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116th Congress  }                                             {   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session    }                                             {   116-169

======================================================================



 
         HONORING AMERICAN VETERANS IN EXTREME NEED ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

 July 23, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Nadler, from the Committee on the Judiciary, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 2938]

    The Committee on the Judiciary, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 2938) to exempt from the calculation of monthly 
income certain benefits paid by the Department of Veterans 
Affairs and the Department of Defense, having considered the 
same, report favorably thereon without amendment and recommend 
that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Purpose and Summary..............................................     1
Background and Need for the Legislation..........................     2
Hearings.........................................................     3
Committee Consideration..........................................     4
Committee Votes..................................................     4
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................     4
New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures and Congressional 
  Budget Office Cost Estimate....................................     4
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................     4
Performance Goals and Objectives.................................     4
Advisory on Earmarks.............................................     5
Section-by-Section Analysis......................................     5
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............     5

                          Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 2938, the ``Honoring American Veterans in Extreme Need 
Act of 2019'' or the ``HAVEN Act,'' would provide that certain 
veterans' disability benefits should not be treated as income 
for purposes of the Bankruptcy Code's means test. This 
bipartisan measure was introduced by Representative Lucy McBath 
(D-GA) on May 23, 2019, together with Representative W. Gregory 
Steube (R-FL) as an original cosponsor. The bill is supported 
by the Veterans of Foreign Affairs, the American Legion, and 
the Disabled American Veterans.\1\ In addition, it is supported 
by the American Bankruptcy Institute (ABI),\2\ the National 
Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys (NACBA),\3\ the 
National Conference of Bankruptcy Judges,\4\ and the American 
College of Bankruptcy.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Oversight of Bankruptcy Law and Legislative Proposals: Hearing 
Before the Subcomm. on Antitrust, Commercial, & Admin. Law of the H. 
Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong. (2019) (statement of Rep. Lucy 
McBath (D-GA)).
    \2\See id (prepared statement of Robert J. Keach, Am. Bankr. 
Inst.); Am. Bankr. Inst., Final Rep. of the ABI Commission on Consumer 
Bankruptcy, at 134-35 (2019) [hereinafter ABI Consumer Report].
    \3\Oversight of Bankruptcy Law and Legislative Proposals: Hearing 
Before the Subcomm. on Antitrust, Commercial, & Admin. Law of the H. 
Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong. (2019) (statement of Ed Boltz, 
National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys).
    \4\Letter from U.S. Bankruptcy Judge John E. Waites, Pres., Nat'l 
Conf. of Bankr. Judges, to Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), Chair, H. Comm. 
on the Judiciary, & Rep. Doug Collins (R-GA), Ranking Member, H. Comm. 
on the Judiciary (May 31, 2019).
    \5\Letter from Marc A. Levinson, Chair, Am. Coll. of Bankr., and 
Mark D. Bloom, Pres., Am. Coll. of Bankr. to Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-
NY), Chair, H. Comm. on the Judiciary, & Rep. Doug Collins (R-GA), 
Ranking Member, H. Comm. on the Judiciary (June 11, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                Background and Need for the Legislation


                               BACKGROUND

    Although the Bankruptcy Code as originally enacted in 1978 
provided that a chapter 7 case could only be dismissed for 
``cause,'' the Code was amended in 1984 to permit the court to 
dismiss a chapter 7 case for ``substantial abuse.''\6\ This 
provision, codified in section 707(b) of the Bankruptcy 
Code,\7\ was added ``as part of a package of consumer credit 
amendments designed to reduce perceived abuses in the use of 
chapter 7.''\8\ It was intended to respond ``to concerns that 
some debtors who could easily pay their creditors might resort 
to chapter 7 to avoid their obligations.''\9\ In 1986, section 
707(b) was further amended to allow a United States Trustee to 
move for dismissal.\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984, Pub. L. 
No. 98-353, Sec.  312, 98 Stat. 333, 335 (1984).
    \7\11 U.S.C. Sec.  707(b) (2019).
    \8\6 Alan N. Resnick & Henry J. Sommer, Collier on Bankruptcy Sec.  
707.LH[2], at 707-61 (15th ed. rev. 2006).
    \9\Id. at Sec.  707.04.
    \10\Bankruptcy Judges, United States Trustees, and Family Farmer 
Bankruptcy Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-554, Sec. 219, 100 Stat. 3088, 
3101 (1986). The United States Trustee Program is responsible for 
overseeing the administration of bankruptcy cases and private trustees. 
28 U.S.C. Sec. Sec.  581-89a (2019). The Program is overseen by the 
Executive Office for United States Trustees, which provides policy and 
management direction to United States Trustees. The Program operates 
through a system of 21 regions nationwide, except for North Carolina 
and Alabama. Bankruptcy Judges, United States Trustees, and Family 
Farmer Bankruptcy Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-554 (1986); 28 U.S.C. 
Sec. 581 n. (2019). With respect to North Carolina and Alabama, the 
bankruptcy system is administered by a bankruptcy administrator 
appointed by the Judicial Conference. Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Among its various amendments to the Bankruptcy Code, the 
Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 
2005\11\ included the establishment of a means or needs-based 
testing mechanism to determine a debtor's ability to repay 
debts for the purpose of determining whether the filing of the 
bankruptcy case should be presumed to be abusive. As amended by 
that Act, section 707(b) of the Bankruptcy Code provides that 
if a chapter 7 debtor has the ability to repay debts and has no 
special circumstances, the filing of the debtor's case is 
presumed to be an abuse and subject to dismissal or conversion 
to a chapter 13 case based on the debtor's income and various 
specified expenses, some of which are determined under Internal 
Revenue expense standards.\12\ The debtor's income, for 
purposes of this test, is typically determined by calculating 
the amount of average monthly income the debtor received during 
the six-month period preceding the filing of the bankruptcy 
case.\13\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \11\Pub. L. No. 109-8, 119 Stat. 23 (2005).
    \12\11 U.S.C. Sec.  707(b)(2)(A) (2019).
    \13\11 U.S.C. Sec.  101(10A) (2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        Need for the Legislation

    For purposes of the Bankruptcy Code's means test, Social 
Security benefit payments are excluded as income. As Senator 
Edward Kennedy (D-MA) stated in support of his amendment 
providing for this exclusion that was ultimately included in 
the 2005 Amendments:

        The bottom line is that bankruptcy shouldn't be made 
        more difficult for those who are depending on Social 
        Security for their livelihood. Social Security was 
        developed to ensure that seniors can live their golden 
        years in dignity. If we allow Social Security income to 
        be considered while determining whether someone is 
        eligible for bankruptcy, a portion of those benefits 
        could be used in a manner inconsistent with Congress' 
        intent.\14\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \14\145 Cong. Rec. 29,929 (1999).

    There are, however, various other federal retirement 
benefit programs--such as programs for veterans--that take the 
place of Social Security, at least for the period during which 
the worker held the type of employment covered under such 
program. Much like Social Security, these other federal benefit 
programs almost always prevent assignment or seizure of these 
benefits by creditors.\15\ Nevertheless, the Bankruptcy Code's 
means test treats such payments as income.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \15\See ABI Consumer Report at 134-35.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    H.R. 2938, the ``Honoring American Veterans in Extreme Need 
Act of 2019'' or the ``HAVEN Act,'' would bring certain 
veterans' disability benefits paid by the U.S. Department of 
Veterans Affairs and the U.S. Department of Defense into parity 
with the treatment of Social Security payments under the 
Bankruptcy Code's means test. According to the NCBJ, such 
treatment ``will remedy an imbalance in the Bankruptcy Code 
that disproportionately steers veterans receiving such benefits 
into Chapter 13 cases because they often fail the Chapter 7 
means test.''\16\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\Letter from John E. Waites, President, Nat'l Conf. of Bankr. 
Judges, to Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), Chair, H. Comm. on the 
Judiciary, & Rep. Doug Collins (R-GA), Ranking Member, H. Comm. on the 
Judiciary (May 31, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Hearings

    For the purposes of section 103(i) of H. Res. 6 of the 
116th Congress, the following hearing was used to consider H.R. 
2938: ``Oversight of Bankruptcy Law and Legislative 
Proposals,'' which was held on June 25, 2019 by the Committee's 
Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial, and Administrative 
Law.\17\ The hearing considered various legislative measures. 
Of pertinence to H.R. 2938, the following witnesses testified: 
Hollister K. Petraeus, former Assistant Director, Consumer 
Financial Protection Bureau's Office of Servicemember Affairs; 
Edward C. Boltz, on behalf of the NACBA; and Robert J. Keach, 
on behalf of the ABI.\18\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \17\Oversight of Bankruptcy Law and Legislative Proposals: Hearing 
Before the Subcomm. on Antitrust, Commercial, & Admin. Law of the H. 
Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong. (2019).
    \18\See generally id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        Committee Consideration

    On July 11, 2019, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered the bill, H.R. 2938, favorably reported without 
amendment by voice vote, a quorum being present.

                            Committee Votes

    In compliance with clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that no 
rollcall votes occurred during the Committee's consideration of 
H.R. 2938.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the 
descriptive portions of this report.

  New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures and Congressional Budget 
                          Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has requested 
but not received a cost estimate for this bill from the 
Director of Congressional Budget Office. The Committee has 
requested but not received from the Director of the 
Congressional Budget Office a statement as to whether this bill 
contains any new budget authority, spending authority, credit 
authority, or an increase or decrease in revenues or tax 
expenditures.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 2938 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the federal government known to be duplicative of 
another federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    The Committee states that pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, H.R. 
2938 would extend the temporary authorization exempting certain 
qualifying reserve component members of the Armed Services and 
National Guard members from the Bankruptcy Code's means test 
for four years.

                          Advisory on Earmarks

    In accordance with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, H.R. 2938 does not contain any 
congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff 
benefits as defined in clause 9(d), 9(e), or 9(f) of rule XXI.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis

    The following discussion describes the bill as reported by 
the Committee.
    Sec. 1. Short Title. Section 1 sets forth the short title 
of the bill as the ``Honoring American Veterans in Extreme Need 
Act of 2019'' or the ``HAVEN Act''.
    Sec. 2. Definition of Current Monthly Income. Bankruptcy 
Code section 101 defines various terms. Section 2 would amend 
Bankruptcy Code section 101(10A), which defines ``current 
monthly income'' for purposes of the Code's means test, to 
exclude compensation paid by the U.S. Department of Veterans 
Affairs and the U.S. Department of Defense to an individual in 
connection with a disability, combat-related injury or 
disability, or death of a member of the uniformed services.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                      TITLE 11, UNITED STATES CODE



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
CHAPTER 1--GENERAL PROVISIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 101. Definitions

  In this title the following definitions shall apply:
          (1) The term ``accountant'' means accountant 
        authorized under applicable law to practice public 
        accounting, and includes professional accounting 
        association, corporation, or partnership, if so 
        authorized.
          (2) The term ``affiliate'' means--
                  (A) entity that directly or indirectly owns, 
                controls, or holds with power to vote, 20 
                percent or more of the outstanding voting 
                securities of the debtor, other than an entity 
                that holds such securities--
                          (i) in a fiduciary or agency capacity 
                        without sole discretionary power to 
                        vote such securities; or
                          (ii) solely to secure a debt, if such 
                        entity has not in fact exercised such 
                        power to vote;
                  (B) corporation 20 percent or more of whose 
                outstanding voting securities are directly or 
                indirectly owned, controlled, or held with 
                power to vote, by the debtor, or by an entity 
                that directly or indirectly owns, controls, or 
                holds with power to vote, 20 percent or more of 
                the outstanding voting securities of the 
                debtor, other than an entity that holds such 
                securities--
                          (i) in a fiduciary or agency capacity 
                        without sole discretionary power to 
                        vote such securities; or
                          (ii) solely to secure a debt, if such 
                        entity has not in fact exercised such 
                        power to vote;
                  (C) person whose business is operated under a 
                lease or operating agreement by a debtor, or 
                person substantially all of whose property is 
                operated under an operating agreement with the 
                debtor; or
                  (D) entity that operates the business or 
                substantially all of the property of the debtor 
                under a lease or operating agreement.
          (3) The term ``assisted person'' means any person 
        whose debts consist primarily of consumer debts and the 
        value of whose nonexempt property is less than 
        $150,000.
          (4) The term ``attorney'' means attorney, 
        professional law association, corporation, or 
        partnership, authorized under applicable law to 
        practice law.
          (4A) The term ``bankruptcy assistance'' means any 
        goods or services sold or otherwise provided to an 
        assisted person with the express or implied purpose of 
        providing information, advice, counsel, document 
        preparation, or filing, or attendance at a creditors' 
        meeting or appearing in a case or proceeding on behalf 
        of another or providing legal representation with 
        respect to a case or proceeding under this title.
          (5) The term ``claim'' means--
                  (A) right to payment, whether or not such 
                right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, 
                unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, 
                unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, 
                equitable, secured, or unsecured; or
                  (B) right to an equitable remedy for breach 
                of performance if such breach gives rise to a 
                right to payment, whether or not such right to 
                an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, 
                fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, 
                disputed, undisputed, secured, or unsecured.
          (6) The term ``commodity broker'' means futures 
        commission merchant, foreign futures commission 
        merchant, clearing organization, leverage transaction 
        merchant, or commodity options dealer, as defined in 
        section 761 of this title, with respect to which there 
        is a customer, as defined in section 761 of this title.
          (7) The term ``community claim'' means claim that 
        arose before the commencement of the case concerning 
        the debtor for which property of the kind specified in 
        section 541(a)(2) of this title is liable, whether or 
        not there is any such property at the time of the 
        commencement of the case.
          (7A) The term ``commercial fishing operation'' 
        means--
                  (A) the catching or harvesting of fish, 
                shrimp, lobsters, urchins, seaweed, shellfish, 
                or other aquatic species or products of such 
                species; or
                  (B) for purposes of section 109 and chapter 
                12, aquaculture activities consisting of 
                raising for market any species or product 
                described in subparagraph (A).
          (7B) The term ``commercial fishing vessel'' means a 
        vessel used by a family fisherman to carry out a 
        commercial fishing operation.
          (8) The term ``consumer debt'' means debt incurred by 
        an individual primarily for a personal, family, or 
        household purpose.
          (9) The term ``corporation''--
                  (A) includes--
                          (i) association having a power or 
                        privilege that a private corporation, 
                        but not an individual or a partnership, 
                        possesses;
                          (ii) partnership association 
                        organized under a law that makes only 
                        the capital subscribed responsible for 
                        the debts of such association;
                          (iii) joint-stock company;
                          (iv) unincorporated company or 
                        association; or
                          (v) business trust; but
                  (B) does not include limited partnership.
          (10) The term ``creditor'' means--
                  (A) entity that has a claim against the 
                debtor that arose at the time of or before the 
                order for relief concerning the debtor;
                  (B) entity that has a claim against the 
                estate of a kind specified in section 348(d), 
                502(f), 502(g), 502(h) or 502(i) of this title; 
                or
                  (C) entity that has a community claim.
          (10A) The term ``current monthly income''--
                  (A) means the average monthly income from all 
                sources that the debtor receives (or in a joint 
                case the debtor and the debtor's spouse 
                receive) without regard to whether such income 
                is taxable income, derived during the 6-month 
                period ending on--
                          (i) the last day of the calendar 
                        month immediately preceding the date of 
                        the commencement of the case if the 
                        debtor files the schedule of current 
                        income required by section 
                        521(a)(1)(B)(ii); or
                          (ii) the date on which current income 
                        is determined by the court for purposes 
                        of this title if the debtor does not 
                        file the schedule of current income 
                        required by section 521(a)(1)(B)(ii); 
                        and
                  [(B) includes any amount paid by any entity 
                other than the debtor (or in a joint case the 
                debtor and the debtor's spouse), on a regular 
                basis for the household expenses of the debtor 
                or the debtor's dependents (and in a joint case 
                the debtor's spouse if not otherwise a 
                dependent), but excludes benefits received 
                under the Social Security Act, payments to 
                victims of war crimes or crimes against 
                humanity on account of their status as victims 
                of such crimes, and payments to victims of 
                international terrorism (as defined in section 
                2331 of title 18) or domestic terrorism (as 
                defined in section 2331 of title 18) on account 
                of their status as victims of such terrorism.]
                  (B)(i) includes any amount paid by any entity 
                other than the debtor (or in a joint case the 
                debtor and the debtor's spouse), on a regular 
                basis for the household expenses of the debtor 
                or the debtor's dependents (and in a joint case 
                the debtor's spouse if not otherwise a 
                dependent); and
                  (ii) excludes--
                          (I) benefits received under the 
                        Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 301 et 
                        seq.);
                          (II) payments to victims of war 
                        crimes or crimes against humanity on 
                        account of their status as victims of 
                        such crimes;
                          (III) payments to victims of 
                        international terrorism or domestic 
                        terrorism, as those terms are defined 
                        in section 2331 of title 18, on account 
                        of their status as victims of such 
                        terrorism; and
                          (IV) any monthly compensation, 
                        pension, pay, annuity, or allowance 
                        paid under title 10, 37, or 38 in 
                        connection with a disability, combat-
                        related injury or disability, or death 
                        of a member of the uniformed services, 
                        except that any retired pay excluded 
                        under this subclause shall include 
                        retired pay paid under chapter 61 of 
                        title 10 only to the extent that such 
                        retired pay exceeds the amount of 
                        retired pay to which the debtor would 
                        otherwise be entitled if retired under 
                        any provision of title 10 other than 
                        chapter 61 of that title.
          (11) The term ``custodian'' means--
                  (A) receiver or trustee of any of the 
                property of the debtor, appointed in a case or 
                proceeding not under this title;
                  (B) assignee under a general assignment for 
                the benefit of the debtor's creditors; or
                  (C) trustee, receiver, or agent under 
                applicable law, or under a contract, that is 
                appointed or authorized to take charge of 
                property of the debtor for the purpose of 
                enforcing a lien against such property, or for 
                the purpose of general administration of such 
                property for the benefit of the debtor's 
                creditors.
          (12) The term ``debt'' means liability on a claim.
          (12A) The term ``debt relief agency'' means any 
        person who provides any bankruptcy assistance to an 
        assisted person in return for the payment of money or 
        other valuable consideration, or who is a bankruptcy 
        petition preparer under section 110, but does not 
        include--
                  (A) any person who is an officer, director, 
                employee, or agent of a person who provides 
                such assistance or of the bankruptcy petition 
                preparer;
                  (B) a nonprofit organization that is exempt 
                from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the 
                Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
                  (C) a creditor of such assisted person, to 
                the extent that the creditor is assisting such 
                assisted person to restructure any debt owed by 
                such assisted person to the creditor;
                  (D) a depository institution (as defined in 
                section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) 
                or any Federal credit union or State credit 
                union (as those terms are defined in section 
                101 of the Federal Credit Union Act), or any 
                affiliate or subsidiary of such depository 
                institution or credit union; or
                  (E) an author, publisher, distributor, or 
                seller of works subject to copyright protection 
                under title 17, when acting in such capacity.
          (13) The term ``debtor'' means person or municipality 
        concerning which a case under this title has been 
        commenced.
          (13A) The term ``debtor's principal residence''--
                  (A) means a residential structure if used as 
                the principal residence by the debtor, 
                including incidental property, without regard 
                to whether that structure is attached to real 
                property; and
                  (B) includes an individual condominium or 
                cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured 
                home, or trailer if used as the principal 
                residence by the debtor.
          (14) The term ``disinterested person'' means a person 
        that--
                  (A) is not a creditor, an equity security 
                holder, or an insider;
                  (B) is not and was not, within 2 years before 
                the date of the filing of the petition, a 
                director, officer, or employee of the debtor; 
                and
                  (C) does not have an interest materially 
                adverse to the interest of the estate or of any 
                class of creditors or equity security holders, 
                by reason of any direct or indirect 
                relationship to, connection with, or interest 
                in, the debtor, or for any other reason.
          (14A) The term ``domestic support obligation'' means 
        a debt that accrues before, on, or after the date of 
        the order for relief in a case under this title, 
        including interest that accrues on that debt as 
        provided under applicable nonbankruptcy law 
        notwithstanding any other provision of this title, that 
        is--
                  (A) owed to or recoverable by--
                          (i) a spouse, former spouse, or child 
                        of the debtor or such child's parent, 
                        legal guardian, or responsible 
                        relative; or
                          (ii) a governmental unit;
                  (B) in the nature of alimony, maintenance, or 
                support (including assistance provided by a 
                governmental unit) of such spouse, former 
                spouse, or child of the debtor or such child's 
                parent, without regard to whether such debt is 
                expressly so designated;
                  (C) established or subject to establishment 
                before, on, or after the date of the order for 
                relief in a case under this title, by reason of 
                applicable provisions of--
                          (i) a separation agreement, divorce 
                        decree, or property settlement 
                        agreement;
                          (ii) an order of a court of record; 
                        or
                          (iii) a determination made in 
                        accordance with applicable 
                        nonbankruptcy law by a governmental 
                        unit; and
                  (D) not assigned to a nongovernmental entity, 
                unless that obligation is assigned voluntarily 
                by the spouse, former spouse, child of the 
                debtor, or such child's parent, legal guardian, 
                or responsible relative for the purpose of 
                collecting the debt.
          (15) The term ``entity'' includes person, estate, 
        trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
          (16) The term ``equity security'' means--
                  (A) share in a corporation, whether or not 
                transferable or denominated ``stock'', or 
                similar security;
                  (B) interest of a limited partner in a 
                limited partnership; or
                  (C) warrant or right, other than a right to 
                convert, to purchase, sell, or subscribe to a 
                share, security, or interest of a kind 
                specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of this 
                paragraph.
          (17) The term ``equity security holder'' means holder 
        of an equity security of the debtor.
          (18) The term ``family farmer'' means--
                  (A) individual or individual and spouse 
                engaged in a farming operation whose aggregate 
                debts do not exceed $3,237,000 and not less 
                than 50 percent of whose aggregate 
                noncontingent, liquidated debts (excluding a 
                debt for the principal residence of such 
                individual or such individual and spouse unless 
                such debt arises out of a farming operation), 
                on the date the case is filed, arise out of a 
                farming operation owned or operated by such 
                individual or such individual and spouse, and 
                such individual or such individual and spouse 
                receive from such farming operation more than 
                50 percent of such individual's or such 
                individual and spouse's gross income for--
                          (i) the taxable year preceding; or
                          (ii) each of the 2d and 3d taxable 
                        years preceding;
                the taxable year in which the case concerning 
                such individual or such individual and spouse 
                was filed; or
                  (B) corporation or partnership in which more 
                than 50 percent of the outstanding stock or 
                equity is held by one family, or by one family 
                and the relatives of the members of such 
                family, and such family or such relatives 
                conduct the farming operation, and
                          (i) more than 80 percent of the value 
                        of its assets consists of assets 
                        related to the farming operation;
                          (ii) its aggregate debts do not 
                        exceed $3,237,000 and not less than 50 
                        percent of its aggregate noncontingent, 
                        liquidated debts (excluding a debt for 
                        one dwelling which is owned by such 
                        corporation or partnership and which a 
                        shareholder or partner maintains as a 
                        principal residence, unless such debt 
                        arises out of a farming operation), on 
                        the date the case is filed, arise out 
                        of the farming operation owned or 
                        operated by such corporation or such 
                        partnership; and
                          (iii) if such corporation issues 
                        stock, such stock is not publicly 
                        traded.
          (19) The term ``family farmer with regular annual 
        income'' means family farmer whose annual income is 
        sufficiently stable and regular to enable such family 
        farmer to make payments under a plan under chapter 12 
        of this title.
          (19A) The term ``family fisherman'' means--
                  (A) an individual or individual and spouse 
                engaged in a commercial fishing operation--
                          (i) whose aggregate debts do not 
                        exceed $1,500,000 and not less than 80 
                        percent of whose aggregate 
                        noncontingent, liquidated debts 
                        (excluding a debt for the principal 
                        residence of such individual or such 
                        individual and spouse, unless such debt 
                        arises out of a commercial fishing 
                        operation), on the date the case is 
                        filed, arise out of a commercial 
                        fishing operation owned or operated by 
                        such individual or such individual and 
                        spouse; and
                          (ii) who receive from such commercial 
                        fishing operation more than 50 percent 
                        of such individual's or such 
                        individual's and spouse's gross income 
                        for the taxable year preceding the 
                        taxable year in which the case 
                        concerning such individual or such 
                        individual and spouse was filed; or
                  (B) a corporation or partnership--
                          (i) in which more than 50 percent of 
                        the outstanding stock or equity is held 
                        by--
                                  (I) 1 family that conducts 
                                the commercial fishing 
                                operation; or
                                  (II) 1 family and the 
                                relatives of the members of 
                                such family, and such family or 
                                such relatives conduct the 
                                commercial fishing operation; 
                                and
                          (ii)(I) more than 80 percent of the 
                        value of its assets consists of assets 
                        related to the commercial fishing 
                        operation;
                          (II) its aggregate debts do not 
                        exceed $1,500,000 and not less than 80 
                        percent of its aggregate noncontingent, 
                        liquidated debts (excluding a debt for 
                        1 dwelling which is owned by such 
                        corporation or partnership and which a 
                        shareholder or partner maintains as a 
                        principal residence, unless such debt 
                        arises out of a commercial fishing 
                        operation), on the date the case is 
                        filed, arise out of a commercial 
                        fishing operation owned or operated by 
                        such corporation or such partnership; 
                        and
                          (III) if such corporation issues 
                        stock, such stock is not publicly 
                        traded.
          (19B) The term ``family fisherman with regular annual 
        income'' means a family fisherman whose annual income 
        is sufficiently stable and regular to enable such 
        family fisherman to make payments under a plan under 
        chapter 12 of this title.
          (20) The term ``farmer'' means (except when such term 
        appears in the term ``family farmer'') person that 
        received more than 80 percent of such person's gross 
        income during the taxable year of such person 
        immediately preceding the taxable year of such person 
        during which the case under this title concerning such 
        person was commenced from a farming operation owned or 
        operated by such person.
          (21) The term ``farming operation'' includes farming, 
        tillage of the soil, dairy farming, ranching, 
        production or raising of crops, poultry, or livestock, 
        and production of poultry or livestock products in an 
        unmanufactured state.
          (21A) The term ``farmout agreement'' means a written 
        agreement in which--
                  (A) the owner of a right to drill, produce, 
                or operate liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons on 
                property agrees or has agreed to transfer or 
                assign all or a part of such right to another 
                entity; and
                  (B) such other entity (either directly or 
                through its agents or its assigns), as 
                consideration, agrees to perform drilling, 
                reworking, recompleting, testing, or similar or 
                related operations, to develop or produce 
                liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons on the property.
          (21B) The term ``Federal depository institutions 
        regulatory agency'' means--
                  (A) with respect to an insured depository 
                institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of 
                the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) for which no 
                conservator or receiver has been appointed, the 
                appropriate Federal banking agency (as defined 
                in section 3(q) of such Act);
                  (B) with respect to an insured credit union 
                (including an insured credit union for which 
                the National Credit Union Administration has 
                been appointed conservator or liquidating 
                agent), the National Credit Union 
                Administration;
                  (C) with respect to any insured depository 
                institution for which the Resolution Trust 
                Corporation has been appointed conservator or 
                receiver, the Resolution Trust Corporation; and
                  (D) with respect to any insured depository 
                institution for which the Federal Deposit 
                Insurance Corporation has been appointed 
                conservator or receiver, the Federal Deposit 
                Insurance Corporation.
          (22) The term ``financial institution'' means--
                  (A) a Federal reserve bank, or an entity that 
                is a commercial or savings bank, industrial 
                savings bank, savings and loan association, 
                trust company, federally-insured credit union, 
                or receiver, liquidating agent, or conservator 
                for such entity and, when any such Federal 
                reserve bank, receiver, liquidating agent, 
                conservator or entity is acting as agent or 
                custodian for a customer (whether or not a 
                ``customer'', as defined in section 741) in 
                connection with a securities contract (as 
                defined in section 741) such customer; or
                  (B) in connection with a securities contract 
                (as defined in section 741) an investment 
                company registered under the Investment Company 
                Act of 1940.
          (22A) The term ``financial participant'' means--
                  (A) an entity that, at the time it enters 
                into a securities contract, commodity contract, 
                swap agreement, repurchase agreement, or 
                forward contract, or at the time of the date of 
                the filing of the petition, has one or more 
                agreements or transactions described in 
                paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) of 
                section 561(a) with the debtor or any other 
                entity (other than an affiliate) of a total 
                gross dollar value of not less than 
                $1,000,000,000 in notional or actual principal 
                amount outstanding (aggregated across 
                counterparties) at such time or on any day 
                during the 15-month period preceding the date 
                of the filing of the petition, or has gross 
                mark-to-market positions of not less than 
                $100,000,000 (aggregated across counterparties) 
                in one or more such agreements or transactions 
                with the debtor or any other entity (other than 
                an affiliate) at such time or on any day during 
                the 15-month period preceding the date of the 
                filing of the petition; or
                  (B) a clearing organization (as defined in 
                section 402 of the Federal Deposit Insurance 
                Corporation Improvement Act of 1991).
          (23) The term ``foreign proceeding'' means a 
        collective judicial or administrative proceeding in a 
        foreign country, including an interim proceeding, under 
        a law relating to insolvency or adjustment of debt in 
        which proceeding the assets and affairs of the debtor 
        are subject to control or supervision by a foreign 
        court, for the purpose of reorganization or 
        liquidation.
          (24) The term ``foreign representative'' means a 
        person or body, including a person or body appointed on 
        an interim basis, authorized in a foreign proceeding to 
        administer the reorganization or the liquidation of the 
        debtor's assets or affairs or to act as a 
        representative of such foreign proceeding.
          (25) The term ``forward contract'' means--
                  (A) a contract (other than a commodity 
                contract, as defined in section 761) for the 
                purchase, sale, or transfer of a commodity, as 
                defined in section 761(8) of this title, or any 
                similar good, article, service, right, or 
                interest which is presently or in the future 
                becomes the subject of dealing in the forward 
                contract trade, or product or byproduct 
                thereof, with a maturity date more than two 
                days after the date the contract is entered 
                into, including, but not limited to, a 
                repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction 
                (whether or not such repurchase or reverse 
                repurchase transaction is a ``repurchase 
                agreement'', as defined in this section) 
                consignment, lease, swap, hedge transaction, 
                deposit, loan, option, allocated transaction, 
                unallocated transaction, or any other similar 
                agreement;
                  (B) any combination of agreements or 
                transactions referred to in subparagraphs (A) 
                and (C);
                  (C) any option to enter into an agreement or 
                transaction referred to in subparagraph (A) or 
                (B);
                  (D) a master agreement that provides for an 
                agreement or transaction referred to in 
                subparagraph (A), (B), or (C), together with 
                all supplements to any such master agreement, 
                without regard to whether such master agreement 
                provides for an agreement or transaction that 
                is not a forward contract under this paragraph, 
                except that such master agreement shall be 
                considered to be a forward contract under this 
                paragraph only with respect to each agreement 
                or transaction under such master agreement that 
                is referred to in subparagraph (A), (B), or 
                (C); or
                  (E) any security agreement or arrangement, or 
                other credit enhancement related to any 
                agreement or transaction referred to in 
                subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D), including 
                any guarantee or reimbursement obligation by or 
                to a forward contract merchant or financial 
                participant in connection with any agreement or 
                transaction referred to in any such 
                subparagraph, but not to exceed the damages in 
                connection with any such agreement or 
                transaction, measured in accordance with 
                section 562.
          (26) The term ``forward contract merchant'' means a 
        Federal reserve bank, or an entity the business of 
        which consists in whole or in part of entering into 
        forward contracts as or with merchants in a commodity 
        (as defined in section 761) or any similar good, 
        article, service, right, or interest which is presently 
        or in the future becomes the subject of dealing in the 
        forward contract trade.
          (27) The term ``governmental unit'' means United 
        States; State; Commonwealth; District; Territory; 
        municipality; foreign state; department, agency, or 
        instrumentality of the United States (but not a United 
        States trustee while serving as a trustee in a case 
        under this title), a State, a Commonwealth, a District, 
        a Territory, a municipality, or a foreign state; or 
        other foreign or domestic government.
          (27A) The term ``health care business''--
                  (A) means any public or private entity 
                (without regard to whether that entity is 
                organized for profit or not for profit) that is 
                primarily engaged in offering to the general 
                public facilities and services for--
                          (i) the diagnosis or treatment of 
                        injury, deformity, or disease; and
                          (ii) surgical, drug treatment, 
                        psychiatric, or obstetric care; and
                  (B) includes--
                          (i) any--
                                  (I) general or specialized 
                                hospital;
                                  (II) ancillary ambulatory, 
                                emergency, or surgical 
                                treatment facility;
                                  (III) hospice;
                                  (IV) home health agency; and
                                  (V) other health care 
                                institution that is similar to 
                                an entity referred to in 
                                subclause (I), (II), (III), or 
                                (IV); and
                          (ii) any long-term care facility, 
                        including any--
                                  (I) skilled nursing facility;
                                  (II) intermediate care 
                                facility;
                                  (III) assisted living 
                                facility;
                                  (IV) home for the aged;
                                  (V) domiciliary care 
                                facility; and
                                  (VI) health care institution 
                                that is related to a facility 
                                referred to in subclause (I), 
                                (II), (III), (IV), or (V), if 
                                that institution is primarily 
                                engaged in offering room, 
                                board, laundry, or personal 
                                assistance with activities of 
                                daily living and incidentals to 
                                activities of daily living.
          (27B) The term ``incidental property'' means, with 
        respect to a debtor's principal residence--
                  (A) property commonly conveyed with a 
                principal residence in the area where the real 
                property is located;
                  (B) all easements, rights, appurtenances, 
                fixtures, rents, royalties, mineral rights, oil 
                or gas rights or profits, water rights, escrow 
                funds, or insurance proceeds; and
                  (C) all replacements or additions.
          (28) The term ``indenture'' means mortgage, deed of 
        trust, or indenture, under which there is outstanding a 
        security, other than a voting-trust certificate, 
        constituting a claim against the debtor, a claim 
        secured by a lien on any of the debtor's property, or 
        an equity security of the debtor.
          (29) The term ``indenture trustee'' means trustee 
        under an indenture.
          (30) The term ``individual with regular income'' 
        means individual whose income is sufficiently stable 
        and regular to enable such individual to make payments 
        under a plan under chapter 13 of this title, other than 
        a stockbroker or a commodity broker.
          (31) The term ``insider'' includes--
                  (A) if the debtor is an individual--
                          (i) relative of the debtor or of a 
                        general partner of the debtor;
                          (ii) partnership in which the debtor 
                        is a general partner;
                          (iii) general partner of the debtor; 
                        or
                          (iv) corporation of which the debtor 
                        is a director, officer, or person in 
                        control;
                  (B) if the debtor is a corporation--
                          (i) director of the debtor;
                          (ii) officer of the debtor;
                          (iii) person in control of the 
                        debtor;
                          (iv) partnership in which the debtor 
                        is a general partner;
                          (v) general partner of the debtor; or
                          (vi) relative of a general partner, 
                        director, officer, or person in control 
                        of the debtor;
                  (C) if the debtor is a partnership--
                          (i) general partner in the debtor;
                          (ii) relative of a general partner 
                        in, general partner of, or person in 
                        control of the debtor;
                          (iii) partnership in which the debtor 
                        is a general partner;
                          (iv) general partner of the debtor; 
                        or
                          (v) person in control of the debtor;
                  (D) if the debtor is a municipality, elected 
                official of the debtor or relative of an 
                elected official of the debtor;
                  (E) affiliate, or insider of an affiliate as 
                if such affiliate were the debtor; and
                  (F) managing agent of the debtor.
          (32) The term ``insolvent'' means--
                  (A) with reference to an entity other than a 
                partnership and a municipality, financial 
                condition such that the sum of such entity's 
                debts is greater than all of such entity's 
                property, at a fair valuation, exclusive of--
                          (i) property transferred, concealed, 
                        or removed with intent to hinder, 
                        delay, or defraud such entity's 
                        creditors; and
                          (ii) property that may be exempted 
                        from property of the estate under 
                        section 522 of this title;
                  (B) with reference to a partnership, 
                financial condition such that the sum of such 
                partnership's debts is greater than the 
                aggregate of, at a fair valuation--
                          (i) all of such partnership's 
                        property, exclusive of property of the 
                        kind specified in subparagraph (A)(i) 
                        of this paragraph; and
                          (ii) the sum of the excess of the 
                        value of each general partner's 
                        nonpartnership property, exclusive of 
                        property of the kind specified in 
                        subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, 
                        over such partner's nonpartnership 
                        debts; and
                  (C) with reference to a municipality, 
                financial condition such that the municipality 
                is--
                          (i) generally not paying its debts as 
                        they become due unless such debts are 
                        the subject of a bona fide dispute; or
                          (ii) unable to pay its debts as they 
                        become due.
          (33) The term ``institution-affiliated party''--
                  (A) with respect to an insured depository 
                institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of 
                the Federal Deposit Insurance Act), has the 
                meaning given it in section 3(u) of the Federal 
                Deposit Insurance Act; and
                  (B) with respect to an insured credit union, 
                has the meaning given it in section 206(r) of 
                the Federal Credit Union Act.
          (34) The term ``insured credit union'' has the 
        meaning given it in section 101(7) of the Federal 
        Credit Union Act.
          (35) The term ``insured depository institution''--
                  (A) has the meaning given it in section 
                3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act; 
                and
                  (B) includes an insured credit union (except 
                in the case of paragraphs (21B) and (33)(A) of 
                this subsection).
          (35A) The term ``intellectual property'' means--
                  (A) trade secret;
                  (B) invention, process, design, or plant 
                protected under title 35;
                  (C) patent application;
                  (D) plant variety;
                  (E) work of authorship protected under title 
                17; or
                  (F) mask work protected under chapter 9 of 
                title 17;
        to the extent protected by applicable nonbankruptcy 
        law.
          (36) The term ``judicial lien'' means lien obtained 
        by judgment, levy, sequestration, or other legal or 
        equitable process or proceeding.
          (37) The term ``lien'' means charge against or 
        interest in property to secure payment of a debt or 
        performance of an obligation.
          (38) The term ``margin payment'' means, for purposes 
        of the forward contract provisions of this title, 
        payment or deposit of cash, a security or other 
        property, that is commonly known in the forward 
        contract trade as original margin, initial margin, 
        maintenance margin, or variation margin, including 
        mark-to-market payments, or variation payments.
          (38A) The term ``master netting agreement''--
                  (A) means an agreement providing for the 
                exercise of rights, including rights of 
                netting, setoff, liquidation, termination, 
                acceleration, or close out, under or in 
                connection with one or more contracts that are 
                described in any one or more of paragraphs (1) 
                through (5) of section 561(a), or any security 
                agreement or arrangement or other credit 
                enhancement related to one or more of the 
                foregoing, including any guarantee or 
                reimbursement obligation related to 1 or more 
                of the foregoing; and
                  (B) if the agreement contains provisions 
                relating to agreements or transactions that are 
                not contracts described in paragraphs (1) 
                through (5) of section 561(a), shall be deemed 
                to be a master netting agreement only with 
                respect to those agreements or transactions 
                that are described in any one or more of 
                paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 561(a).
          (38B) The term ``master netting agreement 
        participant'' means an entity that, at any time before 
        the date of the filing of the petition, is a party to 
        an outstanding master netting agreement with the 
        debtor.
          (39) The term ``mask work'' has the meaning given it 
        in section 901(a)(2) of title 17.
          (39A) The term ``median family income'' means for any 
        year--
                  (A) the median family income both calculated 
                and reported by the Bureau of the Census in the 
                then most recent year; and
                  (B) if not so calculated and reported in the 
                then current year, adjusted annually after such 
                most recent year until the next year in which 
                median family income is both calculated and 
                reported by the Bureau of the Census, to 
                reflect the percentage change in the Consumer 
                Price Index for All Urban Consumers during the 
                period of years occurring after such most 
                recent year and before such current year.
          (40) The term ``municipality'' means political 
        subdivision or public agency or instrumentality of a 
        State.
          (40A) The term ``patient'' means any individual who 
        obtains or receives services from a health care 
        business.
          (40B) The term ``patient records'' means any record 
        relating to a patient, including a written document or 
        a record recorded in a magnetic, optical, or other form 
        of electronic medium.
          (41) The term ``person'' includes individual, 
        partnership, and corporation, but does not include 
        governmental unit, except that a governmental unit 
        that--
                  (A) acquires an asset from a person--
                          (i) as a result of the operation of a 
                        loan guarantee agreement; or
                          (ii) as receiver or liquidating agent 
                        of a person;
                  (B) is a guarantor of a pension benefit 
                payable by or on behalf of the debtor or an 
                affiliate of the debtor; or
                  (C) is the legal or beneficial owner of an 
                asset of--
                          (i) an employee pension benefit plan 
                        that is a governmental plan, as defined 
                        in section 414(d) of the Internal 
                        Revenue Code of 1986; or
                          (ii) an eligible deferred 
                        compensation plan, as defined in 
                        section 457(b) of the Internal Revenue 
                        Code of 1986;
        shall be considered, for purposes of section 1102 of 
        this title, to be a person with respect to such asset 
        or such benefit.
          (41A) The term ``personally identifiable 
        information'' means--
                  (A) if provided by an individual to the 
                debtor in connection with obtaining a product 
                or a service from the debtor primarily for 
                personal, family, or household purposes--
                          (i) the first name (or initial) and 
                        last name of such individual, whether 
                        given at birth or time of adoption, or 
                        resulting from a lawful change of name;
                          (ii) the geographical address of a 
                        physical place of residence of such 
                        individual;
                          (iii) an electronic address 
                        (including an e-mail address) of such 
                        individual;
                          (iv) a telephone number dedicated to 
                        contacting such individual at such 
                        physical place of residence;
                          (v) a social security account number 
                        issued to such individual; or
                          (vi) the account number of a credit 
                        card issued to such individual; or
                  (B) if identified in connection with 1 or 
                more of the items of information specified in 
                subparagraph (A)--
                          (i) a birth date, the number of a 
                        certificate of birth or adoption, or a 
                        place of birth; or
                          (ii) any other information concerning 
                        an identified individual that, if 
                        disclosed, will result in contacting or 
                        identifying such individual physically 
                        or electronically.
          (42) The term ``petition'' means petition filed under 
        section 301, 302, 303 and 1504 of this title, as the 
        case may be, commencing a case under this title.
          (42A) The term ``production payment'' means a term 
        overriding royalty satisfiable in cash or in kind--
                  (A) contingent on the production of a liquid 
                or gaseous hydrocarbon from particular real 
                property; and
                  (B) from a specified volume, or a specified 
                value, from the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon 
                produced from such property, and determined 
                without regard to production costs.
          (43) The term ``purchaser'' means transferee of a 
        voluntary transfer, and includes immediate or mediate 
        transferee of such a transferee.
          (44) The term ``railroad'' means common carrier by 
        railroad engaged in the transportation of individuals 
        or property or owner of trackage facilities leased by 
        such a common carrier.
          (45) The term ``relative'' means individual related 
        by affinity or consanguinity within the third degree as 
        determined by the common law, or individual in a step 
        or adoptive relationship within such third degree.
          (46) The term ``repo participant'' means an entity 
        that, at any time before the filing of the petition, 
        has an outstanding repurchase agreement with the 
        debtor.
          (47) The term ``repurchase agreement'' (which 
        definition also applies to a reverse repurchase 
        agreement)--
                  (A) means--
                          (i) an agreement, including related 
                        terms, which provides for the transfer 
                        of one or more certificates of deposit, 
                        mortgage related securities (as defined 
                        in section 3 of the Securities Exchange 
                        Act of 1934), mortgage loans, interests 
                        in mortgage related securities or 
                        mortgage loans, eligible bankers' 
                        acceptances, qualified foreign 
                        government securities (defined as a 
                        security that is a direct obligation 
                        of, or that is fully guaranteed by, the 
                        central government of a member of the 
                        Organization for Economic Cooperation 
                        and Development), or securities that 
                        are direct obligations of, or that are 
                        fully guaranteed by, the United States 
                        or any agency of the United States 
                        against the transfer of funds by the 
                        transferee of such certificates of 
                        deposit, eligible bankers' acceptances, 
                        securities, mortgage loans, or 
                        interests, with a simultaneous 
                        agreement by such transferee to 
                        transfer to the transferor thereof 
                        certificates of deposit, eligible 
                        bankers' acceptance, securities, 
                        mortgage loans, or interests of the 
                        kind described in this clause, at a 
                        date certain not later than 1 year 
                        after such transfer or on demand, 
                        against the transfer of funds;
                          (ii) any combination of agreements or 
                        transactions referred to in clauses (i) 
                        and (iii);
                          (iii) an option to enter into an 
                        agreement or transaction referred to in 
                        clause (i) or (ii);
                          (iv) a master agreement that provides 
                        for an agreement or transaction 
                        referred to in clause (i), (ii), or 
                        (iii), together with all supplements to 
                        any such master agreement, without 
                        regard to whether such master agreement 
                        provides for an agreement or 
                        transaction that is not a repurchase 
                        agreement under this paragraph, except 
                        that such master agreement shall be 
                        considered to be a repurchase agreement 
                        under this paragraph only with respect 
                        to each agreement or transaction under 
                        the master agreement that is referred 
                        to in clause (i), (ii), or (iii); or
                          (v) any security agreement or 
                        arrangement or other credit enhancement 
                        related to any agreement or transaction 
                        referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), 
                        or (iv), including any guarantee or 
                        reimbursement obligation by or to a 
                        repo participant or financial 
                        participant in connection with any 
                        agreement or transaction referred to in 
                        any such clause, but not to exceed the 
                        damages in connection with any such 
                        agreement or transaction, measured in 
                        accordance with section 562 of this 
                        title; and
                  (B) does not include a repurchase obligation 
                under a participation in a commercial mortgage 
                loan.
          (48) The term ``securities clearing agency'' means 
        person that is registered as a clearing agency under 
        section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or 
        exempt from such registration under such section 
        pursuant to an order of the Securities and Exchange 
        Commission, or whose business is confined to the 
        performance of functions of a clearing agency with 
        respect to exempted securities, as defined in section 
        3(a)(12) of such Act for the purposes of such section 
        17A.
          (48A) The term ``securities self regulatory 
        organization'' means either a securities association 
        registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission 
        under section 15A of the Securities Exchange Act of 
        1934 or a national securities exchange registered with 
        the Securities and Exchange Commission under section 6 
        of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
          (49) The term ``security''--
                  (A) includes--
                          (i) note;
                          (ii) stock;
                          (iii) treasury stock;
                          (iv) bond;
                          (v) debenture;
                          (vi) collateral trust certificate;
                          (vii) pre-organization certificate or 
                        subscription;
                          (viii) transferable share;
                          (ix) voting-trust certificate;
                          (x) certificate of deposit;
                          (xi) certificate of deposit for 
                        security;
                          (xii) investment contract or 
                        certificate of interest or 
                        participation in a profit-sharing 
                        agreement or in an oil, gas, or mineral 
                        royalty or lease, if such contract or 
                        interest is required to be the subject 
                        of a registration statement filed with 
                        the Securities and Exchange Commission 
                        under the provisions of the Securities 
                        Act of 1933, or is exempt under section 
                        3(b) of such Act from the requirement 
                        to file such a statement;
                          (xiii) interest of a limited partner 
                        in a limited partnership;
                          (xiv) other claim or interest 
                        commonly known as ``security''; and
                          (xv) certificate of interest or 
                        participation in, temporary or interim 
                        certificate for, receipt for, or 
                        warrant or right to subscribe to or 
                        purchase or sell, a security; but
                  (B) does not include--
                          (i) currency, check, draft, bill of 
                        exchange, or bank letter of credit;
                          (ii) leverage transaction, as defined 
                        in section 761 of this title;
                          (iii) commodity futures contract or 
                        forward contract;
                          (iv) option, warrant, or right to 
                        subscribe to or purchase or sell a 
                        commodity futures contract;
                          (v) option to purchase or sell a 
                        commodity;
                          (vi) contract or certificate of a 
                        kind specified in subparagraph (A)(xii) 
                        of this paragraph that is not required 
                        to be the subject of a registration 
                        statement filed with the Securities and 
                        Exchange Commission and is not exempt 
                        under section 3(b) of the Securities 
                        Act of 1933 from the requirement to 
                        file such a statement; or
                          (vii) debt or evidence of 
                        indebtedness for goods sold and 
                        delivered or services rendered.
          (50) The term ``security agreement'' means agreement 
        that creates or provides for a security interest.
          (51) The term ``security interest'' means lien 
        created by an agreement.
          (51A) The term ``settlement payment'' means, for 
        purposes of the forward contract provisions of this 
        title, a preliminary settlement payment, a partial 
        settlement payment, an interim settlement payment, a 
        settlement payment on account, a final settlement 
        payment, a net settlement payment, or any other similar 
        payment commonly used in the forward contract trade.
          (51B) The term ``single asset real estate'' means 
        real property constituting a single property or 
        project, other than residential real property with 
        fewer than 4 residential units, which generates 
        substantially all of the gross income of a debtor who 
        is not a family farmer and on which no substantial 
        business is being conducted by a debtor other than the 
        business of operating the real property and activities 
        incidental thereto.
          (51C) The term ``small business case'' means a case 
        filed under chapter 11 of this title in which the 
        debtor is a small business debtor.
          (51D) The term ``small business debtor''--
                  (A) subject to subparagraph (B), means a 
                person engaged in commercial or business 
                activities (including any affiliate of such 
                person that is also a debtor under this title 
                and excluding a person whose primary activity 
                is the business of owning or operating real 
                property or activities incidental thereto) that 
                has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured 
                and unsecured debts as of the date of the 
                filing of the petition or the date of the order 
                for relief in an amount not more than 
                $2,000,000 (excluding debts owed to 1 or more 
                affiliates or insiders) for a case in which the 
                United States trustee has not appointed under 
                section 1102(a)(1) a committee of unsecured 
                creditors or where the court has determined 
                that the committee of unsecured creditors is 
                not sufficiently active and representative to 
                provide effective oversight of the debtor; and
                  (B) does not include any member of a group of 
                affiliated debtors that has aggregate 
                noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured 
                debts in an amount greater than $2,000,000 
                (excluding debt owed to 1 or more affiliates or 
                insiders).
          (52) The term ``State'' includes the District of 
        Columbia and Puerto Rico, except for the purpose of 
        defining who may be a debtor under chapter 9 of this 
        title.
          (53) The term ``statutory lien'' means lien arising 
        solely by force of a statute on specified circumstances 
        or conditions, or lien of distress for rent, whether or 
        not statutory, but does not include security interest 
        or judicial lien, whether or not such interest or lien 
        is provided by or is dependent on a statute and whether 
        or not such interest or lien is made fully effective by 
        statute.
          (53A) The term ``stockbroker'' means person--
                  (A) with respect to which there is a 
                customer, as defined in section 741 of this 
                title; and
                  (B) that is engaged in the business of 
                effecting transactions in securities--
                          (i) for the account of others; or
                          (ii) with members of the general 
                        public, from or for such person's own 
                        account.
          (53B) The term ``swap agreement''--
                  (A) means--
                          (i) any agreement, including the 
                        terms and conditions incorporated by 
                        reference in such agreement, which is--
                                  (I) an interest rate swap, 
                                option, future, or forward 
                                agreement, including a rate 
                                floor, rate cap, rate collar, 
                                cross-currency rate swap, and 
                                basis swap;
                                  (II) a spot, same day-
                                tomorrow, tomorrow-next, 
                                forward, or other foreign 
                                exchange, precious metals, or 
                                other commodity agreement;
                                  (III) a currency swap, 
                                option, future, or forward 
                                agreement;
                                  (IV) an equity index or 
                                equity swap, option, future, or 
                                forward agreement;
                                  (V) a debt index or debt 
                                swap, option, future, or 
                                forward agreement;
                                  (VI) a total return, credit 
                                spread or credit swap, option, 
                                future, or forward agreement;
                                  (VII) a commodity index or a 
                                commodity swap, option, future, 
                                or forward agreement;
                                  (VIII) a weather swap, 
                                option, future, or forward 
                                agreement;
                                  (IX) an emissions swap, 
                                option, future, or forward 
                                agreement; or
                                  (X) an inflation swap, 
                                option, future, or forward 
                                agreement;
                          (ii) any agreement or transaction 
                        that is similar to any other agreement 
                        or transaction referred to in this 
                        paragraph and that--
                                  (I) is of a type that has 
                                been, is presently, or in the 
                                future becomes, the subject of 
                                recurrent dealings in the swap 
                                or other derivatives markets 
                                (including terms and conditions 
                                incorporated by reference 
                                therein); and
                                  (II) is a forward, swap, 
                                future, option, or spot 
                                transaction on one or more 
                                rates, currencies, commodities, 
                                equity securities, or other 
                                equity instruments, debt 
                                securities or other debt 
                                instruments, quantitative 
                                measures associated with an 
                                occurrence, extent of an 
                                occurrence, or contingency 
                                associated with a financial, 
                                commercial, or economic 
                                consequence, or economic or 
                                financial indices or measures 
                                of economic or financial risk 
                                or value;
                          (iii) any combination of agreements 
                        or transactions referred to in this 
                        subparagraph;
                          (iv) any option to enter into an 
                        agreement or transaction referred to in 
                        this subparagraph;
                          (v) a master agreement that provides 
                        for an agreement or transaction 
                        referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), 
                        or (iv), together with all supplements 
                        to any such master agreement, and 
                        without regard to whether the master 
                        agreement contains an agreement or 
                        transaction that is not a swap 
                        agreement under this paragraph, except 
                        that the master agreement shall be 
                        considered to be a swap agreement under 
                        this paragraph only with respect to 
                        each agreement or transaction under the 
                        master agreement that is referred to in 
                        clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv); or
                          (vi) any security agreement or 
                        arrangement or other credit enhancement 
                        related to any agreements or 
                        transactions referred to in clause (i) 
                        through (v), including any guarantee or 
                        reimbursement obligation by or to a 
                        swap participant or financial 
                        participant in connection with any 
                        agreement or transaction referred to in 
                        any such clause, but not to exceed the 
                        damages in connection with any such 
                        agreement or transaction, measured in 
                        accordance with section 562; and
                  (B) is applicable for purposes of this title 
                only, and shall not be construed or applied so 
                as to challenge or affect the characterization, 
                definition, or treatment of any swap agreement 
                under any other statute, regulation, or rule, 
                including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Legal 
                Certainty for Bank Products Act of 2000, the 
                securities laws (as such term is defined in 
                section 3(a)(47) of the Securities Exchange Act 
                of 1934) and the Commodity Exchange Act.
          (53C) The term ``swap participant'' means an entity 
        that, at any time before the filing of the petition, 
        has an outstanding swap agreement with the debtor.
          (56A) The term ``term overriding royalty'' means an 
        interest in liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons in place or 
        to be produced from particular real property that 
        entitles the owner thereof to a share of production, or 
        the value thereof, for a term limited by time, 
        quantity, or value realized.
          (53D) The term ``timeshare plan'' means and shall 
        include that interest purchased in any arrangement, 
        plan, scheme, or similar device, but not including 
        exchange programs, whether by membership, agreement, 
        tenancy in common, sale, lease, deed, rental agreement, 
        license, right to use agreement, or by any other means, 
        whereby a purchaser, in exchange for consideration, 
        receives a right to use accommodations, facilities, or 
        recreational sites, whether improved or unimproved, for 
        a specific period of time less than a full year during 
        any given year, but not necessarily for consecutive 
        years, and which extends for a period of more than 
        three years. A ``timeshare interest'' is that interest 
        purchased in a timeshare plan which grants the 
        purchaser the right to use and occupy accommodations, 
        facilities, or recreational sites, whether improved or 
        unimproved, pursuant to a timeshare plan.
          (54) The term ``transfer'' means--
                  (A) the creation of a lien;
                  (B) the retention of title as a security 
                interest;
                  (C) the foreclosure of a debtor's equity of 
                redemption; or
                  (D) each mode, direct or indirect, absolute 
                or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of 
                disposing of or parting with--
                          (i) property; or
                          (ii) an interest in property.
          (54A) The term ``uninsured State member bank'' means 
        a State member bank (as defined in section 3 of the 
        Federal Deposit Insurance Act) the deposits of which 
        are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance 
        Corporation.
          (55) The term ``United States'', when used in a 
        geographical sense, includes all locations where the 
        judicial jurisdiction of the United States extends, 
        including territories and possessions of the United 
        States.

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