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                                                      Calendar No. 676
115th Congress       }                           {             Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session          }                           {             115-389
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                    NATIONAL QUANTUM INITIATIVE ACT

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

           COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

                                   on

                                S. 3143
                                
                                
                                
                                

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]








               November 27, 2018.--Ordered to be printed
                                    ______

                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 

89-010                      WASHINGTON : 2018





              
       SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
                     one hundred fifteenth congress
                             second session

                   JOHN THUNE, South Dakota, Chairman
ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi         BILL NELSON, Florida
ROY BLUNT, Missouri                  MARIA CANTWELL, Washington
TED CRUZ, Texas                      AMY KLOBUCHAR, Minnesota
DEB FISCHER, Nebraska                RICHARD BLUMENTHAL, Connecticut
JERRY MORAN, Kansas                  BRIAN SCHATZ, Hawaii
DAN SULLIVAN, Alaska                 EDWARD J. MARKEY, Massachusetts
DEAN HELLER, Nevada                  TOM UDALL, New Mexico
JAMES M. INHOFE, Oklahoma            GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
MIKE LEE, Utah                       TAMMY BALDWIN, Wisconsin
RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin               TAMMY DUCKWORTH, Illinois
SHELLEY MOORE CAPITO, West Virginia  MARGARET WOOD HASSAN, New Hampshire

CORY GARDNER, Colorado               CATHERINE CORTEZ MASTO, Nevada
TODD C. YOUNG, Indiana               JON TESTER, Montana
                       Nick Rossi, Staff Director
                 Adrian Arnakis, Deputy Staff Director
                    Jason Van Beek, General Counsel
                 Kim Lipsky, Democratic Staff Director
           Christopher Day, Democratic Deputy Staff Director




                                                      Calendar No. 676
115th Congress       }                           {             Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session          }                           {             115-389

======================================================================



 
                    NATIONAL QUANTUM INITIATIVE ACT
                                _______
                                

               November 27, 2018.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Thune, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 3143]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to 
which was referred the bill (S. 3143) to provide for a 
coordinated Federal program to accelerate quantum research and 
development for the economic and national security of the 
United States, having considered the same, reports favorably 
thereon with an amendment (in the nature of a substitute) and 
recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass.

                          Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of S. 3143, as reported, is to provide for a 
coordinated Federal program to accelerate quantum research and 
development for the economic and national security of the 
United States.

                          Background and Needs

    Quantum physics involves the unique behavior of subatomic 
particles, such as photons and electrons, that can operate in 
multiple states at once, displaying properties known as 
``superposition'' and ``entanglement.''\1\ Quantum information 
science (QIS) is the study of the application of quantum 
physics to acquire, store, transmit, and process information in 
ways that greatly exceed existing capabilities in the areas of 
next generation computing, information processing, and 
measurement. In computing, for example, standard computer code 
uses a binary system of a series of ones and zeros, but quantum 
computer code uses units of information called qubits (or 
quantum bits) that can effectively be a one or a zero 
simultaneously in a way that exponentially increases computing 
speed and information storage.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, ``ITIF 
Technology Explainer: What Is Quantum Computing?,'' September 20, 2018.
    \2\Id at 1.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                     TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    QIS is expected to create new economic opportunities and 
growth in industries like cybersecurity, communications, 
transportation, financial services, and medicine. QIS is also 
expected to substantially impact national security by creating 
powerful decoding capabilities and enabling completely secure 
networks and communications. QIS technologies can be divided 
into the following three application areas:
     Sensing and metrology (e.g., precision navigation 
            and timekeeping, and locating mineral deposits).
     Communications (e.g., secure data transmission and 
            storage, and quantum key generation for 
            encryption).
     Computing (e.g., performing computations much 
            faster than existing high-performance computers).

                         INVESTMENT IN QUANTUM

    Foreign governments have started to invest significantly in 
QIS research and development (R&D). For example, the European 
Union (EU) established a $1.1 billion, 10-year, Quantum 
Technologies Flagship initiative to commercialize the EU's 
investment and expand its scientific leadership in QIS R&D.\3\ 
China designated QIS research as one of four ``megaprojects'' 
in its 15-year science and technology development plan for 
2006-2020, with estimated annual funding at $244 million.\4\ 
Similarly, the United Kingdom established a $440 million, 5-
year, National Quantum Technologies Program in 2013 to 
translate QIS R&D into commercial technologies.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Congressional Research Service, ``Federal Quantum Information 
Science: An Overview,'' 
July 2, 2018. (http://www.crs.gov/Reports/
IF10872?source=search&guid=edbc213359c64da
79320209421c07ba0&index=0).
    \4\Id at 1.
    \5\Id at 1.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Although the U.S. Government has invested in QIS R&D for 
many years, starting with National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST) and Department of Defense (DOD) workshops in 
the 1990s, it had not yet explicitly made quantum a national 
priority, stated any formal Federal R&D goals, or established a 
national quantum initiative or agenda prior to introduction of 
S. 3143.\6\ The overall annual Federal budget for QIS R&D is 
difficult to calculate across the relevant departments and 
agencies receiving such funding, which include DOD, the 
Department of Energy (DOE), NIST, and the National Science 
Foundation (NSF). But, some analyses put the total figure 
between $200 million and $250 million.\7\ Both NSF and NIST 
currently spend around $30 million per year on quantum-related 
research and activities.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\Id at 1.
    \7\Id at 1.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In June 2018, the White House Office of Science and 
Technology Policy's (OSTP's) National Science and Technology 
Council (NSTC) chartered the Subcommittee on Quantum 
Information Science to coordinate Federal R&D in QIS and 
related technologies, in line with the subcommittee that would 
be established under S. 3143. The NSTC-chartered subcommittee 
established under S. 3143 would create a national QIS agenda, 
address U.S. economic and national security concerns related to 
QIS, and coordinate Federal QIS policies. In September 2018, 
OSTP also released a National Strategic Overview for Quantum 
Information Science and held a White House Summit on Advancing 
American Leadership in QIS. The National Strategic Overview 
identifies policy opportunities to advance the field and paves 
the way toward a National Strategic Plan that will help 
maintain U.S. leadership in QIS. The National Strategic 
Overview is intended to be used by industry experts and Federal 
agencies to guide R&D and commercialization efforts.
    In August 2018, NSF awarded $15 million over 5 years to a 
multi-institution effort, in line with S. 3143, to accelerate 
the development of a practical quantum computer. In addition, 
in September 2018, NIST established a consortium focused on 
quantum science and engineering to support the development of 
the quantum industry, also in line with activity that would be 
authorized in S. 3143.
    There has been concern among U.S. scientists, industry 
representatives, and Federal agency leaders that QIS is at a 
tipping point, that the lack of a unified national policy for 
QIS may hurt R&D efforts in the long run, and that current 
academic education and workforce training are insufficient for 
continued progress in QIS R&D.

                         Summary of Provisions

    If enacted, S. 3143 would do the following:
     Establish a coordinated 10-year National Quantum 
            Initiative Program to accelerate quantum R&D.
     Codify a new interagency NSTC subcommittee on QIS.
     Establish a National Quantum Coordination Office 
            at OSTP to oversee interagency coordination, 
            provide strategic planning support, serve as a 
            central point of contact for stakeholders, conduct 
            outreach, and promote commercialization of Federal 
            research by the private sector.
     Establish a National Quantum Initiative Advisory 
            Committee to provide advice and information on a 
            variety of QIS and technology matters and concerns.
     Codify a NIST-established quantum consortium and 
            authorize $60 million annually for quantum 
            activities at NIST for fiscal years (FYs) 2019-
            2023.
     Authorize a QIS basic research and education 
            program at NSF.
     Establish up to five multidisciplinary research 
            and education centers at NSF, including an 
            authorization per center of $10 million per year 
            for FYs 2019-2023.
     Encourage U.S. high-tech companies and startups to 
            contribute knowledge and resources to a national 
            effort.

                          Legislative History

    S. 3143 was introduced on June 26, 2018, by Senator Thune 
(for himself and Senator Nelson) and was referred to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
Senate. Senators Gardner, Harris, Daines, and Rubio are 
additional cosponsors. On August 1, 2018, the Committee met in 
open Executive Session and by voice vote ordered S. 3143 to be 
reported favorably with an amendment (in the nature of a 
substitute).
    The Committee accepted an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute to revise the authorization of appropriations for 
NIST and NSF, add direction regarding additional standards 
development, promote access to quantum computing and 
communication systems to the user community, and make technical 
changes.
    The Committee also accepted by voice vote three amendments 
sponsored by Senator Markey to the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute. The first amendment added consideration of 
computational research gaps as a purpose of the underlying 
bill. The second amendment explicitly required NSF to award 
grants to institutions of higher education or eligible 
nonprofit organizations to support the Multidisciplinary 
Centers for Quantum Research and Education. The third amendment 
made technical corrections and required OSTP to propose a 
coordinated interagency program budget to the Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) and submit to Congress an annual 
program budget report.
    Also on June 26, 2018, a House companion bill, H.R. 6227, 
was introduced by Representative Smith (for himself and 
Representatives Johnson, Comstock, Lipinski, Weber, Lofgren, 
Lucas, Esty, Rohrabacher, Bonamici, Hultgren, Beyer, Knight, 
Rosen, Babin, McNerney, Biggs, Tonko, Marshall, Foster, Dunn, 
Takano, Higgins, Hanabusa, Norman, Lesko, Schweikert, Hurd, 
Brooks, Posey, Loudermilk, and Abraham) and was referred to the 
Science, Space, and Technology Committee of the House of 
Representatives. Representatives DeFazio, Westerman, 
Cartwright, Carbajal, and Balderson are also cosponsors. That 
committee ordered that bill to be reported on June 27, 2018, 
and it passed the House of Representatives by voice vote on 
September 13, 2018.

                            Estimated Costs

    In accordance with paragraph 11(a) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate and section 403 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee provides the 
following cost estimate, prepared by the Congressional Budget 
Office:

S. 3143--National Quantum Initiative Act

    Summary: S. 3143 would establish an office and a program to 
advance research in quantum information science and technology 
applications. The bill would authorize appropriations for the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the 
National Science Foundation (NSF) to carry out related 
activities. CBO estimates that implementing S. 3143 would cost 
$450 million over the 2019-2023 period, assuming appropriation 
of the authorized and necessary amounts.
    Enacting the bill would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    CBO estimates that enacting S. 3143 would not increase net 
direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    S. 3143 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of S. 3143 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of the legislation fall within budget functions 250 
(science, space, and technology) and 370 (commerce and housing 
credit).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                      ----------------------------------------------------------
                                                        2018    2019    2020    2021    2022    2023   2019-2023
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
National Institute of Standards and Technology:
    Authorization Level..............................       0      60      60      60      60      60       300
    Estimated Outlays................................       0      46      59      60      60      60       285
National Science Foundation:
    Estimated Authorization Level....................       0      50      50      50      50      50       250
    Estimated Outlays................................       0       6      24      37      44      49       160
National Quantum Coordination Office:
    Estimated Authorization Level....................       0       1       1       1       1       1         5
    Estimated Outlays................................       0       1       1       1       1       1         5
    Total:
        Estimated Authorization Level................       0     111     111     111     111     111       555
        Estimated Outlays............................       0      53      84      98     105     110       450
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes the 
legislation will be enacted near the end of 2018 and that the 
authorized and necessary amounts will be appropriated in each 
year.
    S. 3143 would authorize the appropriation of $60 million 
annually over the 2019-2023 period for NIST to expand quantum 
research and advance commercial development of quantum 
applications. The bill also would direct the NSF to award 
grants to nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher 
education to establish up to five quantum research and 
education centers, and would authorize the appropriation of $10 
million annually for each center over the 2019-2023 period. 
Using information from the NSF, CBO expects the agency would 
support five centers under the bill; thus, CBO estimates that 
the bill would effectively authorize appropriations totaling 
$50 million annually for the NSF.
    According to a Congressional Research Service report, in 
recent years the federal government has spent between $200 
million and $250 million annually on quantum information 
science research and development.\1\ NIST and NSF received 
appropriations in 2018 for such activities. Under current law, 
no specific sums are authorized to be appropriated to those 
agencies for those purposes.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Congressional Research Service, Federal Quantum Information 
Science: An Overview (July 2, 2018).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    S. 3143 also would direct the President to establish a 
national quantum coordination office to manage interagency 
activities and conduct public outreach. Under the bill, the 
office would be staffed by employees detailed from federal 
agencies such as NIST, the NSF, the Department of Defense, the 
Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, and the Office of Management and Budget. Based 
on programs of similar size and scope, CBO estimates that the 
office would require five full-time employees annually at a 
cost of about $150,000 each. The bill also would establish an 
advisory committee of representatives from industry, academic 
institutions, and federal laboratories, whose travel expenses 
could be reimbursed. CBO estimates that such expenses would be 
insignificant in any year. In total, CBO estimates that 
implementing those provisions would cost $1 million annually.
    Based on historical spending patterns for similar 
activities, CBO estimates that enacting S. 3143 would cost $450 
million over the 2019-2023 period.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting S. 3143 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    Mandates: S. 3143 contains no intergovernmental or private-
sector mandates as defined in UMRA.
    Previous CBO estimate: On July 20, 2018, CBO transmitted a 
cost estimate for H.R. 6227, the National Quantum Initiative 
Act, as ordered reported by the House Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology on June 27, 2018. The two bills are 
similar. CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 6227 would cost 
$1.1 billion over the 2019-2023 period. The estimates differ 
because H.R. 6227 would authorize the appropriation of higher 
amounts for NIST and would authorize appropriations for the 
Department of Energy to carry out a quantum research program.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Janani Shankaran 
(National Science Foundation), Stephen Rabent (National 
Institute of Standards and Technology); Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim P. Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                      Regulatory Impact Statement

    In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the 
following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the 
legislation, as reported:

                       number of persons covered

    The bill would affect certain employees of Federal 
agencies, institutions of higher education, nonprofit 
organizations, and businesses that conduct QIS R&D. The bill 
would cover activities of institutions of higher education, 
principal investigators at those institutions, and other 
research grant recipients that are already subject to the 
policies and procedures of NSF and NIST as a condition of 
receiving an award from one of those agencies. The bill would 
not impose any new regulations on individuals or businesses.

                            economic impact

    The bill is intended to have a positive economic impact on 
the U.S. economy by authorizing funding for and accelerating 
quantum R&D within the United States. QIS R&D has the potential 
to create new economic growth and opportunities across a wide 
variety of industries. The National Quantum Coordination Office 
that would be established under the bill would promote access 
to and early application of quantum technologies, innovations, 
and expertise derived from the National Quantum Initiative 
Program to U.S. industry, including startup companies. It also 
would promote access to existing quantum computing and 
communications systems developed by industry, universities, and 
national laboratories to the general user community. Also under 
the bill, NIST would establish or expand collaborative ventures 
or consortia with other public or private sector entities for 
the purpose of advancing quantum science and engineering. NIST 
also would convene a consortium of stakeholders to discuss the 
future measurement, standards, cybersecurity, and other needs 
for supporting the development of a U.S. QIS and technology 
industry. Finally, the Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum 
Research and Education that would be established by NSF under 
the bill would foster innovation by bringing together industry 
perspectives to quantum research and workforce development, 
including by leveraging industry resources and research 
capacity.

                                privacy

    The bill would have a negligible impact on the personal 
privacy of individuals, institutions of higher education, or 
nonprofit organizations who voluntarily apply to receive grants 
or other awards from NSF and NIST.

                               paperwork

    The bill would not significantly increase paperwork 
requirements for individuals, institutions of higher education, 
nonprofit organizations, or businesses that voluntarily apply 
to participate in any activities or grant awards sponsored by 
NSF or NIST. The National Quantum Initiative Advisory Committee 
that would be established by the bill would be required to 
report to Congress on a biannual basis until the advisory 
committee sunsets. Similarly, the bill would require NIST to 
transmit to Congress a report within 2 years after the date of 
enactment. OSTP also would be required to submit to Congress an 
annual National Quantum Initiative Program budget report.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    In compliance with paragraph 4(b) of rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides that no 
provisions contained in the bill, as reported, meet the 
definition of congressionally directed spending items under the 
rule.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title.

    This section would provide that the bill may be cited as 
the ``National Quantum Initiative Act.''

Section 2. Definitions.

    This section would define the terms ``Advisory Committee,'' 
``Coordination Office,'' ``institution of higher education,'' 
``Program,'' ``quantum information science,'' and 
``Subcommittee.''

Section 3. Purposes.

    This section would identify that the purposes of the Act 
are to ensure continued U.S. leadership in QIS and its 
technology applications by doing the following: supporting 
research, development, demonstration, and application of QIS 
and technology; improving the interagency planning and 
coordination of Federal R&D of QIS and technology; maximizing 
the effectiveness of the Federal Government's QIS and 
technology R&D programs; promoting collaboration among the 
Government, Federal laboratories, industry, and universities; 
and promoting the development of standards for QIS and 
technology security.

Section 101. National Quantum Initiative Program.

    This section would require the President to implement a 10-
year National Quantum Initiative Program (Program) to do the 
following: establish the goals, priorities, and metrics for a 
10-year plan to accelerate development of QIS and technology 
applications in the United States; invest in fundamental 
Federal QIS and technology research, development, and 
demonstration; invest in activities to develop a QIS and 
technology workforce pipeline; provide for interagency 
coordination of Federal QIS and technology research, 
development, and demonstration; partner with industry and 
academia to leverage knowledge and resources; and leverage 
existing Federal investments efficiently to advance program 
goals and objectives.

Section 102. National Quantum Coordination Office.

    This section would require the President to establish a 
National Quantum Coordination Office, which would have a 
Director appointed by OSTP, in consultation with the Secretary 
of Commerce, the Director of NSF, and the Secretary of Energy. 
The Coordination Office would be required to do the following: 
provide technical and administrative support to the 
subcommittee established under section 103 and the advisory 
committee established under section 104; oversee interagency 
coordination of the Program; serve as the point of contact on 
Federal civilian QIS and technology activities for government 
organizations, academia, industry, and professional societies, 
to exchange technical and programmatic information; ensure 
coordination between the Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum 
Research and Education established under section 302 and the 
National Quantum Information Science Research Centers 
established under section 402; conduct public outreach, 
including dissemination of findings and recommendations of the 
advisory committee, as appropriate; and promote access to and 
early application of the technologies, innovations, and 
expertise derived from Program activities to agency missions 
and systems across the Federal Government, and to U.S. 
industry, including startup companies.
    This section would require that funds to carry out the 
activities of the National Quantum Coordination Office be made 
available each fiscal year by the participating agencies of the 
subcommittee, as determined by the Director of OSTP.

Section 103. Subcommittee on Quantum Information Science.

    This section would require the President to establish, 
through NSTC, a subcommittee on QIS (Subcommittee). The 
membership of the Subcommittee would be required to include 
NIST, NSF, DOE, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, DOD, the Office of the Director of National 
Intelligence, OMB, OSTP, and any other Federal agency that the 
President considers appropriate. This section also would 
require the Subcommittee to be jointly chaired by the Director 
of NIST, the Director of NSF, and the Secretary of Energy.
    The Subcommittee would be required to do the following: 
coordinate the QIS and technology research and education 
activities and programs of the Federal agencies; establish 
goals and priorities of the Program, based on identified 
knowledge and workforce gaps and other national needs; assess 
and recommend Federal infrastructure needs to support the 
Program; and evaluate opportunities for international 
cooperation with strategic allies on R&D in QIS and technology.
    This section would require the Subcommittee to develop a 5-
year strategic plan not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment, and develop an additional 5-year strategic plan not 
later than 6 years after enactment, with periodic updates as 
appropriate to guide the activities of the Program, and to meet 
the goals, priorities, and anticipated outcomes of the 
participating agencies.
    This section would require the chairs of the Subcommittee 
to submit the strategic plans and any updates to such plans to 
the President, the advisory committee established under section 
104, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
the Senate, the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of 
the Senate, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
the House of Representatives, and other appropriate committees 
of Congress. It also would require the chairs to submit to 
those committees a report on the budget for the Program 
concurrent with the annual budget request.

Section 104. National Quantum Initiative Advisory Committee.

    This section would require the President to establish a 
National Quantum Initiative Advisory Committee (Advisory 
Committee) consisting of members from industry, academic 
institutions, and Federal laboratories who are qualified to 
provide advice and information on QIS and technology research, 
development, demonstrations, education, technology transfer, 
commercial application, or national security and economic 
concerns. In selecting the members of the Advisory Committee, 
the President could seek and give consideration to 
recommendations from Congress, industry, the scientific 
community (including the National Academy of Sciences, 
scientific professional societies, and academia), the defense 
community, and other appropriate organizations.
    This section would require the Advisory Committee to advise 
the President and the Subcommittee and make recommendations to 
be considered in reviewing and revising the Program. 
Specifically, the Advisory Committee would be required to 
provide the President and the Subcommittee with an independent 
assessment of the following: trends and developments in QIS and 
technology; progress made in implementing the Program; whether 
the Program activities, priorities, and technical goals 
developed by the Subcommittee are helping to maintain U.S. 
leadership in QIS and technology; the management, coordination, 
implementation, and activities of the Program; whether a need 
exists to revise the Program; whether there are opportunities 
for international cooperation with strategic allies on R&D in 
QIS and technology; and whether national security, societal, 
economic, legal, and workforce concerns are adequately 
addressed by the Program.
    This section would require the Advisory Committee to 
report, not less frequently than once every 2 years, to the 
President on the assessments and any recommendations to improve 
the Program. The first report would be required to be submitted 
not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this 
Act. The Director of OSTP would be require to transmit a copy 
of each report under this section to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate, the Committee on 
Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, 
and other appropriate committees of Congress.
    This section also would allow non-Federal members of the 
Advisory Committee to receive travel expenses, while attending 
meetings of the Advisory Committee or while otherwise serving 
at the request of the head of the Advisory Committee away from 
their homes or regular places of business.

Section 105. Sunset.

    This section would terminate the authorities provided in 
this Act 11 years after its enactment. However, the President 
could continue the activities of the Advisory Committee if the 
President determines that such activities are necessary to meet 
national economic or national security needs.

Section 201. National Institute of Standards and Technology quantum 
        activities.

    This section would require the Director of NIST to do the 
following: continue to support and expand basic and applied QIS 
and technology R&D regarding the measurement and standards 
infrastructure necessary to advance commercial development of 
quantum applications; use existing programs to train scientists 
in QIS and technology to increase participation in the quantum 
fields; and establish or expand collaborative ventures or 
consortia with other public or private sector entities, 
including academia, National Laboratories, and industry for the 
purpose of advancing the field of QIS and engineering. It also 
would give the Director of NIST the authority to enter into and 
perform contracts, cooperative R&D arrangements, grants, and 
cooperative agreements as may be necessary in the conduct of 
the relevant work of NIST.
    This section also would require the Director of NIST, not 
later than 1 year after the date of enactment, to convene a 
consortium of stakeholders to discuss the future measurement, 
standards, and cybersecurity necessary for supporting the 
development of a robust QIS and technology industry in the 
United States. The goals of the consortium would be to assess 
current research, evaluate research gaps, and provide 
recommendations on how NIST and the Program could address the 
research needs identified.
    This section would require, not later than 2 years after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of NIST to 
transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a summary 
report containing the findings of the consortium convened under 
this section.
    This section also would authorize annual appropriations to 
NIST of $60 million for FYs 2019-2023.

Section 301. Quantum Information Science Research and Education 
        Programs.

    This section would require the Director of NSF to carry out 
a basic research and education program on QIS and engineering, 
including the competitive award of grants to institutions of 
higher education or nonprofit organizations, which may support 
the Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum Research and 
Education established under section 302. This program would 
include activities that continue to support basic 
interdisciplinary QIS and engineering research and support 
human resources development in all aspects of QIS and 
engineering. Specifically, these activities would include using 
the existing programs of NSF to do the following: improve the 
teaching and learning of QIS and engineering at the 
undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels; increase 
participation in the quantum fields, including by individuals 
identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and Engineering 
Equal Opportunities Act; formulate goals for QIS and 
engineering research and education activities to be supported 
by NSF; leverage the collective body of knowledge from existing 
QIS and engineering research and education activities; 
coordinate research efforts funded through existing programs 
across the directorates of NSF; and engage with other Federal 
agencies, research communities, and potential users of 
information produced under this section.

Section 302. Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum Research and 
        Education.

    This section would require the Director of NSF to award 
grants to institutions of higher education or eligible 
nonprofit organizations (or consortia thereof as defined) to 
establish up to five Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum 
Research and Education. The purpose of the centers would be to 
conduct basic research and education activities in support of 
the goals and priorities of the Program to continue to advance 
QIS and engineering; support curriculum and workforce 
development in QIS and engineering; and foster innovation by 
bringing industry perspectives to quantum research and 
workforce development, including by leveraging industry 
resources and research capacity.
    This section would require an institution of higher 
education or an eligible nonprofit organization (or a 
consortium thereof) seeking funding under this section to 
submit an application to the Director of NSF, including at a 
minimum, a description of the following: how the center will 
work with other research institutions and industry partners to 
leverage expertise in quantum science, education and curriculum 
development, and technology transfer; how the center will 
promote active collaboration among researchers in multiple 
disciplines involved in quantum research including physics, 
engineering, mathematics, computer science, chemistry, and 
material science; how the center will support long-term and 
short-term workforce development in the quantum field; how the 
center can support an innovation ecosystem to work with 
industry to translate center research into applications; and a 
long-term plan to become self-sustaining after the expiration 
of NSF support.
    This section would authorize the centers selected and 
established under this section to carry out activities for a 
period of 5 years, and permit an awardee to reapply for an 
additional, subsequent period of 5 years on a competitive, 
merit-reviewed basis. This section also would allow the 
Director of NSF to terminate an underperforming center for 
cause during the performance period.
    This section would authorize appropriations of $10 million 
per center per year to NSF for each of FYs 2019-2023. This 
section also would allow the Director of NSF to establish a 
program to provide traineeships to graduate students at U.S. 
institutions of higher education who are citizens of the United 
States and who choose to pursue masters or doctoral degrees in 
QIS.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee states that the 
bill as reported would make no change to existing law.

                                  [all]