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                                                      Calendar No. 424
115th Congress    }                                     {       Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session       }                                     {      115-256

_______________________________________________________________________

                                     
 
 NATIONAL INTEGRATED DROUGHT INFORMATION SYSTEM REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 
                                  2018

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

           COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

                                   on

                                S. 2200










[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]



















                  May 22, 2018.--Ordered to be printed
                               _______
                               
              U.S.  GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE
                  
79-010                  WASHINGTON  : 2018
               
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
       SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
                     one hundred fifteenth congress
                             second session

                   JOHN THUNE, South Dakota, Chairman
ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi         BILL NELSON, Florida
ROY BLUNT, Missouri                  MARIA CANTWELL, Washington
TED CRUZ, Texas                      AMY KLOBUCHAR, Minnesota
DEB FISCHER, Nebraska                RICHARD BLUMENTHAL, Connecticut
JERRY MORAN, Kansas                  BRIAN SCHATZ, Hawaii
DAN SULLIVAN, Alaska                 EDWARD J. MARKEY, Massachusetts
DEAN HELLER, Nevada                  TOM UDALL, New Mexico
JAMES M. INHOFE, Oklahoma            GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
MIKE LEE, Utah                       TAMMY BALDWIN, Wisconsin
RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin               TAMMY DUCKWORTH, Illinois
SHELLEY MOORE CAPITO, West Virginia   MARGARETWOODHASSAN,NewHampshire
CORY GARDNER, Colorado               CATHERINE CORTEZ MASTO, Nevada
TODD C. YOUNG, Indiana               JON TESTER, Montana
                       Nick Rossi, Staff Director
                 Adrian Arnakis, Deputy Staff Director
                    Jason Van Beek, General Counsel
                 Kim Lipsky, Democratic Staff Director
           Christopher Day, Democratic Deputy Staff Director












                                                      Calendar No. 424
115th Congress    }                                     {       Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session       }                                     {      115-256

======================================================================



 
 NATIONAL INTEGRATED DROUGHT INFORMATION SYSTEM REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 
                                  2018

                                _______
                                

                  May 22, 2018.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Thune, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 2200]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to 
which was referred the bill (S. 2200) to reauthorize the 
National Integrated Drought Information System, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon 
with an amendment (in the nature of a substitute) and 
recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass.

                          Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of S. 2200 is to reauthorize the National 
Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) through fiscal 
year (FY) 2023. It also would make improvements, including 
encouraging appropriate partnerships with the private sector, 
integrating seasonal and subseasonal drought and water 
forecasts, and supporting ongoing soil moisture observations to 
better aid farmers.

                          Background and Needs

    Drought is a natural hazard with significant economic, 
social, and ecological consequences. Drought is most simply 
defined as a deficiency of precipitation over an extended 
period of time. Drought conditions are relative depending on 
the average amount of rainfall in a given region, and its 
impacts vary greatly across the country.\1\ Drought is usually 
the result of multiple, interacting weather phenomenon, such as 
global weather patterns like the El Nino/Southern Oscillation 
and high-pressure areas. Because the causes of drought are 
complex and are themselves difficult to predict, accurately 
predicting the temperature and precipitation conditions that 
can lead to a drought more than 1 month in the future is a 
scientific challenge.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Folger, P., B. A. Cody, and N. T. Carter. ``Drought in the 
United States: Causes  and  Issues for Congress.'' April 22, 2013. CRS 
Report RL34580.
    \2\National Drought Mitigation Center, ``Predicting Drought'' 
(http://drought.unl.edu/DroughtBasics/PredictingDrought.aspx) (accessed 
July 23, 2013).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In 2006, NIDIS was established by Congress with an 
interagency mandate to coordinate and integrate drought 
research and created a national drought early warning system. 
The early warning system utilizes new and existing partner 
networks to optimize the expertise of a wide range of Federal, 
State, local, tribal, and academic partners in order to make 
climate and drought science readily available, easily 
understandable and usable for decision makers and to improve 
the capacity of stakeholders to better monitor, forecast, plan 
for, and cope with the impacts of drought.
    Over the past 30 years, drought has been the second most 
common type of weather disaster to cause more than $1 billion 
in damages. Most recently, the 2017 drought in South Dakota, 
North Dakota, and Montana caused an estimated $2.5 billion in 
damages to field crops and livestock and in lost revenue. The 
western wildfires of 2017, enhanced by extreme drought, burned 
over 1 million acres, took countless lives, and cost over $2 
billion.\3\ And drought in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint 
River Basin, in 2017, threatened agriculture in Alabama and a 
significant portion of the oyster harvest in Florida. Forecasts 
and warnings of drought made possible by NIDIS are essential 
for farmers, ranchers, fishermen, and emergency managers to 
make smart decisions and reduce these costs.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\National Centers for Environmental Information, ``Billion-Dollar 
Weather and Climate Disasters: Table of Events,'' National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, 2017 (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/
events/US/1980-2017) (accessed December, 6, 2017).
    \4\Agricultural Act of 2004 (P.L. 113-79; 128 Stat. 649).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Through NIDIS, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA) is one of the key entities that 
contribute to the U.S. Drought Monitor, which provides a weekly 
map of drought conditions. These county-level drought intensity 
maps can trigger Federal financial aid for agriculture and 
rural water supplies.


                             NIDIS HISTORY

    Because drought has such far-reaching and costly impacts, 
Congress enacted the National Drought Policy Act of 1998.\5\ In 
this law, Congress found an increasing need, particularly at 
the Federal level, to emphasize preparedness, mitigation, and 
risk management (rather than simply crisis management) when 
addressing drought. The Act created the National Drought Policy 
Commission (Commission), and required it, in collaboration with 
the National Drought Mitigation Center at Lincoln, Nebraska, 
and the Western Drought Coordination Council, to study existing 
policies and make recommendations with respect to drought. The 
Commission submitted its report in May 2000.\6\ The report 
included the following three ``guiding principles'' for U.S. 
drought policy: ``favor preparedness over insurance, insurance 
over relief, and incentives over regulation''; ``set research 
priorities based on the potential of the research results to 
reduce drought impacts''; and ``coordinate the delivery of 
Federal services through cooperation and collaboration with 
nonfederal entities.''\7\ The Commission report provided 29 
specific recommendations, many targeted at the Executive 
branch. The Commission also recognized the patchwork nature of 
Federal drought programs and that no single Federal agency 
leads or coordinates drought programs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\P.L. 105-199; 112 Stat. 641.
    \6\National Drought Policy Commission Report (http://
govinfo.library.unt.edu/drought/finalreport/fullreport/
ndpcfullreportcovers/ndpcreportcontents.htm) (accessed July 24, 2013).
    \7\Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Consistent with the third guiding principle of the 
Commission's report, to ``improve collaboration among 
scientists and managers to enhance the effectiveness of 
observation networks, monitoring, prediction, information 
delivery, and applied research and to foster public 
understanding of and preparedness for drought,'' Congress 
passed the National Integrated Drought Information System Act 
of 2006 (Act of 2006).\8\ The Act of 2006 was a bipartisan 
effort to address weaknesses in Federal drought monitoring and 
forecasting capabilities. The Act of 2006 directed the 
Administrator of NOAA (Administrator), through the National 
Weather Service and other weather and climate programs as 
appropriate, to establish NIDIS. The Act of 2006 specifies that 
NIDIS should do the following: provide an effective drought 
early warning system; coordinate research in support of a 
drought early warning system; and build upon existing 
forecasting and assessment programs and partnerships. NIDIS was 
developed in consultation with many stakeholders, including the 
Western Governors' Association, who testified on behalf of the 
bill during House of Representative hearings in 2006.\9\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\15 U.S.C. 313d.
    \9\H. Rept. 109-503.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The NIDIS Reauthorization Act of 2014\10\ specifies that 
the purposes of the program are to better inform and provide 
for more timely decision-making, to reduce drought related 
impacts and costs, and to designate cooperative institutes to 
assist with NIDIS functions. It also required a report from the 
Administrator on NIDIS implementation.\11\ This report was 
issued in January 2016 and contains a summary of drought in the 
United States since 2006, an update on NIDIS partnerships with 
the private sector, and the drought early warning system, among 
other topics.\12\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\P.L. 113-86; 128 Stat. 1015.
    \11\P.L. 113-86; 128 Stat. 1015.
    \12\National Integrated Drought Information System, ``Report to 
Congress,'' January 2016 (https://www.drought.gov/drought/sites/
drought.gov.drought/files/media/whatisnidis/
Documents/rpt_FINAL_NIDIS%20CongReport_Jan2016.pdf) (accessed December 
8, 2017).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Currently, the multi-agency NIDIS Executive Council 
oversees the NIDIS program office, which is housed in the 
Climate Program Office of NOAA's Office of Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Research. In turn, the NIDIS program office 
coordinates the multi-agency and multi-State NIDIS Program 
Implementation Team, which includes academic and private-sector 
representatives as well as Federal, State, and tribal agencies. 
Four primary activities drive the NIDIS program at NOAA: the 
U.S. Drought Portal, the online access point for a variety of 
products and information regarding drought;\13\ the Regional 
Drought Early Warning Information Systems (DEWS), which are 
deployed in several regions including Pacific Northwest, 
California-Nevada, Intermountain West, Missouri River Basin, 
Midwest, Southern Plains, Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint 
River Basin, and the Coastal Carolinas\14\ (These DEWS provide 
assessments and outlooks for current and future drought 
conditions to support decision making\15\); ``Coping with 
Drought'' research grants to better understand the impacts of 
drought on agriculture, ecosystems, and water resources and to 
develop decision support tools for regional, tribal, State, and 
local use; and climate test-beds, which improve our 
understanding of climate forecasts and stream flow projections.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \13\Ibid.
    \14\Drought.gov, Regions (https://www.drought.gov/drought/regions) 
(accessed December 8, 2017).
    \15\See U.S. Drought Portal, ``Drought Early Warning System'' 
(http://www.drought.gov/drought/content/regional-programs/regional-
drought-early-warning-system) (accessed July 24, 2013).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Summary of Provisions

    If enacted, the National Integrated Drought Information 
System Reauthorization Act of 2018, S. 2200, would do the 
following:

           Update and reauthorize the law authorizing 
        NIDIS and authorize funding through FY 2023.
           Require the Under Secretary of Commerce for 
        Oceans and Atmosphere (Under Secretary) to develop a 
        strategy for a national coordinated soil moisture 
        monitoring network.
           Authorize funding for the weather and 
        climate information in agriculture program through FY 
        2023.

                          Legislative History

    S. 2200 was introduced on December 6, 2017, by Mr. Thune 
(for himself and Senator Nelson) and was referred to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
Senate. Senator Fischer also cosponsored this bill. On December 
13, 2017, the Committee met in open Executive Session and, by 
voice vote, ordered S. 2200 reported favorably with an 
amendment (in the nature of a substitute).

                            Estimated Costs

    In accordance with paragraph 11(a) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate and section 403 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee provides the 
following cost estimate, prepared by the Congressional Budget 
Office:

S. 2200--National Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization 
        Act of 2018

    Summary: S. 2200 would amend the National Integrated 
Drought Information System Act of 2006 to make changes to the 
National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). The 
bill would authorize appropriations to the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of $57 million over the 2018-
2022 period (and $16 million in 2023) for the NIDIS and $111 
million over the 2018-2022 period (and $30 million in 2023) for 
agricultural weather and climate forecasting.
    Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing S. 2200 would cost $147 million 
over the 2018-2022 period and $67 million after 2022.
    Enacting S. 2200 would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    CBO estimates that enacting S. 2200 would not increase net 
direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    S. 2200 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of S. 2200 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 300 
(natural resources and environment).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2018      2019      2020      2021      2022    2018-2022
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
National Integrated Drought Information System:
    Authorization Level............................         0        14        14        14        15         57
    Estimated Outlays..............................         0         9        12        14        15         50
Agricultural Weather and Climate Research:
    Authorization Level............................         0        27        28        28        29        111
    Estimated Outlays..............................         0        18        24        27        28         97
    Total Increases:
        Authorization Level........................         0        41        42        42        44        168
        Estimated Outlays..........................         0        27        36        41        43        147
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Components do not sum to totals because of rounding.
The bill also would authorize appropriations of $16 million in 2023 for the National Integrated Drought
  Information System and $30 million in 2023 for Agriculture Weather and Climate Research.

    Basis of estimate: CBO assumes that S. 2200 will be enacted 
near the end of 2018 and that the authorized amounts will be 
appropriated for each year. Estimated outlays are based on 
historical spending patterns for the programs. The bill would 
authorize appropriations for 2018 but at the same level already 
authorized for 2018. Thus, CBO does not estimate any costs for 
the authorization of appropriations for 2018.

National Integrated Drought Information System

    NIDI is focused on improving the nation's capacity to 
manage drought-related risks by providing information to assess 
the potential consequences of drought and to prepare for and 
mitigate against drought. S. 2200 would make several changes to 
NIDIS, including authorizing federal agencies to work with 
private-sector entities to improve drought monitoring and 
forecasting and requiring NOAA to develop a strategy for a 
national, coordinated soil-moisture-monitoring network. The 
bill would authorize annual appropriations totaling $57 million 
over the 2019-2022 period and $16 million in 2023 for NIDIS. 
Under current law, in 2018 about $14 million is authorized to 
be appropriated for NIDIS. In 2017, $13.5 million was allocated 
to NIDIS.

Agriculture weather and climate research

    S. 2200 also would authorize the appropriation of $111 
million over the 2019-2022 period and $30 million in 2023 for 
agricultural weather and climate research by NOAA. Under 
current law, in 2018 roughly $27 million is authorized to be 
appropriated for agricultural weather and climate research. In 
2017, about $9 million was allocated to such research.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting S. 2200 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    Mandates: S. 2200 contains no intergovernmental or private-
sector mandates as defined in UMRA.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Robert Reese; 
Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate approved by: H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                      Regulatory Impact Statement

    In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the 
following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the 
legislation, as reported:

                       NUMBER OF PERSONS COVERED

    S. 2200, as reported, does not create any new programs or 
impose any new regulatory requirements, and therefore would not 
subject any individuals or businesses to new regulations.

                            ECONOMIC IMPACT

    S. 2200, as reported, is not expected to have a negative 
impact on the Nation's economy.

                                PRIVACY

    The reported bill would have no impact on the personal 
privacy of individuals.

                               PAPERWORK

    S. 2200, as reported, would not increase paperwork 
requirements for either the private or public sector.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    In compliance with paragraph 4(b) of rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides that no 
provisions contained in the bill, as reported, meet the 
definition of congressionally directed spending items under the 
rule.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title.

    This section would provide that the bill may be cited as 
the ``National Integrated Drought Information System 
Reauthorization Act of 2018.''

Section 2. National Integrated Drought Information System Program.

    This section would update the Act of 2006 to specify that 
NIDIS collect and integrate information about key indicators of 
drought, including precipitation, soil moisture, and 
evaporative demand. It also would explicitly tie NIDIS to the 
Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of 2017,\16\ by 
requiring NIDIS to leverage and utilize improvements in 
seasonal and subseasonal forecasts and forecast communication 
coordinators. This section also would allow the system to 
develop partnerships with the private sector and academia, and 
to utilize citizen scientists to collect and integrate 
monitoring data. Additionally, it would require the Under 
Secretary to develop a strategy for a national coordinated soil 
moisture monitoring network.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\P.L. 115-25; 131 Stat. 91.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Section 2 would strike outdated reporting language and 
would authorize appropriations for the system through FY 2023 
starting at $13.5 million in FY 2018 and increasing by $250,000 
each FY thereafter.\17\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \17\NIDIS is currently authorized at $13.5 million (P.L. 113-86; 
128 Stat. 1015).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section 3. Reauthorization of weather and climate information in 
        agriculture.

    This section would authorize appropriations for section 
1762(j) of the Food Security Act of 1985\18\ in order to carry 
out seasonal and subseasonal weather forecasting through FY 
2023. Authorized appropriations would be $26.5 million for FY 
2018 and increase by $500,000 each FY thereafter.\19\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \18\15 U.S.C. 8521.
    \19\Currently authorized at $26.5 million (P.L. 115-25; 131 Stat. 
91).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
material is printed in italic, existing law in which no change 
is proposed is shown in roman):

       NATIONAL INTEGRATED DROUGHT INFORMATION SYSTEM ACT OF 2006


                            [15 U.S.C. 313d]

SEC. 3. NIDIS PROGRAM.

                            [15 U.S.C. 313d]

  (a) In General.--The Under Secretary, through the National 
Weather Service and other appropriate weather and climate 
programs in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, shall establish a National Integrated Drought 
Information System to better inform and provide for more timely 
decisionmaking to reduce drought related impacts and costs.
  (b) System Functions.--The National Integrated Drought 
Information System shall--
          (1) provide an effective drought early warning system 
        that--
                  (A) collects and integrates information on 
                the key indicators of drought and drought 
                impacts [in order to make usable, reliable, and 
                timely forecasts of drought, including], 
                including precipitation, soil moisture, and 
                evaporative demand, in order to make usable, 
                reliable, and timely forecasts of drought and 
                assessments of the severity of drought 
                conditions and impacts; and
                  (B) provides such information, forecasts, and 
                assessments on both national and regional 
                levels;
          (2) communicate drought forecasts, drought 
        conditions, and drought impacts on an ongoing basis to 
        public and private entities engaged in drought planning 
        and preparedness, including--
                  (A) decisionmakers at the Federal, regional, 
                State, tribal, and local levels of government;
                  (B) the private sector; and
                  (C) the public;
          (3) provide timely data, information, and products 
        that reflect local, regional, watershed, and State 
        differences in drought conditions;
          (4) coordinate, and integrate, through interagency 
        agreements as practicable, Federal research and 
        monitoring in support of a drought early warning 
        information system;
          [(5) build upon existing forecasting and assessment 
        programs and partnerships, including through the 
        designation of one or more cooperative institutes to 
        assist with National Integrated Drought Information 
        System functions; and]
          (5) utilize existing forecasting and assessment 
        programs and partnerships, including forecast 
        communication coordinators and cooperative institutes, 
        and improvements in seasonal, subseasonal, and low flow 
        water prediction; and
          (6) continue ongoing research and monitoring 
        activities related to the prediction, drought, 
        including research activities relating to length, 
        severity, and impacts of drought and the role of 
        extreme weather events and climate variability in 
        drought.
  (c) Partnerships.--The National Integrated Drought 
Information System may--
          (1) engage with the private sector to improve drought 
        monitoring, forecast, and communication if the Under 
        Secretary determines the partnership is appropriate, 
        cost-effective, and beneficial to the public and 
        decisionmakers described in subsection (b)(2)(A);
          (2) facilitate the development of 1 or more academic 
        cooperative partnerships to assist with National 
        Integrated Drought Information System functions; and
          (3) utilize and support, as appropriate, monitoring 
        by citizen scientists, including by developing best 
        practices to facilitate maximum data integration.
  [(c)](d) Consultation.--The Under Secretary shall consult 
with relevant Federal, regional, State, tribal, and local 
government agencies, research institutions, and the private 
sector in the development and sustainment of the National 
Integrated Drought Information System.
  [(d)](e) Cooperation From Other Federal Agencies.--Each 
Federal agency shall cooperate as appropriate with the Under 
Secretary in carrying out this section.
  [[(e)](f) Report.--
          [(1) In general.--Not later than 18 months after the 
        date of enactment of the National Integrated Drought 
        Information System Reauthorization Act of 2014, the 
        Under Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on 
        Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
        and Transportation of the Senate a report that 
        contains--
                  [(A) an analysis of the implementation of the 
                National Integrated Drought Information System 
                program, including how the information, 
                forecasts, and assessments are utilized in 
                drought policy planning and response 
                activities;
                  [(B) specific plans for continued development 
                of such program, including future milestones; 
                and
                  [(C) an identification of research, 
                monitoring, and forecasting needs to enhance 
                the predictive capability of drought early 
                warnings that include--
                          [(i) the length and severity of 
                        droughts;
                          [(ii) the contribution of weather 
                        events to reducing the severity or 
                        ending drought conditions; and
                          [(iii) regionally specific drought 
                        impacts.
          [(2) Consultation.--In developing the report under 
        paragraph (1), the Under Secretary shall consult with 
        relevant Federal, regional, State, tribal, and local 
        government agencies, research institutions, and the 
        private sector.]
  (f) Soil Moisture.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of the National Integrated Drought Information System 
Reauthorization Act of 2018, the Under Secretary, acting 
through the National Integrated Drought Information System, 
shall develop a strategy for a national coordinated soil 
moisture monitoring network.

[SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

                         [15 U.S.C. 313d note]

  [There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this 
Act $13,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.]

SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this 
Act--
          (1) $13,500,000 for fiscal year 2018;
          (2) $13,750,000 for fiscal year 2019;
          (3) $14,000,000 for fiscal year 2020;
          (4) $14,250,000 for fiscal year 2021;
          (5) $14,500,000 for fiscal year 2022; and
          (6) $15,750,000 for fiscal year 2023.

                       FOOD SECURITY ACT OF 1985


                   [Public Law 99-198; 99 Stat. 1354]

Sec. 8521. Weather and climate information in agriculture

  (a)* * *
  [(j) Authorization of Appropriations.--For each of fiscal 
years 2017 and 2018, there are authorized out of funds 
appropriated to the National Weather Service, $26,500,000 to 
carry out the activities of this section.]
  (j) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to 
be appropriated to carry out the activities under this 
section--
          (1) $26,500,000 for fiscal year 2018;
          (2) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 2019;
          (3) $27,500,000 for fiscal year 2020;
          (4) $28,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;
          (5) $28,500,000 for fiscal year 2022; and
          (6) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2023.
  (k) Derivation of Funds.--Amounts made available to carry out 
this section shall be derived from amounts appropriated or 
otherwise made available to the National Weather Service.

                                  [all]