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115th Congress   }                                     {        Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session     }                                     {        115-12                             
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     




                     ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON
                         HOMELAND SECURITY AND
                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS


                               __________

                               R E P O R T

                                 of the

        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                                and its

                             SUBCOMMITTEES

                                for the

                    ONE HUNDRED FOURTEENTH CONGRESS


[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]


                 MARCH 28, 2017--Ordered to be printed
                 
                                  ______

                         U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 

69-010                         WASHINGTON : 2017                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona                 CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  JON TESTER, Montana
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             HEIDI HEITKAMP, North Dakota
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
JOHN HOEVEN, North Dakota            MAGGIE HASSAN, New Hampshire
STEVE DAINES, Montana                KAMALA D. HARRIS, California

                  Christopher R. Hixon, Staff Director
                Gabrielle D'Adamo Singer, Chief Counsel
               Margaret E. Daum, Minority Staff Director
               Stacia M. Cardille, Minority Chief Counsel
                     Laura W. Kilbride, Chief Clerk
                                 ------                                

  COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS DURING THE 
                             114TH CONGRESS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona                 THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  JON TESTER, Montana
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             TAMMY BALDWIN, Wisconsin
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             HEIDI HEITKAMP, North Dakota
KELLY AYOTTE, New Hampshire          CORY A. BOOKER, New Jersey
JONI ERNST, Iowa                     GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
BEN SASSE, Nebraska
                                 ------                                

                  SUBCOMMITTEES OF THE 114TH CONGRESS
             PERMANENT SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS (PSI)

                      ROB PORTMAN, Ohio, Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona                 CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  JON TESTER, Montana
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             TAMMY BALDWIN, Wisconsin
KELLY AYOTTE, New Hampshire          HEIDI HEITKAMP, North Dakota
BEN SASSE, Nebraska
                                 ------                                

       FEDERAL SPENDING OVERSIGHT AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (FSO)

                     RAND PAUL, Kentucky, Chairman
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             TAMMY BALDWIN, Wisconsin
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri
JONI ERNST, Iowa                     CORY A. BOOKER, New Jersey
BEN SASSE, Nebraska                  GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
            REGULATORY AFFAIRS AND FEDERAL MANAGEMENT (RAFM)

                   JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma, Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona                 HEIDI HEITKAMP, North Dakota
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    JON TESTER, Montana
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             CORY A. BOOKER, New Jersey
JONI ERNST, Iowa                     GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
BEN SASSE, Nebraska
                                 ------                                















                                CONTENTS

                                 ------                                
                                                                   Page
  I. Highlights of Activities.........................................1

        A. Border and Immigration Security.......................     2
        B. Cybersecurity.........................................     5
        C. Critical Infrastructure...............................     6
        D. Terrorism.............................................     7
        E. DHS Reforms...........................................     8
        F. Oversight of Federal Agencies and Government Programs.     9
        G. Regulatory Reform.....................................    16
        H. Waste, Fraud, and Abuse...............................    18

 II. Committee Jurisdiction..........................................20
III. Bills and Resolutions Referred and Considered...................23
 IV. Hearings........................................................24
  V. Reports, Prints, and GAO Reports................................52
 VI. Official Communications.........................................65
VII. Legislative Actions.............................................65
        A. Measures Enacted Into Law.............................    65
        B. Postal Naming Bills...................................    81
VIII.Activities of the Subcommittees.................................85


            Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management (RAFM)

  I. Authority.......................................................85

 II. Activity........................................................85

III. Legislation.....................................................91

 IV. GAO Reports.....................................................92

       Federal Spending Oversight and Emergency Management (FSO)

  I. Authority.......................................................94

 II. Activity........................................................94

III. Legislation.....................................................98

             Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI)

  I. Historical Background..........................................100

        A. Subcommittee Jurisdiction.............................   100

        B. Subcommittee Investigations...........................   102

 II. Subcommittee Hearings during the 114th Congress................108

III. Legislation Activities during the 114th Congress.............. 111

 IV. Reports, Prints, and Studies...................................112







115th Congress   }                                     {        Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session     }                                     {        115-12                             
======================================================================



 
                ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND
                   SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
                       DURING THE 114TH CONGRESS

                                _______
                                

                 March 28, 2017--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. JOHNSON, from the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
                    Affairs, submitted the following

                                 REPORT

    This report reviews the legislative and oversight 
activities of the Committee on Homeland Security and 
Governmental Affairs and its Subcommittees during the 114th 
Congress. These activities were conducted pursuant to the 
Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, as amended; by Rule 
XXV(k) of the Standing Rules of the Senate; and by additional 
authorizing resolutions of the Senate. See Section II, 
``Committee Jurisdiction,'' for details.
    Senator Johnson was Chairman of the Committee during the 
114th Congress; Senator Carper was the Ranking Member.
    Major activities of the Committee during the 114th Congress 
included investigations, oversight, and legislation involving 
border and immigration security; cybersecurity; critical 
infrastructure; terrorism; reforming the Department of Homeland 
Security; the Committee's oversight jurisdiction; regulatory 
reform; and reducing waste, fraud and abuse in Federal 
spending. Discussion of these major activities appears in 
Section I below; additional information on these and other 
measures appears in Section VII, ``Legislative Actions.'' 
Discussion of these major activities appears in Section I 
below; additional information on these and other measures 
appears in Section VII, ``Legislative Actions.''
    Extensive information about the Committee's history, 
hearings, legislation, documents, Subcommittees, and other 
matters is available at the Web site, http://hsgac.senate.gov/.

                      I. HIGHLIGHTS OF ACTIVITIES

    Under the leadership of Chairman Ron Johnson and Ranking 
Member Tom Carper, the Committee established a mission 
statement: ``to enhance the economic and national security of 
America.'' During the 114th Congress, the Committee made real 
progress advancing this mission. The Committee's work on 
oversight through hearings, inquiries, and investigations 
identified and clarified significant economic and national 
security challenges facing the nation. And its collaborative 
work on bipartisan legislation demonstrated that a committee of 
Senators with differing views about public policy can come 
together and find areas of agreement in support of commonsense 
reforms.
    To improve national security, the Committee worked to 
identify challenges and solutions to major threats facing our 
nation, including border and visa security; international drug 
trafficking and our nation's insatiable demand for drugs; 
cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities; and the growing 
threat posed by ISIS and other militant Islamic extremists. The 
Committee passed legislation to strengthen border security, 
improve detection of human trafficking, enhance federal agency 
cybersecurity practices, protect our critical infrastructure, 
and ensure a more accountable Department of Homeland Security 
(DHS or ``the Department'').
    To improve our nation's economic security, the Committee 
held a series of hearings to identify the root causes of the 
challenges that so many people face pursuing the American 
dream. For example, the Committee examined the challenges 
Americans face finding and paying for high-quality education 
services for their children, and how the skyrocketing number of 
Federal regulations are reducing economic opportunity for 
American workers. The Committee held hearings to identify ways 
to ensure that our most vulnerable, including those with 
terminal illnesses, and those to whom we owe our freedoms-our 
nation's veterans-have the ability to receive high-quality 
health care. The majority staff issued reports examining our 
border security, America's insatiable demand for drugs, the 
effect of onerous Executive Branch regulations, undue White 
House influence into the decision-making of independent 
agencies, and the tragedies at the Veterans Affairs Medical 
Center in Tomah, Wisconsin (Tomah VAMC).
    Beyond diagnosing problems, the Committee worked together 
to approve bipartisan legislation on challenging issues by 
finding common ground, including legislation to improve the 
regulatory process and streamline Federal regulations. The 
Committee also approved dozens of bills that protect taxpayer 
dollars by reducing wasteful government spending and addressing 
inefficient, duplicative, or nontransparent government 
programs.
    In total, the Committee held more than 100 hearings and 
roundtables to study challenges facing the United States and 
identify potential solutions; approved or discharged 86 pieces 
of legislation (not including post office naming bills), 85 of 
which passed with bipartisan support; shepherded 49 of these 
bills through the Senate and into law; approved or discharged 
30 of President Obama's nominations for Senate-confirmed 
positions; sent more than 800 oversight letters; and issued 10 
majority staff reports, 3 minority staff reports, and 1 joint 
staff report.

                   A. BORDER AND IMMIGRATION SECURITY

    The increasing threat of international criminal and 
terrorist organizations, most notably ISIS, has underscored the 
need to secure the nation's borders, a priority that was 
identified by Congress and the 9/11 Commission fifteen years 
ago in the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attacks. The threat 
of terrorism is just one of the reasons why we must secure our 
borders and fix our broken immigration system. International 
drug trafficking and human trafficking, exacerbated by unsecure 
borders, are ruining the lives of too many of our citizens and 
hurting so many of our families. The Committee has taken 
seriously its imperative to provide oversight of the Department 
in these areas and close security gaps.
    Relying on evidence gathered through 19 border security 
hearings and four roundtables, including field hearings focused 
on the opioid epidemic across the country, the Committee issued 
two majority staff reports, America's Insatiable Demand for 
Drugs: The Public Health and Safety Implications for our 
Unsecure Border and The State of America's Border Security, and 
one minority staff report, Stronger Neighbors--Stronger 
Borders: Addressing the Root Causes of the Migration Surge from 
Central America, and worked to lay out the reality of our 
border security. The Committee made the following findings:

     LOur borders are unsecure. Despite spending more 
than $100 billion over the last decade to fund security 
measures along the borders, our borders remain unsecure.\1\ 
Interdiction rates on the border are below 55 percent, and as 
low as 30 to 40 percent in some areas.\2\ In unfenced areas--
approximately two-thirds of the southwest border--interdiction 
rates may be as low as 5 percent.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\See Lisa Seghetti, Cong. Research Serv., DHS Border Security and 
Immigration Enforcement Strategy, Appropriations, and Metrics 4-6 
(2014).
    \2\Bryan Roberts, Edward Alden, John Whitley, Managing Illegal 
Immigration to the United States: How Effective is Enforcement?, 
Council on Foreign Relations 2-3 (2013); see also Ongoing Migration 
from Central America: An Examination of FY2015 Apprehensions: Hearing 
Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs,  114th 
Cong. (2015) (statement of Chris Cabrera, National Border Patrol 
Council).
    \3\Majority Comm. Staff notes from bipartisan STAFFDEL to the 
Tucson, Arizona Sector (Feb. 2015).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LThe U.S. has an insatiable demand for drugs. 
America's insatiable demand for drugs, coupled with drug 
smugglers' insatiable demand for profits, is a driving factor 
of the unsecure border.\4\ A former drug czar told the 
Committee that the overall interdiction rate of drugs coming 
across our land borders is estimated between 5 to 10 
percent.\5\ Similarly, the United States Coast Guard is only 
able to target approximately 30 percent of the illegal drugs it 
is aware of, resulting in the interdiction of only 11 to 18 
percent of the maritime known drug flow toward the United 
States.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\Majority Staff Report, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental 
Affairs, America's Insatiable Demand for Drugs: The Public Health & 
Safety Implications for our Unsecure Border, 114th Cong. (Sept. 1, 
2016).
    \5\Securing the Border: Assessing the Impact of Transnational 
Crime: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Security & Governmental 
Affairs, 114th Cong. (2015) (testimony of Gen. Barry R. McCaffrey, 
Ret.).
    \6\U.S. Coast Guard, Maritime Border Security (2015); Western 
Hemisphere Drug Interdiction Efforts: Hearing Before the H. Subcomm. on 
Coast Guard & Marine Transportation of the Comm. on Transportation and 
Infrastructure, 114th Cong. (2015).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LWe are losing the war on drugs. We spend roughly 
$31 billion per year on the war on drugs.\7\ Yet in 2014, there 
were more than 47,000 overdoses in the United States, or about 
129 overdose deaths per day.\8\ In Wisconsin, for example, 
Milwaukee County alone saw 109 heroin-related overdose deaths 
in 2015.\9\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\Tim Dickinson, Why America Can't Quit the Drug War, Rolling 
Stone (May 5, 2016), http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/why-
america-cant-quit-the-drug-war-20160505.
    \8\Rudd et al., Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths-United 
States, 2000-2014, 
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Jan. 1, 2016), http://
www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6450a3.htm; see also Lenny 
Bernstein, Deaths From Opioid Overdoses Set a Record in 2014, Wash Post 
(Dec. 18, 2015), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/
2015/12/11/deaths-from-heroin-overdoses-surged-in-2014.
    \9\Border Security and America's Heroin Epidemic: The Impact of the 
Trafficking and Abuse of Heroin and Prescription Opioids in Wisconsin: 
Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 
114th Congress. (2016) (statement of James Bohn, Executive Director, 
Wisconsin High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Program).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LThere are weaknesses in U.S. immigration 
programs. DHS has challenges managing and sharing information 
and data collected for vetting immigration benefits.\10\ For 
example, as a result of poor information collection and 
management, ``274 subjects of [Immigration and Customs 
Enforcement] ICE human trafficking investigations successfully 
petitioned [U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services] USCIS to 
bring 425 family members and fiances into the country.''\11\ 
Moreover, a lack of basic information sharing and database 
integrity allowed DHS to naturalize 858 individuals with a 
previous removal order issued against them under another 
identity.\12\ Not even ICE knows how many people are in the 
country illegally due to visa overstays.\13\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\The Security of U.S. Visa Programs: Hearing Before the S. Comm. 
on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (2016).
    \11\ Department of Homeland Security, Office of the Inspector 
General, OIG-16-17, ICE and USCIS Could Improve Data Quality and 
Exchange to Help Identify Potential Human Trafficking Cases (2016).
    \12\Department of Homeland Security, Office of the Inspector 
General, OIG-16-130, Potentially Ineligible Individuals Have Been 
Granted U.S. Citizenship Because of Incomplete Fingerprint Records 
(2016).
    \13\The Security of U.S. Visa Programs: Hearing Before the S. Comm. 
on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (2016) (testimony 
of the Hon. Sarah R. Saldana).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    To address these concerns, the Committee approved and the 
President signed into law five bills to shore up the security 
at and between U.S. ports of entry. Importantly, the Department 
of Homeland Security Border Security Metrics Act, passed as 
part of 
the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, 
P.L. 114-840 (2017 NDAA), requires the DHS Secretary to 
quantitatively measure the state of border security across all 
of the border sectors. Similarly, the Northern Border Security 
Act, P.L. 
114-267, calls on DHS to consider potential criminal and 
terrorist threats stemming from our northern border. The Cross-
Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2016, P.L. 114-279, allows 
Federal authorities to partner with private sector and state 
and local governments to increase security efficiencies at U.S. 
airports with international flights. The Committee acted 
quickly to ensure that border patrol agents in the field were 
fairly compensated for overtime work they performed through a 
legislative fix, P.L. 114-13. Finally, the Preclearance 
Authorization Act of 2015, passed as part of the Trade 
Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, P.L. 
114-125, authorizes and improves a program designed to allow 
U.S. officials to screen people at foreign airports before they 
reach American soil, saving taxpayer money and providing a 
layer of security outside our borders. Building on this, 
Chairman Johnson worked with Senator Leahy and the Judiciary 
Committee to pass legislation providing needed authorities to 
implement a preclearance agreement between the United States 
and Canada to expand U.S. preclearance operations in Canada 
across all modes of transportation, P.L. 114-316.
    Recognizing that our porous borders are exploited by human 
traffickers, the Committee approved the Human Trafficking 
Detection Act of 2015, signed into law as part of larger human 
trafficking legislation, P.L. 114-22. Among other things, the 
Act requires increased training for DHS personnel on methods 
for deterring, detecting, and disrupting human trafficking and 
authorizes DHS to help state and local officials by sharing the 
training.
    In addition to pieces of legislation signed into law, the 
Committee worked to set a marker for border security measures 
that should be implemented in the future by approving Border 
Security Technology Accountability Act of 2015; Arizona 
Borderlands Protection and Preservation Act; and a resolution 
affirming the success and importance of Operation Streamline. 
These bills require the Department to make smart choices when 
acquiring technology to assist in border security operations, 
provide border patrol agents with access to Federal lands, and 
ensure appropriate consequences are placed on border crossers 
to decrease recidivism.
    The Committee also examined the security of the refugee 
resettlement program, visa waiver program, and visa system in 
the U.S. in light of the horrific terrorist attacks in Paris, 
France, and San Bernardino, California. The Committee sent a 
series of oversight letters and held hearings on these topics 
to inform legislation to fix the weaknesses. Chairman Johnson 
led the effort to ensure that key enhancements to the visa 
wavier program were signed into law through the Visa Waiver 
Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 
2015, passed as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 
2016, P.L. 114-113.

                            B. CYBERSECURITY

    It is no coincidence that the very first hearing the 
Committee held in the 114th Congress was on the cybersecurity 
threats facing our nation. The issue came to the forefront of 
Americans' attention in 2015, when news broke of the largest 
Federal data breach: the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) 
had been hacked, resulting in the loss of security clearance 
background investigation files containing sensitive personal 
information for millions of current and former Federal 
employees, putting both individuals' lives and our nation's 
security at risk.\14\ That same year the Internal Revenue 
Service (IRS) was compromised, resulting in unauthorized users 
successfully obtaining Get Transcript applications for 355,262 
taxpayers' accounts.\15\ The threat requires Congress and the 
Administration to come together to take swift action to improve 
cybersecurity protections across the Federal Government. The 
Committee has led these efforts.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \14\Off. of Mgmt. & Budget, Cybersecurity Resource Center: 
Cybersecurity Incidents (2016).
    \15\Treasury Inspector Gen. for Tax Admin., 2016-40-037, The 
Internal Revenue Serv. Did Not Identify and Assist All Individuals 
Potentially Affected by the Get Transcript Application Data Breach 1 
(2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In 2015, Chairman Johnson worked with Ranking Member Carper 
to draft legislation that requires Federal agencies to 
implement stronger protections to defend against cyber-attacks, 
including implementing multi-factor authentication for remote 
users. It also requires DHS to deploy an intrusion detection 
and prevention system. The legislation, the Federal 
Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2015, was approved by the 
Committee in July 2015, and incorporated into a larger 
cybersecurity information sharing bill the Chairman and Ranking 
Member negotiated with the Senate Select Committee on 
Intelligence called the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act 
of 2015. The final legislation, including the Committee-
approved measure, was signed into law in December 2015 as part 
of the 2016 Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 114-113. This 
legislation, which includes liability protection when sharing 
information on cyber threat indicators, is an important first 
step toward combatting our cyber adversaries.
    In addition to the major cybersecurity legislation passed 
in 2015, the Committee worked to approve several smaller bills 
to improve our partnership with Israel as it pertains to 
research on cybersecurity issues, P.L. 114-304, and reduce 
duplication of DHS spending on information technology, P.L. 
114-43. The Committee also approved the Federal Information 
Systems Safeguards Act of 2016, important legislation that 
would give Federal agencies broader authority to implement 
policies to improve cybersecurity, including by restricting 
employees' access to certain websites.
    The issue of encryption was also an important topic in the 
114th Congress. The Committee gathered facts from all sides of 
the debate, hearing from experts at the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation (FBI) and private technology companies at a 
series of roundtables to inform policy decisions on this 
complex issue.

                       C. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    The United States depends on its critical infrastructure, 
particularly the electric power grid, as all critical 
infrastructure sectors are to some degree dependent on 
electricity to operate.\16\ A successful nuclear 
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack against the United States 
could cause the death of approximately 90 percent of 
the American population.\17\ Similarly, a geomagnetic 
disturbance (GMD) could have equally devastating effects on the 
power grid.\18\ Chairman Johnson has made it a priority to 
examine the threats, both man-made and natural, to the 
country's critical infrastructure.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\U.S. Dep't of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy 
Reliability, Cybersecurity, http://energy.gov/oe/services/cybersecurity 
(last visited Sept. 21, 2016).
    \17\Critical National Infrastructures, Report of the Commission to 
Assess the Threat to 
the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack (Apr. 2008), 
http://www.empcommission.org/docs/A2473-EMP--Commission-7MB.pdf.
    \18\Gov't Accountability Office, GAO-16-243, Critical 
Infrastructure Protection: Federal Agencies Have Taken Actions to 
Address Electromagnetic Risks, But Opportunities Exist to Further 
Assess Risks and Strengthen Collaboration (2016), http://www.gao.gov/
assets/680/676030.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In July 2015, the Committee held a hearing titled 
Protecting the Electric Grid from the Potential Threats of 
Solar Storms and Electromagnetic Pulse, to learn from industry 
experts about EMP and GMD threats. The hearing examined what 
actions DHS and the Department of Energy are taking to address 
these threats and mitigate potential vulnerabilities. The 
Committee later held a hearing in May 2016 titled Assessing the 
Security of Critical Infrastructure: Threats, Vulnerabilities, 
and Solutions, to evaluate the state of information-sharing 
mechanisms used by DHS and private stakeholders to plan for 
threats against critical infrastructure.
    Based on the information learned from the Committee's 
oversight, Chairman Johnson introduced, and the Committee 
approved, the Critical Infrastructure Protection Act of 2016. 
The legislation requires DHS to develop and submit to Congress 
a strategy to protect critical infrastructure and to perform 
research and incident response planning. The legislation was 
signed into law as part of the 2017 NDAA.

                              D. TERRORISM

    The Committee made identifying terrorist threats to the 
homeland and assessing the adequacy of current measures aimed 
at stopping these threats a priority in the 114th Congress. The 
importance and urgency of this mission has become increasingly 
clear as the threat of ISIS and other terrorists grows each 
day.
    In total, the Committee held nine hearings that examined 
the issue of counterterrorism and countering violent extremism, 
with the aim of laying out the reality of the terrorist threats 
we face. Several of these hearings also explored the ideology, 
methodology, and goals of ISIS. Here is what the Committee 
found:

     LHomegrown terrorism is a growing and evolving 
threat. DHS Secretary Jeh Johnson warned the Committee that: 
``The new reality involves the potential for smaller-scale 
attacks by those who are either homegrown or home-based, not 
exported, and who are inspired by, not necessarily directed by, 
a terrorist organization.''\19\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \19\Threats to the Homeland: Hearing Before S. Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (2015) (statement of Hon. Jeh 
Johnson, Secretary).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LISIS has surpassed other terrorist organizations 
in its use of the Internet for propaganda purposes. 
Counterterrorism expert Juan Zurate explained to the Committee: 
``With a vast recruitment pipeline, slick media products, and 
targeted use of social media, new recruits and identities are 
forming. With 62 percent of 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide under 
the age of thirty, this is a generational threat. And the 
terrorists know this--using schools, videos, and terror--to 
inculcate a new generation with their message.''\20\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \20\Terror in Europe: Safeguarding U.S. Citizens At Home and 
Abroad: Hearing Before S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental 
Affairs, 114th Cong. (2016) (statement of Mr. Juan Zarate).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LInformation sharing among law enforcement 
agencies is crucial. In February 2016, the Committee held a 
hearing titled Frontline Response to Terrorism in America, to 
examine the local response to recent terror attacks within the 
United States and how first responders are preparing for the 
next attack. Following the hearing, the Committee reached out 
to 113 local law enforcement departments across the United 
States and interviewed 69 of them to learn more about how 
information-sharing gaps are jeopardizing the safety of 
Americans. The Committee learned that despite improvements, 
many of the barriers and gaps identified after the 
9/11 terror attacks still exist today.\21\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \21\Majority comm. staff notes (2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee also approved important legislation to 
provide DHS the tools it needs to protect the homeland. Four 
bipartisan bills approved by the Committee would help the 
Federal Government combat extremists in the United States from 
committing attacks on the homeland or from traveling overseas 
to join ISIS: the Department of Homeland Security Insider 
Threat and Mitigation Act of 2016; Countering Online 
Recruitment of Violent Extremists Act of 2015; Combat Terrorist 
Use of Social Media Act of 2016; and a bill to amend the 
Homeland Security Act of 2002 to build partnerships to prevent 
violence by extremists.
    Four other bills approved by the Committee and signed into 
law help modernize, integrate, and improve information sharing 
among Government agencies and with the public during 
emergencies, including Chairman Johnson and Senator Claire 
McCaskill's bill, the Integrated Public Alert and Warning 
System (IPAWS) Modernization Act, P.L. 114-143. The importance 
of modernizing IPAWS was recently illustrated when law 
enforcement officials used the Wireless Emergency Alert system 
during the manhunt for the Manhattan bombing suspect, Ahmad 
Khan Rahami, in September 2016.\22\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \22\Tony Romm & Margaret Harding McGill, New York Bombing Revives 
Emergency Alert Debate, Politico (Aug. 19, 2016), https://
www.politicopro.com/technology/story/2016/09/new-york-bombing-revives-
emergency-alert-debate-130784.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee used its oversight authority to ensure that 
Federal law enforcement agencies work effectively and 
successfully to defend the homeland, including by overseeing 
agency responses to terrorist attacks here and abroad. For 
example, the Committee investigated coordination between USCIS 
and ICE and learned that the two DHS components failed to work 
together the day after the attack in San Bernardino, 
California. This failure could have prevented the arrest of a 
key suspect involved in the case.\23\ The Committee also 
requested information from DHS and the Department of Justice 
(DOJ) regarding the terror attacks and attempted attacks in 
Garland, Texas; San Bernardino, California; Orlando, Florida; 
St. Cloud, Minnesota; and the New York metropolitan area. 
Further, after extensive briefings with the FBI and others, 
Chairman Johnson asked the DOJ Inspector General (DOJ IG) to 
conduct an independent review of the FBI's handling of its 
investigation into the Orlando terrorist prior to the attack, 
including reviewing the appropriateness of the watchlisting 
guidelines the FBI used.\24\ The DOJ IG agreed and has started 
its review.\25\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \23\Memorandum from John Roth, Inspector General, to the Honorable 
Jeh C. Johnson, 
Secretary, et al, (June 1, 2016), available at https://www.oig.dhs.gov/
assets/Mga/OIG-mga-060116.pdf.
    \24\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to the Honorable Michael 
Horowitz, Inspector General (July 26, 2016).
    \25\Letter from Michael E. Horowitz, Inspector General, to the 
Honorable Ron Johnson, Chairman (Aug. 30, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             E. DHS REFORMS

    The Committee has primary responsibility within the Senate 
for overseeing and authorizing DHS. During the 114th Congress, 
the Committee took significant action, through oversight and 
legislation, including 13 hearings, to improve DHS's management 
and operations.
    Most significantly, the Chairman and Ranking Member 
introduced the DHS Accountability Act of 2016, a bill to 
improve the Department's management and transparency. The 
principle pieces of the bill were signed into law in December 
2016 as part of the 2017 NDAA. The legislation was one of the 
most significant reforms of DHS since its creation after the 
September 11th terrorist attacks. Among other things, DHS will 
now be required to mitigate current security gaps and improve 
coordination with joint task forces and others. Additionally, 
the President will be required to develop a national strategy 
to prevent terrorists' travel and to review instances of United 
States persons traveling or attempting to travel to Iraq or 
Syria to provide material support or resources to a terrorist 
organization.
    In addition to reforming the Department, the Committee 
focused on examining the country's ability to respond to 
attacks. The Committee held two hearings examining our 
biodefense capabilities, The Federal Perspective on the State 
of Our Nation's Biodefense and Assessing the State of Our 
Nation's Biodefense, and approved the National Biodefense 
Strategy Act of 2016 to require the President to develop and 
carry out a comprehensive national biodefense strategy. Key 
pieces of this legislation were included in the 2017 NDAA, P.L. 
114-840. The Committee also approved, and the President signed 
into law, three bills that help first responders: the First 
Responder Anthrax Preparedness Act, P.L. 114-268, which gives 
first responders access to anthrax vaccines; the National Urban 
Search and Rescue Response System Act of 2016, P.L. 114-326, 
which provides reemployment protections after they are 
deployed, and other legal benefits; and the RESPONSE Act of 
2016, P.L. 114-321, which shores up emergency responder 
training relating to hazardous materials incidents involving 
railroads.
    In 2015, the Committee oversaw the nomination of a new 
Transportation Security Administration Administrator, Peter 
Neffenger, and as part of its vetting of the nominee, held a 
hearing titled Oversight of the Transportation Security 
Administration: First-Hand and Government Watchdog Accounts of 
Agency Challenges, to examine challenges the agency faces.
    Several bills approved by the Committee and signed into law 
in 2016 aimed to help reduce unnecessary and potentially 
wasteful spending by the Department. The Chairman's Directing 
Dollars to Disaster Relief Act of 2015, P.L. 114-132, requires 
that Federal money spent on disaster relief is not wasted on 
unreasonably high administration costs, and Department of 
Homeland Security Headquarters Consolidation Accountability Act 
of 2015, P.L. 114-150, ensures that DHS remains accountable to 
Congress for costs and timetables associated with their 
headquarter consolidation project.
    Finally, the Committee continued its oversight of the 
United States Secret Service (USSS) through oversight letters 
and legislation in the 114th Congress. One bill approved by the 
Committee and signed into law at the end of 2016, the Overtime 
Pay for Protective Services Act of 2016, P.L. 114-311, 
addressed the inequity experienced by USSS employees who worked 
overtime during the 2016 Presidential election cycle, but were 
not fully compensated for their work. The Committee also 
approved the Secret Service Improvements Act of 2015, 
legislation to improve USSS protection of the White House and 
grounds; former Vice Presidents and their family; and improve 
the hiring, training, and retention of officers and agents. The 
Committee will continue to work on this legislation in the next 
Congress.

        F. OVERSIGHT OF FEDERAL AGENCIES AND GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS

    The Committee has broad responsibility to oversee all 
Federal agencies. During the 114th Congress, the Committee 
focused its general oversight on four priorities: (1) 
protecting the finest among us; (2) shielding whistleblowers 
from agency retaliation; (3) preserving Americans' life, 
liberty, and pursuit of happiness; and (4) protecting America's 
secrets.

                     Protecting the Finest Among Us

    The heroes who serve the United States deserve the best 
health care available. Unfortunately, recent history with the 
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) reminds us that our nation 
has often failed to meet this obligation. This failure 
highlights the need not only for reform of the VA but also 
proper oversight, including whistleblower protections, so that 
whistleblowers everywhere can speak out to identify problems 
related to veterans' health care.
    In January 2015, the Committee began investigating the 
Tomah VAMC following press reports about a veteran's death at 
the facility. As part of that investigation, the Committee sent 
28 letters, issued a subpoena to the VA Office of Inspector 
General (VA OIG) to produce documents, and held 3 hearings. 
Committee staff reviewed thousands of pages of documents, and 
conducted over 82 hours of transcribed interviews of 21 
witnesses. Based on information gathered during the 
investigation, Chairman Johnson's staff issued a 359-page 
report in May 2016 detailing the systemic failures that 
contributed to the tragedies at the Tomah VAMC.\26\ The report 
found:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \26\Majority Staff Report, S. Comm. On Homeland Sec. & Governmental 
Affairs, The Systemic Failures And Preventable Tragedies At The Tomah 
VA Medical Center, 114th Cong. (2016).

     LAt least two veterans died from complications of 
over prescription of drugs at the Tomah VAMC. The facility was 
known as ``Candy Land'' and the former chief of staff was known 
as the ``Candy Man'' because of the widespread prescription of 
addictive medications.\27\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \27\Id. at vi.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LA culture of fear and whistleblower retaliation 
at the Tomah VAMC went unaddressed for years. One whistleblower 
committed suicide after he was fired for raising concerns about 
questionable prescription practices at the facility.\28\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \28\Id. at vii.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LDespite receiving complaints, Federal law 
enforcement agencies and other executive branch entities failed 
to address the problems at the Tomah VAMC.\29\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \29\Id. at vi-vii.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LThe VA OIG failed veterans. It examined the 
facility but hid its findings from the public and from 
Congress, and even retaliated against VA whistleblowers.\30\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \30\Id. at vii.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LActing VA Inspector General Richard Griffin was 
ill-suited for the job, too close to VA management, and 
withheld documents from Congress.\31\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \31\Id.

    The Committee's investigation resulted in significant 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
changes.

     LFollowing Chairman Johnson's subpoena of the VA 
OIG for Tomah VAMC documents and other public pressure, Richard 
Griffin, the acting VA Inspector General, resigned.\32\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \32\Donovan Slack, Embattled VA watchdog stepping down, USA Today 
(June 30, 2015), http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2015/06/
30/va-inspector-general-to-resign-this-week-in-face-of-criticism/
29525497.
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     LAfter months of Chairman Johnson and the 
Committee calling on the President to nominate a permanent VA 
inspector general,\33\ President Obama nominated Michael 
Missal.\34\ The Committee moved expeditiously to vet and 
approve his nomination, and Chairman Johnson then requested and 
received a favorable voice vote confirming Mr. Missal on the 
Senate floor.\35\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \33\Letter from Sen. Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. and Governmental Affairs, to President Barrack Obama, Jan. 22, 
2015; Letter from Ron Johnson, Thomas R. Carper, and all other Members 
of the Committee to President Barack H. Obama (Mar. 24, 2015).
    \34\PN897--Michael Joseph Missal--Department of Veterans Affairs, 
Congress.gov, https://www.congress.gov/nomination/114th-congress/897 
(last visited Sept. 27, 2016).
    \35\Press Release, Johnson Statement on Senate Confirmation of 
Michael Missal to Serve As Inspector General at the Department of 
Veterans Affairs, https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/media/majority-media/
johnson-statement-on-senate-confirmation-of-michael-missal-to-serve-as-
inspector-general-at-the-department-of-veterans-affairs- (last visited 
Sept. 27, 2016).
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     LThe Tomah VAMC investigation found that the VA 
OIG failed to publish approximately 140 health care inspections 
dating back to 2016.\36\ Under pressure from Chairman Johnson, 
the VA OIG released the documents.\37\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \36\Letter from Sen. Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. and Gov't Affairs, to Richard Griffin, Deputy Inspector Gen., 
Dep't of Veteran's Affairs (Mar. 17, 2015).
    \37\Donovan Slack, Newly released VA reports include cases of 
veteran harm, death, USA 
Today (Apr. 29, 2015), http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/
2015/04/29/newly-released-va-reports/26594353.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LChairman Johnson helped to broker briefings 
between the VA OIG and families of veterans who died at the 
Tomah VAMC about what the VA OIG investigations into those 
veterans' death found.\38\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \38\Letter from Sen. Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. and Governmental Affairs, to Richard Griffin, Deputy Inspector 
Gen., Dep't of Veteran's Affairs (Mar. 17, 2015).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LAs a result of the Committee's investigation, the 
VA removed multiple Tomah VAMC employees that failed to live up 
to the promises made to the finest among us.\39\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \39\ Letter from Sen. Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. and Governmental Affairs, to Richard Griffin, Deputy Inspector 
Gen., Dep't of Veteran's Affairs, June 16, 2015; 
see also Donovan Slack, VA watchdog agrees to brief relatives on vet's 
death, USA Today (June 16, 2015), http://www.postcrescent.com/story/
news/local/2015/06/16/va-watchdog-agrees-brief-relatives-vets-death/
28823899.

    Additionally, the Committee approved and the President 
signed into law several bills that help veterans and their 
families: the Border Jobs for Veterans Act of 2015, P.L. 114-
68, helps separating service members connect with jobs at DHS 
as CBP officers securing our borders; the Wounded Warriors 
Federal Leave Act of 2015, P.L. 114-75, provides advanced sick 
leave to qualifying veterans who work for the Federal 
Government; and the Gold Star Fathers Act of 2015, P.L. 114-62, 
ensures both mothers and fathers of deceased military members 
can benefit from Federal Government hiring preferences.

                       Protecting Whistleblowers

    The Tomah VAMC scandal is a glaring example of the 
importance of whistleblower protections. As founding members of 
the Senate Whistleblower Caucus, Chairman Johnson and Ranking 
Member Carper made it a priority to support and protect Federal 
employees who disclose allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse.
    To that end, Chairman Johnson created an email hotline to 
allow whistleblowers a safe and confidential avenue for blowing 
the whistle to the Committee. Hundreds of individuals have 
since contacted the Committee. The Committee also worked to 
provide a public platform to allow whistleblowers to voice 
their concerns, holding two hearings in 2015 that featured 
Federal whistleblower witnesses testifying about how Federal 
agencies retaliate against employees who disclose waste, fraud 
and abuse, and how Congress can help: Blowing the Whistle on 
Retaliation: Accounts of Current and Former Federal Agency 
Whistleblowers and Improving VA Accountability: Examining 
First-hand Accounts of Department of Veterans Affairs 
Whistleblowers. These are just a few of the whistleblowers the 
Committee helped:

     LChris Cabrera testified at a 2015 Committee 
hearing titled Securing the Southwest Border: Perspectives from 
Beyond the Beltway, indicating that supervisors discouraged 
agents from reporting high numbers of ``got-aways,'' or illegal 
border crossers who are spotted by an agent but then manage to 
evade detection. Shortly after this testimony, Mr. Cabrera was 
called to testify in front of the DHS Office of Internal 
Affairs. Chairman Johnson immediately questioned whether this 
was in retaliation for his testimony before the Committee.\40\ 
Shortly after Chairman Johnson's inquiry, Mr. Cabrera's hearing 
was cancelled.\41\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \40\Securing the Border: Fencing, Infrastructure, and Technology 
Force Multipliers: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (2015) (questioning of Chairman 
Johnson).
    \41\Email from Chris Cabrera to Comm. staff (May 13, 2015 5:57 PM).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LLieutenant Colonel Jason Amerine testified at a 
2015 Committee hearing titled Blowing the Whistle on 
Retaliation: Accounts of Current and Former Federal Agency 
Whistleblowers about how he faced retaliation for blowing the 
whistle to Congress about failed hostage recovery efforts. A 
recipient of the Purple Heart and Bronze Star, Amerine 
disclosed how the Army began to investigate him, revoked his 
security clearance, withheld his pay, and delayed his 
retirement. Following his testimony, the Army dropped its 
investigation of Amerine and allowed him to retire.\42\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \42\Michelle Tan, Green Beret investigated for whistleblowing 
retires, Army Times (Nov. 2, 2015), https://www.armytimes.com/story/
military/pentagon/2015/11/02/green-beret-investigated-whistleblowing-
retires/75060594/.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LRyan Honl and Joseph Colon were whistleblowers 
from VA facilities in Wisconsin and Puerto Rico, respectively. 
Mr. Honl was retaliated against for raising concerns about the 
excessive prescription of opiates to patients at his facility, 
while Mr. Colon was retaliated against after reporting concerns 
about patient care and misconduct by his facility's director. 
The whistleblowers testified at two different hearings before 
the Committee, Joint Field Hearing: Tomah VAMC: Examining 
Quality, Access, and a Culture of Overreliance on High-Risk 
Medications and Improving VA Accountability: Examining First-
hand Accounts of Department of Veterans Affairs Whistleblowers. 
Committee staff worked with the whistleblowers until they 
successfully obtained damages and other relief through the 
Office of Special Counsel.\43\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \43\Press Release, OSC Secures Relief for Additional VA 
Whistleblowers (July 22, 2015), https://osc.gov/News/pr15-15.pdf.

    The Committee also worked to approve meaningful legislation 
to protect Federal whistleblowers. Chairman Johnson's Dr. Chris 
Kirkpatrick Whistleblower Protection Act, approved unanimously 
by the Committee, adopted recommendations put forward by 
hearing witnesses, including prohibitions against accessing a 
whistleblower's medical records and protocols to address 
threats against VA employees. It also required discipline for 
supervisors who retaliate against whistleblowers. Additionally, 
the Committee approved a bill to reauthorize and reform the 
Office of Special Counsel, the Office of Special Counsel 
Reauthorization Act, to ensure it has the authorities and 
resources necessary to protect Federal whistleblowers. The 
Committee will work in the next Congress to ensure these 
priorities are signed into law.
    Finally, Senator McCaskill and Chairman Johnson introduced, 
and the President signed into law, P.L. 114-261, legislation to 
ensure that contractors and grantee employees working on 
Federal contracts are protected when raising whistleblower 
complaints.

     Preserving Americans' Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness

    Every American should have a chance to pursue the American 
dream, including choosing what school to send their child to, 
experiencing the dignity of work, and accessing potentially 
lifesaving treatments. The Committee worked in the 114th 
Congress to perform oversight and approve legislation to 
provide all Americans with a fair chance to do just that.
    The Committee worked to help ensure that Americans have a 
fair chance to get a job. The Fair Chance Act, sponsored by 
Senator Cory Booker and Chairman Johnson and approved by the 
Committee, gives an opportunity to formerly incarcerated 
individuals to have a fair chance at employment. The dignity of 
work is probably the best way we can keep people from turning 
back to a life of crime. In addition to legislation, the 
Committee supported community solutions to help Americans find 
work. In June 2016, the Committee held a hearing titled 
Renewing Communities and Providing Opportunities Through 
Innovative Solutions to Poverty, to highlight the work that 
communities across the country are doing to fight poverty and 
provide opportunities for employment. Community leaders like 
Robert Woodson and companies like Seat King are finding 
innovative solutions to help their neighborhoods. Chairman 
Johnson has a very personal connection to these initiatives, as 
he partnered with Wisconsin Pastor Jerome Smith to create the 
Joseph Project, an initiative that trains, connects, and 
transports Milwaukee workers seeking employment to 
opportunities around Wisconsin.
    The Committee also worked to help American parents have a 
choice of where their children go to school. The Committee held 
two hearings titled The Value of Education Choices for Low-
Income Families: Reauthorizing the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship 
Program and The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: A Pioneer 
for School Choice Programs Nationwide to examine strategies for 
improving opportunities for K-12 students, and particularly 
those in urban communities where not all children have access 
to schools that provide a high-quality learning environment. 
The hearing highlighted Milwaukee, which has the nation's 
oldest urban school choice program. Chairman Johnson challenged 
the DOJ's four-year long effort to quash the Milwaukee Parental 
Choice Program.\44\ After multiple requests to the DOJ to 
explain the basis for its actions, rather than answer the 
Chairman's questions, the DOJ closed its investigation into the 
program.\45\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \44\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs, to Loretta Lynch, Attorney General, U.S. Dep't of 
Justice (June 16, 2015). See also Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. 
Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, to Loretta Lynch, 
Attorney General, U.S. Dep't of Justice (July 17, 2015).
    \45\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs, to Loretta Lynch, Attorney General, U.S. Dep't of 
Justice (Dec. 2, 2015). See also Erin Richards, Feds quietly close 
long-running probe of Milwaukee voucher program, Milwaukee Journal 
Sentinel (Jan. 4, 2016), http://archive.jsonline.com/news/education/
feds-quietly-close-long-running-probe-of-milwaukee-voucher-program-
b99644914z1-364068331.html.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee used its oversight tools to fight to ensure 
that patients, especially those facing terminal illnesses, have 
access to potentially life-saving treatments. Patients like 
Trickett Wendler from Wisconsin, who passed away in 2015 from 
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without the chance to 
access new, experimental medication that could have helped 
prolong her life. Another patient, Jordan McLinn, suffers from 
Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and until just recently was not 
allowed to access promising treatments that have helped other 
little boys in trials. The drug development process, including 
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval--more than four 
years longer in the 2000s than the 1990s\46\ and 145 percent 
more expensive in 2014 than it was 10 years earlier\47\--is 
keeping patients from accessing innovative new drugs. Below are 
a few examples of the Committee's work.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \46\Fabio Pammolli, Laura Magazzini, and Massimo Riccaboni, ``The 
Productivity Crisis in Pharmaceutical R&D;,'' Vol. 10 AT 429, Nature 
Reviews Drug Discovery (June 2011).
    \47\Joseph A. Dimasi, Henry G. Grabowski, and Ronald W. Hansen, 
``Cost of Developing a New Drug,'' Briefing, Tufts Center for the Study 
of Drug Development (Nov. 18, 2014), http://csdd.tufts.edu/news/
complete--story/pr--tufts--csdd--2014--cost--study.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LCommittee Members demanded answers from the FDA, 
including why the FDA has not used tools granted to it by 
Congress to accelerate review of promising therapies, 
prioritize the patient perspective in evaluating new 
treatments, and provide regulators with flexibility to expedite 
evaluation of drugs for rare diseases.\48\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \48\Letter from Senator Johnson, Senator Carper, Senator Donnelly, 
and Senator Coats, to Janet Woodock, M.D. (March 16, 2016); Letter from 
Senator Ron Johnson and Senator Dan Coats to Robert Califf, M.D. (May 
20, 2016); Letter from Senator Ron Johnson and Senator Lamar Alexander 
to Robert Califf, M.D. (Sep. 16, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LMonths after Chairman Johnson pressed the FDA to 
improve its application process for expanded access to drugs, 
the FDA finalized the streamlined application.\49\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \49\Letter from Senator Ron Johnson to Stephen Ostroff, M.D (Feb. 
18, 2016); U.S. Food & Drug Administration, ``Statement from the FDA 
Commissioner Robert Califf, M.D. on the release of the final individual 
patient expanded access form,'' FDA Statement (June 2, 2016), http://
www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm504579.htm.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     LAfter holding a hearing titled Connecting 
Patients to New and Potential Life Saving Treatments, on ways 
to shorten the time between life-threatening conditions and 
promising treatments, Chairman Johnson encouraged the FDA to 
make its decision regarding approval of eteplirsen--a treatment 
for Duchenne muscular dystrophy--and consider the health costs 
of delays to patients.\50\ The FDA finally completed its review 
nearly 15 months later and approved the treatment.\51\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \50\Ed Silverman, Senators urge FDA to approve Sarepta drug for 
Duchenne, STAT (May 24, 2016).
    \51\U.S. Food & Drug Administration, ``FDA grants accelerated 
approval to first drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy,'' News Release 
(Sep. 19, 2016), http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/
PressAnnouncements/ucm521263.htm.
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     LChairman Johnson's leadership helped gain 42 
bipartisan cosponsors for his legislation to ensure terminally-
ill patients have the freedom to access potentially lifesaving 
treatments where no alternative exists. The Chairman will 
continue to educate his colleagues about his bill, called the 
Trickett Wendler Right to Try Act, and work to gain more 
support to pass it next Congress.
    The Committee also worked to find solutions to help prevent 
the over-prescription of pain medication. The U.S. drug czar, 
Michael Botticelli, told the Committee that ``four out of five 
newer users to heroin started by misusing prescription pain 
medication.''\52\ To address this problem, on April 7, 2016, 
Chairman Johnson, along with Senators Manchin, Barrasso, and 
Blumenthal, introduced the Promoting Responsible Opioid 
Prescribing (PROP) Act to reduce the pressure doctors currently 
face that may lead to overprescribing.\53\ During the 
Committee's hearing in Wisconsin, Dr. Timothy Westlake, the 
Vice Chairman of the State of Wisconsin Medical Examining 
Board, testified that the PROP Act is ``the single-most 
important piece of legislation reform that [policymakers] could 
do.''\54\ Heeding these calls, in November 2016, the 
Administration issued a final rule to implement the policy.\55\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \52\America's Insatiable Demand for Drugs: Assessing the Federal 
Response: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental 
Affairs, 114th Cong. (2016) (statement of Michael P. Botticelli, 
Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy).
    \53\S. 2578, PROP ACT of 2016, 114th Cong. (2016).
    \54\Border Security and America's Heroin Epidemic: The Impact of 
the Trafficking and Abuse of Heroin and Prescription Opioids in 
Wisconsin: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental 
Affairs, 114th Cong. (2016) (statement of Timothy Westlake).
    \55\Federal Register (Nov. 1, 2016), https://
www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/11/14/2016-26515/medicare-
program-hospital-outpatient-prospective-payment-and-ambulatory-
surgical-center-payment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee examined the Patient Protection and 
Affordable Care Act (ACA) to determine how ACA tax credits were 
being awarded to ineligible recipients-individuals who failed 
to prove they were citizens or lawful residents of the United 
States. In 2016, Chairman Johnson released a majority staff 
report revealing that agencies are failing to recover this 
misspent taxpayer money.\56\ The Committee also conducted 
oversight of failed state exchanges, including the Oregon state 
exchange, which received an estimated $5 billion in taxpayer 
dollars,\57\ and examined failed ACA CO-OPs, which received 
more than $2.4 billion in loans from the American 
taxpayers,\58\ and the ACA's reinsurance program, which could 
cost taxpayers an additional $4.5 billion.\59\ In September 
2016, the Committee convened a hearing titled The State of 
Health Insurance Markets, to examine how the ACA has affected 
state health insurance markets.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \56\Majority Staff Report, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental 
Affairs, Affordable Care Act Premium Tax Credits: HHS and IRS Lack Plan 
to Recover Improperly Spent Taxpayers Dollars, 114th Cong. (Feb. 8, 
2016).
    \57\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to Andrew Slavitt, Acting 
Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Servs. (May 31, 2016); 
Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to Andrew Slavitt, Acting 
Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Servs. (Sept. 16, 2015).
    \58\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to Andrew Slavitt, Acting 
Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Servs. (Jan. 19, 2016).
    \59\Letter from Senators Ron Johnson & Ben Sasse, to Andrew 
Slavitt, Acting Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Servs. 
(July 28, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Finally, the Committee was proud to support its Permanent 
Subcommittee on Investigations' (PSI) bipartisan investigation 
into child sex trafficking. The Committee voted unanimously to 
direct Senate Legal Counsel to seek a court order to enforce a 
PSI subpoena issued to the Chief Executive Offices of 
Backpage.com, a company that had been under investigation by 
the subcommittee for alleged sex trafficking of children on the 
internet. The vote paved the way for a unanimous vote on the 
Senate floor, and for an historic victory in Federal court.

                      Protecting America's Secrets

    During the 114th Congress, Chairman Johnson examined former 
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's use of a private email 
account and server while she was at the State Department. The 
inquiry concerned the potential security risks created by 
Secretary Clinton's extremely careless actions, which 
ultimately resulted in the transmission of classified 
information on a non-secure, non-governmental email system.
    In March 2015, days after the existence of the server 
became public, Chairman Johnson asked the State Department 
Inspector General to examine the issue.\60\ This review 
resulted in the FBI's criminal investigation, and the resulting 
public awareness that over 190 emails on Secretary Clinton's 
server contained classified information.\61\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \60\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to Steve A. Linick, 
Inspector Gen., U.S. Dep't of State (Mar. 18, 2015).
    \61\Fed. Bureau of Investigation, Clinton E-mail Investigation 
Mishandling of Classified--Unknown Subject or Country 20 (July 2016) 
(on file with Comm.).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In the months that followed, the Committee conducted 
oversight of the State Department's awareness and approval of 
Secretary Clinton's private email system, ultimately showing 
that senior information technology professionals did not even 
know the system existed.\62\ Chairman Johnson sought 
information from the contractors and individual who maintained 
the server to understand the security specifications and 
management of the system.\63\ The Committee also examined how 
Federal agencies mitigated the resulting security 
vulnerabilities posed by Secretary Clinton's non-secure email 
system and ensured that all Federal records are preserved.\64\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \62\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs, & Charles E. Grassley, Chairman, S. Comm. on the 
Judiciary, to John Kerry, Secretary, Dep't of State (Sept. 21, 2015). 
See also, e.g., Fed. Bureau of Investigation, Summary of Interview of 
Lewis Lukens at 81 (June 15, 2016) (on file with Comm.).
    \63\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to Treve Suazo, CEO, Platte 
River Networks (Aug. 11, 2015); Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to 
Austin McChord, Chief Executive Officer, Datto, Inc. (Oct. 5, 2015); 
Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to Victor Nappe, Chief Executive 
Officer SECNAP Network Security Corp. (Oct. 5, 2015); Letter from 
Charles E. Grassley, Chairman, S. Comm. on the Judiciary, & Ron 
Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, to 
Brian Pagliano (Sept. 14, 2015); Letter from Charles E. Grassley, 
Chairman, S. Comm. on the Judiciary, & Ron Johnson, Chairman, S. Comm. 
on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, to Brian Pagliano (Oct. 8, 
2015).
    \64\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to John Kerry, Secretary, 
Dep't of State (Sept. 16, 2015); Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, to 
James Clapper, Director of Nat'l Intelligence (Sept. 16, 2015).
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                          G. REGULATORY REFORM

    Chairman Johnson and the Chairman and Ranking Member of the 
Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management made 
improving the regulatory process a focus of the Committee's 
work in the 114th Congress. The Committee held six hearings, 
conducted extensive outreach to private sector stakeholders, 
and moved bipartisan legislation to improve the regulatory 
process.
    During the Obama Administration, from January 20, 2009, 
through December 31, 2015, there were approximately 25,000 new 
regulations finalized--an average of 10 new regulations every 
day.\65\ During that same period, there were 568 of the 
category of largest and most costly rules, amounting to $665 
million in new regulatory costs.\66\ Some estimates put the 
total cost of regulations on the economy as high as $2.028 
trillion per year.\67\ The Committee approved four bills on a 
bipartisan basis that help ensure all agency regulations are 
subject to the same scrutiny; require agencies to look back at 
old rules and reconsider those that are obsolete or 
ineffective; make permanent longstanding good-government 
principles for analyzing new rules; and ensure earlier public 
and stakeholder engagement so agencies consider all options 
before adopting new, costly rules. The Committee also approved, 
and the President signed, the Federal Permitting Improvement 
Act, included in broader transportation legislation, P.L. 114-
94, to improve efficiency and coordination surrounding the 
Federal permitting of major infrastructure construction 
projects.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \65\74 Fed. Reg. 1 (Jan. 20, 2009)--80 Fed. Reg. 251 (Dec. 31, 
2015). The Number is Based on a Document Search for Published Rules in 
the Date Range of 01/20/2009 to 12/31/2015; The Search Yielded 24,943 
Rules.
    \66\ American Action Forum, Regulation Rodeo, http://regrodeo.com/ 
(years 2009-2016; filter for ``major regulations''); Cong. Research 
Service, Counting Regulations: An Overview of Rulemaking, Types of 
Federal Regulations, and Pages in the Federal Register 8 (July 14, 
2015), https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43056.pdf.
    \67\ W. Mark Crain and Nicole V. Crain, The Cost of Federal 
Regulation to the U.S. Economy, Manufacturing and Small Business, 1, 
Report, National Association of Manufacturers (Sep. 10, 2014).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee pressured the Administration to roll back 
costly regulations like the EPA's Waters of the United States 
(WOTUS) and Clean Power Plan rules. The Committee held a 
hearing titled The Impact of Federal Regulations: A Case Study 
of Recently Issued Rules in Stevens Point, Wisconsin to 
highlight the significant costs these rules would have on 
farming, manufacturing, timber, and energy business, making it 
more difficult (and in some cases nearly impossible) to grow 
and hire. Chairman Johnson co-sponsored and was a strong 
advocate for a Congressional resolution to repeal WOTUS, which 
passed the Senate but was vetoed by the President.\68\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \68\S.J. Res. 22, a joint resolution providing for congressional 
disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule 
submitted by the Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection 
Agency relating to the definition of ``waters of the United States'' 
under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (vetoed Jan. 21, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Several majority staff reports highlighted the burden the 
regulatory state is placing on Americans. Chairman Johnson, 
Ranking Member Carper, and Senators Lankford and Heitkamp sent 
letters to private sector stakeholders, including industry 
representatives, think tanks, and environmental groups, to ask 
for their input about the regulatory process.\69\ Chairman 
Johnson summarized and compiled these responses, and released 
them as part of a majority staff report.\70\ The report 
provided Congress and the American people the opportunity to 
hear different perspectives on the regulatory process and 
understand the need for reform.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \69\Letters from Ron Johnson, Thomas R. Carper, James Lankford, and 
Heidi Heitkamp to various stakeholders (Mar. 18, 2015).
    \70\Majority Staff Report, Direct From the Source: Understanding 
Regulation From the Inside Out, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (Jan. 15, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    After obtaining relevant documents from the Labor 
Department, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the 
Treasury Department, the Office of Information and Regulatory 
Affairs, and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, 
Chairman Johnson issued a majority staff report detailing the 
Labor Department's flawed process in crafting the so-called 
``fiduciary'' rule, including how the Labor Department ignored 
the advice of subject matter experts from other agencies.\71\ 
Chairman Johnson also conducted oversight of the Federal 
Communications Commission (FCC)'s Open Internet Order in light 
of public concerns that political pressure influenced the 
decision-making process. A report issued by the majority staff 
concluded that President Obama's statement during the 
regulatory process caused the FCC to change course to align 
with the President's preferred policy, an approach that, for 
the first time, placed heavy-handed regulations on the 
Internet.\72\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \71\Majority Staff Report, The Labor Department's Fiduciary Rule: 
How a Flawed Process Could Hurt Retirement Savers, S. Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (Feb. 24, 2016).
    \72\Majority Staff Report, Regulating the Internet: How the White 
House Bowled Over FCC Independence, S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong. (Feb. 29, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Additionally, Chairman Johnson conducted oversight of a 
proposed Energy Department rule that would have had a costly 
impact on small businesses that manufacture dehumidifiers.\73\ 
One manufacturer in Wisconsin feared that it would have to 
decrease its workforce by half.\74\ Following the Chairman's 
oversight efforts, the final language of the rule was revised 
allowing this business to continue to produce and sell its 
dehumidifier without having to make significant business 
cuts.\75\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \73\Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman to the Honorable David 
Danielson, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
Energy (Sept. 25, 2015).
    \74\Various communications with Comm. staff (2015).
    \75\Email from company to Comm. staff (Sept. 19, 2016), referencing 
Federal Register (June 13, 2016), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-
2016-06-13/pdf/2016-12881.pdf.
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                       H. WASTE, FRAUD, AND ABUSE

    As the Senate's lead oversight committee and the committee 
with direct legislative jurisdiction over governmental 
operations, the Committee is tasked with conducting oversight 
and passing legislation to combat waste, fraud, and abuse in 
the Federal Government to yield significant cost savings to 
taxpayers.
    The Committee also works closely with government watchdogs, 
including inspectors general (IGs) and the Government 
Accountability Office (GAO), to identify needed reforms and 
strengthen their ability to conduct oversight. The GAO is a 
great partner to Congress in helping to locate wasteful, 
inefficient, and duplicative spending in Federal programs. GAO 
estimates its work has saved approximately $40 billion over the 
last two years.\76\ GAO has made 636 recommendations to address 
the findings of the reports; of those, 388 remain unaddressed 
or partially addressed.\77\ Similarly, IGs estimate that they 
save at least $21 for every one dollar Congress invests in 
them.\78\ In October 2016, Chairman Johnson, along with 
Chairman Grassley of the Senate Judiciary Committee, issued a 
joint majority staff report finding that the Executive Branch 
has failed to implement 15,222 open IG recommendations-reforms 
that could have saved taxpayers a total of $87 billion.\79\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \76\Government Reform: Ending Duplication and Holding Washington 
Accountable: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. and Gov't 
Affairs, 114th Cong. 15 (2016) (statement of Gene Dodaro, Comptroller 
General of the United States).
    \77\Id.
    \78\Improving The Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Independence of 
Inspectors General: Hearing Before The S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. and 
Gov't Affairs, 114th Cong. 15 (2015) (statement of Michael Horowitz, 
DOJ Inspector General).
    \79\J. Majority Staff Report, Empowering Inspectors General: 
Supporting the IG Community Could Save Billions for American Taxpayers, 
S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs & S. Comm. on the 
Judiciary, 114th Cong. (Oct. 17, 2016).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Given the value GAO and IGs have for the taxpayer, it is 
important that IGs are in place and both IGs and GAO have the 
tools they need to succeed. At the start of the last Congress, 
there were eleven IG agency vacancies, totaling 15 percent of 
all IGs. The most troubling of which was the vacancy at the VA 
OIG. Through two hearings and numerous letters demanding 
action, the Committee kept the pressure on the President to 
nominate IGs for permanent positions.\80\ The Chairman and 
Ranking Member moved six IGs through the Committee for full 
Senate consideration this Congress. The Committee also approved 
and the President signed 
into law the Inspector General Empowerment Act of 2016, P.L. 
114-317, a bill that grants much-needed authorities to IGs to 
help them do their jobs better. The Chairman's legislation to 
free GAO of some of its unnecessary reporting requirements was 
also signed into law, P.L. 114-301.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \80\See, e.g., Letter from Ron Johnson, Chairman, Comm. on Homeland 
Sec. & Governmental Affairs, and John Thune, Chairman, Comm. on 
Commerce, Science, & Transportation, to President Barack H. Obama (Aug. 
5, 2015); Letter from Ron Johnson, Thomas R. Carper, and all other 
Members of the Committee to President Barack H. Obama (Mar. 24, 2015); 
Letter from Ron Johnson to President Barack H. Obama (Jan. 22, 2015).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    From 2013 to 2015, the improper payment total increased 
from $105 billion to $136.5 billion.\81\ The Committee approved 
seven bills that crack down on improper payments and fraud, 
including a bill that would prevent the Social Security 
Administration from paying hundreds of thousands of dollars to 
people who are deceased, legislation that would protect retired 
federal employees from having their retirement benefits stolen, 
and the Ranking Member's legislation signed by the President, 
P.L. 114-186, that would require agencies to implement best 
practices in using data to identify fraud in its programs like 
Social Security and Medicare.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \81\Gov't Accountability Office, GAO-14-747T, Improper Payments: 
Government-Wide Estimates and Reduction Strategies (July 9, 2014).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee has also approved a number of bills that 
reduce Federal Government spending, prohibit and end 
duplicative programs, and ensure that agencies spend money more 
wisely. Eleven of these bills became law in the 114th Congress, 
including a bill to close out empty and expired grant accounts 
that cost taxpayers to maintain, P.L. 114-117; a bill to 
drastically limit the amount of time a Federal employee can be 
placed on administrative leave and paid for not working, P.L. 
114-840; and other legislation to save money on Federal 
vehicles, P.L.114-65, and agency software licenses, P.L. 114-
210.
    The Chairman and Ranking Member also worked together to 
pass meaningful reform of the Government's management of its 
real property portfolio to help dispose of unnecessary and 
costly properties. The Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act, 
P.L. 114-287 was a Committee priority for years, and finally 
made it to the finish line in the 114th Congress. This bill 
will prevent taxpayer dollars from being wasted on unneeded 
buildings and generate revenue from the sale of these 
buildings. The Committee ensured the reform efforts of the past 
two Administrations will continue 
by passing the Federal Property Management Reform Act, P.L. 
114-318.
    Other bills approved by the Committee in the 114th Congress 
protect taxpayers from wasteful spending on the Government's 
own employees, such as a ban on politicians spending taxpayer 
money to pay for their own portraits or on bonuses paid to poor 
performing federal employee. Another Committee-approved bill, 
the Presidential Allowance Modernization Act, was passed 
unanimously by the House and Senate but vetoed by the 
President. The bill would have reduced the amount of money that 
former Presidents can be paid by taxpayers if they make over 
$400,000 a year. At a time when former Presidents are making 
millions of dollars a year, the Committee believed it was a 
responsible piece of legislation to save taxpayer money.
    The Committee worked to make Federal Government programs 
more efficient and transparent. Committee members may disagree 
on how big the Federal Government should be, but we all agree 
that what Government programs we have need to run efficiently 
and effectively for the American public. With that common 
ground in mind, the Committee approved and the President signed 
into law seven pieces of legislation that help Federal agencies 
hire employees more efficiently, help District of Columbia 
courts administer justice more efficiently and fairly, and help 
ensure efficient transitions of power from one new 
administration to the next after a presidential election to 
keep Americans safe.
    Committee members also understand that by making more 
documents, data, and information available to the public, 
Federal agencies are held accountable for the decisions they 
make and the money they spend. That is why the Committee 
approved eight bills that, taken together, require agencies to 
make their programs, data and documents, spending, grant 
awards, and settlement agreements open to the public.

                       II. COMMITTEE JURISDICTION

    The jurisdiction of the Committee (which was renamed the 
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs when 
the 109th Congress convened) derives from the Rules of the 
Senate and Senate Resolutions:

                                RULE XXV

                            * * * * * * * *

    (k)(1) Committee on Governmental Affairs, to which 
committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, 
petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the 
following subjects:

     1. Archives of the United States.
     2. Budget and accounting measures, other than 
appropriations, except as provided in the Congressional Budget 
Act of 1974.
     3. Census and collection of statistics, including economic 
and social statistics.
     4. Congressional organization, except for any part of the 
matter that amends the rules or orders of the Senate.
     5. Federal Civil Service.
     6. Government information.
     7. Intergovernmental relations.
     8. Municipal affairs of the District of Columbia, except 
appropriations therefor.
     9. Organization and management of United States nuclear 
export policy.
    10. Organization and reorganization of the executive branch 
of the Government.
    11. Postal Service.
    12. Status of officers and employees of the United States, 
including their classification, compensation, and benefits.

    (2) Such committee shall have the duty of----
    (A) receiving and examining reports of the Comptroller 
General of the United States and of submitting such 
recommendations to the Senate as it deems necessary or 
desirable in connection with the subject matter of such 
reports;
    (B) studying the efficiency, economy, and effectiveness of 
all agencies and departments of the Government;
    (C) evaluating the effects of laws enacted to reorganize 
the legislative and executive branches of the Government; and
    (D) studying the intergovernmental relationships between 
the United States and the States and municipalities, and 
between the United States and international organizations of 
which the United States is a member.

                  SENATE RESOLUTION 73, 114th CONGRESS

        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS.

    Sec. 12. (a) * * *

                            * * * * * * * *

    (e) INVESTIGATIONS----
    (1) IN GENERAL.--The committee, or any duly authorized 
subcommittee of the committee, is authorized to study or 
investigate----
    (A) the efficiency and economy of operations of all 
branches of the Government including the possible existence of 
fraud, misfeasance, malfeasance, collusion, mismanagement, 
incompetence, corruption, or unethical practices, waste, 
extravagance, conflicts of interest, and the improper 
expenditure of Government funds in transactions, contracts, 
and, activities of the Government or of Government officials 
and employees and any and all such improper practices between 
Government personnel and corporations, individuals, companies, 
or persons affiliated therewith, doing business with the 
Government; and the compliance or noncompliance of such 
corporations, companies, or individuals or other entities with 
the rules, regulations, and laws governing the various 
governmental agencies and its relationships with the public;
    (B) the extent to which criminal or other improper 
practices or activities are, or have been, engaged in the field 
of labor-management relations or in groups or organizations of 
employees or employers, to the detriment of interests of the 
public, employers, or employees, and to determine whether any 
changes are required in the laws of the United States in order 
to protect such interests against the occurrence of such 
practices or activities;
    (C) organized criminal activity which may operate in or 
otherwise utilize the facilities of interstate or international 
commerce in furtherance of any transactions and the manner and 
extent to which, and the identity of the persons, firms, or 
corporations, or other entities by whom such utilization is 
being made, and further, to study and investigate the manner in 
which and the extent to which persons engaged in organized 
criminal activity have infiltrated lawful business enterprise, 
and to study the adequacy of Federal laws to prevent the 
operations of organized crime in interstate or international 
commerce; and to determine whether any changes are required in 
the laws of the United States in order to protect the public 
against such practices or activities;
    (D) all other aspects of crime and lawlessness within the 
United States which have an impact upon or affect the national 
health, welfare, and safety; including but not limited to 
investment fraud schemes, commodity and security fraud, 
computer fraud, and the use of offshore banking and corporate 
facilities to carry out criminal objectives;
    (E) the efficiency and economy of operations of all 
branches and functions of the Government with particular 
reference to----
    (i) the effectiveness of present national security methods, 
staffing, and processes as tested against the requirements 
imposed by the rapidly mounting complexity of national security 
problems;
    (ii) the capacity of present national security staffing, 
methods, and processes to make full use of the Nation's 
resources of knowledge and talents;
    (iii) the adequacy of present intergovernmental relations 
between the United States and international organizations 
principally concerned with national security of which the 
United States is a member; and
    (iv) legislative and other proposals to improve these 
methods, processes, and relationships;
    (F) the efficiency, economy, and effectiveness of all 
agencies and departments of the Government involved in the 
control and management of energy shortages including, but not 
limited to, their performance with respect to----
    (i) the collection and dissemination of accurate statistics 
on fuel demand and supply;
    (ii) the implementation of effective energy conservation 
measures;
    (iii) the pricing of energy in all forms;
    (iv) coordination of energy programs with State and local 
government;
    (v) control of exports of scarce fuels;
    (vi) the management of tax, import, pricing, and other 
policies affecting energy supplies;
    (vii) maintenance of the independent sector of the 
petroleum industry as a strong competitive force;
    (viii) the allocation of fuels in short supply by public 
and private entities;
    (ix) the management of energy supplies owned or controlled 
by the Government;
    (x) relations with other oil producing and consuming 
countries;
    (xi) the monitoring of compliance by governments, 
corporations, or individuals with the laws and regulations 
governing the allocation, conservation, or pricing of energy 
supplies; and
    (xii) research into the discovery and development of 
alternative energy supplies; and
    (G) the efficiency and economy of all branches and 
functions of Government with particular references to the 
operations and management of Federal regulatory policies and 
programs.
    (2) EXTENT OF INQUIRIES.--In carrying out the duties 
provided in paragraph (1), the inquiries of this committee or 
any subcommittee of the committee shall not be construed to be 
limited to the records, functions, and operations of any 
particular branch of the Government and may extend to the 
records and activities of any persons, corporation, or other 
entity.
    (3) SPECIAL COMMITTEE AUTHORITY.--For the purposes of this 
subsection, the committee, or any duly authorized subcommittee 
of the committee, or its chairman, or any other member of the 
committee or subcommittee designated by the chairman is 
authorized, in its, his or her, or their discretion----
    (A) to require by subpoena or otherwise the attendance of 
witnesses and production of correspondence, books, papers, and 
documents;
    (B) to hold hearings;
    (C) to sit and act at any time or place during the 
sessions, recess, and adjournment periods of the Senate;
    (D) to administer oaths; and
    (E) to take testimony, either orally or by sworn statement, 
or, in the case of staff members of the Committee and the 
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, by deposition in 
accordance with the Committee Rules of Procedure.
    (4) AUTHORITY OF OTHER COMMITTEES.--Nothing contained in 
this subsection shall affect or impair the exercise of any 
other standing committee of the Senate of any power, or the 
discharge by such committee of any duty, conferred or imposed 
upon it by the Standing Rules of the Senate or by the 
Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946.
    (5) SUBPOENA AUTHORITY.--All subpoenas and related legal 
processes of the committee and its subcommittee authorized 
under S. Res. 253, agreed to October 3, 2013 (113th Congress) 
are authorized to continue.

           III. BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS REFERRED AND CONSIDERED

    During the 114th Congress, 236 Senate bills and 141 House 
bills were referred to the Committee for consideration. In 
addition, 8 Senate Resolutions, 2 Senate Joint Resolutions, and 
2 Senate Concurrent Resolutions were referred to the Committee.
    The Committee reported 122 bills; an additional 26 measures 
were discharged.
    Of the legislation received by the Committee, 82 measures 
became public laws, including 53 postal naming bills.

                              IV. HEARINGS

    During the 114th Congress, the Committee held 85 hearings 
on legislation, oversight issues, and nominations. Hearing 
titles and dates follow.
    The Committee also held 14 scheduled business meetings.
    Lists of hearings with copies of statements by Members and 
witnesses, with archives going back to 1997, are online at the 
Committee's Web site, http://hsgac.senate.gov/.
Protecting America from Cyber Attacks: The Importance of Information 
        Sharing. January 28, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-412)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
cybersecurity threats U.S. businesses and other organizations 
face, and consider ways to mitigate those threats from a 
private sector perspective. Witnesses first gave the Committee 
an overview of the scope and size of cybersecurity threats 
against U.S. businesses, then discussed the role of various 
cybersecurity legislative and non-legislative proposals. 
Witness proposals focused on improving information sharing and 
data breach notification in order to mitigate cybersecurity 
threats and filling gaps in current practices.
    Witnesses: Marc D. Gordon, Executive Vice President and 
Chief Information Officer, American Express; Scott Charney, 
Corporate Vice President, Trustworthy Computing Group, 
Microsoft Corporation; Peter J. Beshar, Executive Vice 
President and General Counsel, Marsh & McLennan Companies, 
Inc.; Richard Bejtlich, Chief Security Strategist, FireEye; 
Greg Nojeim, Senior Counsel and Director, Freedom, Security & 
Technology Project, Center for Democracy & and Technology.
Deferred Action on Immigration: Implications and Unanswered Questions. 
        February 4, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
logistical, financial, and national security implications of 
the President's Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) 
and Deferred Action for Parental Accountability (DAPA) 
programs. Witness testimony focused on how the executive 
actions could impact border security, legal immigration 
processes, federal tax revenue, social security, and various 
other sectors.
    Witnesses: Stephen C. Goss, Chief Actuary, U.S. Social 
Security Administration; Hon. Eileen J. O'Connor, Partner, 
Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP; Luke P. Bellochi, Of 
Counsel, Wasserman, Mancini & Chang and Former Deputy Ombudsman 
for U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services at the U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security; Shawn Moran, Vice President, 
National Border Patrol Council; Bo Cooper, Partner, Fragomen, 
Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy LLP and Former General Counsel at the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Risky Business: Examining GAO's 2015 List of High Risk Government 
        Programs. February 11, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-413)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
Government Accountability Office's 2015 Edition of the High-
Risk Series. The Comptroller General's testimony focused on two 
areas that were added this year: improving Veterans Affairs 
(VA) health care and the management of information technology 
(IT) acquisitions and operations; as well as two expanded 
areas: enforcement of tax laws and ensuring and protecting 
federal information systems, cyber critical infrastructure, and 
privacy of personally identifiably information. The hearing 
also discussed efforts that have led to notable progress in 
addressing High Risk areas, and how to apply those best 
practices to other areas.
    Witnesses: Hon. Eugene L. Dodaro, Comptroller General of 
the United States; U.S. Government Accountability Office, 
accompanied by Cynthia Bascetta, Managing Director, Health 
Care; Deborah Draper, Director, Health Care; Phillip Herr, 
Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues; Dave Maurer, 
Director, Homeland Security and Justice; J. Chris Mihm, 
Managing Director, Strategic Issues; Dave Powner, Director, 
Information Technology; James White, Director, Strategic 
Issues; Gregory Wilshusen, Director, Information Technology.
Improving the Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Independence of Inspectors 
        General. February 24, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-414)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine how 
Congress can improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and 
independence of Inspectors General. Witness testimony focused 
on upcoming work of their respective offices; challenges faced 
performing efficient, effective and independent audits, 
investigations and other reports; and suggestions for tools 
Congress could provide to help with their mission to combat 
waste, fraud, and abuse in the federal government.
    Witnesses: Hon. Michael E. Horowitz, Inspector General, 
U.S. Department of Justice and Chair, Council of the Inspectors 
General on Integrity and Efficiency; Hon. Steve A. Linick, 
Inspector General, U.S. Department of State; Hon. John Roth, 
Inspector General, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. 
Patrick P. O'Carroll Jr., Inspector General, U.S. Social 
Security Administration.
Toward a 21st Century Regulatory System. February 25, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-418)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to provide an 
overview of the current state of the federal regulatory process 
and give lawmakers a framework with which to consider ways to 
assess rulemaking procedures and ultimately improve outcomes. 
Witness testimony focused on suggestions for improving the 
regulatory process.
    Witnesses: Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Ph.D., President, American 
Action Forum; Jerry Ellig, Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, 
Mercatus Center, George Mason University; Michael Mandel, 
Ph.D., Chief Economic Strategist, Progressive Policy Institute; 
Hon. Sally Katzen, Former Administrator of the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs at the Office of Management 
and Budget.
Visa Waiver Program: Implications for U.S. National Security. March 12, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this two-panel hearing was to examine the 
Visa Waiver Program and its implications for U.S. national 
security. Witnesses described the current structure of the 
program, including the security standards currently in place to 
prevent terrorist travel, an assessment of the structure and 
current capabilities of the Electronic Systems for Travel 
Authorizations, and analysis of any gaps in the program that 
could be used by foreign travelers to exploit the benefits of 
the Visa Waiver Program. Further witness testimony focused on 
recommendations for how Congress can strengthen the Visa Waiver 
Program while maintaining the program's benefits.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Hon. Michael Chertoff, Executive 
Chairman and Co-Founder, The Chertoff Group; Marc Frey, Ph.D., 
Senior Director, Steptoe & Johnson LLP; Brian Jenkins, Senior 
Adviser to the President, RAND Corporation. Panel II: Mark 
Koumans, Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Maureen Dugan, Deputy 
Executive Director of the National Targeting Center, U.S. 
Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Edward Ramotowski, Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Visa Services, U.S. Department of State.
Examining Federal Improper Payments and Errors in the Death Master 
        File. March 16, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-419)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to discuss the 
federal improper payments and their root causes. Specifically, 
the hearing will focus on errors in the Social Security 
Administration's death data, which has a history of mistakenly 
including both living people as deceased and deceased people as 
living. Witness testimony focused on the root causes of 
improper payments and the drivers behind this year's growth in 
the government-wide improper payment rate after years of steady 
decline.
    Witnesses: Judy Rivers, Logan, Alabama; Sean Brune, Senior 
Advisor to the Deputy Commissioner for Budget, Finance, Quality 
and Management, U.S. Social Security Administration; Hon. 
Patrick P. O'Carroll, Jr., Inspector General, U.S. Social 
Security Administration; Hon. David Mader, Controller, Office 
of Management and Budget; Beryl H. Davis, Director, Financial 
Management and Assurance, U.S. Government Accountability 
Office; Daniel Bertoni, Director, Education, Workforce, and 
Income Security.
Securing the Southwest Border: Perspectives from Beyond the Beltway. 
        March 17, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
current state of the security along the Southwest border by 
hearing from those with first-hand knowledge of the region. 
Witnesses drew upon their personal experiences living and 
working along the Southwest border and offered suggestions on 
how to increase the security of border communities and 
prevention of illegal border crossing.
    Witnesses: Chris Cabrera, Border Patrol Agent, Rio Grande 
Valley Sector, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (testifying 
on behalf of the National Border Patrol Council); Hon. Mark J. 
Dannels, Sheriff, Cochise County, Arizona; Howard G. Buffet, 
Chairman and CEO, Howard G. Buffett Foundation and Arizona 
Landowner; Othal Brand, Farmer, McAllen, Texas; Monica 
Weisberg-Stewart, Chairwoman, Committee on Immigration and 
Border Security, Texas Border Coalition.
Securing the Border: Assessing the Impact of Transnational Crime. March 
        24, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
transnational criminal and national security threats along the 
borders and their impacts on border communities and the nation 
at large. Witness testimony focused on current transnational 
and drug-related crimes at our borders and how these threats 
affect the entire country.
    Witnesses: General Barry R. McCaffrey, USA (Ret.), Former 
Director (1996-2001) of the Office of National Drug Control 
Policy; John P. Torres, Former Acting Director and Former 
Deputy Assistant Director for Smuggling and Public Safety at 
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement at the U.S. Department 
of Homeland Security; Elizabeth Kempshall, Executive Director, 
Arizona High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, Office of 
National Drug Control Policy; Benny Martinez, Chief Deputy 
Sheriff, Brooks County, Texas; Bryan E. Costigan, Director, 
Montana All-Threat Intelligence Center, Division on Criminal 
Investigation, Montana Department of Justice.
Securing the Border: Understanding and Addressing the Root Causes of 
        Central American Migration to the United States. March 25, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this two-panel hearing was to examine what 
is driving Central American migration to the U.S., particularly 
by unaccompanied minors and family units, what the Department 
of Homeland Security and other federal agencies are doing to 
stem the migration, and what further measures may be needed by 
Congress and the Administration. Witness testimony focused on 
efforts to address the root causes that drove so many Central 
American migrants to leave their home countries, thoughts on 
the Alliance for Prosperity that was recently established by 
the governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, and 
recommendations of steps Congress can take to address the pull 
factors driving migration of unaccompanied minors to the U.S.
    Witnesses: Panel I: William Kandel, Analyst in Immigration 
Policy, Congressional Research Service, U.S. Library of 
Congress; Hon. Roger F. Noriega, Visiting Fellow, American 
Enterprise Institute and Former Assistant Secretary for Western 
Hemisphere Affairs at the U.S. Department of State; Hon. Adolfo 
A. Franco, Former Assistant Administrator for Latin America and 
Carribean at the U.S. Agency for International Development; 
Eric L. Olson, Associate Director, Latin American Program, 
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Panel II: 
Hon. Alan D. Bersin, Acting Assistant Secretary and Chief 
Diplomatic Officer, Office of Policy, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security; Francisco Palmieri, Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Central America and the Carribean, Bureau of 
Western Hemisphere Affairs, U.S. Department of State; 
Lieutenant General Kenneth E. Tovo, USA, Military Deputy 
Commander, U.S. Southern Command, U.S. Department of Defense.
Securing the Border: Defining the Current Population Living in the 
        Shadows and Addressing Future Flows. March 26, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to define the 
scope of those who are currently residing unlawfully in the 
United States, including by entering the United States 
unlawfully or entering the country legally but overstaying a 
visa, and to gain more information about this population. The 
hearing also examined future migration into the United States 
and explored ways to ensure legal migration into this country, 
resulting in decreased pressures at our border. Witness 
testimony focused on ways to incentivize orderly legal 
migration, how guest worker programs can affect immigration 
flows and the U.S. economy, and legal measures that might be 
needed to address future workforce needs and reduce pressures 
for unauthorized immigration
    Witnesses: Jeffrey S. Passel, Ph.D., Senior Demographer, 
Hispanic Trends Project, Pew Research Center; Daniel Garza, 
Executive Director, The LIBRE Initiative; Madeline Zavodny, 
Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Agnes Scott College and Adjunct 
Scholar, American Enterprise Institute; Randel K. Johnson, 
Senior Vice President, Labor, Immigration, and Employee 
Benefits, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; Marc R. Rosenblum, Ph.D., 
Deputy Director on Immigration Policy Program, Migration Policy 
Institute.
Tomah VAMC: Examining Quality, Access, and a Culture of Overreliance on 
        High-Risk Medications. March 30, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-427)
    The purpose of this two-panel field hearing, held jointly 
with the House Committee on Veterans Affairs in Tomah, 
Wisconsin, was to examine access and quality of care at the 
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Tomah, 
Wisconsin (Tomah VAMC). Witness testimony focused on veterans' 
deaths due to over-prescription of high-risk medication at the 
Tomah VAMC, the VA Inspector General's (IG) nonpublic 
healthcare inspection of the facility, and allegations 
regarding quality of care and a culture of fear at the 
facility.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Candace Delis, Auburndale, WI; Noelle 
Johnson, Pharm. D., BCACP, CGP, Urbandale, IA; Ryan Honl, 
Tomah, WI; Heather Simcakowski, Stevens Point, WI; Marvin 
Simcakoski, Stevens Point, WI. Panel II: John Daigh, M.D., 
Assistant Inspector General for Healthcare Inspections, Office 
of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs 
(Dr. Daigh was accompanied by Alan Mallinger, M.D., Senior 
Physician, Office of Healthcare Inspections); Carolyn Clancy, 
M.D., Interim Under Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of 
Veterans Affairs (Dr. Clancy was accompanied by Renee Oshinski, 
Acting Network Director, VISN 12, Veterans Health 
Administration, and Mario V. Desanctis, FACHE, Medical Center, 
Director, Tomah VAMC Medical Center).
Reducing Unnecessary Duplication in Federal Programs: Billions More 
        Could be Saved. April 14, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-435)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
Government Accountability Office (GAO)'s report titled, ``2015 
Annual Report of the Additional Opportunities to Reduce 
Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other 
Financial Benefits.'' The Comptroller General provided an 
assessment of the GAO's Annual Report and provided 
recommendations as to how the 114th Congress can strengthen the 
efficiency and effectiveness of government programs and 
activities. Additional testimony focused on the progress and 
implementation of the previous recommendations, the documented 
and potential savings if all the recommendations are 
implemented, as well as the recommendations that require an act 
of Congress to remedy.
    Witnesses: Hon. Eugene L. Dodaro, Comptroller General of 
the United States, U.S. Government Accountability Office, 
accompanied by Cathleen Berrick, Managing Director, Defense 
Capabilities and Management; Cynthia Bascetta, Managing 
Director, Health Care; Paul Francis, Managing Director, 
Acquisitions and Sourcing Management; Barbara Bovbjerg, 
Managing Director, Education, Workforce and Income Security; 
Mark Gaffigan, Managing Director, Natural Resources and 
Environment; David Powner, Director, Information Technology; 
Phillip Herr, Managing Director, Physical Infrastructure 
Issues; James McTigue, Director, Strategic Issues (Tax).
IRS Challenges in Implementing the Affordable Care Act. April 15, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-423)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
current state of Affordable Care Act implementation at the IRS, 
specifically the enforcement of the individual shared 
responsibility provisions and the advanced premium tax credits 
reconciliation process. Commissioner Koskinen provided an 
assessment of the past filing season, in light of the 
challenges faced by the IRS in implementing new provisions of 
the Affordable Care Act.
    Witnesses: Hon. John A. Koskinen, Commissioner, Internal 
Revenue Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury.
2020 Census: Challenges Facing the Bureau for a Modern, Cost-Effective 
        Survey. April 20, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-436)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
Census Bureau's preparation for the 2020 Census. Witness 
testimony focused on the major initiatives being undertaken for 
the 2020 Census, particularly in information technology, as 
well as potential opportunities for cost savings. The panel 
also discussed the American Community Survey, the Bureau's 
efforts to include hard-to-count and underserved populations in 
the 2020 Census, and actions Congress can take to ensure a 
cost-effective yet accurate 2020 Census.
    Witnesses: Hon. John H. Thompson, Director, U.S. Census 
Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce; Robert Goldenkoff, 
Director of Strategic Issues, U.S. Government Accountability 
Office; Carol R. Cha, Director of IT Acquisition Management 
Issues, U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Securing the Border: Understanding Threats and Strategies for the 
        Northern Border. April 22, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine 
security challenges, including transnational criminal and 
national security threats, along the U.S.-- Canada border and 
the impact they have on border communities and the nation. 
Witness testimony focused on threats at the northern border and 
how agencies are working to investigate, identify and address 
these threats, as well as ways to increase cross-border law 
enforcement collaboration.
    Witnesses: Michael J. Fisher, Chief, U.S. Border Patrol, 
U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; John Wagner, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Office of 
Field Operations, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security; James Spero, Special Agent in 
Charge - Buffalo, Homeland Security Investigations, U.S. 
Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security; David Rodriguez, Director, Northwest High 
Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, Office of National Drug 
Control Policy; Hon. Richard S. Hartunian, U.S. Attorney for 
the Northern District of New York, U.S. Attorney's Office, U.S. 
Department of Justice.
The Homeland Security Department's Budget Submission for Fiscal Year 
        2016. April 29, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-437)
    The purpose of this annual, one-panel hearing was to 
discuss the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) budget 
request for fiscal year 2016. Specifically, it examined how the 
DHS budget request meets the current and future homeland 
security needs of the nation.
    Witness: Hon. Jeh C. Johnson, Secretary, Department of 
Homeland Security.
Jihad 2.0: Social Media in the Next Evolution of Terrorist Recruitment. 
        May 7, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-438)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to provide the 
public with an understanding of terrorists' evolving 
recruitment methods, especially through social media. Witness 
testimony provided an overview of the threat posed by those 
radicalized through social media in the United States and who 
subsequently travel to a foreign nation to fight with terrorist 
organizations, or remain in their country to conduct an attack. 
Witnesses gave expert testimony on their research into the use 
of social media as a recruitment tool by terrorist groups like 
ISIS, and recommendations on how to counter the messaging used 
by terrorist organizations.
    Witnesses: Peter Bergen, Director, National Security 
Studies Program, New America Foundation; J.M. Berger, 
Nonresident Fellow, Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic 
World, the Brookings Institution; Mubin Shaikh, Author, 
``Undercover Jihadi''; Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Senior Fellow, 
Foundation for Defense of Democracies.
Securing the Border: Fencing, Infrastructure, and Technology Force 
        Multipliers. May 13, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
current state of fencing, infrastructure, and technology along 
our borders and explore what additional resources may be 
necessary. Witnesses provided a general overview of what 
technology and tactical infrastructure is currently available 
along our borders and what new technologies and additional 
tactical infrastructure should be deployed. Discussion also 
focused on understanding the costs, timelines, and 
effectiveness of these resources and lessons learned from past 
investments.
    Witnesses: Randolph D. Alles, Assistant Commissioner, 
Office of Air and Marine, U.S. Customs and Border Protections, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Mark S. Borkowski, 
Assistant Commissioner, Office of Technology Innovation and 
Acquisition, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security; Ronald D. Vitiello, Deputy 
Chief, U.S. Border Patrol, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Anh N. Duong, Director, 
Borders and Maritime Security Division, Directorate of Science 
and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Rebecca 
Gambler, Director, Homeland Security and Justice, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office; Michael Garcia, Legislative 
Attorney, Congressional Research Service, U.S Library of 
Congress.
The IRS Data Breach: Steps to Protect Americans' Personal Information. 
        June 2, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-428)
    The purpose of this two-panel hearing was to examine the 
recently-announced unauthorized access of more than 100,000 
taxpayer accounts at IRS.gov. Witnesses provided their thoughts 
on the IRS' use of knowledge-based authentication (KBA) to 
verify visitors' identities and any weaknesses in KBA; the pros 
and cons of alternatives to KBA, such as two-factor 
authentication; and what alternatives would look like in 
practice. Discussion also focused on the means attackers used 
to gain access to these accounts; when IRS first became aware 
of these attempts; what IRS did in response to these attempts; 
and future plans to improve security at IRS.gov.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Michael Kasper, Poughkeepsie, New York; 
Kevin Fu, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Electrical 
Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan; 
Jeffrey E. Greene, Director, Government Affairs North America, 
Symantec Corporation. Panel II: Hon. John A. Koskinen, 
Commissioner, Internal Revenue Service, U.S. Department of the 
Treasury; Terence V. Millholland, Chief Technology Officer, 
Internal Revenue Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury.
Watchdogs Needed: Top Government Investigator Positions Left Unfilled 
        for Years. June 3, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-486)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
need for permanent Inspectors General (IGs), including through 
case-studies of the experiences with previous acting IGs, and 
explore why many of these critical positions remain unfilled. 
Witness testimony focused on the seven presidentially-appointed 
IG vacancies, with particular attention to the Department of 
Veterans' Affairs IG vacancy, reasons why they remain unfilled, 
and the importance of swiftly taking action to address the 
vacancies.
    Witnesses: Hon. Michael E. Horowitz, Chair, Council of the 
Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency and Inspector 
General, U.S. Department of Justice; Danielle Brian, Executive 
Director, Project on Government Oversight; Daniel Z. Epstein, 
Executive Director, Cause of Action. Two other witnesses were 
invited but declined to appear: Valerie Green, Director of the 
Office of Presidential Personnel, and Jonathan McBride, former 
director of the Office of Presidential Personnel.
Oversight of the Transportation Security Administration: First-Hand and 
        Government Watchdog Accounts of Agency Challenges. June 9, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-439)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
operations and effectiveness of the Transportation Security 
Administration (TSA) through first-hand accounts of current and 
former TSA employees. Witnesses discussed the fact that despite 
developing efficiencies in the passenger screening process, 
recent reports issued by the Government Accountability Office 
and the Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector 
General have identified shortcomings within the agency that 
raise questions about how effectively TSA is fulfilling its 
mission. Witnesses specifically reported allegations about 
mismanagement, wasteful procedures, retaliations against 
whistleblowers, low morale, and security gaps within the 
agency.
    Witnesses: Hon. John Roth, Inspector General, U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security; Jennifer Grover, Director, 
Transportation and Coast Guard Issues, Homeland Security and 
Justice Team, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Robert J. 
MacLean, Federal Air Marshal, Los Angeles Field Office, Federal 
Air Marshal Service; Rebecca Roering, Assistant Federal 
Security Director, Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, 
U.S. Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security.
Nomination of Peter V. Neffenger to be Assistant Secretary 
        (Transportation Security Administration), U.S. Department of 
        Homeland Security and David S. Shapira to be a Governor, United 
        States Postal Service Board of Governors. June 10, 2015. (S. 
        Hrg. 114-332)
    This two-panel hearing considered the nomination of Peter 
V. Neffenger to be Assistant Secretary (Transportation Security 
Administration), U.S. Department of Homeland Security and David 
S. Shapira to be a Governor, United States Postal Service Board 
of Governors. Mr. Shapira was introduced by Sens. Robert P. 
Casey, Jr. and Patrick J. Toomey.
Blowing the Whistle on Retaliation: Accounts of Current and Former 
        Federal Agency Whistleblowers. June 11, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-447)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to highlight the 
stories of whistleblowers from different agencies who allege 
they faced retaliation because they brought attention to 
government wrongdoing. Witnesses discussed the difficulties 
whistleblowers face after a disclosure, the laws and procedures 
in place to protect and assist whistleblowers, and 
recommendations on further improvements.
    Witnesses: Jason Luke Amerine, Lieutenant Colonel, United 
States Army; Taylor Johnson, Senior Special Agent, Homeland 
Security Investigations, U.S. Immigration and Customs 
Enforcement, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Michael 
Keegan, Former Associate Commissioner for Facilities and Supply 
Management at the U.S. Social Security Administration; Jose R. 
Ducos-Bello, Chief Officer, U.S. Customs and Border 
Protections, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Thomas M. 
Devine, Legal Director, Government Accountability Project.
Federal Real Property Reform: How Cutting Red Tape and Better 
        Management Could Achieve Billions in Savings. June 16, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-440)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
reasons why federal real property management remains a high-
risk issue and discuss the ways Congress can help eliminate the 
real property portfolio of excess, surplus, or unused 
properties and ensure better management of the federal real 
estate portfolio. Witnesses focused on data management issues 
as well as highlighted agencies who have succeeded in property 
disposals through more disciplined management and the incentive 
provided by the retention of property sale proceeds.
    Witnesses: Hon. David Mader, Controller, Office of 
Management and Budget; Norman Dong, Commissioner, Public 
Buildings Service, U.S. General Services Administration; David 
J. Wise, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office.
Governing Through Goal Setting: Enhancing the Economic and National 
        Security of America. June 17, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-448)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to identify 
problems facing the nation and to identify bipartisan goals to 
address them. This hearing provided an opportunity for 
lawmakers from both sides of the aisle to discuss long and 
short term solutions to the nation's biggest problems. 
Witnesses from the private sector and state leaders provided 
valuable insight by sharing their own experiences in problem 
solving. The hearing served to reaffirm the Committee's 
commitment to finding common ground among Republicans and 
Democrats, and hopefully create a better working relationship 
between members of Congress and the Administration.
    Witnesses: Hon. Joseph I. Lieberman, Co-Chair, No Labels; 
Hon. Jon M. Huntsman, Jr., Co-Chair, No Labels; Andrew H. 
Tisch, Co-Chairman of the Board, Loews Corporation; Andrea 
Hogan, President and Chief Executive Officer, Merchant Metals, 
Inc.
Nomination of Carol F. Ochoa to be Inspector General, U.S. General 
        Services Administration. June 17, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-402)
    This one-panel hearing considered the nomination of Carol 
F. Ochoa to be Inspector General, U.S. General Services 
Administration. Senator James Lankford, Chairman of the 
Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management, 
presided.
Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility 
        of a Regulatory Budget. June 23, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-443)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to provide 
perspectives from regulatory experts on regulatory budget 
mechanisms as a means to better take control of and account for 
the flow of regulatory costs. Witnesses discussed different 
innovative regulatory systems that measure the costs of 
regulations and reduce burdens that slow the growth of 
economies.
    Witnesses: Hon. Tony Clement, President of the Treasury 
Board, Government of Canada; Hon. Susan E. Dudley, Director, 
Regulatory Studies Center and Distinguished Professor of 
Practice, George Washington University; Richard J. Pierce, Jr., 
Lyle T. Alverson Professor of Law, George Washington University 
Law School.
Under Attack: Federal Cybersecurity and the OPM Data Breach. June 25, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-449)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
recent data breaches involving the Office of Personnel 
Management (OPM) and the state of information security at OPM 
now and before the breaches. Witnesses walked the Committee 
through the timeline of events, detailing when OPM learned 
about the breaches, how and when they were remediated, and what 
data the attackers may have accessed. Further discussion 
centered on the programs and activities that are available to 
help other agencies increase their defenses and ensure 
compliance with relevant security requirements, as well as new 
information security changes that are being implemented at OPM 
as a result of the breaches.
    Witnesses: Hon. Katherine Archuleta, Director, Office of 
Personnel Management; Tony Scott, U.S. Chief Information 
Officer, Office of Management and Budget; Andy Ozment, Ph.D., 
Assistant Secretary, Office of Cybersecurity and 
Communications, National Protection and Programs Directorate, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. Patrick E. 
McFarland, Inspector General, Office of Personnel Management.
The 2014 Humanitarian Crisis at our Border: A Review of the 
        Government's Response to Unaccompanied Minors One Year Later. 
        July 7, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
Federal Government's response to the 2014 surge of Central 
American Unaccompanied Alien Children (UACs). Particularly, the 
Committee examined how the responsibilities of caring for the 
minors and resolving their immigration status is divided and 
coordinated among different federal agencies. Witnesses 
discussed their agency's involvement in processing UACs and how 
they manage the child's information during and after the case 
passes through their agency.
    Witnesses: Juan P. Osuna, Director, Executive Office of 
Immigration Review, U.S. Department of Justice; Mark H. 
Greenberg, Acting Assistant Secretary, Administration for 
Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services; Philip T. Miller, Assistant Director of Field 
Operations, Enforcement and Removal Operations, U.S. 
Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security; Joseph E. Langlois, Associate Director, 
Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations, U.S. Citizenship 
and Immigration Services, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
Stopping an Avian Influenza Threat to Animal and Public Health. July 8, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-452)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
current outbreak of H5N2 and other highly pathogenic avian 
influenza strains nationwide, including the response of federal 
and industry stakeholders. Witnesses discussed the devastating 
impact of this highly pathogenic avian influenza strain on 
American farms and the broader economic disruption it has 
caused. Discussion focused on the broader threat of highly 
pathogenic avian influenza to the poultry industry going 
forward, steps being taken to prepare for and mitigate any 
impact of this pathogen, and recommendations for how the 
federal response to this outbreak could be improved.
    Witnesses: John R. Clifford, DVM, Chief Veterinary Officer, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture; Anne Schuchat, M.D., Director, 
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Assistant 
Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of 
Health and Human Services; Christopher P. Currie, Director, 
Homeland Security and Justice, U.S. Government Accountability, 
accompanied by Steve D. Morris, Director, Natural Resources and 
Environment; Jack Gelb, Jr., Ph.D., Director, Avian Biosciences 
Center, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 
University of Delaware; Scott Schneider, Owner, Nature Link 
Farm, Jefferson, Wisconsin and President, Wisconsin Poultry and 
Egg Industries Association.
Understanding America's Long-Term Fiscal Picture. July 9, 2015. (S. 
        Hrg. 114-459)
    This one-panel hearing focused on ways to better understand 
the country's often complex ``balance sheet'', the uncertainty 
involved in projecting the budget out 30 years or more, and 
reconciling the policy choices necessary to address long-term 
imbalances to what is politically possible. The director of the 
Congressional Budget Office discussed the fact that without 
major policy changes, the amount of federal debt held by the 
public would be larger than the entire economy by 2039, and 
would only increase from there. Dr. Hall and members of the 
committee discussed what this actually means for taxpayers and 
the sustainability of the major entitlements.
    Witnesses: Hon. Keith Hall, Ph.D., Director, Congressional 
Budget Office.
Securing the Border: Understanding Threats and Strategies for the 
        Maritime Border. July 15, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
security challenges, including transnational crime and national 
security threats, along the United States' maritime borders. 
Witnesses discussed how agencies use air and marine 
technologies to protect the maritime borders of the United 
States, efforts to disrupt dug and human trafficking, and steps 
being taken to prevent illegal immigration. Testimony also 
focused on how agencies such as CBP, the U.S. Coast Guard, and 
ICE are better coordinating to stop the trafficking of 
narcotics and other illicit substances through our nation's 
coastlines, waterways, and ports.
    Witnesses: Rear Admiral Peter J. Brown, Assistant 
Commandant for Response Policy, U.S. Coast Guard; Randolph D. 
Alles, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Air and Marine, U.S. 
Customs and Border Protections, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Peter Edge, Executive Associate Director, Homeland 
Security Investigations, U.S. Immigration and Customs 
Enforcement, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: A Pioneer for School Choice 
        Programs Nationwide. July 20, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-460)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
Milwaukee Parental Choice Program as an educational option for 
Milwaukee families and as a guide for school choice programs 
nationwide. Established in 1990, the Milwaukee Parental Choice 
program is the oldest and largest urban school choice program 
in the nation. There are over 21 school choice programs across 
the country as of the 2013-2014 school year, including the D.C. 
Opportunity Scholarship Program. Witnesses discussed their 
experience with the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and 
challenges the program faces in its administration and from 
involvement by the Department of Justice.
    Witnesses: Justice Shorter, Former MPCP Student and 
Graduate of Messmer High School, Washington, District of 
Columbia; Diana Lopez, Former MPCP Student and Graduate of St. 
Anthony High School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Brother Robert 
Smith, Former Principal, Messmer High School, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin; John Witte, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, University of 
Wisconsin-Madison; Richard Komer, Senior Attorney, Institute 
for Justice; Henry Tyson, Superintendent, St. Marcus Lutheran 
School.
Protecting the Electric Grid from the Potential Threats of Solar Storms 
        and Electromagnetic Pulse. July 22, 2015. (S. Hrg. 
        114-483)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
extent to which electromagnetic pulses and severe solar storms 
may pose a threat to the electric gird in the United States, 
the U.S. grid's readiness for such events, and potential 
opportunities for mitigation. Witnesses gave their perspectives 
on the relative likelihood, and anticipated impact, of a 
geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) to the U.S. electric grid, 
compared with that of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. 
Further discussion focused on the EMP Commission's 
recommendations to address the risks from potential EMP and 
solar storms events, the costs and benefits of mitigating 
against these threats, and recommendations for next steps the 
government and industry can take to increase the U.S. grid's 
readiness for such events.
    Witnesses: Hon. R. James Woolsey, Former Director of 
Central Intelligence and Chairman, Foundation for Defense of 
Democracies; Joseph H. McClelland, Director, Office of Energy 
Infrastructure Security, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; 
Richard L. Garwin, Ph.D., Fellow Emeritus, IBM Thomas J. Watson 
Research Center (testifying in a personal capacity); 
Christopher P. Currie, Director, Homeland Security and Justice, 
U.S. Government Accountability Office; Bridgette L. Bourge, 
Senior Principal, Legislative Affairs, National Rural Electric 
Cooperative Association.
Nomination of Denise T. Roth to be Administrator, U.S. General Services 
        Administration. July 23, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-405)
    This one-panel hearing considered the nomination of Denise 
T. Roth to be Administrator, U.S. General Services 
Administration.
Avoiding Duplication: An Examination of the State Department's Proposal 
        to Construct a New Diplomatic Security Training Facility. July 
        28, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-461)
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
State Department's reduced scope proposal for the Foreign 
Affairs Security Training Center and the process for its 
selection. Witness testimony focused on what specific or unique 
infrastructure requirements the State Department needs to 
provide appropriate training to Diplomatic Security agents and 
other State Department personnel. Further discussion focused on 
the specific costs associated with the existing facility and 
its training capacity in comparison to the proposals presented 
by the State Department and the Department of Homeland 
Security.
    Witnesses: Hon. Gregory B. Starr, Assistant Secretary, 
Bureau of Diplomatic Security, U.S. Department of State; Hon. 
David Mader, Acting Deputy Director for Management and 
Controller, Office of Federal Financial Management, Office of 
Management and Budget; Connie L. Patrick, Director, Federal Law 
Enforcement Training Center, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security.
Oversight of the Bureau of Prisons: First-Hand Accounts of Challenges 
        Facing the Federal Prison System. August 4, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-
        475)
    The Bureau of Prisons (BOP) has experienced a significant 
increase in population since the 1980s and as a result, the 
BOP's budget has grown significantly. In FY 1980, Congress 
appropriated $330 million for the BOP, while for FY2014 
Congress appropriated $6.859 billion. Recent reports issued by 
the Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General have 
identified shortcomings within the Bureau that include, 
shortfalls in inmate programming, the safety and security of 
inmates, and a lack of support after reentry. The purpose of 
this two-panel hearing was to examine how effectively the BOP 
is fulfilling its core mission and to discuss what reforms are 
necessary to improve the criminal justice system. Witnesses 
shared their personal experiences with the criminal justice 
system and dialogue focused on the need to eliminate the 
practice of solitary confinement and to drastically improve 
rehabilitation programming and reentry programs.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Piper Kerman, Author, Orange is the New 
Black: My Year in a Women's Prison; Jerome Dillard, Reentry 
Coordinator, Dane County, Wisconsin; Udi Ofer, Executive 
Director, American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. Panel 
II: Charles E. Samuels, Jr., Director, Federal Bureau of 
Prisons, U.S. Department of Justice; Hon. Michael E. Horowitz, 
Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.
Field Hearing: All Hands on Deck: Working Together to End the 
        Trafficking and Abuse of Prescription Opioids, Heroin, and 
        Fentanyl. September 14, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the illicit 
trafficking and abuse of prescription opioids, heroin, and 
fentanyl and their adverse and enduring effects on lives, 
families, communities, and our national security. This hearing 
also examined efforts to prevent and treat those suffering from 
addiction to these substances. Witnesses discussed trends 
observed in New Hampshire with regard to the availability of 
prescription opioids, heroin, and fentanyl; trends in overdoses 
and fatal overdoses related to these substances; and 
trafficking routes specific to New England. Further testimony 
focused on the importance of effective treatment options for 
those struggling with substance use disorders and law 
enforcement efforts to prevent and treat those suffering from 
addiction to these substances.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Enoch ``Nick'' Willard, Chief, 
Manchester Police Department; Doug Griffin, Father of Courtney 
Griffin, Newton, NH; Heidi Moran, Clinical Administrator, 
Southeastern New Hampshire Services, Dover, NH. Panel II: Hon. 
Michael P. Botticelli, Director, Office of National Drug 
Control Policy; Hon. R. Gil Kerlikowske, Commissioner, U.S. 
Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; John ``Jack'' Riley, Acting Deputy Administrator, 
Drug Enforcement Agency, U.S. Department of Justice.
A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals. September 16, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-480)
    This hearing was held as part of the Committee's ongoing 
efforts to examine the federal regulatory process and explore 
ways to improve it. Specifically, this hearing focused on 
existing legislative reform proposals under consideration by 
the Committee. Members were given an opportunity to discuss 
their own proposals, developed based on information gathered 
through prior hearings, roundtables, and expert consultation, 
and heard from experts on ways to further improve these 
proposals before proceeding on to formal legislative 
consideration by the Committee.
    Witnesses: Hon. Susan E. Dudley, Director, Regulatory 
Studies Center and Distinguished Professor of Practice, George 
Washington University; Sidney A. Shapiro, Frank U. Fletcher 
Chair in Administrative Law, Wake Forest University and Vice 
President, Center for Progressive Reform.
Improving VA Accountability: Examining First-Hand Accounts of 
        Department of Veterans Affairs Whistleblowers. September 22, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-484)
    Although whistleblower protections have been in place for 
decades, an alarming number of employees at the Department of 
Veterans Affairs (VA) have reported facing hardships after 
exposing wrongdoing that threatens the care and well-being of 
our nation's veterans. This hearing highlighted the stories of 
VA employees who reported experiencing difficulties for 
bringing to light issues that compromised patient care and 
exposed official misconduct. Testimony focused on ways that 
Congress and relevant agencies can further encourage federal 
employees to come forward with allegations of waste, fraud, and 
abuse.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Sean Kirkpatrick, Chicago, IL; Brandon 
Coleman, Ph.D. (c), LISAC, Addiction Therapist, Phoenix VA 
Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ; Joseph Colon, Credentialing 
Program Support, VA Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, PR; 
Shea Wilkes, Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Overton Brooks VA 
Medical Center, Shreveport, LA. Panel II: Hon. Carolyn N. 
Lerner, Special Counsel, Office of Special Counsel; Linda 
Halliday, Deputy Inspector General, U.S. Department of Veterans 
Affairs; Carolyn Clancy, M.D., Chief Medical Officer, Veterans 
Health Administration; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; Dr. 
Clancy was accompanied by Mr. Michael Culpepper, Acting 
Director, Office of Accountability Review.
A Review of the Department of Education and Student Achievement. 
        September 30, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-530)
    This hearing took a macro look at the country's education 
system and reviewed the Department of Education's role in 
determining outcomes for America's students. In particular, the 
committee examined the longitudinal measures of student 
achievement and determined areas where the Department of 
Education has succeeded as well as fallen short in 
accomplishing key priorities.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Richard K. Vedder, Ph.D., Director, 
Center for College Affordability and Productivity; Kevin Carey, 
Director, Education Policy Program, New America Foundation. 
Panel II: Hon. Theodore R. Mitchell, Under Secretary, U.S. 
Department of Education.
Threats to the Homeland. October 8, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-487)
    The purpose of this hearing was to provide the public with 
an understanding of the prevailing threats to the security of 
the United States of America. The witnesses discussed, to the 
extent applicable, threats as they relate to the Committee's 
stated priorities: border security, critical infrastructure 
protection, cyber security, and countering violent extremism.
    Witnesses: Hon. Jeh C. Johnson, Secretary, U.S. Department 
of Homeland Security; Hon. James B. Comey, Jr., Director, 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice; 
and Hon. Nicholas J. Rasmussen, Director, National 
Counterterrorism Center, Office of the Director of National 
Intelligence.
Ongoing Migration from Central America: An Examination of FY2015 
        Apprehensions. October 21, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the causes 
behind the ongoing migration from Central America, including 
the recent influx of family units and unaccompanied minors 
arriving at the southwest border outside the usual seasonal 
pattern. Witnesses discussed their visits to Central America, 
experiences with migrants at the U.S. border, and other 
relevant experiences. The discussion examined DHS's public 
announcement efforts in the sending countries, as well as U.S. 
programming in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras aimed at 
deterring future migration surges.
    Witnesses: Kimberly M. Gianopoulos, Director, International 
Affairs and Trade, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Chris 
Cabrera, Border Patrol Agent, Rio Grande Valley Sector, U.S. 
Customs and Border Protection, on behalf of the National Border 
Patrol Council; Kevin Casas-Zamora, D.Phil., Senior Fellow and 
Program Director, Peter D. Bell Rule of Law Program, Inter-
American Dialogue; Duncan Wood, Ph.D., Director, Mexico 
Institute, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; 
The Most Reverend Mark J. Seitz, Bishop, Diocese of El Paso, 
Texas, on behalf of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.
Assessing the State of Our Nation's Biodefense. October 28, 2015. (S. 
        Hrg. 114-515)
    This hearing examined the findings of a report published by 
the Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense, co-chaired by former 
Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge and former Senator 
Joseph Lieberman. The hearing covered the Blue Ribbon Panel's 
investigation of our nation's biodefense capabilities and 
strategies, particularly as it pertains to the conclusions and 
recommendations reached by the Panel. The witnesses also 
discussed how Congress, the Administration, and stakeholders 
can work together to better address biological threats facing 
our nation.
    Witnesses: Hon. Thomas J. Ridge, Co-Chair, Blue Ribbon 
Study Panel on Biodefense; Hon. Joseph I. Lieberman, Co-Chair, 
Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense.
The Value of Education Choices for Low-Income Families: Reauthorizing 
        the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program. November 4, 2015. (S. 
        Hrg. 144-525)
    This two-panel hearing examined the D.C. Opportunity 
Scholarship Program as an educational option for low-income 
families in the District of Columbia. Witnesses discussed the 
history of the program, the different educational opportunities 
available to students in the District of Columbia, and student 
achievement in the program. The hearing also touched on 
recommendations for improving the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship 
Program through the SOAR Reauthorization Act of 2015.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Hon. Dianne Feinstein; Hon. Tim Scott; 
Hon. Eleanor Holmes Norton. Panel II: Hon. Kevin Chavous; Mary 
Elizabeth Blaufuss; Gary Jones; Linda Cruz Catalan; Christopher 
Lubienski, Ph.D.
The Impact of ISIS on the Homeland and Refugee Resettlement. November 
        19, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-543)
    The purpose of this two-panel hearing was to provide the 
public with an understanding of the threat posed by the Islamic 
State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) to the U.S. homeland. It 
examined how the terrorist attacks in Paris and across the 
globe impact the United States' Syrian refugee resettlement 
program and current vulnerabilities in the program. Witnesses 
also discussed other vulnerabilities the U.S. faces, such as 
the Visa Waiver Program, student visas, and threats along the 
northern and southwest borders.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Hon. Anne C. Richard, Assistant 
Secretary for Population, Refugees, and Migration, U.S. 
Department of State; Hon. Leon Rodriguez, Director, U.S. 
Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security. Panel II: Peter Bergen, Director, National 
Security Studies Program, New America Foundation; Brian Michael 
Jenkins, Senior Advisor to the President, RAND Corporation; 
Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Senior Fellow, Foundation for Defense 
of Democracies; Hon. Eric P. Schwartz, Dean, Humphrey School of 
Public Affairs, University of Minnesota and Former Assistant 
Secretary for Population, Refugees, and Migration at the U.S. 
Department of State (2009-2011); Lavinia Lim"n, President and 
Chief Executive Officer, U.S. Committee for Refugees and 
Immigrants.
America's Heroin Epidemic at the Border: Local, State, and Federal Law 
        Enforcement Efforts to Combat Illicit Narcotic Trafficking. 
        November 23, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-516)
    The purpose of this two-panel field hearing was to examine 
the illicit trafficking of narcotics crossing the Arizona 
border, particularly heroin, prescription opioids, and 
methamphetamine, and their adverse and enduring effects on 
lives, families, communities, and our national security. The 
witnesses also discussed the threats posed to Arizonans by 
transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) smuggling heroin 
and other illicit narcotics across the Arizona border, the 
level of federal funding available to prosecute drug cases, and 
how coordination between state, local, and federal law 
enforcement to combat illicit narcotic trafficking can be 
improved.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Hon. Douglas A. Ducey, Governor, State 
of Arizona, Accompanied by Colonel Frank Milstead, Director, 
Arizona Department of Public Safety; Hon. R. Gil Kerlikowske, 
Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security. Panel II: Hon. Bill 
Montgomery, County Attorney, Maricopa County; Hon. Mark J. 
Dannels, Sheriff, Cochise County; Dawn Mertz, Executive 
Director, Arizona HIDTA, Office of National Drug Control 
Policy; Brandon Judd, President, National Border Control 
Council; Jeff Taylor, Member, Public Advisory Board/Public 
Policy, The Salvation Army.
Nomination of Hon. Carol Waller Pope to be a Member, Federal Labor 
        Relations Authority, and Robert A. Salerno and Darlene M. 
        Soltys to be Associate Judges, Superior Court of the District 
        of Columbia. December 3, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-411)
    This one-panel hearing considered the nominations of the 
Honorable Carol Waller Pope to be a Member of the Federal Labor 
Relations Authority and Robert A. Salerno and Darlene M. Soltys 
to be Associate Judges of the Superior Court of the District of 
Columbia. Ms. Pope, Mr. Salerno, and Ms. Soltys were introduced 
by Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton. Senator James Lankford, 
Chairman of the Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal 
Management, presided.
Nomination of Michael J. Missal to be Inspector General, U.S. 
        Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Honorable Carolyn N. 
        Lerner to be Special Counsel, Office of Special Counsel. 
        January 12, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing considered the nominations of 
Michael J. Missal to be Inspector General, U.S. Department of 
Veterans Affairs, and the Honorable Carolyn N. Lerner to be 
Special Counsel, Office of Special Counsel. Mr. Missal was 
introduced by Senator Jon Tester. Ms. Lerner was introduced by 
Senator Benjamin L. Cardin.
Inside the Mind of ISIS: Understanding Its Goals and Ideology to Better 
        Protect the Homeland. January 20, 2016. (S. Hrg. 
        114-566)
    The purpose of this one panel hearing was to provide the 
public with an understanding of how ISIS sets its goals, 
derives its strategy, and motivates its followers. Witnesses 
testified about why ISIS's ideology resonates with its 
followers and supporters, what motivates ISIS-inspired 
mobilization in America, and how religious extremism influences 
ISIS's goals, strategy, and cultivation of supporters. The 
hearing also provided a broad overview of ISIS's ideology and 
discussed what the United States Government can do to 
discourage homegrown violent extremists that might be 
vulnerable to the group's ideological message.
    Witnesses: Bernard Haykel, D.Phil., Director, The Institute 
Of Transregional Studies and Professor of Near Eastern Studies, 
Princeton University; Jessica Stern, Ph.D., Research Professor, 
Pardee School for Global Studies, Boston University; Lorenzo G. 
Vidino, Ph.D., Director, Program on Extremism, Center for Cyber 
And Homeland Security, George Washington University; Hedieh 
Mirahmadi, President, World Organization for Resource 
Development and Education.
Laying Out the Reality of the United States Postal Service. January 21, 
        2016. (S, Hrg. 114-579)
    This two-panel hearing examined the state of the USPS, 
including USPS finances, changes to USPS business in the past 5 
years, and the impact of the legislative and regulatory burdens 
placed on the USPS, including the Universal Service Obligation, 
the mandate to prefund the Retiree Health Benefits Fund, rate 
caps and requirements, and limits to new businesses. Witnesses 
also discussed how companies have adapted to the problems 
facing the USPS, and restructuring opportunities within the 
USPS.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Megan J. Brennan, Postmaster General 
and Chief Executive Officer, U.S. Postal Service; Hon. Robert 
G. Taub, Acting Chairman, Postal Regulatory Commission; Lori 
Rectanus, Director, Physical Infrastructure, U.S. Government 
Accountability Office; Hon. David C. Williams, Inspector 
General, U.S. Postal Service; James E. Millstein, Former Chief 
Restructuring Officer at the U.S. Department Of The Treasuryand 
Founder And Chief Executive Officer, Millstein & Co. Panel II: 
Fredric V. Rolando, President, National Association Of Letter 
Carriers, John ``Chip'' Hutcheson III, President, National 
Newspaper Association; Kathy Collins, General Manager, 
Rothschild Mill Domtar Paper Company.
Frontline Response to Terrorism in America. February 2, 2016.
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
state and local response to the recent terror attacks in the 
United States, as well as explore how first responders across 
the country are preparing for the next attack. The hearing also 
highlighted the successes, failures, and areas that need 
improvement when coordinating with federal agencies during 
emergencies.
    Witnesses: Wally Sparks, Chief of Police, Everest Metro 
Police Department, Weston, Wisconsin; Hon. William J. Bratton, 
Police Commissioner, New York City Police Department, New York, 
New York; Rhoda Mae Kerr, President and Chair of the Board, 
International Association of Fire Chiefs, Austin, Texas; Edward 
F. Davis III, Chief Executive Officer, Edward Davis, LLC, and 
Former Commissioner of the Boston Police Department, Boston, 
Massachusetts; Mark S. Ghilarducci, Director, California Office 
of Emergency Services and the Governor's Homeland Security 
Advisor, Mather, California.
Canada's Fast-Track Refugee Plan: Unanswered Questions and Implications 
        for U.S. National Security. February 3, 2016.
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine 
Canada's plan to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees by the end of 
February 2016. Witnesses discussed the Canadian Government's 
progress in meeting its deadline and provided a description of 
how Canada currently vets its refugees to verify their 
identity, nationality, and whether they pose a security risk. 
The hearing also examined the tools the U.S. Border Patrol 
currently has to prevent illegal crossings along our northern 
border, as well as issues of information sharing between the 
U.S. and Canada.
    Witnesses: Guidy Mamann, Senior Partner, Mamann, Sandaluk & 
Kingwell, LLP, Toronto, Canada; David B. Harris, Director, 
International Intelligence Program, Insignis Strategic 
Research, Inc., Ottawa, Canada; Dean Mandel, Border Patrol 
Agent, Buffalo Sector, U.S. Customs and Border Protection 
(Testifying On Behalf Of The National Border Patrol Council); 
Laura Dawson, Ph.D., Director, Canada Institute, Woodrow Wilson 
International Center For Scholars.
Nomination of the Honorable Beth F. Cobert to be Director, Office of 
        Personnel Management. February 4, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing considered the nomination of the 
Honorable Beth F. Cobert to be Director, Office of Personnel 
Management.
Connecting Patients to New and Potential Life Saving Treatments. 
        February 25, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing focused on identifying possible 
barriers that prevent patients from accessing new and 
potentially lifesaving therapies, often in the face of terminal 
or debilitating conditions. Patients and experts discussed the 
steps Congress can take to reduce impediments and help connect 
willing patients and potential medical innovations.
    Witnesses: Darcy Olsen, President and Chief Executive 
Officer, Goldwater Institute; Laura McLinn, Indianapolis, IN; 
Diego Morris, Phoenix, AZ; Joseph V. Gulfo, M.D., Executive 
Director, Rothman Institute of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 
Fairleigh Dickinson University; Nancy Goodman, Executive 
Director, Kids v Cancer.
Nomination of the Honorable Patrick Pizzella to be a Member, Federal 
        Labor Relations Authority, and Julie H. Becker, Steven N. Berk, 
        and Elizabeth C. Wingo to be Associate Judges, Superior Court 
        of the District of Columbia. March 2, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing considered the nominations of the 
Honorable Patrick Pizzella to be a Member, Federal Labor 
Relations Authority, and Julie H. Becker, Steven N. Berk, and 
Elizabeth C. Wingo to be Associate Judges, Superior Court of 
the District of Columbia.
How Canine Programs Contribute to Homeland Security. March 3, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to understand how 
the Department of Homeland Security utilizes canine units to 
execute its security operations. Witnesses described TSA's and 
CBP's training programs and how the agencies deploy their 
canine units as part of airport and border security operations. 
The hearing also covered the conditions necessary to provide 
suitable dogs for security programs, and future demand for 
additional canine units. Witnesses from DHS were accompanied by 
three canines and their handles who conducted a demonstration 
of their specialized skills.
    Witnesses: Kimberly S. Hutchinson, Deputy Assistant 
Administrator, Office of Training and, Development, 
Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security; Damian Montes, Director, Canine Program, 
U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Jennifer Grover, Director, Homeland Security and 
Justice, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Cindy Otto, 
D.V.M., Ph.D., Executive Director, Penn Vet Working Dog Center, 
University of Pennsylvania.
The Homeland Security Department's Budget Submission for Fiscal Year 
        2017. March 8, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to discuss the 
Department of Homeland Security's budget request for fiscal 
year 2017. The witness discussed how the DHS budget request 
meets the current and future homeland security needs of the 
nation.
    Witness: Hon. Jeh C. Johnson, Secretary, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security.
The Security of U.S. Visa Programs. March 15, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to understand the 
security of U.S. visa programs, including policies and 
procedures for screening visa applicants, adjudicating and 
overseeing visa benefits, and enforcing immigration laws. 
Witnesses discussed opportunities for Immigration and Customs 
Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services 
(USCIS) to strengthen programs related to visa screening, 
immigration benefits management, and immigration law 
enforcement, including the status of the Inspector General's 
recommendations regarding visa security. The hearing also 
covered efforts to increase collaboration between the State 
Department, USCIS, and ICE.
    Witnesses: David Donahue, Principal Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State; Hon. 
Leon Rodriguez, Director, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration 
Services, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. Sarah R. 
Saldana, Director, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. John Roth, Inspector 
General, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
DHS Management and Acquisition Reform. March 16, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine 
critical management and acquisition functions at the U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security. The hearing will highlight 
management and acquisition challenges historically faced by the 
Department, progress made in addressing these challenges, and 
potential reforms to address outstanding challenges.
    Witnesses: Hon. Russell C. Deyo, Under Secretary for 
Management, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. Charles 
H. Fulghum, Deputy Under Secretary for Management and Chief 
Financial Officer, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. 
John Roth, Inspector General, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Rebecca Gambler, Director, Homeland Security and 
Justice, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Michele Mackin, 
Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management, U.S. Government 
Accountability Office.
Terror in Europe: Safeguarding U.S. Citizens at Home and Abroad. April 
        5, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
current terrorism threat environment in Europe, to understand 
its causes and the challenges facing European nations, and to 
understand the security implications for the United States. 
Witnesses discussed how the European counterterrorism efforts 
differ from the United States' counterterrorism system and how 
those differences impact both European and American security.
    Witnesses: Hon. Juan C. Zarate, Senior Advisor, Center for 
Strategic and International Studies; Julianne Smith, Senior 
Fellow and Director of the Strategy and Statecraft Program, 
Center for a New American Security; Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, 
Senior Fellow, Foundation for Defense of Democracies; Clinton 
Watts, Robert A. Fox Fellow, Foreign Policy Research Institute.
America's Insatiable Demand for Drugs. April 13, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine how 
America's insatiable demand for drugs affects U.S. border 
security and local communities across the nation, and to assess 
strategies to reduce that demand. Witnesses discussed the 
public health challenge of reducing demand for illegal drugs, 
how treatment reduces the demand for drugs, and the value of 
media and peer-to-peer campaigns to combat drug use. The 
hearing also covered the path various drugs take to reach the 
United States, how these smuggling routes impact the regions 
that are transited, and how a reduction in demand may impact 
the illegal trafficking of narcotics across the United States' 
borders.
    Witnesses: General John F. Kelly, USMC (Ret.), Former 
Commander of the United States Southern Command (2012-2016); 
Jonathan P. Caulkins, Stever Professor of Operations Research & 
Public Policy, Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University; 
Cheryl Healton, Dean, College of Global Public Health, New York 
University; Tony Sgro, Chief Executive Officer, EdVenture 
Partners; Robert Budsock, President and Chief Executive 
Officer, Integrity House, Inc.
The Federal Perspective on the State of Our Nation's Biodefense. April 
        14, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
current capabilities of key federal departments and agencies to 
assist the nation in preventing, detecting, responding to, and 
recovering from major biological incidents, both natural and 
intentional. Witnesses discussed how their organizations assess 
the nation's current preparedness and biosurveillance 
capabilities, and what opportunities may exist for improvement 
in coordination among federal partners. Witnesses also 
discussed the October 2015 report issued by the Blue Ribbon 
Study Panel on Biodefense, and the federal government's 
response to the Zika virus.
    Witnesses: Richard J. Hatchett, M.D., Acting Director, 
Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, Office 
of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, U.S. 
Department of Health and Human Services; Stephen C. Redd, M.D., 
Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Kevin Shea, 
Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture; Aaron M. Firoved, Ph.D., Director, 
National Biosurveillance Integration Center, Office of Health 
Affairs, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Christopher P. 
Currie, Director, Homeland Security and Justice, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office.
Border Security and America's Heroin Epidemic: The Impact of the 
        Trafficking and Abuse of Heroin and Prescription Opioids in 
        Wisconsin. April 15, 2016.
    The purpose of this two-panel hearing was to examine the 
illicit trafficking of narcotics crossing the border and 
transiting into Wisconsin, particularly heroin, prescription 
opioids, and methamphetamine, and their adverse and enduring 
effects on the lives, families, and communities across 
Wisconsin. Witnesses discussed efforts to reduce both the 
availability of and the demand for drugs throughout Wisconsin, 
as well as interdiction efforts at our nation's borders and 
ports of entry. Panelists also described their personal 
experiences with addiction and recovery, and ways that federal, 
state, and local governments and organizations can improve 
education, prevention, and treatment options to help prevent 
and reduce opioid addiction.
    Witnesses: Panel I: James F. Bohn, Director, Wisconsin 
HIDTA, Office of National Drug Control Policy; Timothy 
Westlake, M.D., Vice Chairman, State of Wisconsin Medical 
Examining Board and Chairman, Controlled Substance Committee; 
Tyler Lybert, Accompanied by Ashleigh Nowakowski, Your Choice-
Live, Hartland, Wisconsin; Lauri Badura, Mother of Archie 
Badura, Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. Panel II: Hon. R. Gil 
Kerlikowske, Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Hon. Brad Schimel, 
Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of Wisconsin; 
Hon. Jon Erpenbach, State Senator, District 27, State of 
Wisconsin; Hon. John Nygren, State Representative, District 89, 
State of Wisconsin.
The Administrative State: An Examination of Federal Rulemaking. April 
        20, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine 
administrative rulemaking in the United States, including the 
rulemaking process, the economic impact of final regulations, 
and rulemakings by independent agencies. Specifically, this 
hearing centered on three case studies-the FCC's net neutrality 
rule, the Labor Department's fiduciary rule, and the EPA's 
Waters of the United States rule.
    Witnesses: Jonathan Turley, Professor of Public Interest 
Law, The George Washington University Law School; Randolph J. 
May, President, The Free State Foundation; Hon. Bradford P. 
Campbell, Counsel, Drinker Biddle & Reath, LLP and Former 
Assistant Secretary for Employee Benefits at the U.S. 
Department of Labor; William Kovacs, Senior Vice President for 
the Environment, Technology & Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Chamber 
of Commerce; Robert Weissman, President, Public Citizen.
Nomination of the Honorable Jeffrey A. Rosen to be a Governor, United 
        States Postal Service. April 21, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing considered the nomination the 
Honorable Jeffrey A. Rosen to be a Governor, United States 
Postal Service. Mr. Rosen was introduced by Senator Rob 
Portman.
Examining the Impact of the Opioid Epidemic in Ohio. April 22, 2016.
    The purpose of this two-panel hearing was to examine the 
abuse of prescription opioids, heroin, and fentanyl and their 
adverse and enduring effects on lives, families, and 
communities. The hearing also examined efforts to prevent and 
treat those suffering from addiction to these substances, 
including babies born with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. 
Witnesses discussed the role of the federal government and the 
importance of a cohesive national strategy that takes into 
account prevention, education, treatment, and support for 
individuals in recovery.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Hon. R. Michael DeWine, Attorney 
General, State of Ohio; Carole S. Rendon, Acting U.S. Attorney, 
Northern District of Ohio, United States Attorney's Office, 
U.S. Department of Justice; Tracy Plouck, Director, Ohio 
Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. Panel II: 
Michele Walsh, M.D., Division Chief, Neonatology, UN Case 
Medical Center, UH Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, 
Nancy K. Young, Ph.D., Director, Children and Family Futures, 
Inc.; Margaret Kotz, D.O., Director, Addiction Recovery 
Services, UH Case Medical Center, University Hospitals, Emily 
Metz, Program Coordinator, Project DAW; Rob Brandt, Founder, 
Robby's Voice.
Government Reform: Ending Duplication and Holding Washington 
        Accountable. April 27, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine the 
need for oversight and reform to improve the federal 
government's operations and achieve cost savings. The hearing 
primarily focused on the Government Accountability Office 
(GAO)'s report titled, ``2016 Annual Report: Additional 
Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication 
and Achieve Other Financial Benefits.'' Witnesses provided an 
assessment of the GAO's Annual Report and recommendations as to 
how the 114th Congress can strengthen the efficiency and 
effectiveness of government programs and activities through 
legislation and oversight of Executive Branch activities.
    Witnesses: Hon. Tom Coburn, M.D., Former U.S. Senator from 
the State of Oklahoma; Hon. Eugene L. Dodaro, Comptroller 
General of the United States, U.S. Government Accountability 
Office.
America's Insatiable Demand for Drugs: Assessing the Federal Response. 
        May 17, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing is to examine how the 
U.S. is allocating funds to fight the war on drugs. Witnesses 
discussed the more than $2.5 billion annual to combat illicit 
drug use, how resources are currently directed, what programs 
and strategies appear to be working, and what can be improved 
upon. Witnesses also provided information on the costs of 
prevention and treatment, the risks of failing to treat 
individuals suffering from substance use disorders and the 
success rate of treatments addressing substance use disorders.
    Witnesses: Hon. Michael P. Botticelli, Director, Office of 
National Drug Control Policy; Kana Enomoto, Prinicipal Deputy 
Administrator, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services 
Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 
Diana Maurer, Director, Homeland Security and Justice, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office.
Assessing the Security of Critical Infrastructure: Threats, 
        Vulnerabilities, and Solutions. May 18, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine 
current threats to critical infrastructure across the United 
States, initiatives underway among the sectors and states, and 
any opportunities to improve how the federal government is 
working with the private sector on these issues. Witnesses 
discussed the current top threats to different sectors, and 
identified best practices that if implemented can improve 
information sharing between stakeholders.
    Witnesses: Major General Donald P. Dunbar, Adjutant 
General, State of Wisconsin; Tom Farmer, Chair, Partnership for 
Critical Infrastructure Security; Ted Koppel, Author, Lights 
Out: A Cyberattack, a Nation Unprepared, Surviving the 
Aftermath; Scott Aaronson, Managing Director, Cyber and 
Infrastructure Security, Edison Electric Institute.
Protecting America from the Threat of ISIS. May 26, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine steps 
taken by the Department of Homeland Security and the Department 
of State to mitigate the threat to the homeland from ISIS and 
affiliated terrorist groups in the wake of the Brussel terror 
attacks that occurred on March 22, 2016. Witnessed provided an 
overview of the steps taken by the Departments to increase 
security in the aftermath of these terrorist attacks as well as 
the challenges that these kinds of coordinated terrorist 
attacks create for the U.S. homeland. Additionally, Senators 
asked about ways to improve the screening of both visa 
applicants and those travelers seeking to come to the United 
States through the Visa Waiver Program.
    Witnesses: Hon. Alejandro N. Mayorkas, Deputy Secretary, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Justin Siberell, Acting 
Coordinator of Counterterrorism, Bureau of Counterterrorism, 
U.S. Department of State.
Tomah VAMC: Examining Patient Care and Abuse of Authority. May 31, 
        2016.
    This one-panel hearing focused on the Committee's 
investigation into the over prescription of high-risk 
medication including opioids, patient deaths, and abuse of 
authority at the Tomah VAMC; the Department of Veterans Affairs 
Inspector General's healthcare inspection of the facility; and 
concerns regarding the culture and quality of care at the 
facility. Witnesses also discussed the steps taken by the VA to 
respond to these issues.
    Witnesses: Hon. Sloan D. Gibson, Deputy Secretary, U.S. 
Department of Veterans Affairs; Hon. Michael J. Missal, 
Inspector General, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Mr. 
Gibson was accompanied by Dr. Gavin West, Senior Medical 
Advisor, Clinical Operations, and Mr. Missal was accompanied by 
Dr. John D. Daigh, Jr., Assistant IG for Healthcare 
Inspections.
Frustrated Travelers: Rethinking TSA Operations to Improve Passenger 
        Screening and Address Threats to Aviation. June 7, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine TSA 
operations. Witnesses discussed steps being taken to address 
security vulnerabilities at airport checkpoints discovered 
through covert testing conducted by the DHS Office of Inspector 
General in June 2015. Additionally, panelists described the 
steps TSA is taking to address wait times at many U.S. airports 
without compromising security, and how to work with private 
sector stakeholders in order to address the problem.
    Witnesses: Hon. Peter V. Neffenger, Administrator, 
Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security; Hon. John Roth, Inspector General, U.S. 
Department of Homeland Security; Jennifer Grover, Director, 
Homeland Security and Justice, U.S. Government Accountability 
Office.
America's Insatiable Demand for Drugs: Examining Solutions. June 15, 
        2016.
    The purpose of this roundtable was to examine potential 
alternative approaches to address America's insatiable demand 
for drugs. Witnesses discussed the effects of policies such as 
decriminalization, legalization, and safe injection sites would 
impact on global drug consumption. Panelists also provided a 
brief history and current status of illicit drug consumption in 
the U.S., law enforcement and treatment programs, and how 
Congress can direct Federal funding to address this problem.
    Witnesses: D. Scott Macdonald, M.D., Physician Lead, 
Providence Crosstown Clinic; Ethan Nadelmann, Ph.D., Executive 
Director, Drug Policy Alliance; David W. Murray, Senior Fellow, 
Hudson Institute; Frederick Ryan, Chief of Police, Arlington, 
Massachusetts.
The Ideology of ISIS. June 21, 2016.
    The purpose of this one panel hearing was to examine ISIS's 
poisonous ideology and how it targets specific populations with 
terrorism and persecution, as we saw in the recent terrorist 
attack in Orlando. Two witnesses were human rights activists 
with first-hand experience of Islamic extremist persecution 
because their communities are specifically targeted for 
execution by ISIS. The other witnesses were subject matter 
experts on ISIS and Islamic law and provided broader context.
    Witnesses: Hassan Hassan, Resident Fellow, Tahrir Institute 
for Middle East Policy and Co-Author, ISIS: Inside the Army of 
Terror; Tarek Elgawhary, Ph.D., Director, Religious Studies 
Programs, World Organization for Resource Development and 
Education; Subhi Nahas, Chairman of the Board, Spectra Project; 
Nadia Murad, Human Rights Activist.
Renewing Communities and Providing Opportunities Through Innovative 
        Solutions to Poverty. June 22, 2016.
    The purpose of this one-panel hearing was to examine how 
community leaders across America are finding innovative 
solutions to address needs in their communities. Witnesses 
spoke of the need for civil society to provide community-based 
solutions and gave examples of leaders renewing communities. 
Panelists also discussed long-term federal spending, spending 
on the War on Poverty, poverty statistics, and evidence-based 
evaluation of federal programs.
    Witnesses: Robert Woodson, Founder and President, Center 
for Neighborhood Enterprise; Peter L. Ochs, President, Capital 
III, Inc.; Ron Haskins, Ph.D., Senior Fellow, Brookings 
Institution; Olivia Golden, Executive Director, Center for Law 
and Social Policy.
Nomination of Andrew Mayock to be Deputy Director for Management, 
        Office of Management and Budget. June 28, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing considered the nomination of Andrew 
Mayock to be Deputy Director for Management, Office of 
Management and Budget.
From Crop to Craft Beer: Federal Regulation's Impact on America's Food 
        and Agriculture. August 17, 2016.
    The purpose of this single-panel field hearing was to 
examine the nexus between federal regulatory activity and its 
impact on businesses in the agriculture sector and connected 
industries. Witnesses included principals at small and medium-
sized enterprises directly engaged in businesses affected by 
regulations applicable to food and agriculture issues.
    Witnesses: Jim Zimmerman, Farmer, Rosedale, Wisconsin; Rick 
Vaughan, Chief Executive Officer, Innovative Ag Services; David 
Fritz, President and Volunteer Director, Potosi Foundation, 
Inc.; and Richard Williams, Ph.D., Director, Regulatory Studies 
Program, Mercatus Center, George Mason University.
The State of Health Insurance Markets. September 15, 2016.
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
status of the health insurance market in states across the 
country. The witnesses described their states' projected rates 
for 2017 and the overall market for insurance in their state in 
recent years.
    Witnesses: Hon. Mary Taylor, Lieutenant Governor and 
Director, Ohio Department of Insurance, State of Ohio; J.P. 
Wieske, Deputy Commissioner, Office of the Commissioner of 
Insurance, State of Wisconsin; Nick Gerhart, Commissioner, Iowa 
Insurance Division, State of Iowa; and the Honorable Mike 
Kreidler, Commissioner, Office of the Insurance Commissioner, 
State of Washington.
Exploring a Right to Try for Terminally Ill Patients, September 22, 
        2016.
    In the last few years, more than 30 states have adopted 
``right to try'' laws which are intended to authorize doctors, 
patients, and medical manufacturers to administer treatments 
that have demonstrated safety but are not yet approved for 
general use in the United States. S. 2912, the Trickett Wendler 
Right to Try Act, is intended to provide additional support for 
efforts by clarifying the federal government's role in allowing 
access to experimental treatments. This two-panel hearing 
examined the right to try movement from multiple perspectives 
within the medical ecosystem and provided the committee with a 
better understanding of how these laws may affect patients, 
doctors, and the clinical trial process.
    Witnesses: Panel I: Matthew Bellina, Lieutenant Commander, 
U.S. Navy (Retired); Hon. Ian Calderon, Majority Leader, State 
Assembly, State of California; Hon. Jim Neely, D.O., Member, 
House of Representatives, State of Missouri; Richard Garr, 
Former President and Chief Executive Officer, Neuralstem, Inc.; 
and Andrew McFadyen, Executive Director, The Isaac Foundation. 
Panel II: Peter Lurie, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Commissioner for 
Public Health Strategy and Analysis, Food and Drug 
Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Fifteen Years After 9/11: Threats to the Homeland. September 27, 2016.
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to examine the 
most critical security threats facing our nation for the 
American public, discuss how threats have evolved, and discuss 
what law enforcement and intelligence agencies, specifically 
the Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, and the National Counterterrorism Center, are 
doing to counteract them.
    Witnesses: Hon. Jeh C. Johnson, Secretary, U.S. Department 
of Homeland Security; Hon. James B. Comey, Jr., Director, 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice; 
and Hon. Nicholas J. Rasmussen, Director, National 
Counterterrorism Center, Office of the Director of National 
Intelligence.
Nominations of the Honorable Robert G. Taub and the Honorable Mark D. 
        Acton to be Commissioners, Postal Regulatory Commission. 
        November 15, 2016.
    This one-panel hearing considered the nominations of the 
Honorable Robert G. Taub and the Honorable Mark D. Acton to be 
Commissioners, Postal Regulatory Commission.
Initial Observations of the New Leadership at the U.S. Border Patrol. 
        November 30, 2016.
    The purpose of this single-panel hearing was to understand 
the current state of the security of the U.S. borders and the 
top priorities for improving the U.S. Border Patrol in the 
future. The witnesses explained their initial observations on 
what is working, what they hope to improve upon, and what they 
see as opportunities to enhance security across all U.S. 
borders. Witnesses also discussed the current surge in 
apprehensions occurring along the southwest border, policies 
associated with this surge, and how the Border Patrol's 
multilayer strategy of fencing, technology, and manpower is 
addressing the crisis.
    Witnesses: Mark Morgan, Chief, U.S. Border Patrol, U.S. 
Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security, and Carla Provost, Deputy Chief, U.S. Border Patrol, 
U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security.

                  V. REPORTS, PRINTS, AND GAO REPORTS

    During the 114th Congress, the Committee prepared and 
issued 81 reports and 5 Committee Prints on the following 
topics. Reports issued by Subcommittees are listed in their 
respective sections of this document.

                           COMMITTEE REPORTS

    Grant Reform and New Transparency Act of 2016. S. Rept. 
114-407.
    Bonuses for Cost Cutters Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-406.
    Open Government Data Act. S. Rept. 114-396.
    Federal Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-378.
    Countering Online Recruitment of Violent Extremists Act of 
2015. S. Rept. 114-365.
    Construction Consensus Procurement Improvement Act of 2015. 
S. Rept. 114-366.
    Federal Information Systems Safeguards Act of 2016. S. 
Rept. 114-361.
    Office of Special Counsel Reauthorization Act of 2016. S. 
Rept. 114-360.
    District of Columbia Judicial Financial Transparency Act. 
S. Rept. 114-359.
    GAO Access and Oversight Act of 2016. S. Rept. 114-356.
    Early Participation in Regulations Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-343.
    Principled Rulemaking Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-342.
    To amend title 5, United States Code, to expand law 
enforcement availability pay to employees of U.S. Customs and 
Border Protection's air and marine operations. S. Rept. 114-
344.
    National Urban Search and Rescue Response System Act of 
2016. S. Rept. 114-307.
    Biodefense Strategy Act of 2016. S. Rept. 114-306.
    GAO Mandates Revision Act of 2016. S. Rept. 114-305.
    Federal Property Management Act of 2016. S. Rept. 114-304.
    Cross-Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-
303.
    Secret Service Improvements Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-302.
    Federal Employee Antidiscrimination Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-300.
    Department of Homeland Security Insider Threat and 
Mitigation Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-297.
    Combat Terrorist Use of Social Media Act of 2016. S. Rept. 
114-295.
    Amending the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to build 
partnerships to prevent violence by extremists. S. Rept. 114-
296.
    Federal Asset Sale and Transfer Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-
291.
    Administrative Leave Act of 2016. S. Rept. 114-292.
    DHS Accountability Act of 2016. S. Rept. 114-287.
    Making Electronic Government Accountable by Yielding 
Tangible Efficiencies Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-289.
    Smarter Regs Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-282.
    To express the sense of the Senate regarding the success of 
operation streamline and the importance of prosecuting first 
time illegal border crossers. S. Rept. 114-279.
    Presidential Allowance Modernization Act of 2016. S. Rept. 
114-271.
    To enhance whistleblower protection for contractor and 
grantee employees. S. Rept. 114-270.
    Dr. Chris Kirkpatrick Whistleblower Protection Act of 2015. 
S. Rept. 114-262.
    First Responder Anthrax Preparedness Act. S. Rept. 114-251.
    Stopping Improper Payments to Deceased People Act. S. Rept. 
114-249.
    Critical Infrastructure Protection Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-250.
    Security Clearance Accountability, Reform and Enhancement 
Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-246.
    DHS IT Duplication Reduction Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-247.
    Border Security Technology Accountability Act of 2015. S. 
Rept. 114-234.
    Fraud Reduction and Data Analytics Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-229.
    To direct the Administrator of General Services, on behalf 
of the Archivist of the United States, to convey certain 
federal property located in the state of Alaska to the 
municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. S. Rept. 114-228.
    Department of Homeland Security Headquarters Consolidation 
Accountability Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-227.
    Stop Wasteful Federal Bonuses Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-
226.
    Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act of 2015. 
S. Rept. 114-224.
    Resolution directing the Senate Legal Counsel to bring a 
civil action to enforce a subpoena of the Permanent 
Subcommittee on Investigations. S. Rept. 114-214.
    Fair Chance Act. S. Rept. 114-200.
    Preclearance Authorization Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-180.
    Saving Federal Dollars through Better Use of Government 
Purchase and Travel Cards Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-174.
    Directing Dollars to Disaster Relief Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-173.
    Grants Oversight and New Efficiency Act. S. Rept. 114-169.
    Inspector General Mandates Reporting Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-171.
    Appointment of federal directors to the Board of Directors 
of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. S. Rept. 

114-170.
    Program Management Improvement Accountability Act. S. Rept. 
114-162.
    Quarterly Financial Reporting Reauthorization Act of 2015. 
S. Rept. 114-157.
    Northern Border Security Review Act. S. Rept. 114-155.
    Department of Homeland Security Border Security Metrics 
Act. S. Rept. 114-152.
    Evidence-Based Policymaking Commission Act. S. Rept. 114-
151.
    Arizona Borderlands Protection and Preservation Act. S. 
Rept. 114-150.
    Social Media Working Group Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-145.
    Breast Cancer Research Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2015. 
S. Rept. 114-144.
    Emergency Information Improvement Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-142.
    Competitive Service Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-143.
    Land Management Workforce Flexibility Act. S. Rept. 114-
123.
    Border Jobs for Veterans Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-116.
    Federal Permitting Improvement Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-
113.
    DC Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency Act of 
2015. S. Rept. 114-110.
    Presidential Transitions Improvements Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-94.
    Representative Payee Fraud Prevention Act of 2015. S. Rept. 
114-95.
    Eliminating Government-Funded Oil-Painting Act. S. Rept. 
114-93.
    Wounded Warriors Federal Leave Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-
89.
    Response Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-85.
    Federal Improper Payments Act. S. Rept. 114-86.
    Truth in Settlements Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-76.
    IPAWS Modernization Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-73.
    Taxpayers Right-to-Know Act. S. Rept. 114-71.
    Presidential Library Donations Act. S. Rept. 114-65.
    Federal Vehicle Repair Costs Savings Act. S. Rept. 114-59.
    DHS Interoperable Communications Act. S. Rept. 114-53.
    Human Trafficking Detection Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-46.
    Gold Star Fathers Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-35.
    Inspector General Empowerment Act of 2015. S. Rept. 114-36.
    Activities of the Committee on Homeland Security and 
Governmental Affairs. S. Rept. 114-33.

                            COMMITTEE PRINTS

    The Committee issued the following Committee Prints during 
the 114th Congress:
    United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions. 
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 
(Printed. 236 pp. S. Prt. 114-26.)
    Combatting the Opioid Epidemic: A Review of Anti-Abuse 
Efforts in Medicare and Private Health Insurance Systems. 
Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. (Printed. 32 
pp. S. Prt. 
114-29.)
    Review of U.S. State Department Grants to OneVoice. Senate 
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. (Printed. 509 pp. S. 
Prt. 114-24.)
    Rules of Procedure. Committee on Homeland Security and 
Governmental Affairs. (Printed. 44 pp. S. Prt. 114-12.)
    Rules of Procedure. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on 
Investigations. (Printed. 23 pp. S. Prt. 114-13.)

                              GAO REPORTS

    Also during the 114th Congress, the Government 
Accountability Office (GAO) issued 193 reports at the request 
of the Committee. GAO reports requested by the Subcommittees 
appear in their respective sections. Reports are listed here by 
title, GAO number, and release date.
    Antipsychotic Drug Use: HHS Has Initiatives to Reduce Use 
Among Older Adults in Nursing Homes, but Should Expand Efforts 
to Other Settings. GAO-15-211. January 30, 2015.
    Medicaid Information Technology: CMS Supports Use of 
Program Integrity Systems but Should Require States to 
Determine Effectiveness. GAO-15-207. January 30, 2015.
    2020 Census: Key Challenges Need to be Addressed to 
Successfully Enable Internet Response. GAO-15-225. February 5, 
2015.
    Federal Workforce: Improved Supervision and Better Use of 
Probationary Periods Are Needed to Address Substandard Employee 
Performance. GAO-15-191. February 6, 2015.
    Crop Insurance: In Areas with Higher Crop Production Risks, 
Costs Are Greater, and Premiums May Not Cover Expected Losses. 
GAO-15-215. February 9, 2015.
    GAO's 2015 High-Risk Series: An Update. GAO-15-371T. 
February 11, 2015.
    Geospatial Data: Progress Needed on Identifying 
Expenditures, Building and Utilizing a Data Infrastructure, and 
Reducing Duplicative Efforts [Reissued 18, 2015]. GAO-15-193. 
February 12, 2015.
    Contingency Contracting: Contractor Personnel Tracking 
System Needs Better Plans and Guidance. GAO-15-250. February 
18, 2015.
    Higher Education: Better Management of Federal Grant and 
Loan Forgiveness Programs for Teachers Needed to Improve 
Participant Outcomes. GAO-15-314. February 24, 2015.
    Financial Audit: U.S. Government's Fiscal Years 2014 and 
2013 Consolidated Financial Statements. GAO-15-341R. February 
26, 2015.
    Defense Major Automated Information Systems: Cost and 
Schedule Commitments Need to be Established Earlier. GAO-15-
282. February 26, 2015.
    Healthcare.gov: CMS Has Taken Steps to Address Problems, 
but Needs to Further Implement Systems Development Best 
Practices. GAO-15-238. March 4, 2015.
    Homeland Security Acquisitions: DHS Should Better Define 
Oversight Roles and Improve Program Reporting to Congress. GAO-
15-292. March 12, 2015.
    Improper Payments: Government-Wide Estimates and Use of 
Death Data to Help Prevent Payments to Deceased Individuals. 
GAO-15-482T. March 16, 2015.
    Crop Insurance: Reducing Subsidies for Highest Income 
Participants Could Save Federal Dollars with Minimal Effect on 
the Program. GAO-15-356. March 18, 2015.
    Information Security: IRS Needs to Continue Improving 
Controls over Financial and Taxpayer Data. GAO-15-336SU. March 
19, 2015.
    Information Security: IRS Needs to Continue Improving 
Controls over Financial and Taxpayer Data. GAO-15-337. March 
19, 2015.
    Medicare: Potential Uses of Electronically Readable Cards 
for Beneficiaries and Providers. GAO-15-319. March 25, 2015.
    Budgeting for Disasters: Approaches to Budgeting for 
Disasters in Selected States. GAO-15-424. March 26, 2015.
    2014 Lobbying Disclosure: Observations on Lobbyists' 
Compliance with Disclosure Requirements. GAO-15-310. March 26, 
2015.
    Federal Chief Information Officers: Reporting to OMB Can be 
Improved by Further Streamlining and Better Focusing on 
Priorities. GAO-15-106. April 2, 2015.
    Management Report: Areas for Improvement in the Federal 
Reserve Banks' Information Systems Controls. GAO-15-396RSU. 
April 3, 2015.
    Management Report: Areas for Improvement in the Federal 
Reserve Banks' Information Systems Controls. GAO-15-413R. April 
6, 2015.
    Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication: An Evaluation and 
Management Guide. GAO-15-49SP. April 14, 2015.
    2015 Annual Report: Additional Opportunities to Reduce 
Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other 
Financial Benefits. GAO-15-404SP. April 14, 2015.
    Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to 
Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve 
Other Financial Benefits. GAO-15-522T. April 14, 2015.
    Information Technology: Additional OMB and Agency Actions 
Needed to Ensure Portfolio Savings Are Realized and Effectively 
Tracked. GAO-15-296. April 16, 2015.
    2020 Census: Recommended Actions Need to be Implemented 
Before Potential Cost Savings Can be Realized. GAO-15-546T. 
April 20, 2015.
    Homeland Security Acquisitions: Major Program Assessments 
Reveal Actions Needed to Improve Accountability. GAO-15-171SP. 
April 22, 2015.
    Personnel Security Clearances: Funding Estimates and 
Government-Wide Metrics Are Needed to Implement Long-standing 
Reform Efforts. GAO-15-179SU. April 23, 2015.
    U.S. Postal Service: Improved Management Procedures Needed 
for Parcel Select Contracts. GAO-15-408. April 23, 2015.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in SEC's Internal 
Controls and Accounting Procedures. GAO-15-387R. April 30, 
2015.
    Whistleblower Protection: DOD Needs to Enhance Oversight of 
Military Whistleblower Reprisal Investigations. GAO-15-477. May 
7, 2015.
    Border Security: Progress and Challenges in DHS's Efforts 
to Implement and Assess Infrastructure and Technology. GAO-15-
595T. May 13, 2015.
    Information Management: Additional Actions Are Needed to 
Meet Requirements of the Managing Government Records Directive. 
GAO-15-339. May 14, 2015.
    Financial Audit: Congressional Award Foundation's Fiscal 
Years 2014 and 2013 Financial Statements. GAO-15-552. May 15, 
2015.
    Human Capital: Update on Strategic Management Challenges 
for the 21st Century. GAO-15-619T. May 20, 2015.
    Management Report: Improvements Are Needed to Enhance the 
Internal Revenue Service's Internal Control over Financial 
Reporting. GAO-15-480R. May 29, 2015.
    Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight 
of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed. GAO-15-
678T. June 9, 2015.
    Federal Real Property: Current Efforts, GAO 
Recommendations, and Proposed Legislation Could Address 
Challenges [Reissued on June 24, 2015]. GAO-15-688T. June 16, 
2015.
    Medicare Program: Additional Actions Needed to Improve 
Eligibility Verification of Providers and Suppliers. GAO-15-
448. June 25, 2015.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in the Bureau of the 
Fiscal Service's Information Systems Controls. GAO-15-411RSU. 
June 25, 2015.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in the Bureau of the 
Fiscal Service's Information Systems Controls. GAO-15-412R. 
June 25, 2015.
    Managing for Results: Agencies Report Positive Effects of 
Data-Driven Reviews on Performance but Some Should Strengthen 
Practices. GAO-15-579. July 7, 2015.
    Medicaid: Additional Reporting May Help CMS Oversee 
Prescription-Drug Fraud Controls. GAO-15-390. July 8, 2015.
    Disability Insurance: Actions Needed to Help Prevent 
Potential Overpayments to Individuals Receiving Concurrent 
Federal Workers' Compensation. GAO-15-531. July 8, 2015.
    Biosurveillance: Additional Planning, Oversight, and 
Coordination Needed to Enhance National Capability. GAO-15-
664T. July 8, 2015.
    Federal Supply Schedules: More Attention Needed to 
Competition and Prices. GAO-15-590. July 9, 2015.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency: Additional Planning 
and Data Collection Could Help Improve Workforce Management 
Efforts. GAO-15-437. July 9, 2015.
    Federal Real Property: GSA Needs to Determine Its Progress 
Toward Long-Term Sustainability of Its Portfolio. GAO-15-609. 
July 15, 2015.
    Space Launch System: Management Tools Should Better Track 
to Cost and Schedule Commitments to Adequately Monitor 
Increasing Risk. GAO-15-596. July 16, 2015.
    Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Action Needed to 
Verify Some Chemical Facility Information and Manage Compliance 
Process. GAO-15-614. July 22, 2015.
    Critical Infrastructure Protection: Preliminary 
Observations on DHS Efforts to Address Electromagnetic Threats 
to the Electric Grid. GAO-15-692T. July 22, 2015.
    Federal Green Building: Federal Efforts and Third-Party 
Certification Help Agencies Implement Key Requirements, but 
Challenges Remain. GAO-15-667. July 23, 2015.
    Managing for Results: Practices for Effective Agency 
Strategic Reviews. GAO-15-602. July 29, 2015.
    DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit 
Issues Related to the Marine Corps' 2012 Schedule of Budgetary 
Activity. GAO-15-198. July 30, 2015.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in Controls over the 
Processes Used to Prepare the U.S. Consolidated Financial 
Statements. GAO-15-630. July 30, 2015.
    Hurricane Sandy: An Investment Strategy Could Help the 
Federal Government Enhance National Resilience for Future 
Disasters. GAO-15-515. July 30, 2015.
    Immigrant Investor Program: Additional Actions Needed to 
Better Assess Fraud Risks and Report Economic Benefits. 
GAO-15-696. August 12, 2015.
    Emergency Management: FEMA Collaborates Effectively with 
Logistics Partners but Could Strengthen Implementation of Its 
Capabilities Assessment Tool. GAO-15-781. September 10, 2015.
    Managing for Results: Greater Transparency Needed in Public 
Reporting on the Quality of Performance Information for 
Selected Agencies' Priority Goals. GAO-15-788. September 10, 
2015.
    Federal Spending Accountability: Preserving Capabilities of 
Recovery Operations Center Could Help Sustain Oversight of 
Federal Expenditures. GAO-15-814. September 14, 2015.
    DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to 
Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related 
Activities. GAO-15-658. September 15, 2015.
    Information Technology Reform: Billions of Dollars in 
Savings Have Been Realized, but Agencies Need to Complete 
Reinvestment Plans. GAO-15-617. September 15, 2015.
    Strategic Sourcing: Opportunities Exist to Better Manage 
Information Technology Services Spending. GAO-15-549. September 
22, 2015.
    Regulatory Guidance Processes: Agencies Could Benefit From 
Stronger Internal Control Practices. GAO-15-834T. September 23, 
2015.
    Federal Information Security: Agencies Need to Correct 
Weaknesses and Fully Implement Security Programs. GAO-15-714. 
September 29, 2015.
    Disaster Contracting: FEMA Needs to Cohesively Manage Its 
Workforce and Fully Address Post-Katrina Reforms. GAO-15-783. 
September 29, 2015.
    Managing for Results: Implementation of GPRA Modernization 
Act Has Yielded Mixed Progress in Addressing Pressing 
Governance Challenges. GAO-15-819. September 30, 2015.
    Federal Real Property: Performance Goals and Targets Needed 
to Help Stem GSA's Reliance on Lease Extensions and Holdovers. 
GAO-15-741. September 30, 2015.
    U.S. Postal Service: Actions Needed to Make Delivery 
Performance Information More Complete, Useful, and Transparent. 

GAO-15-756. September 30, 2015.
    Sole Source Contracting: Defining and Tracking Bridge 
Contracts Would Help Agencies Manage Their Use. GAO-16-15. 
October 14, 2015.
    Federal Real Property: Additional Authorities and 
Accountability Would Enhance the Implementation of the Federal 
Buildings Personnel Training Act of 2010. GAO-16-39. October 
20, 2015.
    Post-9/11 GI Bill: Additional Actions Needed to Reduce 
Overpayments and Increase Collections. GAO-16-42. October 21, 
2015.
    Unaccompanied Alien Children: Improved Evaluation Efforts 
Could Enhance Agency Programs to Reduce Migration From Central 
America. GAO-16-163T. October 21, 2015.
    Biosurveillance: DHS Should Not Pursue Biowatch Upgrades or 
Enhancements Until System Capabilities Are Established. 
GAO-16-99. October 23, 2015.
    Independent Auditor's Report on Applying Agreed-Upon 
Procedures: Fiscal Year 2015 Excise Tax Distributions to the 
Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. GAO-
16-109R. November 5, 2015.
    Financial Audit: Office of Financial Stability (Troubled 
Asset Relief Program) Fiscal Years 2015 and 2014 Financial 
Statements. GAO-16-147R. November 10, 2015.
    Financial Audit: IRS's Fiscal Years 2015 and 2014 Financial 
Statements. GAO-16-146. November 12, 2015.
    Financial Audit: Bureau of the Fiscal Service's Fiscal 
Years 2015 and 2014 Schedules of Federal Debt. GAO-16-160. 
November 13, 2015.
    Financial Audit: Securities and Exchange Commission's 
Fiscal Years 2015 and 2014 Financial Statements. GAO-16-145R. 
November 16, 2015.
    Information Security: Federal Agencies Need to Better 
Protect Sensitive Data. GAO-16-194T. November 17, 2015.
    Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Implementing GAO 
Recommendations Can Achieve Financial Benefits and Strengthen 
Government Performance. GAO-16-272T. December 10, 2015.
    Health Care Workforce: Comprehensive Planning by HHS Needed 
to Meet National Needs. GAO-16-17. December 11, 2015.
    DOD Financial Management: Improved Documentation Needed to 
Support the Air Force's Military Payroll and Meet Audit 
Readiness Goals. GAO-16-68. December 17, 2015.
    Federal Real Property: GSA Could Decrease Leasing Costs 
by Encouraging Competition and Reducing Unneeded Fees. 
GAO-16-188. January 13, 2016.
    U.S. Postal Service: Financial Challenges Continue. GAO-16-
268T. January 21, 2016.
    Health Care Fraud: Information on Most Common Schemes and 
the Likely Effect of Smart Cards. GAO-16-216. January 22, 2016.
    Army Contracting: Training and Guidance Needed to Ensure 
Appropriate Use of the Option to Extend Services Clause. 
GAO-16-262R. January 28, 2016.
    Data Act: Data Standards Established, but More Complete and 
Timely Guidance is Needed to Ensure Effective Implementation. 
GAO-16-261. January 29, 2016.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency: Strengthening Regional 
Coordination Could Enhance Preparedness Efforts. 
GAO-16-38. February 4, 2016.
    Unaccompanied Children: HHS Can Take Further Actions to 
Monitor Their Care. GAO-16-180. February 5, 2016.
    Disaster Response: FEMA Has Made Progress Implementing Key 
Programs, but Opportunities for Improvement Exist. GAO-16-87. 
February 5, 2016.
    Transportation Security: Status of GAO Recommendations on 
TSA's Security-Related Technology Acquisitions. GAO-16-176. 
February 17, 2016.
    Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: CMS Should Act 
to Strengthen Enrollment Controls and Manage Fraud Risk. 
GAO-16-29. February 23, 2016.
    Financial Audit: U.S. Government's Fiscal Years 2015 and 
2014 Consolidated Financial Statements. GAO-16-357R. February 
25, 2016.
    Data Center Consolidation: Agencies Making Progress, but 
Planned Savings Goals Need to be Established. GAO-16-323. March 
3, 2016.
    Explosives Detection Canines: Opportunities Exist for TSA 
to Further Improve Its Canine Program. GAO-16-444T. March 3, 
2016.
    Department of Homeland Security: Progress Made, but Work 
Remains in Strengthening Acquisition and Other Management 
Functions. GAO-16-507T. March 16, 2016.
    Federal Real Property: GSA Could Better Identify Risks of 
Unforeseen Conditions in Repair and Alteration Projects. GAO-
16-273. March 17, 2016.
    2015 Lobbying Disclosure: Observations on Lobbyists' 
Compliance with Disclosure Requirements. GAO-16-320. March 24, 
2016.
    Information Security: IRS Needs to Further Improve Controls 
over Financial and Taxpayer Data (Louo). GAO-16-397SU. March 
28, 2016.
    Information Security: IRS Needs to Further Improve Controls 
over Financial and Taxpayer Data (Public). GAO-16-398. March 
28, 2016.
    Homeland Security Acquisitions: DHS Has Strengthened 
Management, but Execution and Affordability Concerns Endure. 
GAO-16-338SP. March 31, 2016.
    Federal Real Property: Improving Data Transparency and 
Expanding the National Strategy Could Help Address Long-
Standing Challenges. GAO-16-275. March 31, 2016.
    Information Technology: FEMA Needs to Address Management 
Weaknesses to Improve Its Systems. GAO-16-306. April 5, 2016.
    Cloud Computing: Agencies Need to Incorporate Key Practices 
to Ensure Effective Performance. GAO-16-325. April 7, 2016.
    Medicare Advantage: Action Needed to Ensure Appropriate 
Payments for Veterans and Nonveterans. GAO-16-137. April 11, 
2016.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency: Progress and 
Continuing Challenges in National Preparedness Efforts. GAO-16-
560T. April 12, 2016.
    2016 Annual Report: Additional Opportunities to Reduce 
Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other 
Financial Benefits. GAO-16-375SP. April 13, 2016.
    Medicare: Opportunities Exist to Recover Potential Improper 
Payments to Providers with Criminal Backgrounds, but CMS has 
Taken Steps to Increase Its Controls. GAO-16-365R. April 13, 
2016.
    Biodefense: The Nation Faces Multiple Challenges in 
Building and Maintaining Biodefense and Biosurveillance. GAO-
16-547T. April 14, 2016.
    Grants Management: Actions Needed to Address Persistent 
Grant Closeout Timeliness and Undisbursed Balance Issues. 
GAO-16-362. April 14, 2016.
    Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Improved Risk 
Analysis and Stakeholder Consultations Could Enhance Future 
Reviews. GAO-16-371. April 15, 2016.
    Data Act: Section 5 Pilot Design Issues Need to be 
Addressed to Meet Goal of Reducing Recipient Reporting Burden. 
GAO-16-438. April 19, 2016.
    Medicaid Program Integrity: Improved Guidance Needed to 
Better Support Efforts to Screen Managed Care Providers. GAO-
16-402. April 22, 2016.
    High-Risk Series: Key Actions to Make Progress Addressing 
High-Risk Issues. GAO-16-480R. April 25, 2016.
    Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and 
Government Affairs, U.S. Senate. Government Efficiency and 
Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, 
and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits. GAO-16-
580T. April 27, 2016.
    Federal Workforce: Distribution of Performance Ratings 
Across the Federal Government, 2013. GAO-16-520R. May 9, 2016.
    Office of National Drug Control Policy: Progress Toward 
Some National Drug Control Strategy Goals, but None Have Been 
Fully Achieved. GAO-16-660T. May 17, 2016.
    Information Security: Agencies Need to Improve Controls 
over Selected High-Impact Systems. GAO-16-501. May 18, 2016.
    Management Report: Improvements Are Needed to the Internal 
Revenue Service's Internal Control over Financial Reporting. 
GAO-16-457R. May 18, 2016.
    Government Purchase Cards: Opportunities Exist to Leverage 
Buying Power. GAO-16-526. May 19, 2016.
    Managing for Results: OMB Improved Implementation of Cross-
agency Priority Goals, but Could be More Transparent About 
Measuring Progress. GAO-16-509. May 20, 2016.
    Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Address 
Aging Legacy Systems. GAO-16-468. May 25, 2016.
    U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Review of the Staffing 
Analysis Report Under the Border Patrol Agent Pay Reform Act of 
2014. GAO-16-606R. May 26, 2016.
    Controlled Substances: DEA Should Take Additional Actions 
to Reduce Risks in Monitoring the Continued Eligibility of Its 
Registrants. GAO-16-310. May 26, 2016.
    Disaster Recovery: FEMA Needs to Assess Its Effectiveness 
in Implementing the National Disaster Recovery Framework. 
GAO-16-476. May 26, 2016.
    Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Needed to Better 
Incorporate Risk in Deployment Strategy. GAO-16-582. May 31, 
2016.
    IT Dashboard: Agencies Need to Fully Consider Risks When 
Rating Their Major Investments. GAO-16-494. June 02, 2016.
    Management Report: Areas for Improvement in the Federal 
Reserve Banks' Information Systems Controls. GAO-16-600RSU. 
June 6, 2016.
    Management Report: Areas for Improvement in the Federal 
Reserve Banks' Information Systems Controls. GAO-16-601R. June 
6, 2016.
    Aviation Security: TSA is Taking Steps to Improve Expedited 
Screening Effectiveness, but Oversight of Screener Performance 
is Constrained by Data Weaknesses. GAO-16-707T. June 7, 2016.
    Managing for Results: Agencies Need to Fully Identify and 
Report Major Management Challenges and Actions to Resolve Them 
in Their Agency Performance Plans. GAO-16-510. June 15, 2016.
    Federal Air Marshal Service: Additional Actions Needed to 
Ensure Air Marshals' Mission Readiness. GAO-16-535SU. June 17, 
2016.
    Program Integrity: Views on the Use of Commercial Data 
Services to Help Identify Fraud and Improper Payments. GAO-16-
624. June 30, 2016.
    2020 Census: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Life-Cycle Cost 
Estimating Process. GAO-16-628. June 30, 2016.
    Improper Payments: CFO Act Agencies Need to Improve Efforts 
to Address Compliance Issues. GAO-16-554. June 30, 2016.
    Immigration Benefits System: U.S. Citizenship and 
Immigration Services Can Improve Program Management. GAO-16-
467. July 7, 2016.
    Department of Energy: Whistleblower Protections Need 
Strengthening. GAO-16-618. July 11, 2016.
    Critical Infrastructure Protection: Improvements Needed for 
DHS's Chemical Facility Whistleblower Report Process. GAO-16-
572. July 12, 2016.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in Controls over the 
Processes Used to Prepare the U.S. Government's Financial 
Statements. GAO-16-621. July 13, 2016.
    Countering Improvised Explosive Devices: Improved Planning 
Could Enhance Federal Coordination Efforts. GAO-16-581SU. July 
14, 2016.
    Sexual Violence Data: Actions Needed to Improve Clarity and 
Address Differences Across Federal Data Collection Efforts. 
GAO-16-546. July 19, 2016.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in the Bureau of the 
Fiscal Service's Information Systems Controls. GAO-16-654RSU. 
July 28, 2016.
    Management Report: Improvements Needed in the Bureau of the 
Fiscal Service's Information Systems Controls. GAO-16-655R. 
July 28, 2016.
    Data Act: Improvements Needed in Reviewing Agency 
Implementation Plans and Monitoring Progress. GAO-16-698. July 
29, 2016.
    Data Act: Initial Observations on Technical Implementation. 
GAO-16-824R. August 3, 2016.
    Department of Energy: Actions Needed to Strengthen 
Acquisition Planning for Management and Operating Contracts. 
GAO-16-529. August 9, 2016.
    Information Technology: Better Management of 
Interdependencies Between Programs Supporting 2020 Census is 
Needed. GAO-16-623. August 9, 2016.
    Congressional Award Foundation: Review of the Audit of the 
Financial Statements for Fiscal Year 2015. GAO-16-754R. August 
12, 2016.
    Digital Service Programs: Assessing Results and 
Coordinating with Chief Information Officers Can Improve 
Delivery of Federal Projects. GAO-16-602. August 15, 2016.
    Information Security: OPM Needs to Improve Controls over 
Selected High-Impact Systems (Limited Official Use Only). GAO-
16-687SU. August 15, 2016.
    Information Technology Reform: Agencies Need to Increase 
Their Use of Incremental Development Practices. GAO-16-469. 
August 16, 2016.
    DOD Financial Management: Improvements Needed in the Navy's 
Audit Readiness Efforts for Fund Balance with Treasury. GAO-16-
47. August 19, 2016.
    Information Security: NRC Needs to Improve Controls over 
Selected High-Impact Systems (Limited Official Use Only). GAO-
16-689SU. August 22, 2016.
    Performance.gov: Long-Term Strategy Needed to Improve 
Usability of Website. GAO-16-693. August 30, 2016.
    Federal Real Property: Public-Private Partnerships Have a 
Limited Role in Disposal and Management of Unneeded Property. 
GAO-16-776R. August 30, 2016.
    Earthquakes: Additional Actions Needed to Identify and 
Mitigate Risks to Federal Buildings and Implement an Early 
Warning System. GAO-16-680. August 31, 2016.
    Regulatory Guidance Processes: Treasury and OMB Need to 
Reevaluate Long-Standing Exemptions of Tax Regulations and 
Guidance. GAO-16-720. September 6, 2016.
    U.S. Postal Service: Information on How Broadband Affects 
Postal Use and the Communications Options for Rural Residents. 
GAO-16-811. September 12, 2016.
    Immigrant Investor Program: USCIS Has Made Progress to 
Detect and Prevent Fraud but Additional Actions Could Further 
Agency Efforts. GAO-16-828. September 13, 2016.
    U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Review of the Pay 
Assignment Continuity Plan. GAO-16-825R. September 14, 2016.
    Federal Air Marshal Service: Additional Actions Needed to 
Ensure Air Marshals' Readiness. GAO-16-764. September 14, 2016.
    Fire Grants: FEMA Could Enhance Program Administration and 
Performance Assessment. GAO-16-744. September 15, 2016.
    Tiered Evidence Grants: Opportunities Exist to Share 
Lessons from Early Implementation and Inform Future Federal 
Efforts. GAO-16-818. September 21, 2016.
    Information Security: NASA Needs to Improve Controls over 
Selected High-Impact Systems (Limited Official Use Only). GAO-
16-688SU. September 23, 2016.
    Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve Their 
Application Inventories to Achieve Savings. GAO-16-511. 
September 29, 2016.
    Federal Workforce: Lessons Learned for Engaging Millennials 
and Other Age Groups. GAO-16-880T. September 29, 2016.
    Office of Personnel Management: Actions Are Needed to Help 
Ensure the Accuracy of Political Conversion Data and Adherence 
to Policy. GAO-16-859. September 30, 2016.
    Information Security: VA Needs to Improve Controls over 
Selected High-Impact Systems (Limited Official Use Only). GAO-
16-691SU. August 30, 2016.
    Open Innovation: Practices to Engage Citizens and 
Effectively Implement Federal Initiatives. GAO-17-14. October 
13, 2016.
    Improper Payments: Strategy and Additional Actions Needed 
to Help Ensure Agencies Use the Do Not Pay Working System As 
Intended. GAO-17-15. October 14, 2016.
    U.S. Customs and Border Protection Contracting for 
Transportation and Guard Services for Detainees. GAO-17-89R. 
October 17, 2016.
    Homeland Security Acquisitions: Joint Requirements 
Council's Initial Approach is Generally Sound and it is 
Developing a Process to Inform Investment Priorities. GAO-17-
171. October 24, 2016.
    Federal Procurement: Smarter Buying Initiatives Can Achieve 
Additional Savings, but Improved Oversight and Accountability 
Needed. GAO-17-164. October 26, 2016.
    Independent Auditor's Report on Applying Agreed-Upon 
Procedures: Fiscal Year 2016 Excise Tax Distributions to the 
Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. GAO-
17-157R. November 9, 2016.
    Financial Audit: IRS's FY 2016 and 2015 Financial 
Statements. GAO-17-140. November 10, 2016.
    Financial Audit: Bureau of the Fiscal Service's Fiscal 
Years 2016 and 2015 Schedules of Federal Debt. GAO-17-104. 
November 10, 2016.
    Financial Audit: Troubled Asset Relief Program's Fiscal 
Years 2016 and 2015 Financial Statements. GAO-17-125R. November 
10, 2016.
    Financial Audit: Securities and Exchange Commission's 
Fiscal Years 2016 and 2015 Financial Statements. GAO-17-158R. 
November 15, 2016.
    Student Loans: Oversight of Servicemembers' Interest Rate 
Cap Could Be Strengthened. GAO-17-4. November 15, 2016.
    Medicaid Personal Care Services: CMS Could Do More to 
Harmonize Requirements Across Programs. GAO-17-28. November 23, 
2016.
    Renewable Fuel Standard: Low Expected Production Volumes 
Make it Unlikely That Advanced Biofuels Can Meet Increasing 
Targets. GAO-17-108. November 28, 2016.
    Whistleblower Protection: Actions Needed to Improve 
Recording and Reporting of Whistleblower Appeals Data. GAO-17-
110. November 28, 2016.
    Renewable Fuel Standard: Program Unlikely to Meet Its 
Targets for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. GAO-17-94. 
November 28, 2016.
    IT Workforce: Key Practices Help Ensure Strong Integrated 
Program Teams; Selected Departments Need to Assess Skill Gaps. 
GAO-17-8. November 30, 2016.
    Renewable Fuel Standard: Program Unlikely to Meet 
Production or Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets. GAO-17-264T. 
December 1, 2016.
    Combating Terrorism: Additional Steps Needed in U.S. 
Efforts to Counter ISIS Messaging. GAO-17-41C. December 8, 
2016.
    Federal Building Management: Building Disposal Authorities 
Provide Varying Degrees of Flexibility and Opportunities for 
Use. GAO-17-123. December 8, 2016.
    Data Act: OMB and Treasury Have Issued Additional Policy 
and Technical Guidance, but Challenges to Effective and Timely 
Implementation Remain. GAO-17-156. December 8, 2016.
    Data Act: Implementation Progresses but Challenges Remain. 
GAO-17-282T. December 8, 2016.
    Permanent Funding Authorities: Some Selected Entities 
Should Review Financial Management, Oversight, and Transparency 
Policies. GAO-17-59. December 9, 2016.

                      VI. OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS

    During the 114th Congress, 960 official communications were 
referred to the Committee. Of these, 948 were Executive 
Communications, and 10 were Petitions or Memorials. Of the 
official communications, 355 dealt with the District of 
Columbia.

                        VII. LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

    During the 114th Congress, the Committee reported 
significant legislation that was approved by Congress and 
signed into law by the President.
    The following are brief legislative histories of measures 
to the Committee and, in some cases, drafted by the Committee, 
which became public law. In addition to the measures listed 
below, the Committee received during the 114th Congress 
numerous legislative proposals that were 1) favorably reported 
from the Committee and passed by the Senate, but did not become 
law, 2) not considered or reported, or 3) reported but not 
passed by the Senate. Additional information on these measures 
appears in the Committee's Legislative Calendar for the 114th 
Congress.

                      A. MEASURES ENACTED INTO LAW

    The following measures considered by the Committee were 
enacted into Public Law. The descriptions following the signing 
date of each measure note selected provisions of the text, and 
are not intended to serve as section-by-section summaries.
    H.R. 313.--Wounded Warriors Federal Leave Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-75). November 5, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Entitles any federal employee who is a veteran 
with a service-connected disability rated at 30% or more, 
during the 12-month period beginning on the first day of 
employment, to up to 104 hours of leave, without loss or 
reduction in pay, for purposes of undergoing medical treatment 
for such disability for which sick leave could regularly be 
used. Requires the forfeiture of any such leave that is not 
used during such 12-month period.
    Requires such employee to submit to the head of the 
employing agency certification that such employee used such 
leave for purposes of being furnished treatment for such 
disability by a health care provider.
    H.R. 615.--Department of Homeland Security Interoperable 
Communications. (Public Law 114-29). July 6, 2015.
    (Sec. 3) Amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to make 
the Under Secretary for Management of the Department of 
Homeland Security (DHS) responsible for policies and directives 
to achieve and maintain interoperable communications among DHS 
components. (Sec. 4) Requires the Under Secretary to submit to 
the House and Senate homeland security committees a strategy 
for achieving and maintaining such communications, including 
for daily operations, planned events, and emergencies, that 
includes:

     Lan assessment of interoperability gaps in radio 
communications among the DHS components;
     Linformation on DHS efforts and activities, since 
November 1, 2012, and planned, to achieve and maintain 
interoperable communications;
     Lan assessment of obstacles and challenges to 
achieving and maintaining interoperable communications;
     Linformation on, and an assessment of, the 
adequacy of mechanisms available to the Under Secretary to 
enforce and compel compliance with interoperable communications 
policies and directives of DHS;
     Lguidance provided to DHS components to implement 
such policies and directives;
     Lthe total amount of DHS expenditures since 
November 1, 2012, and projected future expenditures to achieve 
interoperable communications; and
     Ldates upon which DHS-wide interoperability is 
projected to be achieved for voice, data, and video 
communications, respectively, and interim milestones.

    Directs the Under Secretary to submit with such strategy 
information on: (1) any intra-agency effort or task force that 
has been delegated responsibilities relating to achieving and 
maintaining interoperable communications by such dates; and (2) 
who, within each component, is responsible for implementing 
policies and directives issued by the Under Secretary to 
achieve and maintain interoperable communications.
    (Sec. 5) Directs the Under Secretary, within 100 days after 
the strategy is submitted and every 2 years thereafter for 6 
years, to submit reports on the status of efforts to implement 
such strategy, including: (1) progress on interim milestones; 
(2) information on establishment by the Under Secretary of, and 
compliance of DHS components with, policies, directives, 
guidance, and training to achieve and maintain interoperable 
communications; and (3) information on any additional resources 
or authorities needed by the Under Secretary.
    H.R. 623.--DHS Social Media Improvement Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-80). November 5, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to direct 
the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish within the 
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) a social media working 
group (the Group) to identify, and provide guidance and best 
practices to the emergency preparedness and response community 
on, the use of social media technologies before, during, and 
after a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other man-
made disaster.Requires the Group to submit an annual report 
that includes:

     La review and analysis of social media 
technologies used to support preparedness and response 
activities;
     La review of best practices and lessons learned;
     Lrecommendations to improve DHS's use of social 
media technologies for emergency management purposes, 
recommendations to improve public awareness of the type of 
information disseminated through such technologies, and 
recommendations on how to access such information during a 
disaster;
     La review of available training for government 
officials on the use of social media technologies in response 
to a disaster; and
     La review of coordination efforts with the private 
sector to discuss and resolve legal, operational, technical, 
privacy, and security concerns.

    Terminates the Group five years after the enactment of this 
Act unless the chairperson renews it for a successive five-year 
period by submitting a certification that the continued 
existence of the Group is necessary. Provides for successive 
five-year renewal periods.
    H.R. 710.--Essential Transportation Worker Identification 
Credential Assessment Act. (Public Law 114-278). December 16, 
2016.
    (Sec. 1) This bill directs the Transportation Security 
Administration (TSA) to commence actions to improve its process 
for vetting individuals with access to secure areas of vessels 
and maritime facilities. These actions shall include:

     Lconducting a comprehensive risk analysis of 
security threat assessment procedures, including identifying 
procedures that need additional internal controls as well as 
best practices for quality assurance at every stage of the 
assessment;
     Limplementing such internal controls and best 
practices;
     Limproving fraud detection techniques;
     Lupdating the guidance provided to Trusted Agents 
(Credentialing Office) regarding the vetting process and 
related regulations;
     Lfinalizing a manual for such agents and 
adjudicators on the vetting process; and
     Lestablishing quality controls to ensure 
consistent procedures to review adjudication decisions and 
terrorism vetting decisions.

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) shall commission 
a national laboratory, a university-based center within the 
Science and Technology Directorate's centers of excellence 
network, or a qualified federally-funded research and 
development center to conduct an assessment of the 
effectiveness of the Transportation Worker Identification 
Credential (TWIC) Program at enhancing security and reducing 
security risks for maritime facilities and vessels that pose a 
high risk of being involved in a transportation security 
incident. The assessment shall review:

     Lthe credentialing process,
     Lthe process for renewing TWIC applications, and
     Lthe security value of the TWIC program.

    If the assessment identifies a deficiency in effectiveness 
of the TWIC Program, DHS shall submit to Congress a corrective 
action plan that:

     Lresponds to assessment findings and includes an 
implementation plan with benchmarks, and
     Lshall be considered in any DHS rulemaking with 
respect to the TWIC Program.

    The DHS Inspector General must review and report on the 
corrective action plan.
    H.R. 1531.--Land Management Workforce Flexibility Act. 
(Public Law 114-47). August 28, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Makes an employee of specified land management 
agencies in the Department of the Interior serving under a 
time-limited, including a temporary, appointment in the 
competitive service eligible to compete for a permanent 
appointment in any land management agency or any other agency 
if: (1) the original appointment was competitive, (2) the 
employee has served under one or more time-limited appointments 
totaling more than 24 months without a break of two or more 
years, and (3) the employee's performance has been at an 
acceptable level.
    Requires the Office of Personnel Management or other 
examining agency, in determining the eligibility of a time-
limited employee to be examined for or appointed in the 
competitive service, to waive requirements as to age, unless 
the requirement is essential to the performance of the duties 
of the position.Provides that an individual appointed under the 
provisions of this Act becomes a career-conditional employee 
and acquires competitive status upon appointment.
    Deems a former employee of a land management agency who 
served under a time-limited appointment and who otherwise meets 
applicable requirements to be a time-limited employee for 
purposes of this Act if: (1) such employee applies for a 
position covered by this Act within two years after the most 
recent date of separation, and (2) such employee's most recent 
separation was for reasons other than misconduct or 
performance.
    H.R. 1626.--DHS IT Duplication Reduction Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-43). August 6, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Directs the Chief Information Officer of the 
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to report on:

     Lthe number of information technology systems at 
DHS;
     Lthe number of such systems exhibiting duplication 
or fragmentation (i.e., where there are two or more systems or 
programs that deliver similar functionality to similar user 
populations);
     La strategy for reducing such duplicative systems, 
including an assessment of potential cost savings; and
     La methodology for determining which system should 
be eliminated when there is duplication or fragmentation.

    H.R. 3116.--Quarterly Financial Report Reauthorization Act. 
(Public Law 114-72). October 22, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) This bill extends the authority of the Department 
of Commerce to conduct the quarterly financial report program 
through September 30, 2030, under which Commerce collects and 
publishes quarterly financial statistics of business 
operations, organization, practices, management, and relation 
to other businesses, including data on sales, expenses, assets, 
liabilities, and other measures of financial condition.
    (Sec. 3) Commerce must conduct and report to specified 
congressional committees on a review of the data security 
procedures of the Bureau of the Census. Such report shall:

     Lidentify all Bureau information systems that 
contain sensitive information;
     Ldescribe any actions carried out by Commerce or 
the Bureau to secure sensitive information since the data 
breaches of Office of Personnel Management systems were 
announced in 2015;
     Lidentify any known data breaches of Bureau 
information systems that contain sensitive information; and
     Lidentify whether the Bureau stores any 
information that, if combined with other information, would 
comprise classified information.

    H.R. 4902.--To amend title 5, United States Code, to expand 
law enforcement availability pay to employees of U.S. Customs 
and Border Protection's Air and Marine Operations. (Public Law 
114-250). December 8, 2016.
    This bill applies provisions governing availability pay for 
criminal investigators to any employee of the U.S. Customs and 
Border Protection's Air and Marine Operations who is a law 
enforcement officer.
    H.R. 4904.--Making Electronic Government Accountable By 
Yielding Tangible Efficiencies Act of 2016. (Public Law 114-
210). July 29, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill requires the Office of Management and 
Budget (OMB) to issue a directive to require the Chief 
Information Officer (CIO) of each executive agency to develop a 
comprehensive software licensing policy, which shall: (1) 
require the CIO of each agency to establish a comprehensive 
inventory of software licenses; (2) track and maintain such 
licenses; (3) analyze software usage to make cost-effective 
decisions; (4) provide software license management training; 
(5) establish goals and objectives of the agency's software 
license management program; and (6) consider the software 
license management life cycle phases to implement effective 
decision making and incorporate existing standards, processes, 
and metrics.
    The CIO of each executive agency must report to the OMB, 
beginning in the first fiscal year after this Act's enactment 
and in each of the following five fiscal years, on the savings 
from improved software license management.
    S. 136.--Gold Star Fathers Act of 2015. (Public Law 114-
62). October 7, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Includes as a preference eligible for federal 
employment purposes a parent (currently, the mother only) of 
either an individual who lost his or her life under honorable 
conditions while serving in the Armed Forces during a war, in a 
campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been 
authorized, or during the period beginning April 28, 1952, and 
ending July 1, 1955, or a service-connected permanently and 
totally disabled veteran, if: (1) the spouse of such parent is 
totally and permanently disabled; or (2) such parent, when 
preference is claimed, is unmarried or legally separated from 
his or her spouse.
    S. 546.--RESPONSE Act of 2016. (Public Law 114-321). 
December 16, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 
to direct the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to 
establish the Railroad Emergency Services Preparedness, 
Operational Needs, and Safety Evaluation (RESPONSE) 
Subcommittee of the National Advisory Council.
    The RESPONSE Subcommittee shall develop recommendations for 
improving emergency responder training and resource allocation 
for hazardous materials (hazmat) incidents involving railroads 
after evaluating the following topics:

     Lthe quality and application of training for state 
and local emergency responders related to rail hazmat 
incidents, including training for emergency responders serving 
small communities near railroads;
     Lthe availability and effectiveness of federal, 
state, local, and nongovernmental funding levels related to 
training emergency responders for rail hazmat incidents, 
including emergency responders serving small communities near 
railroads; and
     Lthe strategy for integrating commodity flow 
studies, mapping, and rail and hazmat databases for state and 
local emergency responders and increasing the rate of access to 
the individual responder in existing or emerging communications 
technology.

    The RESPONSE Subcommittee shall terminate within 90 days 
after the council submits a report approving the RESPONSE 
Subcommittee recommendations.
    S. 565.--Federal Vehicle Repair Cost Savings Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-65). October 7, 2015.
    (Sec. 3) Defines ``remanufactured vehicle component'' as a 
vehicle component (including an engine, transmission, 
alternator, starter, turbocharger, steering, or suspension 
component) that has been returned to same-as-new, or better, 
condition and performance by a standardized industrial process 
that incorporates technical specifications (including 
engineering, quality, and testing standards) to yield fully 
warranted products.
    (Sec. 4) Directs the head of each federal agency to: (1) 
encourage the use of remanufactured vehicle components to 
maintain federal vehicles if using such components reduces the 
cost of maintaining such vehicles while maintaining quality; 
and (2) not encourage the use of remanufactured vehicle 
components if using such components does not reduce the cost of 
maintenance, lowers the quality of vehicle performance, or 
delays the return to service of a vehicle.
    S. 614.--Federal Improper Payments Coordination Act of 
2015. (Public Law 114-109). December 18, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Amends the Improper Payments Elimination and 
Recovery Improvement Act of 2012 to extend the availability of 
the Do Not Pay Initiative to states, any contractor, 
subcontractor, or agent of a state, and the judicial and 
legislative branches of the United States. Authorizes the 
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to issue guidance for 
establishing privacy and other requirements for incorporation 
into Do Not Pay Initiative access agreements with states and 
judicial and legislative branches.
    (Sec. 3) Modifies such Act to require each federal agency 
to review the death records maintained by the Social Security 
Administration (SSA) (currently, the Death Master File of SSA).
    Directs the Departments of Defense and State to establish a 
procedure for submitting information on the deaths of 
individuals to federal agencies promptly and on a regular 
basis.
    Requires the OMB and the heads of other relevant 
governmental entities to issue guidance on the implementation 
of the Do Not Pay Initiative to the Department of the Treasury 
and each agency and component of an agency: (1) that operates 
or maintains a database of information; or (2) for which the 
OMB determines improved data matching would be relevant, 
necessary, or beneficial.
    (Sec. 4) Directs Treasury to submit a report to Congress 
that describes: (1) data analytics performed as part of the Do 
Not Pay Business Center operated by Treasury, (2) metrics used 
in determining whether analytic and investigatory efforts have 
reduced improper payments or awards, and (3) the target dates 
for implementing the data analytics operations.
    S. 795.--A bill to enhance whistleblower protection for 
contractor and grantee employees. (Public Law 114-261). 
December 14, 2016.
    (Sec. 1) This bill extends federal contractor whistle-
blower protections to employees of: (1) personal services 
contractors working on defense contracts (currently, the 
protections apply to employees of defense contractors, 
subcontractors, grantees, or subgrantees); and (2) personal 
services contractors or subgrantees working on federal civilian 
contracts (currently, the protections apply to employees of 
civilian contractors, subcontractors, or grantees). The 
civilian contractor protections, which are currently in effect 
as a pilot program, are made permanent.
    The bill extends the prohibition against reimbursement of 
legal fees incurred in defending against reprisal claims 
brought by whistle-blowers to defense and civilian 
subcontractors and personal services contractors.
    S. 1090.--Emergency Information Improvement Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-111). December 18, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) Amends the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and 
Emergency Assistance Act to include broadcasting facilities 
within the definition of a ``private nonprofit facility'' that 
provides essential services of a governmental nature to the 
general public, and to include broadcast and telecommunications 
within the definition of ``critical services'' provided by such 
a facility, for purposes of eligibility for certain disaster 
assistance.
    S. 1115.--GONE Act. (Public Law 114-117). January 28, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill requires the Office of Management and 
Budget to instruct each agency, in coordination with the 
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), to submit to 
Congress and HHS by December 31 of the first calendar year 
beginning after this Act's enactment a report that:

     Llists each federal grant award held by such 
agency;
     Lprovides the total number of federal grant 
awards, including the number of grants by time period of 
expiration, the number with zero dollar balances, and the 
number with undisbursed balances;
     Ldescribes the challenges leading to delays in 
grant closeout; and
     Lexplains, for the 30 oldest federal grant awards, 
why each has not been closed out.

    If an agency head is unable to submit all of such 
information, the report shall include an explanation of why the 
information was not available, including any shortcomings with 
and plans to improve existing grant systems, including data 
systems.
    Each agency, within one year after submitting such report, 
shall provide notice to HHS specifying: (1) whether it has 
closed out all of the federal grant awards in the report, and 
(2) which awards have not been closed out. HHS, within 90 days 
after all of such notices have been provided or by March 31 of 
the calendar year following the first calendar year beginning 
after this Act's enactment, whichever is sooner, shall compile, 
and report to Congress on, such notices.
    The Inspector General of an agency with more than $500 
million in annual grant funding, within one year after such 
agency has provided the notice to Congress, shall conduct a 
risk assessment to determine if an audit or review of the 
agency's grant closeout process is warranted.
    The OMB, within six months after the second such report on 
notices is submitted, shall report to Congress on 
recommendations for legislation to improve accountability and 
oversight in grants management, including the timely closeout 
of a federal grant award.
    The bill defines ``federal grant award'' as a grant, 
including a cooperative agreement, in an agency cash payment 
management system held by the U.S. government for which: (1) 
the grant award period of performance has been expired for more 
than two years, and (2) closeout has not yet occurred.
    S. 1170.--Breast Cancer Research Stamp Reauthorization Act 
of 2015. (Public Law 114-99). December 11, 2015.
    (Sec. 2) This bill reauthorizes through December 31, 2019, 
provisions requiring the U.S. Postal Service to issue a special 
postage stamp for first-class mail that costs more than the 
regular first-class stamp to raise funds for breast cancer 
research.
    (Sec. 3) Agencies receiving these funds from the Postal 
Service must use them on breast cancer research.
    S. 1172.--Edward ``Ted'' Kaufman and Michael Leavitt 
Presidential Transitions Improvements Act of 2015. (Public Law 
114-136). March 18, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill amends the Presidential Transition Act 
of 1963 to direct the President to plan and coordinate 
activities to facilitate an efficient transfer of power to a 
successor President, including by: (1) not later than six 
months before a presidential election, establishing and 
operating a White House transition coordinating council; and 
(2) establishing and operating an agency transition directors 
council.
    The General Services Administration (GSA) must designate a 
senior career appointee to: (1) carry out the duties and 
authorities of GSA relating to presidential transitions, (2) 
serve as the Federal Transition Coordinator to coordinate 
transition planning across agencies; (3) ensure that agencies 
comply with all statutory requirements relating to transition 
planning and reporting, and (4) act as a liaison to eligible 
candidates.
    Each executive agency shall designate a senior career 
employee to oversee transition activities. The Federal 
Transition Coordinator shall: (1) negotiate a memorandum of 
understanding with the transition representative of each 
eligible candidate on the conditions of access to employees, 
facilities, and documents of agencies by transition staff; and 
(2) submit reports to specified congressional committees on the 
activities undertaken by the current administration and 
executive agencies to prepare for the transfer of power to a 
new President.
    (Sec. 3) This section requires the President's annual 
budget request to Congress to include funding for the 
management and custody of presidential records by the National 
Archives and Records Administration for each fiscal year in 
which the term of office of the President will expire.
    (Sec. 4) This section directs the Office of Personnel 
Management to submit to specified congressional committees 
annual reports on requests by agencies to appoint political 
appointees or former political appointees to nonpolitical civil 
service positions. These reports shall be submitted quarterly 
in the last year of a presidential term or in the last year of 
the second consecutive term of a President.
    (Sec. 5) This section directs the Government Accountability 
Office to report to specified congressional committees on final 
significant regulatory actions promulgated during the last 120-
day period of presidential administrations ending in 2001, 
2009, and 2017. A significant regulatory action means any 
regulatory action that is likely to result in a rule that may: 
(1) have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or 
more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, the 
environment, productivity, competition, jobs, public health or 
safety, or state, local, or tribal governments or communities; 
(2) create a serious inconsistency or otherwise interfere with 
an agency action; (3) materially alter the budgetary impact of 
entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan programs, or (4) raise 
novel legal or policy issues.
    (Sec. 6) This section directs the Department of Homeland 
Security to submit, not later than February 15, 2016, a report 
to specified congressional committees analyzing the threats and 
vulnerabilities facing the United States during a presidential 
transition.
    S. 1180.--Integrated Public Alert and Warning System 
Modernization Act of 2015. (Public Law 114-143). April 11, 
2016.
    (Sec. 2) Amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to direct 
the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to: (1) 
modernize the integrated U.S. public alert and warning system 
to help ensure that under all conditions the President, federal 
agencies, and state, tribal, and local governments can alert 
and warn the civilian population in areas endangered by natural 
disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters or 
threats to public safety; and (2) implement such system to 
disseminate timely and effective warnings.
    Directs FEMA to: (1) establish common alerting and warning 
protocols, standards, terminology, and operating procedures for 
the system; (2) include in such system the capability to adapt 
the distribution and content of communications on the basis of 
geographic location, risks, and multiple communication 
technologies and to alert, warn, and provide equivalent 
information to individuals with disabilities, access and 
functional needs, or limited English proficiency; (3) ensure 
that specified training, tests, and exercises for such system 
are conducted and that the system is resilient, secure, and can 
withstand external attacks; and (4) conduct public education 
efforts and a general market awareness campaign about the 
system.
    Requires the system to: (1) be designed to adapt to and 
incorporate future technologies for communicating directly with 
the public, provide alerts to the largest portion of the 
affected population feasible, and improve the ability of remote 
areas to receive alerts; (2) promote local and regional public 
and private partnerships to enhance community preparedness and 
response; (3) provide redundant alert mechanisms; and (4) 
protect individual privacy.
    Requires FEMA to make available on its public website and 
submit to Congress an annual report of the performance of the 
system.
    Directs FEMA to establish the Integrated Public Alert and 
Warning System Subcommittee to develop and submit 
recommendations for an integrated public alert and warning 
system to the National Advisory Council, which shall report the 
recommendations it approves to agencies represented on the 
Subcommittee and to specified congressional committees. 
Terminates the Subcommittee not later than three years after 
this Act's enactment.
    Authorizes appropriations to carry out this Act for FY2016-
FY2018.
    S. 1492.--A bill to direct the Administrator of General 
Services, on behalf of the Archivist of the United States, to 
convey certain Federal property located in the State of Alaska 
to the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. (Public Law 114-161). 
May 20, 2016.
    This bill directs the General Services Administration, on 
behalf of the Archivist of the United States, to offer to 
convey to the city of Anchorage, Alaska, for not less than fair 
market value, a parcel of U.S. property in such city consisting 
of approximately nine acres and improvements located at 400 
East Fortieth Avenue that is administered by the National 
Archives and Records Administration.
    The city shall be responsible for paying the costs of a 
survey, an appraisal, and any other costs relating to the 
conveyance of the federal property.
    Any net proceeds received by the Archivist as a result of 
the conveyance shall be deposited in the Treasury and used for 
deficit reduction.
    S. 1550.--Program Management Improvement Accountability 
Act. (Public Law 114-264). December 14, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill establishes as additional functions of 
the Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management 
and Budget (OMB) requirements to:

     Ladopt and oversee implementation of government-
wide standards, policies, and guidelines for program and 
project management for executive agencies;
     Lchair the Program Management Policy Council 
(established by this Act);
     Lestablish standards and policies for executive 
agencies consistent with widely accepted standards for program 
and project management planning and delivery;
     Lengage with the private sector to identify best 
practices in program and project management that would improve 
federal program and project management;
     Lconduct portfolio reviews to address programs 
identified as high risk by the Government Accountability Office 
(GAO);
     Lconduct portfolio reviews of agency programs at 
least annually to assess the quality and effectiveness of 
program management; and
     Lestablish a five-year strategic plan for program 
and project management.

    The bill exempts the Department of Defense (DOD) from such 
provisions to the extent that they are substantially similar 
to: (1) federal provisions governing the defense acquisition 
workforce; or (2) policy, guidance, or instruction of DOD 
related to program management.
    The head of each federal agency that is required to have a 
Chief Financial Officer shall designate a Program Management 
Improvement Officer to implement agency program management 
policies and develop a strategy for enhancing the role of 
program managers within the agency. The OMB must submit a 
report containing such strategy within one year after enactment 
of this bill. The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, 
Technology, and Logistics shall be considered the Program 
Management Improvement Officer for DOD.
    The Program Management Policy Council is established within 
OMB to act as the principal interagency forum for improving 
agency practices related to program and project management. The 
Office of Personnel Management must issue regulations that: (1) 
identify key skills and competencies needed for an agency 
program and project manager, (2) establish a new job series or 
update and improve an existing job series for program and 
project management within an agency, and (3) establish a new 
career path for program and project managers.
    The GAO must issue a report within three years of 
enactment, in conjunction with its high risk list, examining 
the effectiveness of the following (as required or established 
under this Act) on improving federal program and project 
management:

     Lthe standards, policies, and guidelines for 
program and project management;
     Lthe strategic plan;
     LProgram Management Improvement Officers; and
     Lthe Program Management Policy Council.

    S. 1580.--Competitive Service Act of 2015. (Public Law 114-
137). March 18, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill authorizes an appointing authority 
(i.e., a federal agency appointing an individual to a position 
in the competitive service), other than the appointing 
authority that requested a certificate of eligibles for filling 
a position, to select an individual from that certificate for 
appointment to a position that is: (1) in the same occupational 
series as the position for which the certificate of eligibles 
was issued, and (2) at a similar grade level as the original 
position. The appointing authority must select an individual 
from the certificate of eligibles within 240 days after the 
issuance of the certificate. The bill sets forth further 
requirements relating to the sharing of certificates by 
agencies, notice to agency employees of available positions, 
and alternative ranking and selection procedures for job 
applicants.
    S. 1629.--District of Columbia Courts, Public Defender 
Service, and Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency Act 
of 2015. (Public Law 114-118). January 28, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) Amends the District of Columbia Code to authorize 
the Executive Officer of the District of Columbia courts to:

     Lcollect debts owed to the District of Columbia 
courts because of erroneous payments made to current and former 
court employees, or any other debt; and
     Lpurchase uniforms to be worn by certain 
nonjudicial employees of the District courts, so long as the 
cost of furnishing a uniform during a year does not exceed the 
amount applicable to the uniform allowance for federal 
employees.

    (Sec. 3) Amends the National Capital Revitalization and 
Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 to authorize the 
Director of the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency 
to develop and operate intermediate incentive programs for 
sentenced offenders.
    Makes permanent the Director's authority to accept, 
solicit, and use on behalf of the Agency: (1) any monetary or 
nonmonetary gift, donation, bequest, or use of facilities, 
property, or services to aid or facilitate the work of the 
Agency; and (2) reimbursements from the District government for 
space and services provided, on a cost reimbursable basis.
    (Sec. 4) Amends the District of Columbia Court Reform and 
Criminal Procedure Act of 1970 to:

     Lauthorize the Public Defender Service, upon 
approval of the Board of Trustees, to accept (as currently 
allowed) and use public grants, private contributions, and 
voluntary and uncompensated (gratuitous) services to assist it; 
and
     Ldeem members of the Board of Trustees, as of 
October 21, 1998, to be employees of the Service instead of 
District employees for purposes of any action brought against 
them.

    S. 1638.--Department of Homeland Security Headquarters 
Consolidation Accountability Act of 2015. (Public Law 114-150). 
April 29, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill directs the Department of Homeland 
Security (DHS), in coordination with the General Services 
Administration (GSA), to submit information on the 
implementation of the enhanced plan for the DHS headquarters 
consolidation project within the National Capital Region, 
approved by the Office of Management and Budget and included in 
the budget of the President for FY2016, that includes:

     La proposed occupancy plan that includes specific 
information about which DHS-wide operations, component 
operations, and support offices will be located at the site, 
the aggregate number of full time equivalent employees 
projected to occupy the site, the seat-to-staff ratio at the 
site, and schedule estimates for migrating operations to the 
site;
     La comprehensive assessment of the difference 
between the current real property and facilities needed by DHS 
in the Region to carry out its mission and its future needs;
     Lan analysis of the difference between the current 
and needed capital assets and facilities of DHS;
     La current plan for construction of the 
headquarters consolidation at the St. Elizabeths campus that 
includes the estimated costs and schedule for the current plan 
and any estimated cost savings associated with reducing the 
scope of the project and increasing the use of existing 
capacity developed under the project;
     La current plan for the leased portfolio of DHS in 
the Region that includes an end-state vision that identifies 
which DHS-wide operations, component operations, and support 
offices do not migrate to the St. Elizabeths campus and 
continue to operate at a property in the leased portfolio, the 
number of full-time equivalent employees who are expected to 
operate at each property, component, or office for each year 
until the consolidation project is completed, the anticipated 
total rentable square feet leased per year between the date of 
this Act's enactment and the date on which the consolidation 
project is completed, and the timing and anticipated lease 
terms for leased space; and
     Lan analysis that identifies the costs and 
benefits of leasing and construction alternatives for the 
remainder of the consolidation project, including a comparison 
of the long-term cost that would result from leasing to the 
cost of consolidating functions on government-owned space and 
the identification of any cost impacts in terms of premiums for 
short-term lease extensions or holdovers due to the uncertainty 
of funding for, or delays in, completing construction required 
for the consolidation.

    The bill directs the Government Accountability Office to 
evaluate the quality and reliability of the cost and schedule 
estimates submitted and report on the results.
    S. 1808.--Northern Border Security Review Act. (Public Law 
114-267). December 14, 2016.
    (Sec. 3) This bill directs the Secretary of Homeland 
Security to submit to specified congressional committees a 
northern border threat analysis, which shall include analyses 
of:

     Lterrorism and criminal threats posed by 
individuals and organized groups seeking to enter the United 
States through the northern border or to exploit border 
vulnerabilities on such border;
     Limprovements needed at and between ports of entry 
along the northern border to prevent terrorists and instruments 
of terrorism from entering the United States and to reduce 
criminal activity, as measured by the total flow of illegal 
goods, illicit drugs, and smuggled and trafficked persons moved 
in either direction across such border;
     Lgaps in law, policy, cooperation between state, 
tribal, and local law enforcement, international agreements, or 
tribal agreements that hinder border security, 
counterterrorism, anti-human smuggling and trafficking efforts, 
and the flow of legitimate trade along the northern border; and
     Lwhether additional U.S. Customs and Border 
Protection preclearance and preinspection operations at ports 
of entry along the northern border could help prevent 
terrorists and instruments of terror from entering the United 
States.

    The Secretary, for such analysis, must consider and 
examine:

     Ltechnology needs and challenges;
     Lpersonnel needs and challenges;
     Lthe role of state, tribal, and local law 
enforcement in general border security activities;
     Lthe need for cooperation among federal, state, 
tribal, local, and Canadian law enforcement entities relating 
to border security;
     Lthe terrain, population density, and climate 
along the northern border; and
     Lthe needs and challenges of Department of 
Homeland Security facilities, including the physical approaches 
to such facilities.

    S. 1915.--First Responder Anthrax Preparedness Act. (Public 
Law 114-268). December 14, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill requires the Department of Homeland 
Security (DHS), in coordination with the Department of Health 
and Human Services (HHS), to carry out a pilot program to 
provide eligible anthrax vaccines nearing the end of their 
labeled dates of use from the strategic national stockpile to 
emergency response providers who would be at high risk of 
exposure to anthrax if an attack should occur and who 
voluntarily consent.
    HHS shall determine whether an anthrax vaccine is eligible 
to be provided to DHS for the program based on determinations 
that: (1) the vaccine is not otherwise allotted for other 
purposes; and (2) the provision of the vaccine will not reduce 
or otherwise adversely affect the capability to meet projected 
requirements for such product during a public health 
emergency.DHS shall establish a communication platform, develop 
and deliver education and training, conduct an economic 
analysis, create a logistical platform, establish goals and 
desired outcomes for the program, and establish a mechanism to 
reimburse HHS for the costs of shipment and transportation of 
such vaccines provided to DHS under such program and the amount 
by which the warehousing costs of the stockpile are increased 
in order to operate such program.
    DHS must: (1) select between two and five states for 
voluntary participation in the program; (2) provide guidance to 
participating states and local governments on identifying 
providers who are at high risk of exposure; and (3) require 
each participating state to submit a written certification that 
each participating emergency response provider is provided with 
disclosures and educational materials regarding the associated 
benefits and risks of any vaccine provided and of exposure to 
anthrax, additional material consistent with the Centers for 
Disease Control and Prevention's clinical guidance, and notice 
that the federal government is not obligated to continue 
providing anthrax vaccine after the program ends.
    Each state that participates in the program shall ensure 
that such participation is consistent with the state's All-
Hazards Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan.
    DHS shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with HHS 
to: (1) define each department's roles and responsibilities, 
and (2) establish appropriate performance metrics and policies 
for the program.
    DHS must submit annual reports on program progress and 
results, which shall include the costs to administer the 
program, the number and percentage of eligible providers that 
volunteer to participate, the degree to which participants 
complete the vaccine regimen, the total number of doses of 
vaccine administered, and recommendations to improve 
participation.
    The final report shall consider whether the program should 
continue beyond five years after enactment of this bill and 
shall include: (1) an analysis of the costs and benefits of 
continuing the program; (2) an explanation of the economic, 
health, and other risks and benefits of administering vaccines 
through the program rather than post-event treatment; and (3) a 
plan under which the program could be continued.
    S. 2109.--Directing Dollars to Disaster Relief Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-132). February 29, 2016.
    (Sec. 3) This bill directs the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency (FEMA) to:

     Ldevelop and implement an integrated plan to 
control and reduce administrative costs incurred by FEMA in 
support of the delivery of assistance for major disasters;
     Lcompare the costs and benefits of tracking the 
administrative cost data for major disasters by the public 
assistance, individual assistance, hazard mitigation, and 
mission assignment programs;
     Ltrack such information; and
     Lclarify FEMA guidance and minimum documentation 
requirements for a direct administrative cost claimed by a 
grantee or subgrantee of a public assistance grant program 
authorized by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and 
Emergency Assistance Act.

    (Sec. 4) FEMA must submit to Congress, by November 30 of 
each year for seven years beginning on the date of this Act's 
enactment, and make publicly available on its website, a report 
on the development and implementation of the plan for the 
previous fiscal year, with three-year and five-year updates. 
Each report shall contain:

     Lthe total amount spent on administrative costs 
and the average annual percentage of administrative costs for 
the fiscal year period for which the report is being submitted;
     Lan assessment of the effectiveness of the plan;
     Lan analysis of whether FEMA is achieving its 
strategic goals for the average annual percentage of 
administrative costs of major disasters for each fiscal year 
and, in the case of it not achieving such goals, what is 
preventing it from doing so;
     Lany actions FEMA has identified as useful in 
improving upon and reaching those goals; and
     Lany administrative cost data for major disasters, 
if FEMA determines it is feasible to track such data.

    S. 2133.--Fraud Reduction and Data Analytics Act of 2015. 
(Public Law 114-186). June 30, 2016.
    (Sec. 3) This bill requires the Office of Management and 
Budget (OMB) to establish guidelines for federal agencies to 
establish financial and administrative controls to identify and 
assess fraud risks and design and implement control activities 
in order to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud, including 
improper payments.
    The guidelines shall incorporate the leading practices 
identified in the report published by the Government 
Accountability Office on July 28, 2015, entitled ``Framework 
for Managing Fraud Risks in Federal Programs.''
    The financial and administrative controls shall include:

     Lconducting an evaluation of fraud risks and using 
a risk-based approach to design and implement financial and 
administrative control activities to mitigate identified fraud 
risks;
     Lcollecting and analyzing data from reporting 
mechanisms on detected fraud to monitor fraud trends and using 
that data and information to continuously improve fraud 
prevention controls; and
     Lusing the results of monitoring, evaluation, 
audits, and investigations to improve fraud prevention, 
detection, and response.

    Each agency shall submit as part of its annual financial 
report a report on its progress in:

     Limplementing such financial and administrative 
controls, the fraud risk principle in the Standards for 
Internal Control in the Federal Government, and OMB Circular A-
123 leading practices for managing fraud risk;
     Lidentifying risks and vulnerabilities to fraud; 
and
     Lestablishing steps to curb fraud.

    (Sec. 4) The OMB must establish a working group to: (1) 
improve the sharing of financial and administrative controls 
and other best practices and techniques for detecting, 
preventing, and responding to fraud, and the sharing and 
development of data analytics techniques; and (2) submit a plan 
for a federal interagency library of data analytics and data 
sets for use by agencies and Offices of Inspectors General to 
facilitate the detection, prevention, and recovery of fraud.
    S. 2971.--National Urban Search and Rescue Response System 
Act of 2016. (Public Law 114-326). December 16, 2016.
    (Sec. 2) This bill amends the Robert T. Stafford Disaster 
Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to direct the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to: (1) continue to 
administer the National Urban Search and Rescue Response 
System; (2) provide for a national network of standardized 
search and rescue resources to assist states and local 
governments in responding to hazards; (3) designate urban 
search and rescue teams to participate in the system, determine 
participation criteria, and enter into an agreement with the 
state or local government agency sponsoring each team with 
respect to such participation; and (4) maintain management and 
technical teams necessary to administer the system.
    FEMA may appoint a system member for a period of federal 
service to provide for the participation of such member in 
exercises, pre-incident staging, major disaster and emergency 
response activities, and training events sponsored or 
sanctioned by FEMA.
    FEMA shall enter into: (1) an annual preparedness 
cooperative agreement under which amounts shall be made 
available to a sponsoring agency for training and exercises, 
acquisition and maintenance of equipment, and medical 
monitoring required for responder safety and health; and (2) a 
response cooperative agreement under which FEMA shall reimburse 
a sponsoring agency for costs incurred in responding to a major 
disaster or emergency.
    FEMA shall submit a report on the development of a plan to 
finance, maintain, and replace system equipment.

                         B. POSTAL NAMING BILLS

    H.R. 136--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1103 USPS Building 1103 in Camp 
Pendleton, California, as the ``Camp Pendleton Medal of Honor 
Post Office''. (Public Law 114-166). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 322--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 16105 Swingley Ridge Road in 
Chesterfield, Missouri, as the ``Sgt. Zachary M. Fisher Post 
Office''. (Public Law 114-76). November 5, 2015.
    H.R. 323--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 55 Grasso Plaza in St. Louis, 
Missouri, as the ``Sgt. Amanda N. Pinson Post Office''. (Public 
Law 114-77). November 5, 2015.
    H.R. 324--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 11662 Gravois Road in St. Louis, 
Missouri, as the ``Lt. Daniel P. Riordan Post Office''. (Public 
Law 114-78). November 5, 2015.
    H.R. 433--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 523 East Railroad Street in Knox, 
Pennsylvania, as the ``Specialist Ross A. McGinnis Memorial 
Post Office''. (Public Law 114-167). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 558--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 55 South Pioneer Boulevard in 
Springboro, Ohio, as the ``Richard `Dick' Chenault Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-79). November 5, 2015.
    H.R. 651--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 820 Elmwood Avenue in Providence, 
Rhode Island, as the ``Sister Ann Keefe Post Office''. (Public 
Law 114-15). May 22, 2015.
    H.R. 728--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 7050 Highway BB in Cedar Hill, 
Missouri, as the ``Sergeant First Class William B. Woods, Jr. 
Post Office''. (Public Law 114-32). July 20, 2015.
    H.R. 891--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 141 Paloma Drive in Floresville, 
Texas, as the ``Floresville Veterans Post Office Building''. 
(Public Law 114-33). July 20, 2015.
    H.R. 1132--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1048 West Robinhood Drive in 
Stockton, California, as the ``W. Ronald Coale Memorial Post 
Office Building''. (Public Law 114-168). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 1326--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 2000 Mulford Road in Mulberry, 
Florida, as the ``Sergeant First Class Daniel M. Ferguson Post 
Office''. (Public Law 114-34). July 20, 2015.
    H.R. 1350--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 442 East 167th Street in Bronx, New 
York, as the ``Herman Badillo Post Office Building''. (Public 
Law 114-35). July 20, 2015.
    H.R. 1442--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 90 Cornell Street in Kingston, New 
York, as the ``Staff Sergeant Robert H. Dietz Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-82). November 5, 2015.
    H.R. 1884--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 206 West Commercial Street in East 
Rochester, New York, as the ``Officer Daryl R. Pierson Memorial 
Post Office Building''. (Public Law 114-83). November 5, 2015.
    H.R. 2458--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 5351 Lapalco Boulevard in Marrero, 
Louisiana, as the ``Lionel R. Collins, Sr. Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-169). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 2607--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 7802 37th Avenue in Jackson Heights, 
New York, as the ``Jeanne and Jules Manford Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-200). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 2928--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 201 B Street in Perryville, Arkansas, 
as the ``Harold George Bennett Post Office''. (Public Law 114-
170). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 3059--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 4500 SE 28th Street, Del City, 
Oklahoma, as the ``James Robert Kalsu Post Office Building''. 
(Public Law 114-84). November 5, 2015.
    H.R.3082--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 5919 Chef Menteur Highway in New 
Orleans, Louisiana, as the ``Daryle Holloway Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-171). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 3218--Designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1221 State Street, Suite 12, Santa 
Barbara, California, as the ``Special Warfare Operator Master 
Chief Petty Officer (SEAL) Louis `Lou' J. Langlais Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-283). December 5, 2016.
    H.R. 3274--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 4567 Rockbridge Road in Pine Lake, 
Georgia, as the ``Francis Manuel Ortega Post Office''. (Public 
Law 114-172). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 3601--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 7715 Post Road, North Kingstown, 
Rhode Island, as the ``Melvoid J. Benson Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 
114-173). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 3735--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 200 Town Run Lane in Winston Salem, 
North Carolina, as the ``Maya Angelou Memorial Post Office''. 
(Public Law 114-174). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 3866--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1265 Hurffville Road in Deptford 
Township, New Jersey, as the ``First Lieutenant Salvatore S. 
Corma II Post Office Building''. (Public Law 114-175). June 13, 
2016.
    H.R. 3931--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 620 Central Avenue Suite 1A in Hot 
Springs National Park, Arkansas, as the ``Chief Petty Officer 
Adam Brown United States Post Office''. (Public Law 114-202). 
July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 3953--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 4122 Madison Street, Elfers, Florida, 
as the ``Private First Class Felton Roger Fussell Memorial Post 
Office''. (Public Law 114-203). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4010--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 522 North Central Avenue in Phoenix, 
Arizona, as the ``Ed Pastor Post Office''. (Public Law 114-
204). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4046--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 220 East Oak Street, Glenwood City, 
Wisconsin, as the ``Second Lt. Ellen Ainsworth Memorial Post 
Office''. (Public Law 114-176). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 4372--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 15 Rochester Street, Bergen, New 
York, as the ``Barry G. Miller Post Office''. (Public Law 114-
192). July 15, 2016.
    H.R. 4425--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 110 East Powerhouse Road in 
Collegeville, Minnesota, as the ``Eugene J. McCarthy Post 
Office''. (Public Law 
114-205). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4605--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 615 6th Avenue SE in Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa as the ``Sgt. 1st Class Terryl L. Pasker Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-177). June 13, 2016.
    H.R. 4747--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 6691 Church Street in Riverdale, 
Georgia, as the ``Major Gregory E. Barney Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 
114-206). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4761--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 61 South Baldwin Avenue in Sierra 
Madre, California, as the ``Louis Van Iersel Post Office''. 
(Public Law 114-207). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4777--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1301 Alabama Avenue in Selma, Alabama 
as the ``Amelia Boynton Robinson Post Office Building''. 
(Public Law 
114-208). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4877--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 3130 Grants Lake Boulevard in Sugar 
Land, Texas, as the ``LCpl Garrett W. Gamble, USMC Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-209). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4887--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 23323 Shelby Road in Shelby, Indiana, 
as the ``Richard Allen Cable Post Office''. (Public Law 114-
290). December 16, 2016.
    H.R. 4925--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 229 West Main Cross Street, in 
Findlay, Ohio, as the ``Michael Garver Oxley Memorial Post 
Office Building''. (Public Law 114-211). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4960--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 525 N Broadway in Aurora, Illinois, 
as the ``Kenneth M. Christy Post Office Building''. (Public Law 
114-193). July 15, 2016.
    H.R. 4975--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 5720 South 142nd Street in Omaha, 
Nebraska, as the ``Petty Officer 1st Class Caleb A. Nelson Post 
Office Building''. (Public Law 114-212). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 4987--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 3957 2nd Avenue in Laurel Hill, 
Florida, as the ``Sergeant First Class William `Kelly' Lacey 
Post Office''. (Public Law 114-213). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 5028--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 10721 E Jefferson Ave in Detroit, 
Michigan, as the ``Mary E. McCoy Post Office Building''. 
(Public Law 114-214). July 29, 2016.
    H.R. 5150--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 3031 Veterans Road West in Staten 
Island, New York, as the ``Leonard Montalto Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-295). December 16, 2016.
    H.R. 5309--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 401 McElroy Drive in Oxford, 
Mississippi, as the ``Army First Lieutenant Donald C. Carwile 
Post Office Building''. (Public Law 114-296). December 16, 
2016.
    H.R. 5356--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 14231 TX-150 in Coldspring, Texas, as 
the ``E. Marie Youngblood Post Office''. (Public Law 114-297). 
December 16, 2016.
    H.R. 5591--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 810 N US Highway 83 in Zapata, Texas, 
as the ``Zapata Veterans Post Office''. (Public Law 114-298). 
December 16, 2016.
    H.R. 5612--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 2886 Sandy Plains Road in Marietta, 
Georgia, as the ``Marine Lance Corporal Squire `Skip' Wells 
Post Office Building''. (Public Law 114-299). December 16, 
2016.
    H.R. 5676--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 6300 N. Northwest Highway in Chicago, 
Illinois, as the ``Officer Joseph P. Cali Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-300). December 16, 2016.
    H.R. 5798--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1101 Davis Street in Evanston, 
Illinois, as the ``Abner J. Mikva Post Office Building''. 
(Public Law 114-303). December 16, 2016.
    H.R. 5889--To designate the facility of the United States 
Postal Service located at 1 Chalan Kanoa VLG in Saipan, 
Northern Mariana Islands, as the ``Segundo T. Sablan and CNMI 
Fallen Military Heroes Post Office Building''. (Public Law 114-
305). December 16, 2016.
    S. 179--A bill to designate the facility of the United 
States Postal Service located at 14 3rd Avenue, NW, in 
Chisholm, Minnesota, as the ``James L. Oberstar Memorial Post 
Office Building''. (Public Law 114-37). July 20, 2015.
    S. 994--A bill to designate the facility of the United 
States Postal Service located at 1 Walter Hammond Place in 
Waldwick, New Jersey, as the ``Staff Sergeant Joseph 
D'Augustine Post Office Building''. (Public Law 114-66). 
October 7, 2015.
    S. 1596--A bill to designate the facility of the United 
States Postal Service located at 2082 Stringtown Road in Grove 
City, Ohio, as the ``Specialist Joseph W. Riley Post Office 
Building''. (Public Law 114-134). March 9, 2016.
    S. 1826--A bill to designate the facility of the United 
States Postal Service located at 99 West 2nd Street in Fond du 
Lac, Wisconsin, as the ``Lieutenant Colonel James `Maggie' 
Megellas Post Office''. (Public Law 114-138). March 18, 2016.
                 VIII. ACTIVITIES OF THE SUBCOMMITTEES


                 SUBCOMMITTEE ON REGULATORY AFFAIRS AND


                           FEDERAL MANAGEMENT


                    Chairman: James Lankford (R-OK)


                 Ranking Member: Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND)


                              I. AUTHORITY

    The Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal 
Management oversees the management, efficiency, effectiveness, 
and economy of all government agencies, departments, and 
programs. The Subcommittee has broad oversight over the Federal 
regulatory regime, including the Office of Information and 
Regulatory Affairs (OIRA). In addition, the Subcommittee is 
responsible for exploring policies that promote a skilled, 
efficient, and effective Federal workforce which will, in turn, 
work to ensure efficient and effective management of Federal 
programs.

                              II. ACTIVITY

    During the 114th Congress, the Subcommittee on Regulatory 
Affairs and Federal Management held 21 hearings or roundtables.

                              A. Hearings


Examining Federal Rulemaking Challenges and Areas of Improvement within 
        the Existing Regulatory Process. March 19, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-
        32)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine the patchwork of 
statutes that comprise today's regulatory process, including 
the Administrative Procedure Act, the Regulatory Flexibility 
Act, the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act, and the Information Quality Act. The hearing also 
addressed OIRA review procedures, as mandated through various 
executive orders.
    Witnesses: Hon. John Graham, Dean of Indiana University 
School of Public and Environmental Affairs and Former Director 
of OIRA; Neil Eisner, Senior Fellow with Administrative 
Conference of the United States and Former Assistant General 
Counsel for Regulation and Enforcement with the U.S. Department 
of Transportation; Drew Greenblatt, President and Owner of 
Marlin Steel Wire Products, LLC and Executive Board Member of 
National Association of Manufacturers; Pamela Gilbert, Partner 
with Cuneo Gilbert and LaDuca, LLP and Former Executive 
Director of Consumer Product Safety Commission.

Examining the Proper Roles of Judicial Review in the Federal Regulatory 
        Process. April 28, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-33)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine issues associated 
with judicial review of administrative agency action. This 
hearing served as a forum to examine the proper role of the 
judiciary in reviewing agency action, as well as the various 
deference regimes developed by the courts--specifically 
deference to an agency's interpretation of its own ambiguous 
rules.
    Witnesses: Ronald M. Levin, William R. Orthwein 
Distinguished Professor of Law at Washington University in St. 
Louis and Chair of Judicial Review Committee for the 
Administrative Conference of the United States; Andrew M. 
Grossman, Associate with Baker and Hostetler, LLP and Adjunct 
Scholar at The Cato Institute.

21st Century Ideas for the 20th Century Federal Civil Service. May 20, 
        2015. (S. Hrg. 114-52)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine the most pressing 
modernization issues facing the federal workforce today. Topics 
discussed included: challenges to recruitment, retention, 
performance management, termination, and compensation of the 
federal workforce.
    Witnesses: Hon. Dan G. Blair, President and Chief Executive 
Officer of the National Academy of Public Administration, 
Chairman of the Postal Regulatory Commission (2006-2009), and 
Deputy Director of the Office of Personnel Management (2002-
2006); Yvonne D. Jones, Director, Strategic Issues, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office; Patricia J. Niehaus, National 
President, Federal Managers Association; J. David Cox, Sr., 
National President, American Federation of Government 
Employees, AFL-CIO.

Roundtable: Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal 
        Regulatory Process. June 4, 2015.

    The purpose of the roundtable was to bring Senators and 
experts together to discuss common sense ideas that could 
garner bipartisan support and provide immediate improvement to 
the federal regulatory process. Through an open and frank 
discussion, members of the Subcommittee were able to discuss 
current legislation as well as ideas for future legislation 
with the goal of identifying common ground.
    Witnesses: Susan Dudley, Director, The George Washington 
University Regulatory Studies Center; Michael Greenstone, 
Ph.D., The Milton Friedman Professor of Economics and Director 
of the Interdisciplinary Energy Policy Institute, University of 
Chicago.

Re-examining EPA's Management of the Renewable Fuel Standard Program. 
        June 18, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-71)

    The proposed 2014, 2015, and 2016 Renewable Fuel Standard 
program's mandates were released by the Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) on May 29, 2015. These numbers were 
finalized by November 30, 2015. The purpose of the hearing was 
to examine the EPA's past, present, and future management of 
the Renewable Fuel Standard program.
    Witness: Janet McCabe, Acting Assistant Administrator, 
Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency.

Reviewing the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs' Role in the 
        Regulatory Process. July 16, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-84)

    The purpose of the hearing was to draw on the witness's 
expertise in order to explore the current state of the federal 
regulatory process, and the ways in which OIRA leverages its 
role to improve agency regulatory actions and facilitate 
greater transparency, as well as opportunities to strengthen 
those efforts.
    Witness: Hon. Howard Shelanski, Administrator, Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and 
Budget.

Examining the Use of Agency Regulatory Guidance. September 23, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-167)

    The purpose of the hearing was to discuss if and how 
agencies improperly issue guidance, its effects on regulated 
parties and the public at large, and ways to ensure its proper 
use going forward.
    Witnesses: Michelle A. Sager, Director, Strategic Issues, 
U.S. Government Accountability Office; Mary Beth Maxwell, 
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy, U.S. 
Department of Labor; Amy McIntosh, Principal Deputy Assistant 
Secretary Delegated the Duties of the Assistant Secretary, 
Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, U.S. 
Department of Education.

Improving Pay Flexibilities in the Federal Workforce. October 22, 2015. 
        (S. Hrg. 114-139)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine if current 
federal employee pay system laws, regulations and policies are 
flexible enough to meet the challenges the federal workforce 
faces today and will face in the future. The hearing mainly 
covered scenarios wherein unique economic situations strike, 
leading to upheaval in local and regional employment markets in 
which federal workforce leaders must have the tools they need 
to maintain an effective workforce.
    Witnesses: Brenda Roberts, Deputy Associate Director for 
Pay and Leave, U.S. Office of Personnel Management; Debra A. 
Warner, Director of Civilian Force Management and Deputy Chief 
of Staff for Manpower, Personnel, and Services with 
Headquarters, U.S. Air Force; Linda Jacksta, Assistant 
Commissioner, Office of Human Resources Management, U.S. 
Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Anthony M. Reardon, National President, National 
Treasury Employees Union; William R. Dougan, National 
President, National Federation of Federal Employees.

Agency Progress in Retrospective Review of Existing Regulations. 
        November 5, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-241)

    Without careful oversight, regulations may not achieve 
initial goals, may become outdated, or may unnecessarily burden 
regulated entities. Regulations may also change the behaviors 
of regulated entities and the public in ways that cannot be 
predicted by prospective analysis prior to implementation. As a 
result, in this hearing, the subcommittee examined the number 
of regulations reviewed and the results of the reviews, as well 
as how agencies have prioritized their reviews and how they are 
planning for retrospective reviews as they draft new 
regulations.
    Witnesses: Elizabeth Klein, Associate Deputy Secretary, 
U.S. Department of the Interior; Christopher Zehren, Deputy 
Director, Office of Budget and Program Analysis, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture; Megan J. Uzzell, Associate Deputy 
Secretary, U.S. Department of Labor; Bill Nickerson, Acting 
Director, Office of Regulatory Policy and Management, Office of 
Policy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Examining On-going Challenges at the U.S. Secret Service and Their 
        Government-Wide Implications. November 17, 2015. (Serial No. 
        114-43)

    This joint subcommittee hearing, conducted with the 
Subcommittee on Oversight and Management Efficiency of the 
Committee on Homeland Security, U.S. House of Representatives, 
examined how the U.S. Secret Service, a top federal law 
enforcement agency, could fail to identify a series of 
unauthorized accesses of sensitive personal information. In 
light of issues at the United States Secret Service, the 
Subcommittee also focused upon what is being done to protect 
the millions of individuals whose private information is housed 
on other federal government databases.
    Witnesses: Joseph P. Clancy, Director, United States Secret 
Service, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. John Roth, 
Inspector General, Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department 
of Homeland Security; Joel C. Willemssen, Managing Director, 
Information Technology Issues, U.S. Government Accountability 
Office.

Implementing Solutions: The Importance of Following Through on GAO and 
        OIG Recommendations. December 10, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-265)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine the differences 
by which agencies follow up on Government Accountability Office 
(GAO) and Inspector General (IG) recommendations, to discuss 
methods for simplifying the oversight of open recommendations, 
and to discuss the adequacy of GAO and IG authorities. The 
hearing lead to an open dialogue on how Congress can work with 
agencies, the GAO and IGs to improve Congressional oversight of 
recommendations.
    Witnesses: Hon. Gene L. Dodaro, Comptroller General of the 
United States, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Hon. 
Michael E. Horowitz, Inspector General of the U.S. Department 
of Justice and Chair of the Council of the Inspectors General 
on Integrity and Efficiency; Jim H. Crumpacker, Director, 
Departmental GAO-OIG Liaison Office, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security.

Examining Agency Discretion in Setting and Enforcing Regulatory Fines 
        and Penalties. February 11, 2016. (S. Hrg. 114-325)

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the varying 
degrees of enforcement flexibility that Congress has delegated 
to regulatory agencies to set penalties for regulatory 
violations. When properly used, this authority is a powerful 
tool for agencies to encourage compliance and achieve 
regulatory goals. However, this authority is also susceptible 
to abuse if not properly administered. To that end, this 
hearing examined the process by which agencies set and enforce 
regulatory fines and penalties, the amount of discretion 
agencies have in assessing fines and penalties, and the efforts 
that agencies have taken to ensure consistency and transparency 
over regulatory enforcement decisions.
    Witnesses: Jordan Barab, Deputy Assistant Secretary, 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department 
of Labor; Susan Shinkman, Director, Office of Civil 
Enforcement, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: Opportunities for Improvement to 
        Support State and Local Governments. February 24, 2016. (S. 
        Hrg. 114-266)

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the original 
intent of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995, identify 
strengths and weaknesses of the original legislation, and 
assess the effects on state and local governments. The 
Subcommittee also discussed the content of S.189, the Unfunded 
Mandates Information and Transparency Act of 2015.
    Witnesses: Hon. Virginia Foxx, a Representative in Congress 
from the State of North Carolina; Hon. Curt Bramble, President 
Pro Tempore of the Utah Senate and President of the National 
Conference of State Legislators; Hon. Bryan Desloge, 
Commissioner of Leon County, Florida and First Vice President 
of the National Association of Counties; Paul Posner, Ph.D., 
Director of the Center on the Public Service at George Mason 
University and Former Director of Intergovernmental Affairs at 
the U.S. Government Accountability Office; Richard J. Pierce, 
Jr., Lyle T. Alverson Professor of Law, George Washington 
University School of Law.

Examining Agency Use of Deference, Part II. March 17, 2016. (S. Hrg. 
        114-284)

    The purpose of this hearing was to follow up on a previous 
Subcommittee hearing held to examine the role of judicial 
review in the regulatory process and the various deference 
regimes utilized by federal courts. This hearing focused on the 
Chevron doctrine, its use by the courts, and its impact on 
agency rulemaking. It also explored Chevron deference's 
methodology, as well as the praises and criticisms levied by 
constitutional and administrative law scholars.
    Witnesses: Neomi Rao, Associate Professor of Law, George 
Mason University School of Law; Charles J. Cooper, Partner, 
Cooper & Kirk, PLLC; Michael Herz, Arthur Kaplan Professor of 
Law, Cardozo School of Law.

Roundtable: Improving the USAJOBS Website. April 12, 2016.

    The purpose of this roundtable was to follow up on 
discussions the Subcommittee has had regarding challenges in 
the federal hiring process, such as the USAJOBS website. The 
roundtable covered the Office of Personnel Management's ongoing 
efforts to improve the USAJOBS platform, federal efforts to 
attract and maintain millennial workers, and analyzed what 
additional improvements are needed in order to increase the 
efficiency of federal government hiring.
    Witnesses: Lina E. Brooks Rix, President and Co-Chief 
Executive Officer, Avue Technologies Corporation; Max Stier, 
President and Chief Executive Officer, Partnership for Public 
Service; Mark Reinhold, Associate Director for Employee 
Services and Chief Human Capital Officer, U.S. Office of 
Personnel Management.

Examining Due Process in Administrative Hearings. May 12, 2016. (S. 
        Hrg. 114-424)

    The purpose of this hearing was to focus on the 
independence of federal agency judges and the due process 
afforded to individuals appearing before them. Recently the 
Social Security Administration (SSA) proposed the removal of 
two classes of adjudicatory hearings from the purview of SSA's 
Administrative Law Judges (ALJs) and to transfer them to 
Administrative Appeals Judges and Attorney Examiners within 
SSA's Appeals Council. This change would impact tens of 
thousands of cases and must be justified. The hearing discussed 
the current ALJ issues at SSA and the broader issues of 
independence and agency control of officials who conduct 
administrative hearings throughout the federal government.
    Witnesses: Theresa L. Gruber, Deputy Commissioner, 
Disability Adjudication and Review, U.S. Social Security 
Administration; Marilyn D. Zahm, Administrative Law Judge, 
Buffalo, New York Office of Disability Adjudication and Review, 
U.S. Social Security Administration; Joseph Kennedy, Associate 
Director for Human Resources Solutions, U.S. Office of 
Personnel Management.

Examining the Use of Agency Regulatory Guidance, Part II. June 30, 
        2016. (S. Hrg. 114-517)

    The purpose of this hearing was to build on the previous 
guidance hearing held September 23, 2015 by providing the 
perspectives of non-governmental witnesses with expertise in 
administrative law, institutional experience in overseeing and 
coordinating guidance processes, and familiarity with how 
guidance fits in to the larger regulatory apparatus. Topics for 
the hearing included discussion of agency use of regulatory 
guidance cross-government; how agencies utilize guidance to 
interface with the public; current and former Administration 
efforts to ensure that this guidance is issued appropriately 
and the success of these efforts; and potential legislative 
solutions and safeguards.
    Witnesses: Clyde Wayne Crews, Vice President for Policy, 
Competitive Enterprise Institute; Paul Noe, Vice President, 
Public Policy, American Forest and Paper Association & American 
Wood Council; Amit Narang, Regulatory Policy Advocate, Public 
Citizen.

Reviewing Independent Agency Rulemaking. September 8, 2016. (S. Hrg. 
        114-477)

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine how independent 
regulatory agencies could improve their regulatory processes 
through quality analysis of the rules they propose, compliance 
with applicable statutory requirements, retrospective review 
efforts, and potential improvements that could be implemented 
to improve the overall independent agency regulatory process.
    Witnesses: Robert R. Gasaway, Of Counsel, Kirkland & Ellis, 
LLP; Adam White, Fellow, Hoover Institution; Cary Coglianese, 
Ph.D., Edward B. Shils Professor of Law and Professor of 
Political Science and Director of the Penn Program on 
Regulation, University of Pennsylvania Law School.

Continued Review of Agency Regulatory Guidance, Part III. September 22, 
        2016. (S. Hrg. 114-545 )

    The purpose of this hearing was to build on the 
Subcommittee's previous guidance hearings held on September 23, 
2015 and June 30, 2016. Topics for the hearing included a 
discussion on lingering concerns and developments arising from 
specific guidance documents; agency initiatives to address U.S. 
Government Accountability Office recommendations on internal 
controls for good guidance practices; and a discussion of the 
role of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) 
in advising and implementing its cross-government good guidance 
practices, including ways in which OIRA could ensure review of 
agency determinations of non-significance and non-economic 
significance.
    Witnesses: Hon. Howard Shelanski, Administrator, Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and 
Budget; Hon. M. Patricia Smith, Solicitor of Labor, U.S. 
Department of Labor; Amy McIntosh, Principal Deputy Assistant 
Secretary Delegated the Duties of the Assistant Secretary for 
the Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, 
U.S. Department of Education.

Understanding the Millennial Perspective in Deciding to Pursue and 
        Remain in Federal Employment. September 29, 2016. (S. Hrg. 114-
        548)

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the efforts of 
the Office of Personnel Management to address hiring challenges 
and also to examine individual agency efforts to address 
recruitment and retention challenges, especially in relation to 
individuals identified as millennials, who are defined as those 
between the ages of 18 and 35.
    Witnesses: Mark Reinhold, Associate Director for Employee 
Services and Chief Human Capital Officer, U.S. Office of 
Personnel Management; Angela Bailey, Chief Human Capital 
Officer, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Lauren Leo, 
Assistant Administrator, Office of Human Capital Management, 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Robert 
Goldenkoff, Director for Strategic Issues, U.S. Government 
Accountability Office.

Examining Two GAO Reports Regarding the Renewable Fuel Standard. 
        December 1, 2016. (S. Hrg. 114-555)

    This hearing served as a forum to examine the Environmental 
Protection Agency's management of the Renewable Fuel Standard 
and discussed the two Government Accountability Office reports 
from November 28, 2016 on the program.
    Witnesses: Frank Rusco, Director, National Resources and 
Environment, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Janet 
McCabe, Acting Assistant Administrator, Office of Air and 
Radiation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

                            III. LEGISLATION

    Since the Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal 
Management's hearings play an important role in bringing issues 
to the attention of Congress and the public, its work 
frequently contributes to the development of legislative 
initiatives. During the 114th Congress, Chairman Lankford 
introduced the following legislative proposals in his capacity 
as a Senator:
    S. 1817--The Smarter Regulations Through Advance Planning 
and Review Act (Smarter Regs Act)--Requires agencies 
promulgating new major regulations to plan for retrospective 
review to ensure the regulation met its objectives and did not 
incur unanticipated significant costs. Senator Heitkamp 
introduced this bill and Senator Lankford served as an original 
co-sponsor.
    S. 1818--The Principled Rulemaking Act--Requires a federal 
agency to promulgate only a rule that is required by law, 
necessary to interpret a law, or made necessary by compelling 
public need. Codifies the non-partisan requirements in 
Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 and extends those requirements 
to independent agencies.
    S. 1820--The Early Participation in Regulations Act--
Requires agencies to publish an advance notice of proposed 
rulemaking for major rules.

                            IV. GAO Reports

    The following reports were issued by the Government 
Accountability Office at the request of the Chairman/Ranking 
Member of the Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal 
Management during the 114th Congress:
    On July 16, 2015, Senator Lankford sent a letter to the 
Government Accountability Office requesting an audit of the 
Fish and Wildlife Service's American Burying Beetle 
Conservation Fund in Oklahoma and a report on similar 
conservation funds and banks nationwide.
    On December 18, 2015, Senator Lankford signed on to a 
request to the Government Accountability Office's ongoing work 
on improving federal hiring initiatives originally requested by 
Ranking Member Cummings and Representative Lynch of the House 
Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.
    On November 13, 2015, Senator Lankford sent a letter to the 
Government Accountability Office to request a review of agency 
processes for addressing and removing employees for misconduct.
    On December 11, 2015, Senators Lankford and Heitkamp sent a 
letter to the Government Accountability Office requesting a 
review of the challenges agencies encounter when hiring and 
retaining ``millennial'' employees.
    On April 6, 2015, Senator Lankford requested a Government 
Accountability Office review of the Environmental Protection 
Agency's Renewable Fuel Standard.
    On October 28, 2015, Senator Lankford signed on to a 
request to the Government Accountability Office's ongoing work 
on the Internal Revenue Service's rulemaking process originally 
requested by the House Committee on Oversight and Government 
Reform.
    On January 20, 2016, Senator Lankford sent a letter to the 
Government Accountability Office requesting a review of agency 
regulatory compliance assistance and enforcement.
    On January 20, 2016, Senator Lankford sent a letter to the 
Government Accountability Office requesting a review of agency 
Paperwork Reduction Act burden efforts.
    On January 15, 2016, Senator Lankford sent a letter to the 
Government Accountability Office requesting a review of agency 
conflict mitigation and prevention efforts.
    On July 12, 2016, Senators Lankford, Carper, Leahy, and 
Grassley sent a letter to the Government Accountability Office 
requesting a review of federal judiciary adherence to the 
Ethics in Government Act.
  SUBCOMMITTEE ON FEDERAL SPENDING OVERSIGHT AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT


                       Chairman: Rand Paul (R-KY)


                  Ranking Member: Tammy Baldwin (D-WI)


                              I. AUTHORITY

    The Subcommittee on Federal Spending Oversight and 
Emergency Management focuses on the effectiveness and 
efficiency of federal financial management; agency policies to 
promote program integrity and the prevention of waste, fraud, 
and abuse; policies and procedures related to federal 
contracting and procurement, including Federal Acquisition 
Regulation; and the acquisition functions of the General 
Services Administration and the Office of the Federal 
Procurement Policy. The Subcommittee also examines the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the federal government's 
efforts to prepare for, respond to, and recover from natural 
and man-made disasters, including state and local grant 
programs; activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster 
Relief and Emergency Assistance Act; and activities related to 
the National Capital Region; the relationship between the 
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and states and 
localities, including in preparing for, responding to, and 
recovering from natural and man-made disasters; and activities 
relating to the Office of the Private Sector and the 
integration of the private sector into the nation's emergency 
preparedness, resilience, and response matters.

                              II. ACTIVITY

    During the 114th Congress, the Subcommittee on Federal 
Spending Oversight and Emergency Management held 3 hearings; 
released 70 waste reports examining fedeal spending practices 
and highlighting nearly $3 billion in wasted taxpayer money; 
and introduced three related pieces of legislation.

                              A. Hearings


Wasteful Spending in the Federal Government: An Outside Perspective. 
        June 10, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-59)

    The purpose of the hearing was to provide consideration for 
the ideas and proposals from representatives of the major 
outside groups investigating inefficient, unnecessary, and 
wasteful federal spending in the federal government, 
particularly in the areas of discretionary spending. Particular 
emphasis was placed on recommendations for consensus proposals 
that could gain traction in Congress.
    Witnesses: Romina Boccia, Grover M. Herman Research Fellow 
in Federal Budgetary Affairs and Research Manager with The 
Heritage Foundation; Chris Edwards, Director of Tax Policy 
Studies and Editor of www.DownsizingGovernment.org with The 
Cato Institute; Steve Ellis, Vice President, Taxpayers for 
Common Sense; Thomas A Schatz, President, Citizens Against 
Government Waste; Donald F. Kettl, Ph.D., Professor, School of 
Public Policy, University of Maryland.

Prudent Planning or Wasteful Binge? A Look at End of the Year Spending. 
        September 30, 2015. (S. Hrg. 114-127)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine the dynamics of 
end-of-year spending, often referred to as ``use it or lose 
it.'' This practice of rushing to obligate all remaining funds 
in an agency budget before those funds expire at the end of the 
year is known and practiced in virtually every government 
agency. The hearing explored this sometimes wasteful practice 
at the federal level; to what magnitude it exists; and examined 
possible solutions.
    Witnesses: Jason J. Fichtner, Ph.D., Senior Research 
Fellow, The Mercatus Center at George Mason University; Dean W. 
Sinclair, Changing the Culture of Washington; Philip G. Joyce, 
Ph.D., Professor of Public Policy and Senior Associate Dean, 
University of Maryland School of Public Policy.

FEMA: Assessing Progress, Performance, and Preparedness. April 12, 
        2016. (S. Hrg. 114-355)

    The purpose of the hearing was to examine FEMA's overall 
efforts to assist states in preparing for terrorism and natural 
disasters, to evaluate its management and coordination of 
grants, training, and exercises, and to better understand the 
metrics used by the agency to measure overall progress toward 
the National Preparedness Goal. The hearing also examined 
recommendations identified by the Government Accountability 
Office and the DHS Office of Inspector General over the past 
several years.
    Witnesses: Hon. Timothy W. Manning, Deputy Administrator 
for Protection and National Preparedness, Federal Emergency 
Management Agency, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Hon. 
John Roth, Inspector General, U.S. Department of Homeland 
Security; Christopher Currie, Director of Emergency Management, 
National Preparedness, and Critical Infrastructure Protection, 
Homeland Security and Justice Team, U.S. Government 
Accountability Office; John Drake, Deputy Administrator, 
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. 
Department of Transportation.

                               B. Reports

    In his capacity of Chairman of the Subcommittee on Federal 
Spending Oversight and Emergency Management, Senator Paul 
released 70 individual reports detailing various wasteful 
programs, grants, and practices that have cost taxpayers 
billions.
    1. May 5, 2015--U.S. Coast Guard medical vacations;
    2. May 11, 2015--Department of Energy treadmills;
    3. May 18, 2015--Department of Education email instruction 
class for employees;
    4. June 1, 2015--Department of Veterans Affairs unnecessary 
solar panels;
    5. June 8, 2015--Department of State creates a professional 
cricket league;
    6. June 16, 2015--National Science Foundation college 
courses in winemaking;
    7. June 22, 2015--National Science Foundation metric system 
study;
    8. June 29, 2015--Department of Agriculture loses money on 
prairie potholes;
    9. July 6, 2015--National Endowment for the Arts grant to a 
Hollywood museum;
    10. July 14, 2015--National Science Foundation study of 
feelings;
    11. July 20, 2015--Environmental Protection Agency loses on 
small-town sewer project;
    12. July 27, 2015--Department of Housing and Urban 
Development lets millionaire live in subsidized public housing;
    13. August 3, 2015--Department of Education school lunch 
money goes to lawn sprinklers;
    14. August 10, 2015--Department of State sends foreign 
children to Space Camp;
    15. August 17, 2015--Federal Emergency Management Agency 
fails to stop double-dipping of disaster assistance;
    16. August 24, 2015--Department of State sends a jazz band 
to perform in Turkey;
    17. August 31, 2015--National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration premium satellite TV subscriptions;
    18. September 8, 2015--National Science Foundation study of 
athletes ``in the zone;''
    19. September 14, 2015--Government-wide yoga benefits for 
federal employees;
    20. September 22, 2015--Department of Defense studies 
whether to sterilize wild burros;
    21. September 28, 2015--National Park Service flower show;
    22. October 5, 2015--National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration tests golf clubs in space;
    23. October 19, 2015--National Institutes of Health study 
the role of friendship on college freshmen weight gain;
    24. October 26, 2015--Department of State community college 
exchanges;
    25. November 2, 2015--Agency for International Development 
promotion of Albanian tourism;
    26. November 9, 2015--Medicare overpays for sleep studies;
    27. November 12, 2015--Department of Defense builds a 
natural gas filling station in Afghanistan;
    28. November 16, 2015--National Institutes of Health 
conference on balding;
    29. November 23, 2015--Department of Agriculture gives 
specialized crop subsidies to crops that are not particularly 
specialized;
    30. November 30, 2015--National Science Foundation climate 
change video game;
    31. December 7, 2015--Agency for International Development 
cuts foreign regulations;
    32. December 14, 2015--Forest Service builds a laundromat 
adjacent to another laundromat;
    33. December 21, 2015--Department of Agriculture funds TV 
ads for Christmas trees;
    34. January 4, 2016--Inter-American Foundation supports the 
businesses of recently deported immigrants;
    35. January 11, 2016--National Science Foundation examines 
whether people fear success;
    36. January 19, 2016--Agency for International Development 
promotes Moldovan wine;
    37. January 25, 2016--Department of Defense builds a scale 
model of a Cold War-era air base;
    38. January 28, 2016--Department of Defense cannot account 
for heavy equipment in Afghanistan;
    39. February 1, 2016--Multiple government studies to 
examine e-mail response habits;
    40. February 8, 2016--National Science Foundation study on 
romantic chemistry;
    41. February 16, 2016--National Science Foundation study on 
Ugandan gambling habits;
    42. February 22, 2016--Department of Justice long-term 
spending on temporary expenses;
    43. February 29, 2016--Department of Transportation 
assistance to the dormant DC streetcar;
    44. March 7, 2016--U.S. taxpayer costs to pay interest on 
the national debt;
    45. March 14, 2016--Department of State program to improve 
understanding between the United States and the United Kingdom;
    46. March 28, 2016--National Park Service documents 
experiences with the supernatural;
    47. April 11, 2016--Department of Veterans Affairs delays 
medical equipment;
    48. April 18, 2016--Department of State shows American 
movies abroad;
    49. April 25, 2016--Government-wide duplicative and 
overlapping climate change research;
    50. May 2, 2016--Department of State creates a comedic 
variety television program in Afghanistan;
    51. May 9, 2016--National Science Foundation studies why 
more men than women contribute to Wikipedia;
    52. May 16, 2016--East-West Center
    53. May 31, 2016--Environmental Protection Agency buys out 
employees but doesn't eliminate their positions;
    54. June 6, 2016--Agency for International Development 
provides climate support to the Philippines;
    55. June 13, 2016--National Science Foundation studies how 
future grant applicants will pursue funding;
    56. June 20, 2016--National Institutes of Health studies 
why certain people like spicy foods more than others;
    57. June 27, 2016--Federal tax code complexity costs the 
economy billions;
    58. July 11, 2016--Department of State creates an animated 
superhero in Pakistan;
    59. July 18, 2016--Department of Defense studies foxes 
marooned on an Aleutian island;
    60. July 25, 2016--Department of State teaches Estonian 
television how to use cameras;
    61. August 1, 2016--Department of Defense renovates a 
cafeteria then shuts it down;
    62. August 8, 2016--Earmark pays for labor at Wolf Trap 
Performing Arts Center;
    63. August 16, 2016--National Science Foundation 
documentary on the Kilogram;
    64. August 30, 2016--Small Business Administration fails to 
follow disaster loan guidelines;
    65. September 20, 2016--Department of Veterans Affairs buys 
TV sets that sit in storage;
    66. September 26, 2016--Community Development Block Grants 
buy properties in Hawaii at above-market prices;
    67. October 4, 2016--National Science Foundation reexamines 
Neil Armstrong's first words on the moon;
    68. October 12, 2016--Environmental Protection Agency loses 
out on bulk transit purchases for employees;
    69. October 19, 2016--Federal Emergency Management Agency 
assistance amidst questionable circumstances in Mississippi;
    70. October 25, 2016--National Science Foundation studies 
whether selfies make people happier.

                            III. LEGISLATION

    Since the Subcommittee on Federal Spending Oversight and 
Emergency Management's hearings play an important role in 
bringing issues to the attention of Congress and the public, 
its work frequently contributes to the development of 
legislative initiatives. During the 114th Congress, Chairman 
Paul introduced the following legislative proposals in his 
capacity as a Senator:
    S. 1378--Bonuses for Cost-Cutters Act-Expands existing 
agency Inspector General programs that pursue waste, fraud, and 
abuse to also include surplus funds that are not needed to 
accomplish an Executive agency's duties and responsibilities. 
Under this program, Executive Branch employees could propose 
savings and, if confirmed by their agency's Inspector General 
and Chief Financial Officer, extra funds may be returned to the 
Treasury at the end of the year. Consistent with the existing 
Inspector General authority, if such savings are realized, the 
employee that made the suggestion would also be eligible for a 
performance bonus of one percent of the amount saved, capped at 
$10,000. S. 1378 was passed by the Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs on May 25, 2016.
    S. 2453--Duplication Reduction and Scoring Act of 2016--
Directs the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to use 
existing authority to consolidate and streamline federal 
programs identified in the Government Accountability Offices' 
(GAO) duplication reports (2011-2015) and to report to Congress 
on savings that are achieved by such activity. The Act further 
rescinds the greater of $10 billion or the total amount 
identified by OMB from the accounts identified. The Act also 
amends the Congressional Budget Act to require the 
Congressional Budget Office (CBO) to obtain from GAO an 
estimate of the extent to which legislation placed on either 
the Senate or House Calendars creates new duplication and to 
include such information in its cost estimates.
    S. 2454--Legislative Performance Review Act of 2016--Limits 
all authorizations of appropriations to four years and creates 
a new surgical point of order against appropriating for a 
program that is unauthorized. S. 2454 provides an 
implementation period to allow Congress to reauthorize programs 
currently unauthorized or that have been authorized in law for 
more than four years. The legislation further provides a 
process for authorizing committees to seek a waiver of the four 
year limitation. The bill also requires that committee reports 
accompanying legislation passed out of committee include a 
discussion of why the program being authorized (or 
reauthorized) will address a specific need and how existing 
programs are inadequate to meet such need. The bill also 
creates a process for the orderly winding down of expired 
programs.
                PERMANENT SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS


                        Chairman: Robert Portman


               Ranking Minority Member: Claire McCaskill

    The following is the Activities Report of the Permanent 
Subcommittee on Investigations for the 114th Congress.

                        I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


                      A. Subcommittee Jurisdiction

    The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations was originally 
authorized by Senate Resolution 189 on January 28, 1948. At its 
creation in 1948, the Subcommittee was part of the Committee on 
Expenditures in the Executive Departments. The Subcommittee's 
records and broad investigative jurisdiction over government 
operations and national security issues, however, actually 
antedate its creation, since it was given custody of the 
jurisdiction of the former Special Committee to Investigate the 
National Defense Program (the so-called ``War Investigating 
Committee'' or ``Truman Committee''), chaired by Senator Harry 
S. Truman during the Second World War and charged with exposing 
waste, fraud, and abuse in the war effort and war profiteering. 
Today, the Subcommittee is part of the Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\In 1952, the parent committee's name was changed to the 
Committee on Government Operations. It was changed again in early 1977, 
to the Committee on Governmental Affairs, and again in 2005, to the 
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, its present 
title.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Subcommittee has had ten chairmen: Senators Homer 
Ferguson of Michigan (1948), Clyde R. Hoey of North Carolina 
(1949-1952), Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin (1953-1954), John 
L. McClellan of Arkansas (1955-1972), Henry M. Jackson of 
Washington (1973-1978), Sam Nunn of Georgia (1979-1980 and 
1987-1994), William V. Roth of Delaware (1981-1986 and 
1995-1996), Susan M. Collins of Maine (1997-2001); Norm Coleman 
of Minnesota (2003-2007); and Carl Levin of Michigan 
(2001-2002 and 2007-2014); and Robert J. Portman of Ohio (2015-
present).
    Until 1957, the Subcommittee's jurisdiction focused 
principally on waste, inefficiency, impropriety, and illegality 
in government operations. Its jurisdiction then expanded over 
time, today encompassing investigations within the broad ambit 
of the parent committee's responsibility for matters relating 
to the efficiency and economy of operations of all branches of 
the government, including matters related to: (a) waste, fraud, 
abuse, malfeasance, and unethical practices in government 
contracting and operations; (b) organized criminal activities 
affecting interstate or international commerce; (c) criminal 
activity affecting the national health, welfare, or safety, 
including investment fraud, commodity and securities fraud, 
computer fraud, and offshore abuses; (d) criminality or 
improper practices in labor-management relations; (e) the 
effectiveness of present national security methods, staffing 
and procedures, and U.S. relationships with international 
organizations concerned with national security; (f) energy 
shortages, energy pricing, management of government-owned or 
controlled energy supplies; and relationships with oil 
producing and consuming countries; and (g) the operations and 
management of Federal regulatory policies and programs. While 
retaining the status of a subcommittee of a standing committee, 
the Subcommittee has long exercised its authority on an 
independent basis, selecting its own staff, issuing its own 
subpoenas, and determining its own investigatory agenda.
    The Subcommittee acquired its sweeping jurisdiction in 
several successive stages. In 1957--based on information 
developed by the Subcommittee--the Senate passed a Resolution 
establishing a Select Committee on Improper Activities in the 
Labor or Management Field. Chaired by Senator McClellan, who 
also chaired the Subcommittee at that time, the Select 
Committee was composed of eight Senators--four of whom were 
drawn from the Subcommittee on Investigations and four from the 
Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. The Select Committee 
operated for 3 years, sharing office space, personnel, and 
other facilities with the Permanent Subcommittee. Upon its 
expiration in early 1960, the Select Committee's jurisdiction 
and files were transferred to the Subcommittee on 
Investigations, greatly enlarging the latter body's 
investigative authority in the labor-management area.
    The Subcommittee's jurisdiction expanded further during the 
1960s and 1970s. In 1961, for example, it received authority to 
make inquiries into matters pertaining to organized crime and, 
in 1963, held the famous Valachi hearings examining the inner 
workings of the Italian Mafia. In 1967, following a summer of 
riots and other civil disturbances, the Senate approved a 
Resolution directing the Subcommittee to investigate the causes 
of this disorder and to recommend corrective action. In January 
1973, the Subcommittee acquired its national security mandate 
when it merged with the National Security Subcommittee. With 
this merger, the Subcommittee's jurisdiction was broadened to 
include inquiries concerning the adequacy of national security 
staffing and procedures, relations with international 
organizations, technology transfer issues, and related matters. 
In 1974, in reaction to the gasoline shortages precipitated by 
the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973, the Subcommittee acquired 
jurisdiction to investigate the control and management of 
energy resources and supplies as well as energy pricing issues.
    In 1997, the full Committee on Governmental Affairs was 
charged by the Senate to conduct a special examination into 
illegal or improper activities in connection with Federal 
election campaigns during the 1996 election cycle. The 
Permanent Subcommittee provided substantial resources and 
assistance to this investigation, contributing to a greater 
public understanding of what happened, to subsequent criminal 
and civil legal actions taken against wrongdoers, and to 
enactment of campaign finance reforms in 2001.
    In 1998, the Subcommittee marked the fiftieth anniversary 
of the Truman Committee's conversion into a permanent 
subcommittee of the U.S. Senate.\2\ Since then, the 
Subcommittee has developed particular expertise in complex 
financial matters, examining the collapse of Enron Corporation 
in 2001, the key causes of the 2008 financial crisis, 
structured finance abuses, financial fraud, unfair credit 
practices, money laundering, commodity speculation, and a wide 
range of offshore and tax haven abuses. It has also focused on 
issues involving health care fraud, foreign corruption, and 
waste, fraud and abuse in government programs. In the half-
century of its existence, the Subcommittee's many successful 
investigations have made clear to the Senate the importance of 
retaining a standing investigatory body devoted to keeping 
government not only efficient and effective, but also honest 
and accountable.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\This anniversary also marked the first date upon which internal 
Subcommittee records generally began to become available to the public. 
Unlike most standing committees of the Senate whose previously 
unpublished records open after a period of 20 years has elapsed, the 
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, as an investigatory body, may 
close its records for 50 years to protect personal privacy and the 
integrity of the investigatory process. With this 50th anniversary, the 
Subcommittee's earliest records, housed in the Center for Legislative 
Archives at the National Archives and Records Administration, began to 
open seriatim. The records of the predecessor committee--the Truman 
Committee--were opened by Senator Nunn in 1980.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                     B. Subcommittee Investigations

    Armed with its broad jurisdictional mandate, the 
Subcommittee has conducted investigations into a wide variety 
of topics of public concern, ranging from financial misconduct, 
to commodities speculation, predatory lending, and tax evasion. 
Over the years, the Subcommittee has also conducted 
investigations into criminal wrongdoing, including money 
laundering, the narcotics trade, child pornography, labor 
racketeering, and organized crime activities. In addition, the 
Subcommittee has investigated a wide range of allegations of 
waste, fraud, and abuse in government programs and consumer 
protection issues, addressing problems ranging from unfair 
credit card practices to health care fraud. In the 114th 
Congress, the Subcommittee held six hearings and issued eight 
reports on a wide range of issues, including the impact of the 
U.S. corporate tax code on cross-border mergers acquisitions, 
online sex trafficking, the federal government's efforts to 
protect unaccompanied migrant children from human trafficking, 
consumer protection in the cable and satellite television 
industry, terrorist networks' use of the Internet and social 
media to radicalize and recruit, the U.S. State Department's 
oversight of a grantee involved in political activities in 
Israel; and anti-abuse efforts of Medicare and private health 
insurance systems to combat the opioid epidemic.

(1) Historical Highlights
    The Subcommittee's investigatory record as a permanent 
Senate body began under the Chairmanship of Republican Senator 
Homer Ferguson and his Chief Counsel (and future Attorney 
General and Secretary of State) William P. Rogers, as the 
Subcommittee inherited the Truman Committee's role in 
investigating fraud and waste in U.S. Government operations. 
This investigative work became particularly colorful under the 
chairmanship of Senator Clyde Hoey, a North Carolina Democrat 
who took the chair from Senator Ferguson after the 1948 
elections. The last U.S. Senator to wear a long frock coat and 
wing-tipped collar, Mr. Hoey was a distinguished southern 
gentleman of the old school. Under his leadership, the 
Subcommittee won national attention for its investigation of 
the so-called ``five percenters,'' notorious Washington 
lobbyists who charged their clients five percent of the profits 
from any Federal contracts they obtained on the client's 
behalf. Given the Subcommittee's jurisdictional inheritance 
from the Truman Committee, it is perhaps ironic that the ``five 
percenters'' investigation raised allegations of bribery and 
influence-peddling that reached right into the White House and 
implicated members of President Truman's staff. In any event, 
the fledgling Subcommittee was off to a rapid start.
    What began as colorful soon became contentious. When 
Republicans returned to the Majority in the Senate in 1953, 
Wisconsin's junior Senator, Joseph R. McCarthy, became the 
Subcommittee's Chairman. Two years earlier, as Ranking Minority 
Member, Senator McCarthy had arranged for another Republican 
Senator, Margaret Chase Smith of Maine, to be removed from the 
Subcommittee. Senator Smith's offense, in Senator McCarthy's 
eyes, was her issuance of a ``Declaration of Conscience'' 
repudiating those who made unfounded charges and used character 
assassination against their political opponents. Although 
Senator Smith had carefully declined to name any specific 
offender, her remarks were universally recognized as criticism 
of Senator McCarthy's accusations that communists had 
infiltrated the State Department and other government agencies. 
Senator McCarthy retaliated by engineering Senator Smith's 
removal, replacing her with the newly-elected Senator from 
California, Richard Nixon.
    Upon becoming Subcommittee Chairman, Senator McCarthy 
staged a series of highly publicized anti-communist 
investigations, culminating in an inquiry into communism within 
the U.S. Army, which became known as the Army-McCarthy 
hearings. During the latter portion of those hearings, in which 
the parent Committee examined the Wisconsin Senator's attacks 
on the Army, Senator McCarthy recused himself, leaving South 
Dakota Senator Karl Mundt to serve as Acting Chairman of the 
Subcommittee. Gavel-to-gavel television coverage of the 
hearings helped turn the tide against Senator McCarthy by 
raising public concern about his treatment of witnesses and 
cavalier use of evidence. In December 1954, the Senate censured 
Senator McCarthy for unbecoming conduct. In the following year, 
the Subcommittee adopted new rules of procedure that better 
protected the rights of witnesses. The Subcommittee also 
strengthened the rules ensuring the right of both parties on 
the Subcommittee to appoint staff, initiate and approve 
investigations, and review all information in the 
Subcommittee's possession.
    In 1955, Senator John McClellan of Arkansas began 18 years 
of service as Chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on 
Investigations. Senator McClellan appointed a young Robert F. 
Kennedy as the Subcommittee's Chief Counsel. That same year, 
Members of the Subcommittee were joined by Members of the 
Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee on a special 
committee to investigate labor racketeering. Chaired by Senator 
McClellan and staffed by Robert Kennedy and other Subcommittee 
staff members, this special committee directed much of its 
attention to criminal influence over the Teamsters Union, most 
famously calling Teamsters' leaders Dave Beck and Jimmy Hoffa 
to testify. The televised hearings of the special committee 
also introduced Senators Barry Goldwater and John F. Kennedy to 
the nation, as well as leading to passage of the Landrum-
Griffin Labor Act.
    After the special committee completed its work, the 
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations continued to 
investigate organized crime. In 1962, the Subcommittee held 
hearings during which 
Joseph Valachi outlined the activities of La Cosa Nostra, or 
the Mafia. Former Subcommittee staffer Robert Kennedy--who had 
by then become Attorney General in his brother's 
Administration--used this information to prosecute prominent 
mob leaders and their accomplices. The Subcommittee's 
investigations also led to passage of major legislation against 
organized crime, most notably the Racketeer Influenced and 
Corrupt Organizations (RICO) provisions of the Crime Control 
Act of 1970. Under Chairman McClellan, the Subcommittee also 
investigated fraud in the purchase of military uniforms, 
corruption in the Department of Agriculture's grain storage 
program, securities fraud, and civil disorders and acts of 
terrorism. In addition, from 1962 to 1970, the Subcommittee 
conducted an extensive probe of political interference in the 
awarding of government contracts for the Pentagon's ill-fated 
TFX (``tactical fighter, experimental'') aircraft. In 1968, the 
Subcommittee also examined charges of corruption in U.S. 
servicemen's clubs in Vietnam and elsewhere around the world.
    In 1973, Senator Henry ``Scoop'' Jackson, a Democrat from 
Washington, replaced Senator McClellan as the Subcommittee's 
Chairman. During his tenure, recalled Chief Clerk Ruth Young 
Watt--who served in this position from the Subcommittee's 
founding until her retirement in 1979--Ranking Minority Member 
Charles Percy, an Illinois Republican, became more active on 
the Subcommittee than Chairman Jackson, who was often 
distracted by his Chairmanship of the Interior Committee and 
his active role on the Armed Services Committee.\3\ Senator 
Percy also worked closely with Georgia Democrat Sam Nunn, a 
Subcommittee member who subsequently succeeded Senator Jackson 
as Subcommittee Chairman in 1979. As Chairman, Senator Nunn 
continued the Subcommittee's investigations into the role of 
organized crime in labor-management relations and also 
investigated pension fraud.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\It had not been uncommon in the Subcommittee's history for the 
Chairman and Ranking Minority Member to work together closely despite 
partisan differences, but Senator Percy was unusually active while in 
the Minority--a role that included his chairing an investigation of the 
hearing aid industry.
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    Regular reversals of political fortunes in the Senate 
during the 1980s and 1990s saw Senator Nunn trade the 
chairmanship three times with Delaware Republican William Roth. 
Senator Nunn served from 1979 to 1980 and again from 1987 to 
1995, while Senator Roth served from 1981 to 1986, and again 
from 1995 to 1996. These 15 years saw a strengthening of the 
Subcommittee's bipartisan tradition in which investigations 
were initiated by either the Majority or Minority and fully 
supported by the entire Subcommittee. For his part, Senator 
Roth led a wide range of investigations into commodity 
investment fraud, offshore banking schemes, money laundering, 
and child pornography. Senator Nunn led inquiries into Federal 
drug policy, the global spread of chemical and biological 
weapons, abuses in Federal student aid programs, computer 
security, airline safety, and health care fraud. Senator Nunn 
also appointed the Subcommittee's first female counsel, 
Eleanore Hill, who served as Chief Counsel to the Minority from 
1982 to 1986 and then as Chief Counsel from 1987 to 1995.
    Strong bipartisan traditions continued in the 105th 
Congress when, in January 1997, Republican Senator Susan 
Collins of Maine became the first woman to chair the Permanent 
Subcommittee on Investigations. Senator John Glenn of Ohio 
became the Ranking Minority Member, while also serving as 
Ranking Minority Member of the full Committee. Two years later, 
in the 106th Congress, after Senator Glenn's retirement, 
Michigan Democrat Carl Levin succeeded him as the 
Subcommittee's Ranking Minority Member. During Senator Collins' 
chairmanship, the Subcommittee conducted investigations into 
issues affecting Americans in their day-to-day lives, including 
mortgage fraud, deceptive mailings and sweepstakes promotions, 
phony credentials obtained through the Internet, day trading of 
securities, and securities fraud on the Internet. Senator Levin 
initiated an investigation into money laundering. At his 
request, in 1999, the Subcommittee held hearings on money 
laundering issues affecting private banking services provided 
to wealthy individuals, and, in 2001, on how major U.S. banks 
providing correspondent accounts to offshore banks were being 
used to advance money laundering and other criminal schemes.
    During the 107th Congress, both Senator Collins and Senator 
Levin chaired the Subcommittee. Senator Collins was chairman 
until June 2001, when the Senate Majority party changed hands; 
at that point, Senator Levin assumed the chairmanship and 
Senator Collins, in turn, became the Ranking Minority Member. 
In her first six months chairing the Subcommittee at the start 
of the 107th Congress, Senator Collins held hearings examining 
issues related to cross border fraud, the improper operation of 
tissue banks, and Federal programs designed to fight diabetes. 
When Senator Levin assumed the chairmanship, as his first major 
effort, the Subcommittee initiated an 18-month bipartisan 
investigation into the Enron Corporation, which had collapsed 
into bankruptcy. As part of that investigation, the 
Subcommittee reviewed over 2 million pages of documents, 
conducted more than 100 interviews, held four hearings, and 
issued three bipartisan reports focusing on the role played by 
Enron's Board of Directors, Enron's use of tax shelters and 
structured financial instruments, and how major U.S. financial 
institutions contributed to Enron's accounting deceptions, 
corporate abuses, and ultimate collapse. The Subcommittee's 
investigative work contributed to passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley 
Act which enacted accounting and corporate reforms in July 
2002. In addition, Senator Levin continued the money laundering 
investigation initiated while he was the Ranking Minority 
Member, and the Subcommittee's work contributed to enactment of 
major reforms strengthening U.S. anti-money laundering laws in 
the 2001 Patriot Act. Also during the 107th Congress, the 
Subcommittee opened new investigations into offshore tax 
abuses, border security, and abusive practices related to the 
pricing of gasoline and other fuels.
    In January 2003, at the start of the 108th Congress, after 
the Senate Majority party again changed hands, Senator Collins 
was elevated to Chairman of the full Committee on Governmental 
Affairs, and Republican Senator Norm Coleman of Minnesota 
became Chairman of the Subcommittee. Over the next two years, 
Senator Coleman held hearings on topics of national and global 
concern including illegal file sharing on peer-to-peer 
networks, abusive practices in the credit counseling industry, 
the dangers of purchasing pharmaceuticals over the Internet, 
SARS preparedness, border security, and how Saddam Hussein 
abused the United Nations Oil for Food Program. At the request 
of Senator Levin, then Ranking Minority Member, the 
Subcommittee also examined how some U.S. accounting firms, 
banks, investment firms, and tax lawyers were designing, 
promoting, and implementing abusive tax shelters across the 
country; and how some U.S. financial institutions were failing 
to comply with anti-money laundering controls mandated by the 
Patriot Act, using as a case history Riggs Bank accounts 
involving Augusto Pinochet, the former President of Chile, and 
Equatorial Guinea, an oil-rich country in Africa.
    During the 109th Congress, Senator Coleman held additional 
hearings on abuses associated with the United Nation's Oil for 
Food Program, and initiated a series of hearings on Federal 
contractors who were paid with taxpayer dollars but failed to 
meet their own tax obligations, resulting in billions of 
dollars in unpaid taxes. He also held hearings on border 
security issues, securing the global supply chain, Federal 
travel abuses, abusive tax refund loans, and unfair energy 
pricing. At Senator Levin's request, the Subcommittee held 
hearings on offshore tax abuses responsible for $100 billion in 
unpaid taxes each year, and on U.S. vulnerabilities caused by 
states forming 2 million companies each year with hidden 
owners.

    During the 110th Congress, in January 2007, after the 
Senate majority shifted, Senator Levin once again became 
Subcommittee Chairman, while Senator Coleman became the Ranking 
Minority Member. Senator Levin chaired the Subcommittee for the 
next seven years. He focused the Subcommittee on investigations 
into complex financial and tax matters, including unfair credit 
card practices, executive stock option abuses, excessive 
speculation in the natural gas and crude oil markets, and 
offshore tax abuses involving tax haven banks and non-U.S. 
persons dodging payment of U.S. taxes on U.S. stock dividends. 
The Subcommittee's work contributed to enactment of two 
landmark bills, the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility 
and Disclosure Act (Credit CARD Act) which reformed credit card 
practices, and the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) 
which tackled the problem of hidden offshore bank accounts used 
by U.S. persons to dodge U.S. taxes. At the request of Senator 
Coleman, the Subcommittee also conducted bipartisan 
investigations into Medicare and Medicaid health care providers 
who cheat on their taxes, fraudulent Medicare claims involving 
deceased doctors or inappropriate diagnosis codes, U.S. dirty 
bomb vulnerabilities, Federal payroll tax abuses, abusive 
practices involving transit benefits, and problems involving 
the United Nations Development Program.

(2) More Recent Investigations
    During the 111th Congress, Senator Levin continued as 
Subcommittee Chairman, while Senator Tom Coburn joined the 
Subcommittee as its Ranking Minority Member. Under their 
leadership, the Subcommittee dedicated much of its resources to 
a bipartisan investigation into key causes of the 2008 
financial crisis, looking in particular at the role of high 
risk home loans, regulatory failures, inflated credit ratings, 
and high-risk, conflicts-ridden financial products designed and 
sold by investment banks. The Subcommittee held four hearings 
and released thousands of documents. The Subcommittee's work 
contributed to passage of another landmark financial reform 
bill, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection 
Act of 2010. In addition, the Subcommittee held hearings on 
excessive speculation in the wheat market, tax haven banks that 
helped U.S. clients evade U.S. taxes, how to keep foreign 
corruption out of the United States, and Social Security 
disability fraud.
    During the 112th Congress, Senator Levin and Senator Coburn 
continued in their respective roles as Chairman and Ranking 
Minority Member of the Subcommittee. In a series of bipartisan 
investigations, the Subcommittee examined how a global banking 
giant, HSBC, exposed the U.S. financial system to an array of 
money laundering, drug trafficking, and terrorist financing 
risks due to poor anti-money laundering controls; how two U.S. 
multinational corporations engaged in offshore tax abuses, 
including how Microsoft shifted profits offshore to dodge U.S. 
taxes, and Hewlett Packard secretly brought offshore funds back 
home without paying taxes by utilizing abusive short term loan 
schemes; and how excessive commodity speculation by mutual 
funds and others were taking place without Dodd-Frank 
safeguards such as position limits being put into effect. At 
the request of Senator Coburn, the Subcommittee also conducted 
bipartisan investigations into problems with Social Security 
disability determinations that, due to poor procedures, 
perfunctory hearings, and poor quality decisions, resulted in 
over 1 in 5 disability cases containing errors or inadequate 
justifications; how DHS state and local intelligence fusion 
centers failed to yield significant, useful information to 
support Federal counterterrorism efforts; and how certain 
Federal contractors that received taxpayer dollars through 
stimulus funding nevertheless failed to pay their Federal 
taxes.
    During the 113th Congress, Senator Levin continued as 
Chairman, while Senator John McCain joined the Subcommittee as 
its Ranking Minority Member. They continued to strengthen the 
Subcommittee's strong bipartisan traditions, conducting all 
investigations in a bipartisan manner. During the 113th 
Congress, the Subcommittee held eight hearings and released ten 
reports on a variety of investigations. The investigations 
examined high risk credit derivatives trades at JPMorgan; 
hidden offshore accounts opened for U.S. clients by Credit 
Suisse in Switzerland; corporate tax avoidance in case studies 
involving Apple, Caterpillar, and a structured financial 
product known as basket options; online advertising abuses; 
conflicts of interest affecting the stock market and high speed 
trading; IRS processing of 501(c)(4) applications; defense 
acquisition reforms; and bank involvement with physical 
commodities. At the end of the 113th Congress, Senator Levin 
retired from the Senate.
    During the 114th Congress, Senator Rob Portman became 
Subcommittee Chairman with Senator Claire McCaskill serving as 
Ranking Minority Member. Under the Chairman and Ranking 
Member's leadership, the Subcommittee held six hearings and 
issued eight reports addressing range of public policy 
concerns. Investigations examined the impact of the U.S. 
corporate tax code on cross-border mergers acquisitions; online 
sex trafficking; the federal government's efforts to protect 
unaccompanied migrant children from human trafficking; consumer 
protection in the cable and satellite television industry; 
terrorist networks' use of the Internet and social media to 
radicalize and recruit; the U.S. State Department's oversight 
of a grantee involved in political activities in Israel; and 
anti-abuse efforts of Medicare and private health insurance 
systems to combat the opioid epidemic. The Subcommittee also 
initiated the first successful civil contempt proceedings to 
enforce a Senate subpoena in twenty years. The Subcommittee's 
long-term investigation of online sex trafficking culminated in 
a final report and hearing on January 10, 2017, at the start of 
the 115th Congress.

          II. SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS DURING THE 114TH CONGRESS


A. Impact of the U.S. Tax Code on the Market for Corporate Control and 
        Jobs (July 30, 2015)

    The Subcommittee's first hearing and staff report in the 
114th Congress examined the impact of the U.S. corporate tax 
code on foreign acquisitions of U.S. businesses and the ability 
of U.S. businesses to expand by acquisition. The hearing 
featured two panels of witnesses. The first panel was comprised 
of Jim Koch, founder and chairman of Boston Beer Company; David 
Pyott, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of 
Allergan, Inc. from 1998 to 2015; and Walter Gavin of Emerson, 
Vice Chairman (October 2009 to February 2013) and Chief 
Financial Officer (1993-2010). The second panel of witnesses 
included Howard Schiller of Valeant Pharmaceuticals 
International, Inc, Chief Financial Officer (December 2011 to 
June 2015) and member of the Board of Directors (September 2012 
to present); and Joshua Kobza, Chief Financial Officer at 
Restaurant Brands International.

B. Human Trafficking Investigation (November 19, 2015)

    The Subcommittee's second hearing concerned the 
Subcommittee's human trafficking investigation. The 
Subcommittee's bipartisan investigation examined how sex 
traffickers increasingly use the Internet to advance their 
trade and evade detection. The hearing also laid the necessary 
foundation for contempt proceedings against Backpage.com's CEO 
after the company refused to comply with the Subcommittee's 
subpoena. The hearing featured two panels of witnesses. The 
first panel was composed of Yiota Souras, Senior Vice President 
and General Counsel for the National Center for Missing and 
Exploited Children; and Darwin Roberts, Deputy Attorney General 
of the Washington State Attorney General's Office. Carl Ferrer, 
Chief Executive Officer at Backpage.com, LLC, refused to appear 
despite being under subpoena. The Subcommittee initiated a 
civil contempt proceeding that remains under litigation.

C. Adequacy of the Department of Health and Human Services' Efforts to 
        Protect Unaccompanied Children From Human Trafficking (January 
        28, 2016)

    The Subcommittee's third hearing and report examined the 
deficiencies in the procedures used by the Department of Health 
and Human Services (HHS) Department of Office of Refugee 
Resettlement (ORR) to safely place unaccompanied alien children 
(UACs) with sponsors in the United States. The hearing featured 
two panels of witnesses. The first panel consisted of Mark 
Greenberg, Acting Assistant Secretary, Administration for 
Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services; and Robert Carey, Director of the Office of Refugee 
Resettlement, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The 
second panel included testimony from Tiffany Nelms, Associate 
Director of Children's Services, U.S. Committee for Refugees 
and Immigrants; Jennifer Justice, Deputy Director of the Office 
of Families and Children, Ohio Department of Job and Family 
Services; and Kimberly Haynes, Director for Children's 
Services, Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service.
    In response to the investigation, ORR changed a number of 
policies related to the safety of UACs. Under the new policy, 
certain criminal history and substantiated child welfare 
findings will automatically disqualify individuals from serving 
as Category 2 and Category 3 sponsors. All non-sponsor adult 
household members and adult care givers identified in a sponsor 
care plan will undergo a public records check and a sex 
offender registry check and ORR no longer requires the 
potential sponsor or household member to authorize the release 
of information prior to ORR performing either a public records 
check or a sex offender registry check. ORR began allowing for 
discretionary home studies in cases where a home study is not 
otherwise required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. 
ORR also made procedural changes, including more frequent, 
regular meetings with stakeholders.

D. Review of the Affordable Care Act Health Insurance CO-OP Program 
        (March 10, 2016)

    The Subcommittee's fourth hearing of the 114th Congress 
examined the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) loan 
program established by the Patient Protection and Affordable 
Care Act and the mismanagement, taxpayer waste, and losses 
related to the failed CO-OPs. The hearing featured two panels 
of witnesses. The first panel consisted of Andy Slavitt, Acting 
Administrator, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; and 
Kevin Counihan, Marketplace Chief Executive Office and Deputy 
Administrator, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The 
second panel heard testimony from Dr. Scott Harrington, Alan B. 
Miller Professor, Chair, Health Care Management Department, The 
Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

E. Customer Service and Billing Practices in the Cable and Satellite 
        Television Industry (June 23, 2016)

    The Subcommittee's fifth hearing of the 114th Congress 
examined the billing and customer service practices in the 
cable and satellite television industry. Representatives from 
Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Charter Communications, DirecTV, 
and Dish testified on matters related to customer service 
issues. Combined, these five companies provide programming to 
more than 70 percent of pay-TV subscribers and reach more than 
half of all American households. The hearing featured a panel 
of witnesses including Tom Karinshak, Senior Vice President of 
Customer Service, Comcast; John Keib, Former Executive Vice 
President and Chief Operating Officer, Residential Services, 
Time Warner Cable; Kathleen ``Kip'' Mayo, Executive Vice 
President, Customer Operations, Charter Communications; Rasesh 
Patel, Senior Vice President, Product Management, AT&T; 
Entertainment Group (DirecTV); and Kathleen Schneider, Senior 
Vice President, Operations, Dish Network.
    As a result of this investigation, both Time Warner Cable 
and Charter have taken steps to address these issues. Each 
month, Time Warner Cable performs an audit comparing its 
billing records with service records. Going forward, the 
company will provide an automatic one-month credit to anyone 
who is identified in the audit as having been overcharged. Time 
Warner Cable will not, however, investigate when it began 
overcharging customers unless customers bring specific concerns 
to the company's attention, nor will it provide a full refund 
dating back to when the overcharge began. Similarly, Charter 
will provide customers with a one-year credit for any equipment 
overcharges. Charter has also implemented systemic controls 
that it says will prevent equipment overcharges in the future.
    As a result of the investigation's focus on customer 
service practices, cable and satellite providers acknowledged 
the need to improve their customer service, and provided 
information to the Subcommittee regarding their efforts to 
identify and address customer pain points and improve the 
customer experience. After meeting with the Subcommittee, 
Comcast stressed to its retention agents that its policy 
allowed them to stop trying to ``save'' the customer if the 
customer refused or became upset by a retention agent's request 
to ask the customer questions about their decision to 
disconnect.

F. ISIS Online: Countering Terrorist Radicalization & Recruitment on 
        the Internet & Social Media (July 6, 2016)

    The sixth Subcommittee hearing of the 114th Congress 
examined the threat posed by terrorist propaganda and U.S. 
government efforts to counter it, with a particular focus on 
the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria's (ISIS) and other 
terrorist networks' use of online communications to radicalize 
and recruit within the United States. The hearing featured two 
panels of witnesses. The first panel consisted of Michael 
Steinbach, Executive Assistant Director, National Security 
Branch, Federal Bureau of Investigation; George Selim, 
Director, Office of Community Partnerships, U.S. Department of 
Homeland Security and Director, Interagency Task Force on 
Countering Violent Extremism; and Meagen LaGraffe, Chief of 
Staff to the Coordinator and Special Envoy, Global Engagement 
Center, U.S. Department of State. The second panel heard 
testimony from Peter Bergen, Vice President, New America 
Foundation; and Alberto Fernandez, Vice President, The Middle 
East Media Research Institute.

         III. LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITIES DURING THE 114TH CONGRESS

    The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations does not have 
legislative authority, but because its investigations play an 
important role in bringing issues to the attention of Congress 
and the public, the Subcommittee's work contributes to the 
development of legislative initiatives. The Subcommittee's 
activity during the 114th Congress was no exception, with 
Subcommittee hearings and Members playing prominent roles in 
several legislative initiatives.

A. Directing the Senate Legal Counsel to bring a civil action to 
        enforce a subpoena of the Permanent Subcommittee on 
        Investigations (S. Res. 377)

    On March 17, 2016, Senators Rob Portman and Claire 
McCaskill introduced Senate Resolution 377 to hold Backpage.com 
in civil contempt of Congress. Senators Portman and McCaskill 
issued a subpoena to Backpage.com for documents about the 
company's business practices, particularly how it screens 
advertisements for warning signs of sex trafficking. Because 
Backpage refused to comply with that subpoena, Senators Portman 
and McCaskill introduced a Senate resolution to hold the 
company in civil contempt and force Backpage to turn over 
withheld documents. The Resolution passed the Senate 
unanimously by a vote of 96-0, marking the first time in more 
than twenty years that the Senate has had to enforce a subpoena 
in court. More broadly, the Subcommittee is developing a 
factual record that may form the basis for legislative reforms 
designed to combat online sex trafficking, including potential 
reforms of the Communications Decency Act.

B. A bill to enhance whistleblower protection for contractor and 
        grantee employees (S. 795)

    In March 2015, Senator Claire McCaskill introduced S. 795, 
a bill that would extend existing whistleblower protections for 
federal contractors to all non-intelligence-community federal 
government grantees, subgrantees, and subcontractors, and make 
permanent these protections. The bill also prohibits 
contractors from being reimbursed for legal fees accrued in 
their defense against retaliation claims by whistleblowers. The 
bill passed with unanimous consent of the Senate on June 23, 
2016 before moving to the House of Representatives. On December 
5, 2016, the House of Representatives approved S. 795, and on 
December 14, 2016, President Obama signed the bill into law.

                    IV. REPORTS, PRINTS, AND STUDIES

    In connection with its investigations, the Subcommittee 
often issues lengthy and detailed reports. During the 114th 
Congress, the Subcommittee released eight such reports, listed 
below.

A. Impact on the U.S. Tax Code on the Market for Corporate Control and 
        Jobs, July 30, 2015 (Report Prepared by the Majority Staff of 
        the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and released in 
        conjunction with the Subcommittee's hearing on July 30, 2015)

    In July 2015, the majority staff of the Subcommittee 
released its first report of the 114th Congress. This 133-page 
report examined the effect of the U.S. tax code on the market 
for corporate control of American companies.
    The report detailed how the United States has the highest 
corporate tax rate in the industrialized world, and (alone 
among its peers) has retained a worldwide system that taxes 
American companies for the privilege of repatriating their 
overseas earnings. Meanwhile, most other nations with advanced 
economies have adopted competitive tax rates and territorial-
type tax systems. As a result, U.S. firms too often have a 
significant incentive to relocate their headquarters overseas. 
Corporate inversions may be the most dramatic manifestation of 
that incentive, but the far greater part of the story concerns 
other more common forms of cross-border mergers and 
acquisitions.
    Through a detailed review of several important cross-border 
transactions, the Subcommittee's investigation found that the 
increase in after-tax profits created by escaping the U.S. tax 
net can (i) contribute significantly to foreign corporations' 
ability to acquire American firms; and (ii) create powerful 
incentives for American firms that merge with foreign 
corporations to locate their new combined headquarters abroad. 
Both phenomena can lead to a significant loss of American jobs, 
business headquarters, and tax revenues.
    First, the Subcommittee examined three major acquisitions 
of U.S. companies by Valeant Pharmaceuticals, a successful, 
serial acquirer headquartered in Quebec. Since merging with a 
Canadian firm and relocating to Canada, Valeant has achieved a 
single-digit cash effective tax rate. Its longtime Chief 
Financial Officer said that rate has ``turbocharged'' Valeant's 
expansion by acquisition,\1\ making it the sixth largest OECD-
based foreign acquirer of U.S. companies in terms of deal 
price, according to third-party data compiled by the Joint 
Committee on Taxation. When evaluating an acquisition, Valeant 
considers many factors but focuses on two key deal targets: the 
projected internal rate of return it can expect, and the 
``payback'' period of the acquisition-the time it will take 
Valeant to recover its investment. As a guideline, Valeant 
generally seeks deals projected to achieve a 20 percent 
internal rate of return and a payback period of six years or 
less.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Subcommittee Interview of Howard Schiller, Corporate Dir., 
Valeant Pharm. Inc. (July 24, 2015). Schiller elaborated: ``I think the 
clear answer is that what really distinguishes Valeant is its ability 
to create value [through its business model]. . . . But its tax rate 
has augmented its growth. There is no question that we would not be in 
the same place we are in today if we had a higher tax rate. We have 
been able to plow that [after-tax profit] back in at very high rate of 
return.''
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    To understand the role of tax considerations in Valeant's 
deals, PSI reviewed Valeant's recent multibillion-dollar 
acquisitions of three U.S. companies: Medicis, Bausch & Lomb, 
and Salix. Valeant's primary valuation of target companies was 
based on an assumed U.S. tax rate of 36 percent-close to the 
U.S. target companies' actual or projected rates. In each 
transaction the Subcommittee reviewed, however, Valeant 
performed a pre-acquisition tax analysis to determine the lower 
tax rate that could be achieved by integrating its U.S. target 
into Valeant's corporate group headquartered in Canada. 
Applying that new, lower tax rate to the U.S. company's future 
cash flow, Valeant evaluated the deal along the two key 
guidelines mentioned above-whether it could meet (or 
approximate) its targeted 20 percent return and six-year 
payback period. In each case, Valeant's ability to hit or 
approximate those targets depended to a large extent on its 
ability to lower the target company's tax rate. In other words, 
tax savings helped justify the price that Valeant was able to 
pay while hitting its ambitious financial goals. Valeant's 
projected post-acquisition tax savings for Bausch & Lomb alone 
exceeded $3.6 billion over ten years, and its projected tax 
savings for Salix exceeded $560 million over five years. And 
although Valeant did not project specific tax savings for 
Medicis, we estimate the potential savings at approximately 
$680 million over ten years.
    It is important to note that none of these acquisitions 
were ``tax-motivated'' in the sense that Valeant was aiming to 
reduce its own tax liabilities. Instead, they illustrate that 
foreign acquirers that hail from more favorable tax 
jurisdictions are able to create value simply by restructuring 
the affairs of the U.S. target companies to improve their tax 
profile. In Valeant's case, those tax savings significantly 
enhanced the deal along the key metrics that Valeant uses to 
decide whether to undertake an acquisition.
    Second, the Subcommittee examined a major transaction that 
can be thought of as a ``merger of equals'': Burger King's 
$11.4 billion merger with the anadian restaurant business Tim 
Hortons. The Subcommittee's review showed that Burger King had 
clear business reasons to team up with Tim Hortons. But when 
deciding where to locate the headquarters of the combined firm, 
tax considerations flatly ruled out the United States from the 
outset. Burger King calculated that pulling Tim Hortons into 
the worldwide U.S. tax net, rather than relocating to Canada, 
would destroy up to $5.5 billion in value over just five years. 
Far better, executives concluded, to put the new company in a 
country that would allow it to reinvest overseas earnings back 
in the United States and Canada without incurring new taxes.
    Finally, the Subcommittee conducted a limited review of the 
tax and employment consequences of InBev's 2008 acquisition of 
Anheuser Busch. Through that deal, InBev was able to integrate 
a U.S. company with a pre-acquisition worldwide effective tax 
rate of approximately 39 percent into a worldwide corporate 
group with an effective tax rate of 19 percent. It is clear 
from the record that a significant number of U.S. jobs were 
lost following that acquisition. From 2007 to 2015, the number 
of U.S.-based employees of AB InBev declined by about 30 
percent, while the number of employees based in Leuven, Belgium 
and the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil rose by 34 percent. In 
particular, the company's U.S. headcount was reduced from 
18,345 in 2007 to 12,938 in 2015. That 30 percent reduction is 
significantly higher than the 10 percent to 15 percent decrease 
that Anheuser-Busch announced before the merger as part of its 
restructuring plan.

B. Recommendation to Enforce a Subpoena Issued to the CEO of 
        Backpage.com LLC, November 19, 2015 (Report Prepared by the 
        Majority and Minority Staffs of the Permanent Subcommittee on 
        Investigations and released in conjunction with the 
        Subcommittee's hearing on November 19, 2015)

    Backpage.com and its Chief Executive Officer, Carl Ferrer, 
failed to comply with a subpoena issued by the Subcommittee. 
This report, released on November 19, 2015, detailed the 
Subcommittee's investigation and recommended enforcement of 
that subpoena. Backpage.com claims to be a market-leader in 
combatting human trafficking online. The company touts its 
``moderation'' practices-the process of reviewing 
advertisements to screen them for evidence of violations of its 
terms of use and possible illegality. To better understand 
these procedures, their efficacy, and their costs, the 
Subcommittee served a subpoena on Backpage requiring the 
production of documents concerning Backpage's moderation and 
ad-review procedures, basic financial information, and other 
topics. Backpage refused to comply with the subpoena. 
Undeterred by Backpage's noncompliance with its process, the 
Subcommittee pursued its fact-finding through other means. In 
this report, we detailed our preliminary findings. In our view, 
they only underscored the importance of the issues the 
Subcommittee is probing and the need for enforcement of the 
subpoena.
    First, the Subcommittee found substantial evidence that 
Backpage edits the content of some ads, including by deleting 
words and images, before publication. The record indicates that 
in some cases, these deletions likely served to remove evidence 
of the illegality of the underlying transaction. Specifically, 
as part of its moderation process, it appears that Backpage 
will delete particular words or images from an advertisement 
before posting it to the web, if those words or images violate 
its terms of service. The Subcommittee attempted to take the 
testimony of two Backpage employees in charge of its moderation 
practices, but they refused to testify on the grounds that it 
might incriminate them. The Subcommittee, however, obtained 
evidence demonstrating that, from 2010 to 2012, when Backpage 
outsourced its moderation work to India, it did delete certain 
images, words, or phrases from ``adult'' advertisements. The 
Subcommittee's subpoena sought information regarding whether 
Backpage's current practices have the purpose or effect of 
removing images or text that could alert law enforcement to the 
nature and extent of the transaction being offered.
    Second, the Subcommittee had additional concerns about the 
steps Backpage takes to ensure that it can be helpful when 
called upon to cooperate with law enforcement investigations of 
potential human trafficking. Backpage, for example, does not 
retain the metadata associated with images posted to its site, 
which would be helpful to law enforcement in identifying 
victims of human trafficking. In addition, the record is 
unclear about what steps Backpage takes to ``hash'' images-that 
is, to assign them a unique identifier. Backpage claims that it 
does hash images, but at least one credible report disputes 
that.
    Third, the Subcommittee attempted to learn more about 
Backpage's corporate structure and finances. Earlier in 2015, 
Backpage's corporate group was assessed by an independent 
appraiser at a fair market value of between $618.4 million and 
$625.8 million. More striking, the company's EBITDA margin (a 
common measurement of a company's operating profitability) was 
a staggering 82.4 percent in 2014. If true, that suggests 
Backpage has the resources for additional action against human 
trafficking on its website, but perhaps lacks the financial 
incentives to reject an increased number of ads, thereby 
reducing its revenue from advertisements.
    Finally, the Subcommittee learned that, at least in one 
case, Backpage customers were able to evade limits placed on 
its access to credit card networks by a major financial 
institution. That institution attempted to block its card 
holders from completing transactions with Backpage.com, out of 
concern that the site was potentially facilitating human 
trafficking. Despite this block, Backpage modified its merchant 
code, allowing cardholders to continue completing transactions.
    The Subcommittee's long-term investigation of online sex 
trafficking resulted in a major report issued on January 9, 
2017, and a Subcommittee hearing held that same day.

C. Protecting Unaccompanied Alien Children from Trafficking and Other 
        Abuses: The Role of the Office of Refugee Resettlement, January 
        28, 2016 (Report Prepared by the Majority and Minority Staffs 
        of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and released in 
        conjunction with the Subcommittee's hearing on January 28, 
        2016)

    In January 2016, the Subcommittee released a 56-page 
bipartisan staff report examining deficiencies in the 
procedures used by the Department of Health and Human Services 
(HHS) to safely place unaccompanied alien children with 
sponsors in the United States.
    The report detailed how each year, tens of thousands of 
children enter the United States, unaccompanied by their 
parents or relatives. If taken into U.S. custody, those 
children are designated ``unaccompanied alien children'' or 
``UACs.'' Congress has tasked HHS with finding appropriate 
homes in which to place UACs temporarily, pending the 
resolution of immigration proceedings. The agency within HHS 
that performs that function is the Office of Refugee 
Resettlement (ORR). Through procedures described in this 
report, HHS attempts to place each UAC with a suitable adult 
sponsor-someone who can care for them and ensure their 
appearance at their immigration hearings. In carrying out this 
responsibility, federal law requires HHS to ensure that UACs 
are protected from human trafficking and other forms of abuse.
    Over a period of four months in 2014, however, HHS 
allegedly placed a number of UACs in the hands of a ring of 
human traffickers who forced them to work on egg farms in and 
around Marion, Ohio, leading to a federal criminal indictment. 
According to the indictment, the minor victims were forced to 
work six or seven days a week, twelve hours per day. The 
traffickers repeatedly threatened the victims and their 
families with physical harm, and even death, if they did not 
work or surrender their entire paychecks. The indictment 
alleges that the defendants ``used a combination of threats, 
humiliation, deprivation, financial coercion, debt 
manipulation, and monitoring to create a climate of fear and 
helplessness that would compel [the victims'] compliance.''
    Those tragic events prompted the Subcommittee to launch an 
investigation of HHS's process for screening potential UAC 
sponsors and other measures to protect UACs from trafficking. 
The Subcommittee's initial review of the Marion case files 
revealed information that suggests these terrible crimes were 
likely preventable. Specifically, the files reveal that, from 
June through September 2014, HHS placed a number of UACs with 
alleged distant relatives or family friends-including one of 
the defendants in the criminal case-without taking sufficient 
steps to ensure that the placements would be safe. HHS failed 
to run background checks on the adults in the sponsors' 
households as well as secondary caregivers; failed to visit any 
of the sponsors' homes; and failed to realize that a group of 
sponsors was accumulating multiple unrelated children. In 
August 2014, HHS permitted a sponsor to block a child-welfare 
case worker from visiting with one of the victims, even after 
the case worker discovered the child was not living at the 
address on file with HHS.
    Based on its investigation, the Subcommittee concluded that 
HHS's policies and procedures are inadequate to protect the 
children in the agency's care. The Subcommittee's investigation 
focused on what HHS calls Category 3 sponsors-those who have no 
close relation to the child, and therefore resemble foster-care 
providers or similar temporary custodial arrangements. Serious 
deficiencies found by the Subcommittee include:

      HHS's process for verifying the alleged 
relationship between a UAC and an individual other than a 
parent, guardian, or close family member is unreliable and 
vulnerable to abuse. In general, HHS accepts the alleged 
relationship between a Category 3 sponsor and a UAC (e.g., 
``neighbor from home country'') if a person claiming to be the 
child's family member corroborates it. In a number of cases, 
however, parents who consented to the placement of their 
children with certain sponsors were also complicit in the 
children's smuggling. In the Marion cases, for example, several 
victims' family members attested to the asserted relationship, 
but there was a reason: The human traffickers held the deeds to 
some of the families' homes as collateral for the child's 
journey to the United States. The sooner the child was released 
from HHS custody, the sooner he or she could begin working to 
repay the debt. Other cases revealed that parents have deceived 
HHS by claiming that a relationship existed between the sponsor 
and the UAC when it did not.
      HHS is unable to detect when a sponsor or group 
of related sponsors is seeking custody of multiple unrelated 
children. The agency could not detect that sponsors in the 
Marion cases were collecting multiple, unrelated children-a 
warning sign of a potential trafficking ring that warrants, at 
a minimum, additional scrutiny.
      HHS has failed to conduct adequate background 
checks. Throughout the time period examined by the 
Subcommittee, HHS did not conduct background checks on all 
relevant adults. HHS's longstanding policy was to conduct 
background checks only on the sponsor, and not on any other 
adult listed as living in the sponsor's home or on the person 
designated as the ``backup'' sponsor. And if that check turned 
up a criminal history, HHS policy was that no criminal 
conviction could disqualify a sponsor, no matter how serious. 
Effective January 25, 2016, HHS has strengthened its background 
check policies.
      HHS does not adequately conduct home studies. 
Home studies are universally performed in foster care 
placements, but HHS commonly places children with sponsors 
without ever meeting that sponsor in person or setting eyes on 
the home in which the child will be placed. The agency 
performed home studies in less than 4.3 percent of cases from 
2013 through 2015. No home studies were conducted in the Marion 
cases.
      After a child's release to a sponsor, HHS allows 
sponsors to refuse post-release services offered to the child-
and even to bar contact between the child and an HHS care 
provider attempting to provide those services. That policy 
caused HHS to miss a potential opportunity to uncover the crime 
perpetrated in the Marion cases when one of the victim's 
sponsors refused to permit access to the child.
      Many UACs fail to appear at immigration 
proceedings. Ensuring the UAC's appearance at immigration 
proceedings is a principal task of a UAC's sponsor, and failure 
to appear at an immigration hearing can have significant 
adverse consequences for an alien child. Based on Department of 
Justice data, 40 percent of completed UAC immigration cases 
over an eighteen-month period resulted in an in absentia 
removal order based on the UAC's failure to appear.

    These deficiencies in HHS's policies expose UACs to an 
unacceptable risk of trafficking and other forms of abuse at 
the hands of their government-approved sponsors. Beyond the 
Marion case files, the Subcommittee identified and reviewed 
thirteen other cases involving post-placement trafficking of 
UACs and fifteen additional cases with serious trafficking 
indicators. The Subcommittee was unable to say, however, with 
any certainty how many more UACs placed by HHS have been 
victims of trafficking or other abuses, in part because HHS 
maintains no regularized means of tracking such cases.

D. Failure of the Affordable Care Act Health Insurance CO-OPs, March 
        10, 2016 (Report Prepared by the Majority Staff of the 
        Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and released in 
        conjunction with the Subcommittee's hearing on March 10, 2016)

    In March 2016, the Majority Staff of the Subcommittee 
released its fourth report of the 114th Congress. This 63-page 
report examined the failures of the twelve Consumer Operated 
and Oriented Plan Program (CO-OP Program) created under the 
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).
    The report detailed that under the CO-OP Program, the 
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) distributed loans 
to consumer-governed, nonprofit health insurance issuers. HHS 
ultimately received $2.4 billion of taxpayer money to fund 23 
CO-OPs that participated in the program. Twelve of those 
twenty-three CO-OPs failed at the time of the Subcommittee's 
hearing, leaving 740,000 people in fourteen states searching 
for new coverage and leaving the taxpayer little hope of 
recovering the $1.2 billion in loans HHS disbursed to those 
failed insurance businesses.
    The Subcommittee completed an investigation of that 
failure-and whether HHS exercised good stewardship of public 
money when it poured billions of dollars into these insurance 
startups. The Subcommittee's investigation revealed that it did 
not. HHS was alerted to weaknesses in the failed CO-OPs' 
business plans and financial forecasts before it approved their 
initial loans; failed to use major accountability and oversight 
tools available to it throughout 2014 even though it knew of 
the CO-OPs' severe financial distress; continued to disburse 
loans to failing CO-OPs despite warning signs; and allowed CO-
OPs to continue to book risk corridor payments as assets 
despite credible warnings that those payments would not 
materialize. Some of the report's key findings are summarized 
below.
    First, HHS approved the failed CO-OPs despite receiving 
specific warnings from a third-party analyst about weaknesses 
in their business plans. Before it approved the now-failed CO-
OPs, HHS retained Deloitte Consulting LLP to evaluate the CO-
OPs' loan applications and business plans. Deloitte's analysis, 
reviewed by the Subcommittee, notified HHS of several 
significant weaknesses in the CO-OPs' business proposals. Those 
weaknesses included:

      Defective Enrollment Strategies. Deloitte 
identified serious problems in the enrollment strategy of seven 
of the twelve failed CO-OPs. Those problems ranged from 
inadequate actuarial analysis, to unsupported assumptions about 
sustainable premiums, to a lack of demonstrated understanding 
of the health demographics of the COOP's target population.
      Budgetary and Financial Planning Problems. 
Deloitte's reports reveal that the proposed budgets of ten of 
the twelve failed CO-OPs were incomplete, and Deloitte thought 
that many were unreasonable, not cost-effective, or not aligned 
with the CO-OP's own financial projections. Deloitte also 
expressed skepticism about the risk-taking and unreasonable 
assumptions reflected in some of the CO-OPs' financial 
projections. The firm warned that Colorado, Utah, and Louisiana 
all relied on unreasonable projections of their own growth. It 
cautioned that it could not trace the assumptions underlying 
the budgets of the Nevada, Tennessee, and Kentucky CO-OPs to 
their actual business plans. And, perhaps tongue-in-cheek, it 
observed that Iowa and Nebraska's 
CO-OP, CoOpportunity, had a target profit ``much lower than the 
industry benchmark'' of 4.8 percent: CoOpportunity's stated 
target profit margin was zero.
      Management Weaknesses. HHS required the CO-OP 
applicants to identify their management teams, including the 
qualifications and experience of its leadership. In Deloitte's 
reports to HHS, the firm identified some leadership concerns 
for all of the twelve failed CO-OPs. Several prospective 
CO-OPs had not even identified their senior leadership team, 
and others had executives for whom background checks turned up 
red flags.

    Despite these identified weaknesses, Deloitte gave each CO-
OP a ``passing'' score based on a grading scale set by HHS, and 
HHS approved the loans in spite of the warning signs.
    Second, even though HHS was aware of serious financial 
distress suffered by the CO-OPs in 2014, it failed to take any 
corrective action or enhance oversight for more than a year. 
The CO-OP loan agreements armed HHS with significant 
accountability tools for borrowers who were missing the mark, 
but here HHS took a pass. Inexplicably, for over a year, the 
agency took no corrective action, nor did it put any CO-OP on 
enhanced oversight. Five of the twelve failed CO-OPs were never 
subject to corrective action by HHS, and HHS waited until 
September 2015 to put five others on corrective action or 
enhanced oversight. Two months later, all twelve CO-OPs had 
failed.
    That failure to take action is difficult to understand. 
Throughout 2014 and 2015, HHS regularly received key financial 
information from the CO-OPs, including monthly reports on 
enrollment and financial data sufficient to calculate net 
income, along with audited quarterly financial statements. 
Those reports showed that the failed CO-OPs experienced severe 
financial losses that quickly exceeded even the worst-case loss 
projections they had provided to HHS as part of the business 
plans in their loan applications. Cumulatively, by the end of 
2014, the failed CO-OPs exceeded their projected worst-case-
scenario losses by at least $263.7 million-four times greater 
than the expected amount. The CO-OPs' enrollment numbers were 
similarly alarming. According to the 2014 reports they 
submitted to HHS, five of the failed CO-OPs dramatically 
underperformed enrollment expectations (leading to insufficient 
income for premiums), while five others overshot their 
enrollment projections (which also causes losses due to 
underpriced premiums). HHS was aware of these problems in early 
2014, but took no corrective action and continued to disburse 
loans to the distressed CO-OPs.
    Third, despite serious financial warning signs, HHS did not 
withhold any loan disbursements from the now-failed CO-OPs-and 
in many cases accelerated planned disbursements. Instead, over 
the course of 2014 to 2015, HHS disbursed $848 million in 
taxpayer dollars to the failed CO-OPs, even as those entities 
lost more than $1.4 billion. For every dollar that HHS sent 
them over this period, the failed CO-OPs lost about $1.65.
    Fourth, HHS approved additional solvency loans for three of 
the failed CO-OPs in danger of being shut down by state 
regulators, despite obvious warning signs that those CO-OPs 
will not be able to repay the taxpayer. State regulators 
require health insurers to maintain a certain amount of capital 
reserve-called the ``risk-based capital'' requirement. HHS made 
solvency loans available to the CO-OPs at risk of failing to 
meet these requirements, and to date has issued additional 
solvency loans to six CO-OPs, for a total of $352 million. As 
with CO-OPs' initial loan applications, Deloitte completed the 
external assessment for these additional solvency loans. But 
according to Deloitte, HHS required a truncated analysis of the 
applications. For example, Deloitte did not even evaluate the 
``the likelihood that each CO-OP would achieve sustainable 
operations based on the revised business plan.''
    Fifth, HHS looked on as the CO-OPs booked, as assets, 
massive uncertain payments from the ACA's risk corridor 
program. That program requires profitable insurers to pay into 
a government fund to compensate insurers suffering a loss. 
Because it is intended to be budget-neutral, however, if there 
are not enough payments into the fund, insurers with losses 
have no source of risk corridor income. By October 2014, a 
research arm of Citibank had publicly warned that HHS would not 
collect ``nearly enough'' from profitable insurers to cover 
risk corridor payments to the unprofitable. And Deloitte 
specifically cautioned HHS that the struggling CO-OPs were 
relying heavily on uncertain risk corridor payments to prop up 
their financial forecasts. But HHS continued to predict, as 
recently as July 2015, that ``risk corridor collections will be 
sufficient to pay for all risk corridor payments.'' In reality, 
HHS was able to pay only 12.6 cents on the dollar. That 
shortfall further destabilized the CO-OPs.
    Sixth, the heavy costs of failed CO-OPs will be borne by 
taxpayers, doctors, patients, and other insurers. None of the 
failed CO-OPs have repaid a single dollar of principal or 
interest of the $1.2 billion in federal solvency and start-up 
loans they received. The Subcommittee's investigation suggests 
no significant share of those loans ever will be repaid based 
on the latest balance sheets the Subcommittee obtained. In the 
aggregate, the failed CO-OPs' non-loan liabilities exceed $1.13 
billion-which is 93 percent greater than their reported assets. 
All twelve failed CO-OPs told PSI they had no ``planned 
payments'' on any of their CO-OP loans. And when the 
Subcommittee asked HHS for its projections or assessment of the 
prospects for repayment, the Department could not provide any.

E. Some Cable and Satellite Companies Do Not Refund Customer 
        Overcharges, June 23, 2016 (Report Prepared by the Majority and 
        Minority Staffs of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations 
        and released in conjunction with the Subcommittee's hearing on 
        June 23, 2016)

    In June 2016, after a thirteen-month investigation, the 
Subcommittee released a bipartisan report addressing how five 
multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs)-Charter 
Communications, Comcast, Time Warner Cable, DirecTV, and Dish-
identify and correct overcharges caused by company billing 
errors.
    The report detailed how each MVPD has millions of 
subscribers and generates millions of bills annually. Each 
bill, in turn, contains a number of line items (e.g., a base 
television package, an HBO subscription, a leasing fee for a 
set-top box), resulting in hundreds of millions of line items a 
year. Predictably, customer billing records do not always match 
customer equipment and service records, meaning that some 
customers are billed for items they have not ordered while 
others erroneously escape being charged for services or 
equipment they use.
    The Subcommittee reviewed how the MVPDs investigate and 
remedy these billing errors, with particular focus on their 
efforts to make overcharged customers whole. The Subcommittee 
found that the MVPDs vary greatly with respect to how they 
handle billing overcharges.
    First, throughout the time period examined by the 
Subcommittee, Time Warner Cable and Charter made no effort to 
trace equipment overcharges to their origin unless customers 
specifically asked them to and did not provide notice or 
refunds to customers.
    Second, other MVPDs have invested effort and resources to 
prevent overcharges and provide refunds or credits to customers 
who have overpaid. Comcast and DirecTV provide automatic 
refunds or credits to overcharged customers, while Dish's 
billing system is designed to prevent these types of 
overcharges from occurring in the first place.
    Third, based on data provided by Time Warner Cable and 
Charter, the Subcommittee estimated how much Time Warner Cable 
and Charter have overbilled customers nationwide.

      Between January and April 2016, Time Warner Cable 
overbilled customers nationwide an estimated $639,948. The 
Subcommittee projects that, in 2016, Time Warner Cable will 
overbill customers nationwide a total of $1,919,844.
      Charter has not yet completed the underlying work 
necessary to determine how much it has overbilled customers. 
But it has informed the Subcommittee that it overbilled 
customers by at least $442,691 per month.

    Fourth, the Subcommittee obtained information about the 
number of customers overcharged in Ohio and Missouri. Time 
Warner Cable estimates that, in 2015, it overbilled 40,193 Ohio 
customers a total of $430,393 and 4,232 Missouri customers a 
total of $44,152. Time Warner Cable also told the Subcommittee 
that, during the first five months of 2016, it overbilled 
customers in Ohio for 11,049 pieces of equipment, totaling 
$108,221. Charter estimates that it has annually overcharged 
approximately 5,897 Missouri customers a total of $494,000 each 
year. Charter does not provide service in Ohio.
    Fifth, as a result of this investigation, both Time Warner 
Cable and Charter have taken steps to address these issues. 
Each month, Time Warner Cable performs an audit comparing its 
billing records with service records. Going forward, the 
company will provide an automatic one-month credit to anyone 
who is identified in the audit as having been overcharged. Time 
Warner Cable will not, however, investigate when it began 
overcharging customers unless customers bring specific concerns 
to the company's attention, nor will it provide a full refund 
dating back to when the overcharge began. Similarly, Charter 
will provide customers with a one-year credit for any equipment 
overcharges. Charter has also implemented systemic controls 
that it says will prevent equipment overcharges in the future.

F. Inside the Box: Customer Service and Billing Practices in the Cable 
        and Satellite Industry, June 23, 2016 (Report Prepared by the 
        Minority Staff of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations 
        and released in conjunction with the Subcommittee's hearing on 
        June 23, 2016)

    In June 2016, the Minority Staff of the Subcommittee 
released a 62-page report under the guidance of Ranking Member 
McCaskill as part of the investigation of MVPDs and the 
corresponding hearing. The report focused on the same five 
MVPDs as the joint Subcommittee report-Charter Communications, 
Comcast, Time Warner Cable, DirecTV, and Dish. The report 
reviewed four of the most frequent areas of complaint related 
to billing for new and current subscribers: (1) the initial 
pricing, (2) expiring promotions, (3) additional fees and 
changes, and (4) price increases. This report also reviewed the 
adequacy of the cable and satellite providers' efforts to 
explain their billing practices to customers.
    Beyond pricing, customer service remained a problem for the 
cable and satellite industry. The investigation found that 
customers faced difficulties getting their problem resolved by 
their cable or satellite provider. In December 2015, for 
instance, 40 percent of a sample of customers who called 
Comcast with a billing problem were unable to resolve it on the 
first call. In addition, when customers called about a problem, 
they had to listen to sales tactics. For example, when Time 
Warner Cable customers called to ask about price hikes, the 
company labeled it as an ``opportunity'' to upsell them, and 
advised agents, ``[t]he price adjustment brings with it an 
opportunity to upsell customers.''
    Finally, when customers decided that they wanted to cancel 
their service, they faced difficulties in doing so. Rather than 
simply disconnecting the service online, customers must either 
visit a retail store or call and speak to a company's 
``retention'' agent. As stated in a Time Warner Cable training 
document, the goal of the retention agent was to do the 
opposite of what the customer is calling for: ``If the customer 
is calling into cancel, your goal is to not cancel the 
services! And if the customer wants to lower the bill, you're 
going to try to avoid that, and perhaps even raise the bill!'' 
All of the companies in this review trained their retention 
agents to follow a similar process, which included: (1) asking 
probing questions to determine how customers use their service 
and why they want to cancel; (2) proposing ``solutions'' to 
address the customers' stated reasons for canceling their 
service; and (3) overcoming objections from customers who do 
not want to answer questions, or who do not accept the proposed 
solution.
    Cable and satellite providers trained their retention 
agents to continue the probing process after customers have 
indicated they do not want to answer questions and simply want 
to disconnect their service. For example, Time Warner Cable, 
DirecTV, and Dish had their agents practice overcoming 
objections from customers like, ``Please disconnect me today. I 
don't want to go into detail,'' and ``Just cancel the 
service.'' Prolonging the process, retention agents made 
repeated offers to keep customers. After meeting with the 
Subcommittee, Comcast stressed to its retention agents that its 
policy allowed them to stop trying to ``save'' the customer if 
the customer refused or became upset by a retention agent's 
request to ask the customer questions about their decision to 
disconnect.
    Customers attempting to save money by downgrading or 
dropping a service from their package were often routed to the 
same retention agents. Cable and satellite providers trained 
their retention agents to minimize downgrades and the 
associated loss of revenue by following a step-down process in 
which the offers made to the customer progress in a stair step 
fashion, with the offer that has the greatest financial impact 
on the provider made last.
    Throughout the investigation, the Subcommittee conducted 
dozens of interviews with company customer service and 
retention representatives; local and federal regulators, 
including the Federal Trade Commission and the Federal 
Communications Commission; consumer advocacy groups; local 
regulatory officials from across the country; and the National 
Association of Telecommunications Officers and Advisors. 
Additionally, the Subcommittee received more than 93,000 
documents from the MVPDs as part of the investigation.
    As a result of the investigation and report, cable and 
satellite providers acknowledged the need to improve their 
customer service and provided information to the Subcommittee 
regarding their efforts to identify and address customer pain 
points and improve the customer experience.

G. Review of the U.S. State Department Grants to OneVoice, July 12, 
        2016 (Report Prepared by the Majority and Minority Staff of the 
        Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and released on July 
        12, 2016)

    In July 2016, the Subcommittee released a report at the 
conclusion of an investigation initiated in February 2015 
concerning the connection, if any, between the U.S. Department 
of State's grant funds to OneVoice and an effort to unseat 
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
    On December 2, 2014, at the urging of Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu, the Israeli Knesset voted to schedule new 
national parliamentary elections for March 2015. The report 
detailed how within weeks of that announcement, an 
international organization known as the OneVoice Movement 
absorbed and funded an Israeli group named Victory15 or ``V15'' 
and launched a multimillion-dollar grassroots campaign in 
Israel. The campaign's goal was to elect ``anybody but Bibi 
[Netanyahu]'' by mobilizing center-left voters. The Israeli and 
Palestinian arms of OneVoice, OneVoice Israel (OVI), and 
OneVoice Palestine (OVP), received more than $300,000 in grants 
from the U.S. State Department to support peace negotiations 
between Israel and Palestine over a fourteen-month grant period 
ending in November 2014. The Subcommittee concluded:

      OneVoice Israel fully complied with the terms of 
its State Department grants. OneVoice designed and executed a 
grassroots and media campaign to promote public support for 
Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations for the Department, as 
it said it would. Under the grant, OneVoice expanded its social 
media presence, built a larger voter database, and hired an 
American political consulting firm to train its activists and 
executives in grassroots organizing methods in support of the 
Israeli-Palestinian peace process.
      The Subcommittee found no evidence that OneVoice 
spent grant funds to influence the 2015 Israeli elections. Soon 
after the grant period ended, however, OneVoice used the 
campaign infrastructure and resources built, in part, with 
State Department grants funds to support V15. In service of 
V15, OneVoice deployed its social media platform, which more 
than doubled during the State Department grant period; used its 
database of voter contact information, including email 
addresses, which OVI expanded during the grant period; and 
enlisted its network of trained activists, many of whom were 
recruited or trained under the grant, to support and recruit 
for V15. This pivot to electoral politics was consistent with a 
strategic plan developed by OneVoice leadership and emailed to 
State Department officials during the grant period. The State 
Department diplomat who received the plan told the Subcommittee 
that he never reviewed it.
      OneVoice's use of government-funded resources for 
political purposes was not prohibited by the grant agreement 
because the State Department placed no limitations on the post-
grant use of those resources. Despite OneVoice's previous 
political activism in the 2013 Israeli election, the Department 
failed to take any steps to guard against the risk that 
OneVoice could engage in political activities using State-
funded grassroots campaign infrastructure after the grant 
period.

H. Combatting the Opioid Epidemic: A Review of Anti-Abuse Efforts in 
        Medicare and Private Health Insurance Systems, October 4, 2016 
        (Report Prepared by the Majority and Minority Staffs of the 
        Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and released on 
        October 4, 2016)

    In October 2016, the Subcommittee released a bipartisan 
report focused on the significant role that the Centers for 
Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and private health 
insurers play in detecting, reporting, and addressing opioid 
abuse.
    The report detailed how the abuse of opioid drugs became a 
national health crisis. Sixty percent of the record 47,000 drug 
overdose deaths in 2014 were attributable to prescription 
opioids or heroin. Approximately 19,000 of those deaths were 
due to prescription opioids. Combatting this public health 
emergency requires a collaborative effort by treatment centers, 
the health care community, and law enforcement. Those 
integrated efforts have been the subject of many congressional 
hearings.
    The Subcommittee focused on the significant role that CMS 
and private health insurers play in detecting, reporting, and 
addressing opioid abuse. Specifically, the Subcommittee 
examined the efforts undertaken by CMS and its main program 
integrity contractor, the Medicare Drug Integrity Contractor 
(MEDIC), to address opioid related fraud and abuse in Medicare 
Part D-the federal prescription drug coverage program serving 
nearly thirty-five million senior citizens and seven million 
Social Security disability benefit recipients. In addition, the 
Subcommittee examined the anti-opioid abuse efforts of six of 
the nation's largest health insurance companies-both in their 
commercial insurance business and in their role as Medicare 
Part D plan sponsors.
    CMS took steps to reduce opioid overutilization in Medicare 
Part D. In July 2013, CMS adopted an opioid overutilization 
policy that encompasses a medication safety approach by which 
plan sponsors are ``expected to reduce beneficiary 
overutilization of opioids.'' CMS requires that Part D plan 
sponsors maintain systems, policies, and procedures to review 
the dispensation of opioids in real time and also requires plan 
sponsors to develop and maintain retrospective utilization 
review programs for their Part D business.
    The Subcommittee's findings were as follows:
    First, CMS's program integrity efforts suffer from a lack 
of clear standards governing when plan sponsors should report 
cases of waste, fraud, and abuse, including abuse of opioids. 
The agency has provided only generalized instructions to plan 
sponsors, calling for reports of ```pattern[s] of fraud or 
abuse threatening the life or well-being of beneficiaries'' or 
``schemes with large financial risk'' with no definitions of 
these terms or specific thresholds. The MEDIC has not 
elaborated on these standards by providing further written 
guidance to sponsors. Indeed, there are no opioid-specific 
MEDIC reporting standards of any kind.
    Second, as a result of this lack of guidance, plan sponsors 
take an ad hoc, case-by-case approach to MEDIC reporting. Their 
reporting rates reflect that. The annual rates of waste, fraud, 
and abuse reporting among the insurers reviewed ranged from 1 
report for every 2,845 Part D beneficiaries to 1 report for 
every 71,000 Part D beneficiaries.
    Third, even when an opioid-related abuse case is reported 
to the MEDIC, there are no written standards governing when the 
MEDIC should open an investigation or refer the case to law-
enforcement authorities. CMS has broadly tasked the MEDIC with 
``review[ing] and triag[ing]'' waste, fraud, and abuse 
complaints in search of ``compliance violations,'' but the 
agency has left the standard for triaging to the MEDIC's 
discretion. The MEDIC, in turn, informed the Subcommittee that 
its standards for opening an investigation and making criminal 
or administrative referrals are all ``unwritten.''
    Fourth, the MEDIC investigated only 7 percent of all 
``actionable'' waste, fraud, and abuse complaints from plan 
sponsors. That rate is also declining. Between 2013 and 2015, 
even as the number of complaints from sponsors increased 
significantly, the MEDIC's investigations of actionable 
complaints fell by 50 percent. More broadly, the MEDIC's total 
number of investigations-generated both by plan sponsors' 
complaints and by other leads-has been steadily declining since 
2008.
    Fifth, a multimillion-dollar database created at CMS's 
direction to detect opioid abuse schemes across insurers 
remains relatively unused by plan sponsors. The Predictive 
Learning Analytics Tracking Outcome (PLATO) database was 
designed to uncover prescription drug fraud schemes, including 
opioid diversion, by enabling data sharing among plan sponsors. 
But plan sponsors use PLATO sparingly, if at all, in their 
anti-abuse efforts, faulting limitations of the database.
    Sixth, insurers' use of lock-ins, an important anti-opioid 
abuse intervention, varies widely-suggesting this tool may be 
underutilized. Humana made negligible use of the restriction, 
as it locked in only eleven patients from 2013 through 2015. By 
contrast, Anthem far exceeded other insurers in terms of 
patient lock-ins, restricting 20,956 Medicaid beneficiaries 
between 2013 and 2015.\2\
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    \2\Although patient lock-in is permissible in certain state-
specific Medicaid programs, the practice was prohibited in Medicare 
Part D until the passage of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery 
Act of 2016, Pub. L. No. 114-298, Section 704(g).
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    Seventh, insurers' use of beneficiary-level opioid point-
of-sale edits, another significant anti-opioid intervention, 
also varies widely. For example, Kaiser applied only two such 
beneficiary-level edits in 2015 and four in 2016 in its 
Medicare business. UnitedHealth has applied the largest number 
of opioid-specific beneficiary-level point-of-sale edits in its 
Medicare business, applying 26 edits in 2013, 76 in 2014, and 
175 in 2016.

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