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                                                        Calendar No. 91
                                                        
 115th Congress }                                          { Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session    }                                          { 115-73
                                                       
======================================================================
 
              WILDLIFE INNOVATION AND LONGEVITY DRIVER ACT

                                _______
                                

                  May 17, 2017.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Barrasso, from the Committee on Environment and Public Works, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 826]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Environment and Public Works, to which was 
referred the bill (S. 826) to reauthorize the Partners for Fish 
and Wildlife Program and certain wildlife conservation funds, 
to establish prize competitions relating to the prevention of 
wildlife poaching and trafficking, wildlife conservation, the 
management of invasive species, and the protection of 
endangered species, and for other purposes, having considered 
the same, reports favorably thereon with an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute and recommends that the bill, as 
amended, do pass.

                  Background and Need For Legislation

    States and localities throughout the United States, and 
nations around the world, grapple with wildlife conservation 
and management challenges, including those posed by invasive 
species, wildlife poaching, and illegal trafficking.
    An ``invasive species'' has been defined under Executive 
Order 13112 as ``an alien species whose introduction does or is 
likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human 
health.'' Roughly 50,000 non-native species have been 
introduced to the United States with an annual economic cost 
estimated at more than $120 billion, according to the 
Congressional Research Service (CRS).\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Congressional Research Service Report, Invasive Species: Major 
Laws and the Role of Selected Federal Agencies, Summary (January 17, 
2017).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    CRS further reports that U.S. agricultural crop and 
livestock production suffers the largest damage, amounting to 
$65 billion annually. In an effort to prevent, control, and 
eradicate invasive species domestically, the U.S. government 
spent an estimated $2.3 billion across a range of federal 
agencies and activities in FY2016. These efforts consist of, 
but are not limited to, species prevention, control and 
management, outreach, research, early detection, and habitat 
restoration.
    During the March 15, 2017 hearing before the Committee 
entitled ``Examining Innovative Solutions to Control Invasive 
Species and Promote Wildlife Conservation,'' Dr. Jamie K. 
Reaser, Executive Director of the National Invasive Species 
Council Secretariat at the U.S. Department of the Interior, 
testified that invasive species play a role in at least 42 
percent of listings of species under the Endangered Species 
Act.
    Poaching presents another concerning wildlife management 
issue. In the United States, poaching takes place across the 
country and includes the illegal taking of black bears for 
their gallbladders, hides and paws, selling Bighorn Sheep 
antlers, shark finning off the coast of California, and deer 
poaching out of hunting season.
    Internationally, poaching is an even more prominent issue 
due to high-profile species such as rhinos and elephants. In 
2017, poachers broke into a zoo in France and killed a white 
rhino in order to saw off its horn. And in Kenya, a 50-year-old 
elephant was illegally killed by a poisoned arrow for his tusks 
worth $130,000.
    The U.S. government estimates that the illegal trade in 
endangered wildlife products is worth at least an estimated $7 
billion, and tends to disproportionately impact the developing 
world. Many of these foreign countries possess valuable natural 
resources, but do not have the means to manage such resources. 
The proliferation of invasive species has also been associated 
with the illegal wildlife trade.
    S. 826 promotes better wildlife conservation and 
management, including by addressing invasive species, wildlife 
poaching, and illegal trafficking. The legislation incorporates 
various, innovative solutions to wildlife conservation and 
management challenges faced by states and localities throughout 
the United States, and nations around the world.

Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program

    The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Act authorizes the 
Secretary of the Interior to provide technical and financial 
assistance to private landowners to restore, enhance, and 
manage private land to improve fish and wildlife habitats 
through the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program. This is 
achieved by connecting community-based biologists with 
landowners to plan, implement, and monitor fish and wildlife 
conservation projects on private land.
    During the March 15, 2017 hearing before the Committee 
entitled ``Examining Innovative Solutions to Control Invasive 
Species and Promote Wildlife Conservation,'' Fish and Wildlife 
Service Acting Director Jim Kurth testified that the Partners 
for Fish and Wildlife Program ``is one of the most effective 
programs'' that the Fish and Wildlife Service administers. 
Director Kurth stated that 50,000 landowners, whose properties 
comprise tens of millions of acres of private lands, have 
worked through the program since its inception to improve 
habitat, benefitting hundreds of species. In addition, Brian 
Nesvik, Chief Game Warden for the Wyoming Game and Fish 
Department, testified that landowners are incentivized to 
participate in this program because it is voluntary, it has a 
matching requirement, it provides flexibility, and it focuses 
on partnership.
    In 1987, the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program was 
established. In 2006, Congress reauthorized the program for 
five years at no more than $75 million annually when it passed 
the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Act (P.L. 109-294). Congress 
has appropriated approximately $50 million per year for the 
program. The program's authorization expired in 2011.

Fish and wildlife coordination

    Invasive species pose an ongoing and significant challenge 
to wildlife managers throughout the United States. On February 
3, 1999, President Clinton issued Executive Order 13112 
requiring executive agencies to take actions to prevent both 
the introduction and spread of invasive species, as well as to 
eradicate and control those already established. On December 5, 
2016, President Obama issued Executive Order 13751 requiring 
the federal government to continue coordinated efforts to 
control invasive species. Federal agency coordination can be 
further improved by requiring those agencies to implement 
strategic invasive species programs, prioritizing the least-
costly of effective methods for controlling and managing 
invasive species, and ensuring most funding is directed towards 
on-the-ground control and management of invasive species.

Multinational Species Conservation Funds

    The Multinational Species Conservation Funds are federal 
programs administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service that 
make targeted investments in conservation of several global 
priority species. The first fund, for African elephants, was 
authorized by Congress in 1989 to address rampant ivory 
poaching. Since that time, four more funds have been authorized 
to help protect Asian elephants, great apes, marine turtles, 
tigers and rhinos. Since 1989, these programs have awarded over 
2,300 grants, targeting key regions to ensure the protection of 
these animals, but the authorizations for these programs have 
expired.

Prize competitions

    Those dedicated to improving wildlife management and 
enforcing related laws are employing a diverse array of 
cutting-edge technologies.
    Innovative methods have been developed for fighting 
invasive species both on land and at sea. For example, 
technology allows the selective identification and capture of 
non-native fish, such as the lionfish, through software 
recognition. In addition, genetics are being used to thwart the 
spread of invasive organisms, while DNA technologies is giving 
wildlife management the ability to monitor the progress of 
specific invasive species with unprecedented precision. These 
innovations are constantly evolving and improving.
    Drones are being developed and deployed to fight poaching 
in the United States and abroad, DNA analysis is allowing 
authorities to identify the origins of confiscated illicit 
ivory supplies, and thermal imaging is permitting law 
enforcement to detect the entry of poachers into protected 
areas. Even common-place technologies such as cellphones are 
being used in imaginative ways, such as outfitting recycled 
units with solar panels and antennas to transmit sounds of 
prohibited activities to proper authorities. This technology is 
expected to lead to more rapid responses to criminal activity 
and greater apprehension rates.
    Section 105 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act 
(P.L. 111-358) amended the Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 
1980 by giving federal agencies the authority to conduct prize 
competitions in order to spur innovation and advance their core 
missions. The mission of the Department of the Interior 
includes ``protect[ing] and manag[ing] the Nation's natural 
resources and cultural heritage . . . .''
    During the March 15, 2017 hearing before the Committee 
entitled ``Examining Innovative Solutions to Control Invasive 
Species and Promote Wildlife Conservation,'' Carter Roberts, 
President and CEO of the World Wildlife Fund testified that 
prize competitions are extremely helpful in leading to 
important technological breakthroughs that improve wildlife 
conservation and management.

                     Objectives of the Legislation

    The objectives of S. 826 are to promote wildlife 
conservation, assist in the management of invasive species, and 
help protect endangered species.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1001. Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program reauthorization

    This section reauthorizes the Partners for Fish and 
Wildlife Program. It authorizes appropriations of not more than 
$100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2022.

Section 2002. Amendments to the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

    This section amends the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act 
(16 U.S.C. 661) by adding a new section 10 relating to the 
protection of water, oceans, coasts, and wildlife from invasive 
species.
    This section requires certain federal agencies to plan and 
carry out activities on lands managed by their agencies to 
protect water and wildlife by controlling and managing invasive 
species. It requires them to develop strategic plans to achieve 
an annual net reduction in invasive species, by reducing either 
their populations or their areas of infestation. It requires 
them to use effective invasive species management and control 
methods that: are based on sound scientific data; minimize 
environmental impacts; and do so in the least costly manner. It 
also requires them to perform comparative economic assessments 
of invasive species control and management methods. Finally, it 
requires them to use all tools and flexibilities available to 
expedite projects and activities that are in areas at a high 
risk for invasive species and require immediate action. The 
Committee intends agencies to evaluate the need for, and, if 
warranted, develop new categorical exclusions for such projects 
and activities using existing authorities provided by the 
National Environmental Policy Act as of the date of enactment 
of this Act.
    This section requires certain federal agencies to use at 
least 75 percent of the appropriated or available funds for on-
the-ground control and management of invasive species. It 
allows them to use up to 15 percent of such funds for 
investigations, development activities, and outreach and public 
awareness efforts relating to invasive species control and 
management. It allows them to use 10 percent of such funds for 
administrative costs.
    This section also requires certain federal agencies to 
submit reports to Congress within a specified period describing 
how funds for programs relating to invasive species management 
are used. It authorizes them to enter into any contract or 
cooperative agreement to assist with the control and management 
of invasive species. It requires that each project and activity 
carried out pursuant to this section shall be in coordination 
with affected local governments.

Section 3001. Multinational Species Conservation Funds reauthorization

    This section reauthorizes appropriations for the 
Multinational Species Conservation Funds. It reauthorizes the 
African Elephant Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 4245(a)) from 
fiscal year 2018 through fiscal year 2022. It reauthorizes the 
Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994 (16 U.S.C. 
5306(a)) from fiscal year 2018 though fiscal year 2022. It 
reauthorizes the Asian Elephant Conservation Act of 1997 (16 
U.S.C. 4266(a)) from fiscal year 2018 through fiscal year 2022. 
It reauthorizes the Great Ape Conservation Act of 2000 (16 
U.S.C. 6305) from fiscal year 2018 through fiscal year 2022 and 
includes a multiyear grant process for eligible applicants to 
carry out projects that demonstrate effective, long-term 
conservation strategies for great apes and their habitats. It 
reauthorizes the Marine Turtle Conservation Act of 2004 (16 
U.S.C. 6606) from fiscal year 2018 through fiscal year 2022 and 
expands the scope of the Act to include marine turtles located 
in territories of the United States.

Section 4001. Definitions

    This section defines terms used in Title IV.

Section 4002. Theodore Roosevelt Genius Prize for the prevention of 
        wildlife poaching and trafficking

    This section creates a cash prize for technological 
innovation for the prevention of wildlife poaching and 
trafficking.

Section 4003. Theodore Roosevelt Genius Prize for the promotion of 
        wildlife conservation

    This section creates a cash prize for technological 
innovation for the promotion of wildlife conservation.

Section 4004. Theodore Roosevelt Genius Prize for the management of 
        invasive species

    This section creates a cash prize for technological 
innovation for the management of invasive species.

Section 4005. Theodore Roosevelt Genius Prize for the protection of 
        endangered species

    This section creates a cash prize for technological 
innovation for the protection of endangered species.

Section 4006. Theodore Roosevelt Genius Prize for non-lethal management 
        of human-wildlife conflicts

    This section creates a cash prize for technological 
innovation for non-lethal management of human-wildlife 
conflicts.

Section 4007. Administration of competitions

    This section provides for the administration of the 
Theodore Roosevelt Genius Prizes established under sections 
4002 through 4006.

                          Legislative History

    S. 826, the Wildlife Innovation and Longevity Driver Act, 
was introduced by Senator John Barrasso on April 4, 2017. The 
bill was referred to the Committee. The Committee reported S. 
826, as amended, favorably on April 5, 2017.

                                Hearings

    On March 15, 2017, the Committee held a hearing entitled 
Examining Innovative Solutions to Control Invasive Species and 
Promote Wildlife Conservation. The five witnesses included: 
Brian Nesvik, Chief Game Warden, Wyoming Game and Fish 
Department; Carter Roberts, President and CEO, World Wildlife 
Fund; Jim Kurth, Acting Director, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 
U.S. Department of the Interior; Jamie K. Reaser, PhD, 
Executive Director, National Invasive Species Council (NISC), 
Secretariat, U.S. Department of the Interior; and David 
Ullrich, Chairman, The Great Lakes Fishery Commission.

                             Rollcall Votes

    On April 5, 2017, the Committee conducted a business 
meeting to consider S. 826. The Committee considered an 
amendment in the nature of a substitute as original text and 
favorably reported the bill, as amended by the substitute, by 
voice vote.

Amendments approved

    Revised Whitehouse #1--An amendment to include the 
protection of oceans and coasts within the purpose of Title II 
of S. 826 and to define the term ``wildlife'' as enacted under 
section 8 of the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 
666b) (adopted en bloc with Revised Booker #1 by voice vote).
    Revised Booker #1--An amendment to create a prize for 
innovative technology for non-lethal management of human-
wildlife conflict (adopted en bloc with Revised Whitehouse #1 
by voice vote).

Amendments rejected

    None.

Final Committee vote to report

    S. 826, as amended by the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute, was approved and favorably reported to the full 
Senate by voice vote.

                      Regulatory Impact Statement

    In compliance with section 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee finds that S. 826 
does not create any additional regulatory burdens, nor will it 
cause any adverse impact on the personal privacy of 
individuals.

                          Mandates Assessment

    In compliance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 
(Public Law 104-4), the Committee notes that the Congressional 
Budget Office found that S. 826 contains no intergovernmental 
or private-sector mandates as defined in UMRA and would impose 
no costs on state, local, or tribal governments

                          Cost of Legislation

    Section 403 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act requires that a statement of the cost of the 
reported bill, prepared by the Congressional Budget Office, be 
included in the report. That statement follows:

                                                      May 12, 2017.
Hon. John Barrasso,
Chairman, Committee on Environment and Public Works,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 826, the WILD Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Jeff LaFave.
            Sincerely,
                                                        Keith Hall.
    Enclosure.

S. 826--WILD Act

    Summary: S. 826 would amend and reauthorize various 
programs conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(USFWS) related to the conservation of wildlife. The bill also 
would require various agencies to carry out certain activities 
to manage invasive species. Finally, the bill would establish 
prize competitions to promote the development of strategies to 
enhance wildlife conservation.
    Based on information from the affected agencies, CBO 
estimates that implementing the legislation would cost $607 
million over the 2018-2022 period and $46 million after 2022, 
assuming appropriation of the authorized and necessary amounts. 
Enacting S. 826 would not affect direct spending or revenues; 
therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    CBO estimates that enacting S. 826 would not increase net 
direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    S. 826 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of S. 826 is shown in the following table. The 
costs of this legislation fall within budget function 300 
(natural resources and environment).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             2017      2018      2019      2020      2021      2022    2017-2022
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Partners for Fish and Wildlife:
    Authorization Level..................         0       100       100       100       100       100        500
    Estimated Outlays....................         0        77        92        96        99       100        464
Species Conservation Programs:
    Authorization Level..................         0        30        30        30        30        30        150
    Estimated Outlays....................         0        23        28        29        30        30        140
Prize Competitions:
    Estimated Authorization Level........         0         1         1         1         1         1          3
    Estimated Outlays....................         0         1         1         1         1         1          3
    Total Increases:
        Estimated Authorization Level....         0       131       131       131       131       131        653
        Estimated Outlays................         0       101       120       125       130       131        607
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
legislation will be enacted near the end of 2017 and that the 
authorized and necessary amounts will be appropriated for each 
fiscal year. Estimated outlays are based on historical spending 
patterns for similar programs. Title I would authorize the 
appropriation of $100 million a year over the 2018-2022 period 
to fund the Partners for Fish and Wildlife program. Under the 
program, the USFWS provides technical assistance and cost-share 
incentives to private landowners to restore fish and wildlife 
habitats. In 2017, the USFWS received appropriations totaling 
$52 million to carry out that program. Based on information 
provided by the agency, CBO estimates that carrying out title I 
would cost $464 million over the 2018-2022 period and $36 
million after 2022.
    Title III would authorize the appropriation of $30 million 
a year over the 2018-2022 period to carry out programs aimed at 
conserving various species including elephants, rhinoceros, 
tigers, great apes, and marine turtles. In 2017, the USFWS 
received appropriations totaling $11 million to carry out those 
programs. Based on information provided by the agency, CBO 
estimates that carrying out title III would cost $140 million 
over the 2018-2022 period and $10 million after 2022.
    Title IV would require USFWS to establish five annual prize 
competitions to reward individuals who advance efforts related 
to wildlife conservation. Under the bill, the agency would 
award each prize winner $100,000 in cash. Based on information 
provided by USFWS, CBO estimates that administering the prize 
competitions would cost about $3 million over the 2018-2022 
period.
    Title II would require the Army Corps of Engineers and 
agencies within the Department of the Interior to carry out 
activities to control and manage invasive species. Because the 
affected agencies are already meeting most of the requirements 
under title II, we estimate that implementing that title would 
cost less than $500,000 over the 2018-2022 period for planning 
and reporting activities required under the bill.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in long term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting S. 826 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2028.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: S. 826 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA. The bill would authorize federal assistance 
for state, local, and tribal governments to control invasive 
species and protect endangered species. Any costs incurred by 
those entities, under cooperative agreements with federal 
agencies or as cost-sharing contributions, would result from 
conditions of federal assistance.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Jeff LaFave; Impact on 
state, local, and tribal governments: Jon Sperl; Impact on the 
private sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with section 12 of rule XXVI of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill 
as reported are shown as follows: Existing law proposed to be 
omitted is enclosed in [black brackets], new matter is printed 
in italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown 
in roman:

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   PARTNERS FOR FISH AND WILDLIFE ACT


           [PUBLIC LAW 109-294--OCT. 3, 2006, 120 Stat. 1351]

SEC. 1. <> SHORT TITLE.

   This Act may be cited as the ``Partners for Fish and 
Wildlife Act''.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 5. AUTHORIZATION OF <> APPROPRIATIONS.

   There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this Act 
not more than [75,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 
2011] $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2022.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   FISH AND WILDLIFE COORDINATION ACT


                            (16 U.S.C. 661)

   Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, [16 U.S.C. 
661] [For the purpose]

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; AUTHORIZATION.

   (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the `Fish and 
Wildlife Coordination Act'.
   (b) Authorization.--For the purpose of recognizing the vital 
contribution of our wildlife resources to the Nation, the 
increasing public interest and significance thereof due to 
expansion of our national economy and other factors, and to 
provide that wildlife conservation shall receive equal 
consideration and be coordinated with other features of water-
resource development programs through the effectual and 
harmonious planning, development, maintenance, and coordination 
of wildlife conservation and rehabilitation for the purposes of 
this Act in the United States, its Territories and possessions, 
the Secretary of the Interior is authorized (1) to provide 
assistance to, and cooperate with, Federal, State, and public 
or private agencies and organizations in the development, 
protection, rearing, and stocking of all species of wildlife, 
resources thereof, and their habitat, in controlling losses of 
the same from disease or other causes, in minimizing damages 
from overabundant species, in providing public shooting and 
fishing areas, including easements across public lands for 
access thereto, and in carrying out other measures necessary to 
effectuate the purposes of this Act; (2) to make surveys and 
investigations of the wildlife of the public domain, including 
lands and waters or interests therein acquired or controlled by 
any agency of the United States; and (3) to accept donations of 
land and contributions of funds in furtherance of the purposes 
of this Act.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 9. [16 U.S.C. 666C] THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ACT SHALL NOT APPLY TO 
                    THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY.

SEC. 10. PROTECTION OF WATER, OCEANS, COASTS, AND WILDLIFE FROM 
                    INVASIVE SPECIES.

   (a) Definitions.--In this section:
           (1) Control.--The term `control', with respect to an 
        invasive species, means the eradication, suppression, 
        or reduction of the population of the invasive species 
        within the area in which the invasive species is 
        present.
           (2) Ecosystem.--The term `ecosystem' means the 
        complex of a community of organisms and the environment 
        of the organisms.
           (3) Eligible state.--The term `eligible State' means 
        any of--
                   (A) a State;
                   (B) the District of Columbia;
                   (C) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico;
                   (D) Guam;
                   (E) American Samoa;
                   (F) the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
                Islands; and
                   (G) the United States Virgin Islands.
           (4) Invasive species.--
                   (A) In general.--The term `invasive species' 
                means an alien species, the introduction of 
                which causes, or is likely to cause, economic 
                or environmental harm or harm to human health.
                   (B) Associated definition.--For purposes of 
                subparagraph (A), the term `alien species', 
                with respect to a particular ecosystem, means 
                any species (including the seeds, eggs, spores, 
                or other biological material of the species 
                that are capable of propagating the species) 
                that is not native to the affected ecosystem.
                   (C) Inclusion.--The terms `invasive species' 
                and `alien species' include any terrestrial or 
                aquatic species determined by the relevant 
                tribal, regional, State, or local authority to 
                meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) or 
                (B), as applicable.
           (5) Manage; management.--The terms `manage' and 
        `management', with respect to an invasive species, mean 
        the active implementation of any activity--
                   (A) to reduce or stop the spread of the 
                invasive species; and
                   (B) to inhibit further infestations of the 
                invasive species, the spread of the invasive 
                species, or harm caused by the invasive 
                species, including investigations regarding 
                methods for early detection and rapid response, 
                prevention, control, or management of the 
                invasive species.
           (6) Prevent.--The term `prevent', with respect to an 
        invasive species, means--
                   (A) to hinder the introduction of the 
                invasive species onto land or water; or
                   (B) to impede the spread of the invasive 
                species within land or water by inspecting, 
                intercepting, or confiscating invasive species 
                threats prior to the establishment of the 
                invasive species onto land or water of an 
                eligible State.
           (7) Secretary concerned.--The term `Secretary 
        concerned' means--
                   (A) the Secretary of the Army, acting 
                through the Chief of Engineers, with respect to 
                Federal land administered by the Corps of 
                Engineers;
                   (B) the Secretary of the Interior, with 
                respect to Federal land administered by the 
                Secretary of the Interior through--
                           (i) the United States Fish and 
                        Wildlife Service;
                           (ii) the Bureau of Indian Affairs;
                           (iii) the Bureau of Land Management;
                           (iv) the Bureau of Reclamation; or
                           (v) the National Park Service;
                   (C) the Secretary of Agriculture, with 
                respect to Federal land administered by the 
                Secretary of Agriculture through the Forest 
                Service; and
                   (D) the head or a representative of any 
                other Federal agency the duties of whom require 
                planning relating to, and the treatment of, 
                invasive species for the purpose of protecting 
                water and wildlife on land and coasts and in 
                oceans and water.
           (8) Species.--The term `species' means a group of 
        organisms, all of which--
                   (A) have a high degree of genetic 
                similarity;
                   (B) are morphologically distinct;
                   (C) generally--
                           (i) interbreed at maturity only 
                        among themselves; and
                           (ii) produce fertile offspring; and
                   (D) show persistent differences from members 
                of allied groups of organisms.
   (b) Control and Management.--Each Secretary concerned shall 
plan and carry out activities on land directly managed by the 
Secretary concerned to protect water and wildlife by 
controlling and managing invasive species--
           (1) to inhibit or reduce the populations of invasive 
        species; and
           (2) to effectuate restoration or reclamation 
        efforts.
   (c) Strategic Plan.--
           (1) In general.--Each Secretary concerned shall 
        develop a strategic plan for the implementation of the 
        invasive species program to achieve, to the maximum 
        extent practicable, a substantive annual net reduction 
        of invasive species populations or infested acreage on 
        land or water managed by the Secretary concerned.
           (2) Coordination.--Each strategic plan under 
        paragraph (1) shall be developed--
                   (A) in coordination with affected--
                           (i) eligible States;
                           (ii) political subdivisions of 
                        eligible States; and
                           (iii) federally recognized Indian 
                        tribes; and
                   (B) in accordance with the priorities 
                established by 1 or more Governors of the 
                eligible States in which an ecosystem affected 
                by an invasive species is located.
           (3) Factors for consideration.--In developing a 
        strategic plan under this subsection, the Secretary 
        concerned shall take into consideration the economic 
        and ecological costs of action or inaction, as 
        applicable.
   (d) Cost-effective Methods.--In selecting a method to be 
used to control or manage an invasive species as part of a 
specific control or management project conducted as part of a 
strategic plan developed under subsection (c), the Secretary 
concerned shall prioritize the use of methods that--
           (1) effectively control and manage invasive species, 
        as determined by the Secretary concerned, based on 
        sound scientific data;
           (2) minimize environmental impacts; and
           (3) control and manage invasive species in the least 
        costly manner.
   (e) Comparative Economic Assessment.--To achieve compliance 
with subsection (d), the Secretary concerned shall require a 
comparative economic assessment of invasive species control and 
management methods to be conducted.
   (f) Expedited Action.--
           (1) In general.--The Secretaries concerned shall use 
        all tools and flexibilities available (as of the date 
        of enactment of this section) to expedite the projects 
        and activities described in paragraph (2).
           (2) Description of projects and activities.--A 
        project or activity referred to in paragraph (1) is a 
        project or activity--
                   (A) to protect water or wildlife from an 
                invasive species that, as determined by the 
                Secretary concerned is, or will be, carried out 
                on land or water that is--
                           (i) directly managed by the 
                        Secretary concerned; and
                           (ii) located in an area that is--
                                   (I) at high risk for the 
                                introduction, establishment, or 
                                spread of invasive species; and
                                   (II) determined by the 
                                Secretary concerned to require 
                                immediate action to address the 
                                risk identified in subclause 
                                (I); and
                   (B) carried out in accordance with 
                applicable agency procedures, including any 
                applicable--
                           (i) land or resource management 
                        plan; or
                           (ii) land use plan.
   (g) Allocation of Funding.--Of the amount appropriated or 
otherwise made available to each Secretary concerned for a 
fiscal year for programs that address or include protection of 
land or water from an invasive species, the Secretary concerned 
shall use not less than 75 percent for on-the-ground control 
and management of invasive species, which may include--
           (1) the purchase of necessary products, equipment, 
        or services to conduct that control and management;
           (2) the use of integrated pest management options, 
        including options that use pesticides authorized for 
        sale, distribution, or use under the Federal 
        Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 
        136 et seq.);
           (3) the use of biological control agents that are 
        proven to be effective to reduce invasive species 
        populations;
           (4) the use of revegetation or cultural restoration 
        methods designed to improve the diversity and richness 
        of ecosystems;
           (5) the use of monitoring and detection activities 
        for invasive species, including equipment, detection 
        dogs, and mechanical devices;
           (6) the use of appropriate methods to remove 
        invasive species from a vehicle or vessel capable of 
        conveyance; or
           (7) the use of other effective mechanical or manual 
        control methods.
   (h) Investigations, Outreach, and Public Awareness.--Of the 
amount appropriated or otherwise made available to each 
Secretary concerned for a fiscal year for programs that address 
or include protection of land or water from an invasive 
species, the Secretary concerned may use not more than 15 
percent for investigations, development activities, and 
outreach and public awareness efforts to address invasive 
species control and management needs.
   (i) Administrative Costs.--Of the amount appropriated or 
otherwise made available to each Secretary concerned for a 
fiscal year for programs that address or include protection of 
land or water from an invasive species, not more than 10 
percent may be used for administrative costs incurred to carry 
out those programs, including costs relating to oversight and 
management of the programs, recordkeeping, and implementation 
of the strategic plan developed under subsection (c).
   (j) Reporting Requirements.--Not later than 60 days after 
the end of the second fiscal year beginning after the date of 
enactment of this section, each Secretary concerned shall 
submit to Congress a report--
           (1) describing the use by the Secretary concerned 
        during the 2 preceding fiscal years of funds for 
        programs that address or include invasive species 
        management; and
           (2) specifying the percentage of funds expended for 
        each of the purposes specified in subsections (g), (h), 
        and (i).
   (k) Relation to Other Authority.--
           (1) Other invasive species control, prevention, and 
        management authorities.--Nothing in this section 
        precludes the Secretary concerned from pursuing or 
        supporting, pursuant to any other provision of law, any 
        activity regarding the control, prevention, or 
        management of an invasive species, including 
        investigations to improve the control, prevention, or 
        management of the invasive species.
           (2) Public water supply systems.--Nothing in this 
        section authorizes the Secretary concerned to suspend 
        any water delivery or diversion, or otherwise to 
        prevent the operation of a public water supply system, 
        as a measure to control, manage, or prevent the 
        introduction or spread of an invasive species.
   (l) Use of Partnerships.--Subject to the subsections (m) and 
(n), the Secretary concerned may enter into any contract or 
cooperative agreement with another Federal agency, an eligible 
State, a political subdivision of an eligible State, or a 
private individual or entity to assist with the control and 
management of an invasive species.
   (m) Memorandum of Understanding.--
           (1) In general.--As a condition of a contract or 
        cooperative agreement under subsection (l), the 
        Secretary concerned and the applicable Federal agency, 
        eligible State, political subdivision of an eligible 
        State, or private individual or entity shall enter into 
        a memorandum of understanding that describes--
                   (A) the nature of the partnership between 
                the parties to the memorandum of understanding; 
                and
                   (B) the control and management activities to 
                be conducted under the contract or cooperative 
                agreement.
           (2) Contents.--A memorandum of understanding under 
        this subsection shall contain, at a minimum, the 
        following:
                   (A) A prioritized listing of each invasive 
                species to be controlled or managed.
                   (B) An assessment of the total acres of land 
                or area of water infested by the invasive 
                species.
                   (C) An estimate of the expected total acres 
                of land or area of water infested by the 
                invasive species after control and management 
                of the invasive species is attempted.
                   (D) A description of each specific, 
                integrated pest management option to be used, 
                including a comparative economic assessment to 
                determine the least-costly method.
                   (E) Any map, boundary, or Global Positioning 
                System coordinates needed to clearly identify 
                the area in which each control or management 
                activity is proposed to be conducted.
                   (F) A written assurance that each partner 
                will comply with section 15 of the Federal 
                Noxious Weed Act of 1974 (7 U.S.C. 2814).
           (3) Coordination.--If a partner to a contract or 
        cooperative agreement under subsection (l) is an 
        eligible State, political subdivision of an eligible 
        State, or private individual or entity, the memorandum 
        of understanding under this subsection shall include a 
        description of--
                   (A) the means by which each applicable 
                control or management effort will be 
                coordinated; and
                   (B) the expected outcomes of managing and 
                controlling the invasive species.
           (4) Public outreach and awareness efforts.--If a 
        contract or cooperative agreement under subsection (l) 
        involves any outreach or public awareness effort, the 
        memorandum of understanding under this subsection shall 
        include a list of goals and objectives for each 
        outreach or public awareness effort that have been 
        determined to be efficient to inform national, 
        regional, State, or local audiences regarding invasive 
        species control and management.
   (n) Investigations.--The purpose of any invasive species-
related investigation carried out under a contract or 
cooperative agreement under subsection (l) shall be--
           (1) to develop solutions and specific 
        recommendations for control and management of invasive 
        species; and
           (2) specifically to provide faster implementation of 
        control and management methods.
   (o) Coordination With Affected Local Governments.--Each 
project and activity carried out pursuant to this section shall 
be coordinated with affected local governments in a manner that 
is consistent with section 202(c)(9) of the Federal Land Policy 
and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1712(c)(9)).

AFRICAN ELEPHANT CONSERVATION ACT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 2001. [16 U.S.C. 4201 NOTE] SHORT TITLE.

   This title may be cited as the ``African Elephant 
Conservation Act''.

SEC. 2306. [16 U.S.C. 4245] AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

   (a) In General.--There is authorized to be appropriated to 
the Fund and to the Secretary a total of not to exceed 
$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years [2007 through 2012] 2018 
through 2022 to carry out this title, to remain available until 
expended.
   (b) Administrative Expenses.--Of amounts available each 
fiscal year to carry out this title, the Secretary may expend 
not more than 3 percent or $100,000, whichever is greater, to 
pay the administrative expenses necessary to carry out this 
title.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


ASIAN ELEPHANT CONSERVATION ACT OF 1997

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION 1. [16 U.S.C. 4261 NOTE] SHORT TITLE.

   This Act may be cited as the ``Asian Elephant Conservation 
Act of 1997''.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 8. [16 U.S.C. 4266] AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

   (a) In General.--There is authorized to be appropriated to 
the Fund $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years [2007 through 
2012] 2018 through 2022 to carry out this Act, which may remain 
available until expended.
   (b) Administrative Expenses.--Of amounts available each 
fiscal year to carry out this Act, the Secretary may expend not 
more than 3 percent or $100,000, whichever is greater, to pay 
the administrative expenses necessary to carry out this Act.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


RHINOCEROS AND TIGER CONSERVATION ACT OF 1994

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 1. [16 U.S.C. 5301 NOTE] SHORT TITLE.

   This Act may be cited as the ``Rhinoceros and Tiger 
Conservation Act of 1994''.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 10. [16 U.S.C. 5306] AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

   (a) In General.--There is authorized to be appropriated to 
the Fund $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years [2007 through 
2012] 2018 through 2022 to carry out this Act, to remain 
available until expended.
   (b) Administrative Expenses.--Of amounts available each 
fiscal year to carry out this Act, the Secretary may expend not 
more than 3 percent or $100,000, whichever is greater, to pay 
the administrative expenses necessary to carry out this Act.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                   GREAT APE CONSERVATION ACT OF 2000


[16 U.S.C. 6303]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 6303. GREAT APE CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE

   (a) In general.-- Subject to the availability of funds and 
in consultation with other appropriate Federal officials, the 
Secretary shall use amounts in the Fund to provide financial 
assistance for projects for the conservation of great apes for 
which project proposals are approved by the Secretary in 
accordance with this section.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

   (i) Panel.--
           [(1) In General.-- Every 2 years, the Secretary may 
        convene a panel of experts to identify the greatest 
        needs for the conservation of great apes.]
           (1) Convention.--Not later than 1 year after the 
        date of the enactment of the Wildlife Innovation and 
        Longevity Driver Act, and every 5 years thereafter, the 
        Secretary shall convene a panel of experts on great 
        apes to identify the greatest needs and priorities for 
        the conservation of great apes.
           (2) Composition.--The Secretary shall ensure that 
        the panel referred to in paragraph (1) includes, to the 
        maximum extent practicable, 1 or more representatives--
                   (A) from each country that comprises the 
                natural range of great apes; and
                   (B) with expertise in great ape 
                conservation.
           (3) Conservation plans.--In identifying the 
        conservation needs and priorities under paragraph (1), 
        the panel referred to in that paragraph shall consider 
        any relevant great ape conservation plan or strategy, 
        including scientific research and findings relating 
        to--
                   (A) the conservation needs and priorities of 
                great apes;
                   (B) any regional or species-specific action 
                plan or strategy;
                   (C) any applicable strategy developed or 
                initiated by the Secretary; and
                   (D) any other applicable conservation plan 
                or strategy.
           ``(4) Funds.--Subject to the availability of 
        appropriations, the Secretary may use amounts available 
        to the Secretary to pay for the costs of convening and 
        facilitating any meeting of the panel referred to in 
        paragraph (1).
           [(2)] (5) Applicability of FACA.--The Federal 
        Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) shall not apply 
        to a panel convened under paragraph (1).
   (j) Multiyear Grants.--
           (1) Authorization.--The Secretary may award to a 
        person who is otherwise eligible for a grant under this 
        section a multiyear grant to carry out a project that 
        the person demonstrates is an effective, long-term 
        conservation strategy for great apes and the habitat of 
        great apes.
           (2) Effect of subsection.--Nothing in this 
        subsection precludes the Secretary from awarding a 
        grant on an annual basis.

SEC. 6304. GREAT APE CONSERVATION FUND

   (a) Establishment.--There is established in the 
Multinational Species Conservation Fund a separate account to 
be known as the ``Great Ape Conservation Fund'', consisting of-
           (1) amounts transferred to the Secretary of the 
        Treasury for deposit into the Fund under subsection 
        (e);
           (2) amounts appropriated to the Fund under section 
        6305 of this title; and
           (3) any interest earned on investment of amounts in 
        the Fund under subsection (c).
   (b) Expenditures from Fund.--
           (1) In general.--Subject to paragraph (2), upon 
        request by the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury 
        shall transfer from the Fund to the Secretary, without 
        further appropriation, such amounts as the Secretary 
        determines are necessary to provide assistance under 
        section 6303 of this title.
           (2) Administrative expenses.--Of the amounts in the 
        account available for each fiscal year, the Secretary 
        may expend not more than 3 percent, or up to [$100,000] 
        $150,000, whichever is greater, to pay the 
        administrative expenses necessary to carry out this 
        chapter.

SEC. 6305. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    There are authorized to be appropriated to the Fund 
$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years [2006 through 2010] 2018 
through 2022.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                 MARINE TURTLE CONSERVATION ACT OF 2004


                            [16 U.S.C. 6601]

SEC. 6601. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES

   (a) Findings.--The Congress finds that-
           (1)* * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

   (b) Purpose.--The purpose of this chapter is to assist in 
the conservation of marine turtles and the nesting habitats of 
marine turtles in foreign countries and territories of the 
United States by supporting and providing financial resources 
for projects to conserve the nesting habitats, conserve marine 
turtles in those habitats, and address other threats to the 
survival of marine turtles.

SEC. 6602. DEFINITIONS IN THIS CHAPTER:

           (1) CITES.--The term ``CITES'' means the Convention 
        on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
        Fauna and Flora (27 UST 1087; TIAS 8249).
           (2) Conservation.--The term ``conservation'' means 
        the use of all methods and procedures necessary to 
        protect nesting habitats of marine turtles in foreign 
        countries and territories of the United States and of 
        marine turtles in those habitats, including-
                   (A)* * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

           (3) Fund.--The term ``Fund'' means the Marine Turtle 
        Conservation Fund established by section 6604 of this 
        title.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

           (6) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the 
        Secretary of the Interior.
           (7) Territory of the united states.--The term 
        `territory of the United States' means--
                   (A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico;
                   (B) Guam;
                   (C) American Samoa;
                   (D) the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
                Islands;
                   (E) the United States Virgin Islands; and
                   (F) any other territory or possession of the 
                United States.

SEC. 6603. MARINE TURTLE CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE

   (a) In general.--Subject to the availability of funds and in 
consultation with other Federal officials, the Secretary shall 
use amounts in the Fund to provide financial assistance for 
projects for the conservation of marine turtles for which 
project proposals are approved by the Secretary in accordance 
with this section.
   (b) Project proposals.--
           (1) Eligible applicants.--A proposal for a project 
        for the conservation of marine turtles may be submitted 
        to the Secretary by-
                   (A) any wildlife management authority of a 
                foreign country or a territory of the United 
                States that has within its boundaries marine 
                turtle nesting habitat if the activities of the 
                authority directly or indirectly affect marine 
                turtle conservation; or
                   (B) any other person or group with the 
                demonstrated expertise required for the 
                conservation of marine turtles.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

   (d) Criteria for approval.--The Secretary may approve a 
project proposal under this section if the project will help 
recover and sustain viable populations of marine turtles in the 
wild by assisting efforts in [foreign countries] a foreign 
country or a territory of the United States to implement marine 
turtle conservation programs.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 6604. MARINE TURTLE CONSERVATION FUND

   (a) Establishment.--There is established in the 
Multinational Species Conservation Fund a separate account to 
be known as the "Marine Turtle Conservation Fund", consisting 
of-
           (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

   (b) Expenditures from Fund.--
           (1) In general.--Subject to paragraph (2), on 
        request by the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury 
        shall transfer from the Fund to the Secretary, without 
        further appropriation, such amounts as the Secretary 
        determines are necessary to carry out section 6603 of 
        this title.
           (2) Administrative expenses.--Of the amounts in the 
        account available for each fiscal year, the Secretary 
        may expend not more than 3 percent, or up to [$80,000] 
        $150,000, whichever is greater, to pay the 
        administrative expenses necessary to carry out this 
        chapter.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 6606. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    There is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund 
5,000,000 for [each of fiscal years 2005 through 2009] each of 
fiscal years 2018 through 2022.

                                  [all]