 
                maximize the effectiveness of current and 
                projected high performance computing systems; 
                and
                  (B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy 
                Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support 
                translational research, development, and 
                validation of physical concepts developed under 
                the program.
          (3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in 
        paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical 
        milestones.
          (4) Funding.--
                  (A) In general.--From within funds authorized 
                to be appropriated under section 11 of the 
                Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act 
                of 2018, for Basic Energy Sciences and Advanced 
                Scientific Computing Research, the Secretary 
                shall make available for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection $30,000,000 
                for each of the fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the 
                program described in paragraph (1) may be 
                obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.
  (d) Mesoscale Electrochemistry.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out under 
        the Initiative a program to support research needed to 
        reveal electrochemistry in confined mesoscale spaces, 
        including scientific discoveries relevant to--
                  (A) bio-electrochemistry and electrochemical 
                energy conversion and storage in confined 
                spaces; and
                  (B) the dynamics of the phenomena described 
                in subparagraph (A).
          (2) Activities.--As part of the program described in 
        paragraph (1)--
                  (A) the Director of the Office of Basic 
                Energy Sciences and the Associate Director of 
                Biological and Environmental Research shall 
                investigate phenomena of mesoscale 
                electrochemical confinement for the purpose of 
                replicating and controlling new electrochemical 
                behavior; and
                  (B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy 
                Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support 
                translational research, development, and 
                validation of physical concepts developed under 
                the program.
          (3) Standard of review.--The Secretary shall review 
        activities carried out under the program described in 
        paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical 
        milestones.
          (4) Funding.--
                  (A) In general.--From within funds authorized 
                to be appropriated under section 11 of the 
                Department of Energy Science and Innovation Act 
                of 2018, for Basic Energy Sciences and 
                Biological and Environmental Research, the 
                Secretary shall make available for carrying out 
                activities under this subsection $20,000,000 
                for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019.
                  (B) Prohibition.--No funds allocated to the 
                program described in paragraph (1) may be 
                obligated or expended for commercial 
                application of energy technology.

SEC. 976. ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING FOR ENERGY MISSIONS.

  (a) Program.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct an 
        advanced scientific computing research and development 
        program that includes activities related to applied 
        mathematics and activities authorized by the 
        [Department of Energy High-End Computing Revitalization 
        Act of 2004] American Super Computing Leadership Act 
        (15 U.S.C. 5541 et seq.).
          (2) Goal.--The Secretary shall carry out the program 
        with the goal of supporting departmental missions, and 
        providing the high-performance computational, 
        networking, advanced visualization technologies, and 
        workforce resources, that are required for world 
        leadership in science.
  (b) High-Performance Computing.--Section 203 of the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5523) is amended 
to read as follows:

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 977A. LOW-DOSE RADIATION RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Secretary shall carry out a basic 
research program on low-dose radiation to--
          (1) enhance the scientific understanding of, and 
        reduce uncertainties associated with, the effects of 
        exposure to low-dose radiation; and
          (2) inform improved risk-assessment and risk-
        management methods with respect to such radiation.
  (b) Program Components.--In carrying out the program required 
under subsection (a), the Secretary shall--
          (1) formulate scientific goals for low-dose radiation 
        basic research in the United States;
          (2) identify ongoing scientific challenges for 
        understanding the long-term effects of ionizing 
        radiation on biological systems;
          (3) develop a long-term strategic and prioritized 
        basic research agenda to address such scientific 
        challenges in coordination with other research efforts;
          (4) leverage the collective body of knowledge from 
        existing low-dose radiation research; and
          (5) engage with other Federal agencies, research 
        communities, and potential users of information 
        produced under this section, including institutions 
        concerning radiation research, medical physics, 
        radiology, health physics, and emergency response.
  (c) Coordination.--In carrying out the program, the 
Secretary, in coordination with the Physical Science 
Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council, 
shall--
          (1) support the directives under section 106 of the 
        American Innovation and Competitiveness Act (42 U.S.C. 
        6601 note);
          (2) ensure that the Office of Science of the 
        Department of Energy consults with the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National 
        Institutes of Health, the Environmental Protection 
        Agency, the Department of Defense, the Nuclear 
        Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Homeland 
        Security;
          (3) advise and assist the National Science and 
        Technology Council on policies and initiatives in 
        radiation biology, including enhancing scientific 
        knowledge of the effects of low-dose radiation on 
        biological systems to improve radiation risk-assessment 
        and risk-management methods; and
          (4) identify opportunities to stimulate international 
        cooperation relating to low-dose radiation and leverage 
        research and knowledge from sources outside of the 
        United States.
  (d) Research Plan.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall transmit to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural 
Resources of the Senate a 4-year research plan that identifies 
and prioritizes basic research needs relating to low-dose 
radiation. In developing such plan, the Secretary shall 
incorporate the components described in subsection (b).
  (e) Definition of Low-dose Radiation.--In this section, the 
term ``low-dose radiation'' means a radiation dose of less than 
100 millisieverts.
  (f) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to subject any research carried out by the Secretary 
for the program under this section to any limitations described 
in 977(e) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 
16317(e)).
  (g) Funding.--From within funds authorized to be appropriated 
under section 11 of the Department of Energy Science and 
Innovation Act of 2018, for Biological and Environmental 
Research, the Secretary make available to carry out this 
section--
          (1) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; and
          (2) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2019.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 981. [RARE ISOTOPE ACCELERATOR]  FACILITY FOR RARE ISOTOPE BEAMS.

  (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall construct and operate 
a [Rare Isotope Accelerator] Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. 
The Secretary shall commence construction no later than 
September 30, 2008.
  (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to 
be appropriated to the Secretary such sums as may be necessary 
to carry out this section. The Secretary shall not spend more 
than $1,100,000,000 in Federal funds for all activities 
associated with the [Rare Isotope Accelerator] Facility for 
Rare Isotope Beams, prior to operation of the Accelerator.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


                AMERICAN SUPER COMPUTING LEADERSHIP ACT

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``[Department of Energy High-End 
Computing Revitalization Act of 2004] American Super Computing 
Leadership Act''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          [(1) Center.--The term``Center'' means a High-End 
        Software Development Center established under section 
        5542(d) of this title.]
          (1) Department.--The term ``Department'' means the 
        Department of Energy.
          (2) Exascale computing.--The term ``exascale 
        computing'' means computing through the use of a 
        computing machine that performs near or above 10 to the 
        18th power operations per second.
          [(2)] (3) High-end computing system.--The term 
        ``high-end computing system'' means a computing system 
        with performance that substantially exceeds that of 
        systems that are commonly available for advanced 
        scientific and engineering applications
          [(3)] (4) Leadership System.--The term ``Leadership 
        System'' means a high-end computing system that is 
        among the most advanced in the world in terms of 
        performance in solving scientific and engineering 
        problems.
          [(4)] (5) Institution of higher education.--The term 
        ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning 
        given the term in section 1001(a) of title 20.
          [(5)] (6) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means 
        the Secretary of Energy[, acting through the Director 
        of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy].

SEC. 3. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HIGH-END COMPUTING RESEARCH AND 
                    DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

  (a) In general.--The Secretary shall--
          (1) carry out a [program] coordinated program across 
        the Department of research and development (including 
        development of software and hardware) to advance high-
        end computing systems; and
          (2) develop and deploy high-end computing systems for 
        advanced scientific and engineering applications.
  (b) Program.--The program shall--
          (1) support both individual investigators and 
        multidisciplinary teams of investigators;
          (2) conduct research in multiple architectures[, 
        which may include vector, reconfigurable logic, 
        streaming, processor-in-memory, and multithreading 
        architectures];
          (3) conduct research on software for high-end 
        computing systems, including research on algorithms, 
        programming environments, tools, languages, and 
        operating systems for high-end computing systems, in 
        collaboration with architecture development efforts;
          (4) provide for sustained access by the research 
        community in the United States to high-end computing 
        systems and to Leadership Systems, including provision 
        of technical support for users of such systems;
          (5) support technology transfer to the private sector 
        and others in accordance with applicable law; and
          (6) densure that the high-end computing activities of 
        the Department of Energy are coordinated with relevant 
        activities in industry and with other Federal agencies, 
        including the National Science Foundation, the Defense 
        Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Nuclear 
        Security Administration, the National Security Agency, 
        the National Institutes of Health, the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National 
        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National 
        Institutes of Standards and Technology, and the 
        Environmental Protection Agency.
  (c) Leadership Systems facilities.--
          (1) In general.--carry out a program of research and 
        development (including development of software and 
        hardware) to advance high-end computing systems; and
                  (A) conduct advanced scientific and 
                engineering research and development using 
                Leadership Systems; and
                  (B) develop potential advancements in high-
                end computing system hardware and software.
          (2) Administration.--In carrying out this subsection, 
        the Secretary shall provide to Leadership Systems, on a 
        competitive, merit-reviewed basis, access to 
        researchers in United States industry, institutions of 
        higher education, national laboratories, and other 
        Federal agencies.
  [(d) High-End Software Development Center.--
          [(1) In general.--As part of the program carried out 
        under this subchapter, the Secretary shall establish at 
        least 1 High-End Software Development Center.
          [(2) Duties.--A Center shall concentrate efforts to 
        develop, test, maintain, and support optimal 
        algorithms, programming environments, tools, languages, 
        and operating systems for high-end computing systems.
          [(3) Proposals.--In soliciting proposals for the 
        Center, the Secretary shall encourage staffing 
        arrangements that include both permanent staff and a 
        rotating staff of researchers from other institutions 
        and industry to assist in coordination of research 
        efforts and promote technology transfer to the private 
        sector.
          [(4) Use of expertise.--The Secretary shall use the 
        expertise of a Center to assess research and 
        development in high-end computing system architecture.
          [(5) Selection.--The selection of a Center shall be 
        determined by a competitive proposal process 
        administered by the Secretary.]
  (d) Exascale Computing Program.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct a 
        research program (referred to in this subsection as the 
        ``Program'') for exascale computing, including the 
        development of two or more exascale computing machine 
        architectures, to promote the missions of the 
        Department.
          (2) Execution.--
                  (A) In general.--In carrying out the Program, 
                the Secretary shall--
                          (i) establish a National Laboratory 
                        partnership for industry partners and 
                        institutions of higher education for 
                        codesign of exascale hardware, 
                        technology, software, and applications 
                        across all applicable organizations of 
                        the Department;
                          (ii) acquire multiple exascale 
                        computing systems at the existing 
                        Departmental facilities that represent 
                        at least two distinct technology 
                        options developed under clause (i);
                          (iii) develop such advancements in 
                        hardware and software technology as are 
                        required to fully realize the potential 
                        of an exascale production system in 
                        addressing Department target 
                        applications and solving scientific 
                        problems involving predictive modeling 
                        and simulation, large scale data 
                        analytics and management, and 
                        artificial intelligence;
                          (iv) explore the use of exascale 
                        computing technologies to advance a 
                        broad range of science and engineering; 
                        and
                          (v) provide, as appropriate, on a 
                        competitive, merit-reviewed basis, 
                        access for researchers in industries in 
                        the United States, institutions of 
                        higher education, National 
                        Laboratories, and other Federal 
                        agencies to the exascale computing 
                        systems developed pursuant to clause 
                        (i).
                  (B) Selection of partners.--The Secretary 
                shall select the partnerships with the 
                computing facilities of the Department under 
                subparagraph (A) through a competitive, peer-
                review process.
          (3) Codesign and application development.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall--
                          (i) carry out the Program through an 
                        integration of applications, computer 
                        science, applied mathematics, and 
                        computer hardware architecture using 
                        the partnerships established pursuant 
                        to paragraph (2) to ensure that, to the 
                        maximum extent practicable, two or more 
                        exascale computing machine 
                        architectures are capable of solving 
                        Department target applications and 
                        broader scientific problems, including 
                        predictive modeling and simulation, 
                        large scale data analytics and 
                        management, and artificial 
                        intelligence; and
                          (ii) conduct outreach programs to 
                        increase the readiness for the use of 
                        such platforms by domestic industries, 
                        including manufacturers.
                  (B) Report.--(i) The Secretary shall submit 
                to Congress a report describing how the 
                integration under subparagraph (A) is 
                furthering application science data and 
                computational workloads across application 
                interests, including national security, 
                material science, physical science, 
                cybersecurity, biological science, the 
                Materials Genome and BRAIN Initiatives of the 
                President, advanced manufacturing, and the 
                national electric grid.
                  (ii) The roles and responsibilities of 
                National Laboratories and industry, including 
                the definition of the roles and 
                responsibilities within the Department to 
                ensure an integrated program across the 
                Department.
          (4) Project review.--
                  (A) In general.--The exascale architectures 
                developed pursuant to partnerships established 
                pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be reviewed 
                through a project review process.
                  (B) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the 
                date of enactment of this subsection, the 
                Secretary shall submit to Congress a report 
                on--
                          (i) the results of the review 
                        conducted under subparagraph (A); and
                          (ii) the coordination and management 
                        of the Program to ensure an integrated 
                        research program across the Department.
          (5) Annual reports.--At the time of the budget 
        submission of the Department for each fiscal year, the 
        Secretary, in consultation with the members of the 
        partnerships established pursuant to paragraph (2), 
        shall submit to Congress a report that describes 
        funding for the Program as a whole by functional 
        element of the Department and critical milestones.
                              ----------                              


                       ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954

TITLE I--ATOMIC ENERGY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  Sec. 33. Research for Others.--In this section, with respect 
to international research projects, the term ``private 
facilities or laboratories'' means facilities or laboratories 
located in the United States. Where the Commission finds 
private facilities or laboratories are inadequate to the 
purpose, it is authorized to conduct for other persons, through 
its own facilities, such of those activities and studies of the 
types specified in section 31 as it deems appropriate to the 
development of atomic energy. To the extent the Commission 
determines that private facilities or laboratories are 
inadequate to the purpose, and that the Commission's 
facilities, or scientific or technical resources have the 
potential of lending significant assistance to other persons in 
the fields of protection of public health and safety, the 
Commission may also assist other persons in these fields by 
conducting for such persons, through the Commission's own 
facilities, research and development or training activities and 
studies. The Commission is authorized to determine and make 
such charges as in its discretion may be desirable for the 
conduct of the activities and studies referred to in this 
section.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                                  [all]