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116th Congress    }                                   {        Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                   {       116-184

======================================================================



 
                     STEM OPPORTUNITIES ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

 July 30, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Ms. Johnson of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 2528]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 2528) to direct the Director of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy to carry out programs 
and activities to ensure that Federal science agencies and 
institutions of higher education receiving Federal research and 
development funding are fully engaging their entire talent 
pool, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that 
the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill............................................12
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation........................12
  IV. Committee Hearings.............................................13
   V. Committee Consideration and Votes..............................14
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill........................14
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (By Title and Section).............14
VIII. Committee Views................................................16
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................17
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................17
  XI. Compliance With Public Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)...........20
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............20
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........20
 XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................20
  XV. Duplication of Federal Programs................................20
 XVI. Earmark Identification.........................................21
XVII. Applicability to the Legislative Branch........................21
XVIII.Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........21

 XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........21
  XX. Proceedings of Full Committee Markup...........................29

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS; FINDINGS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``STEM Opportunities 
Act of 2019''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents; findings.
Sec. 2. Purposes.
Sec. 3. Federal science agency policies for caregivers.
Sec. 4. Collection and reporting of data on Federal research grants.
Sec. 5. Policies for review of Federal research grants.
Sec. 6. Collection of data on demographics of faculty.
Sec. 7. Cultural and institutional barriers to expanding the academic 
and Federal STEM workforce.
Sec. 8. Research and dissemination at the National Science Foundation.
Sec. 9. Research and related activities to expand STEM opportunities.
Sec. 10. Tribal Colleges and Universities Program.
Sec. 11. Report to Congress.
Sec. 12. Merit review.
Sec. 13. Definitions.

  (c) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
          (1) Many reports over the past decade have found that it is 
        critical to our Nation's economic leadership and global 
        competitiveness that the United States educates and trains more 
        scientists and engineers.
          (2) Research shows that women and minorities who are 
        interested in STEM careers are disproportionately lost at 
        nearly every educational transition and at every career 
        milestone.
          (3) The National Center for Science and Engineering 
        Statistics at the National Science Foundation collects, 
        compiles, analyzes, and publishes data on the demographics of 
        STEM degrees and STEM jobs in the United States.
          (4) Women now earn nearly 37 percent of all STEM bachelor's 
        degrees, but major variations persist among fields. In 2017, 
        women earned only 20 percent of all bachelor's degrees awarded 
        in engineering and 19 percent of bachelor's degrees awarded in 
        computer sciences. Based on Bureau of Labor Statistics data, 
        jobs in computing occupations are expected to account for 
        nearly 60 percent of the projected annual growth of newly 
        created STEM job openings from 2016 to 2026.
          (5) In 2017, underrepresented minority groups comprised 39 
        percent of the college-age population of the United States, but 
        only 18 percent of students who earned bachelor's degrees in 
        STEM fields. The Higher Education Research Institute at the 
        University of California, Los Angeles, found that, while 
        freshmen from underrepresented minority groups express an 
        interest in pursuing a STEM undergraduate degree at the same 
        rate as all other freshmen, only 22.1 percent of Latino 
        students, 18.4 percent of African-American students, and 18.8 
        percent of Native American students studying in STEM fields 
        complete their degree within 5 years, compared to approximately 
        33 percent of White students and 42 percent of Asian students 
        who complete their degree within 5 years.
          (6) In some STEM fields, including the computer sciences, 
        women persist at about the same rate through doctorate degrees. 
        In other STEM fields, women persist through doctorate degrees 
        at a lower rate. In mathematics, women earn just 26 percent of 
        doctorate degrees compared with 42 percent of undergraduate 
        degrees. Overall, women earned 38 percent of STEM doctorate 
        degrees in 2016. The rate of minority students earning STEM 
        doctorate degrees in physics is 9 percent, compared with 15 
        percent for bachelor's degree. Students from underrepresented 
        minority groups accounted for only 11.5 percent of STEM 
        doctorate degrees awarded in 2016.
          (7) The representation of women in STEM drops significantly 
        from the doctorate degree level to the faculty level. Overall, 
        women hold only 26 percent of all tenured and tenure-track 
        positions and 27 percent of full professor positions in STEM 
        fields in our Nation's universities and 4-year colleges. Black 
        and Hispanic faculty together hold about 6.8 percent of all 
        tenured and tenure-track positions and 7.5 percent of full 
        professor positions. Many of the numbers in the American Indian 
        or Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
        categories for different faculty ranks were too small for the 
        National Science Foundation to report publicly without 
        potentially compromising confidential information about the 
        individuals being surveyed.
          (8) The representation of women is especially low at our 
        Nation's top research universities. Even in the biological 
        sciences, in which women now earn more than 50 percent of the 
        doctorates and passed the 25 percent level 37 years ago, women 
        make up only 25 percent of the full professors at the 
        approximately 100 most research-intensive universities in the 
        United States. In the physical sciences and mathematics, women 
        make up only 11 percent of full professors, in computer 
        sciences only 10 percent, and across engineering fields only 7 
        percent. The data suggest that approximately 6 percent of all 
        tenure-track STEM faculty members at the most research-
        intensive universities are from underrepresented minority 
        groups, but in some fields the numbers are too small to report 
        publicly.
          (9) By 2050, underrepresented minorities will comprise 52 
        percent of the college-age population of the United States. If 
        the percentage of female students and students from 
        underrepresented minority groups earning bachelor's degrees in 
        STEM fields does not significantly increase, the United States 
        will face an acute shortfall in the overall number of students 
        who earn degrees in STEM fields just as United States companies 
        are increasingly seeking students with those skills. With this 
        impending shortfall, the United States will almost certainly 
        lose its competitive edge in the 21st century global economy.
          (10) According to a 2014 Association for Women in Science 
        survey of over 4,000 scientists across the globe, 70 percent of 
        whom were men, STEM researchers face significant challenges in 
        work-life integration. Researchers in the United States were 
        among the most likely to experience a conflict between work and 
        their personal life at least weekly. One-third of researchers 
        surveyed said that ensuring good work-life integration has 
        negatively impacted their careers, and, of researchers 
        intending to leave their current job within the next year, 9 
        percent indicated it was because they were unable to balance 
        work and life demands.
          (11) Female students and students from underrepresented 
        minority groups at institutions of higher education who see few 
        others ``like themselves'' among faculty and student 
        populations often do not experience the social integration that 
        is necessary for success in all disciplines, including STEM.
          (12) One in five children in the United States attend school 
        in a rural community. The data shows that rural students are at 
        a disadvantage with respect to STEM readiness. Among STEM-
        interested students, 17 percent of students in rural high 
        schools and 18 percent of students in town-located high schools 
        meet the ACT STEM Benchmark, compared with 33 percent of 
        students in suburban high schools and 27 percent of students in 
        urban high schools.
          (13) A substantial body of evidence establishes that most 
        people hold implicit biases. Decades of cognitive psychology 
        research reveal that most people carry prejudices of which they 
        are unaware but that nonetheless play a large role in 
        evaluations of people and their work. Unintentional biases and 
        outmoded institutional structures are hindering the access and 
        advancement of women, minorities, and other groups historically 
        underrepresented in STEM.
          (14) Workshops held to educate faculty about unintentional 
        biases have demonstrated success in raising awareness of such 
        biases.
          (15) In 2012, the Office of Diversity and Equal Opportunity 
        of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (in this 
        Act referred to as ``NASA'') completed a report that--
                  (A) is specifically designed to help NASA grant 
                recipients identify why the dearth of women in STEM 
                fields continues and to ensure that it is not due to 
                discrimination; and
                  (B) provides guidance that is usable by all 
                institutions of higher education receiving significant 
                Federal research funding on how to conduct meaningful 
                self-evaluations of campus culture and policies.
          (16) The Federal Government provides 55 percent of research 
        funding at institutions of higher education and, through its 
        grant-making policies, has had significant influence on 
        institution of higher education policies, including policies 
        related to institutional culture and structure.

SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

  The purposes of this Act are as follows:
          (1) To ensure that Federal science agencies and institutions 
        of higher education receiving Federal research and development 
        funding are fully engaging the entire talent pool of the United 
        States.
          (2) To promote research on, and increase understanding of, 
        the participation and trajectories of women, minorities, and 
        other groups historically underrepresented in STEM studies and 
        careers, including persons with disabilities, older learners, 
        veterans, and rural, poor, and tribal populations, at 
        institutions of higher education and Federal science agencies, 
        including Federal laboratories.
          (3) To raise awareness within Federal science agencies, 
        including Federal laboratories, and institutions of higher 
        education about cultural and institutional barriers limiting 
        the recruitment, retention, promotion, and other indicators of 
        participation and achievement of women, minorities, and other 
        groups historically underrepresented in academic and Government 
        STEM research careers at all levels.
          (4) To identify, disseminate, and implement best practices at 
        Federal science agencies, including Federal laboratories, and 
        at institutions of higher education to remove or reduce 
        cultural and institutional barriers limiting the recruitment, 
        retention, and success of women, minorities, and other groups 
        historically underrepresented in academic and Government STEM 
        research careers.
          (5) To provide grants to institutions of higher education to 
        recruit, retain, and advance STEM faculty members from 
        underrepresented minority groups and to implement or expand 
        reforms in undergraduate STEM education in order to increase 
        the number of students from underrepresented minority groups 
        receiving degrees in these fields.

SEC. 3. FEDERAL SCIENCE AGENCY POLICIES FOR CAREGIVERS.

  (a) OSTP Guidance.--Not later than 6 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Director, in consultation with relevant 
agencies, shall provide guidance to each Federal science agency to 
establish policies that--
          (1) apply to all--
                  (A) research awards granted by such agency; and
                  (B) principal investigators of such research who have 
                caregiving responsibilities, including care for a 
                newborn or newly adopted child and care for an 
                immediate family member who is sick or disabled; and
          (2) provide--
                  (A) flexibility in timing for the initiation of 
                approved research awards granted by such agency;
                  (B) no-cost extensions of such research awards;
                  (C) grant supplements, as appropriate, to research 
                awards for research technicians or equivalent positions 
                to sustain research activities conducted under such 
                awards; and
                  (D) any other appropriate accommodations at the 
                discretion of the director of each such agency.
  (b) Uniformity of Guidance.--In providing guidance under subsection 
(a), the Director shall encourage uniformity and consistency in the 
policies established pursuant to such guidance across all Federal 
science agencies.
  (c) Establishment of Policies.--Consistent with the guidance under 
subsection (a), Federal science agencies shall--
          (1) maintain or develop and implement policies for 
        individuals described in paragraph (1)(B) of such subsection; 
        and
          (2) broadly disseminate such policies to current and 
        potential grantees.
  (d) Data on Usage.--Federal science agencies shall--
          (1) collect data on the usage of the policies under 
        subsection (c), by gender, at both institutions of higher 
        education and Federal laboratories; and
          (2) report such data on an annual basis to the Director in 
        such form as required by the Director.

SEC. 4. COLLECTION AND REPORTING OF DATA ON FEDERAL RESEARCH GRANTS.

  (a) Collection of Data.--
          (1) In general.--Each Federal science agency shall collect, 
        as practicable, with respect to all applications for merit-
        reviewed research and development grants to institutions of 
        higher education and Federal laboratories supported by that 
        agency, the standardized record-level annual information on 
        demographics, primary field, award type, institution type, 
        review rating, budget request, funding outcome, and awarded 
        budget.
          (2) Uniformity and standardization.--The Director, in 
        consultation with the Director of the National Science 
        Foundation, shall establish a policy to ensure uniformity and 
        standardization of the data collection required under paragraph 
        (1).
          (3) Record-level data.--
                  (A) Requirement.--Beginning not later than 2 years 
                after the date of the enactment of this Act, and on an 
                annual basis thereafter, each Federal science agency 
                shall submit to the Director of the National Science 
                Foundation record-level data collected under paragraph 
                (1) in the form required by such Director.
                  (B) Previous data.--As part of the first submission 
                under subparagraph (A), each Federal science agency, to 
                the extent practicable, shall also submit comparable 
                record-level data for the 5 years preceding the date of 
                such submission.
  (b) Reporting of Data.--The Director of the National Science 
Foundation shall publish statistical summary data, as practicable, 
collected under this section, disaggregated and cross-tabulated by 
race, ethnicity, gender, and years since completion of doctoral degree, 
including in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's report 
required by section 37 of the Science and Technology Equal 
Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885d; Public Law 96-516).

SEC. 5. POLICIES FOR REVIEW OF FEDERAL RESEARCH GRANTS.

  (a) In General.--Each Federal science agency shall implement the 
policy recommendations with respect to reducing the impact of implicit 
bias at Federal science agencies and grantee institutions as developed 
by the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the 2016 report 
entitled ``Reducing the Impact of Bias in the STEM Workforce'' and any 
subsequent updates.
  (b) Pilot Activity.--In consultation with the National Science 
Foundation and consistent with policy recommendations referenced in 
subsection (a), each Federal science agency shall implement a 2-year 
pilot orientation activity for program officers and members of standing 
review committees to educate reviewers on research related to, and 
minimize the effects of, implicit bias in the review of extramural and 
intramural Federal research grants.
  (c) Establishment of Policies.--Drawing upon lessons learned from the 
pilot activity under subsection (b), each Federal science agency shall 
maintain or develop and implement evidence-based policies and practices 
to minimize the effects of implicit bias in the review of extramural 
and intramural Federal research grants.
  (d) Assessment of Policies.--Federal science agencies shall regularly 
assess, and amend as necessary, the policies and practices implemented 
pursuant to subsection (c) to ensure effective measures are in place to 
minimize the effects of implicit bias in the review of extramural and 
intramural Federal research grants.

SEC. 6. COLLECTION OF DATA ON DEMOGRAPHICS OF FACULTY.

  (a) Collection of Data.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 3 years after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, and at least every 5 years thereafter, 
        the Director of the National Science Foundation shall carry out 
        a survey to collect data from grantees on the demographics of 
        STEM faculty, by broad fields of STEM, at different types of 
        institutions of higher education.
          (2) Considerations.--To the extent practicable, the Director 
        of the National Science Foundation shall consider, by gender, 
        race, ethnicity, citizenship status, and years since completion 
        of doctoral degree--
                  (A) the number and percentage of faculty;
                  (B) the number and percentage of faculty at each 
                rank;
                  (C) the number and percentage of faculty who are in 
                nontenure-track positions, including teaching and 
                research;
                  (D) the number and percentage of faculty who are 
                reviewed for promotion, including tenure, and the 
                percentage of that number who are promoted, including 
                being awarded tenure;
                  (E) faculty years in rank;
                  (F) the number and percentage of faculty to leave 
                tenure-track positions;
                  (G) the number and percentage of faculty hired, by 
                rank; and
                  (H) the number and percentage of faculty in 
                leadership positions.
  (b) Existing Surveys.--The Director of the National Science 
Foundation, may, in modifying or expanding existing Federal surveys of 
higher education (as necessary)--
          (1) take into account the considerations under subsection 
        (a)(2) by collaborating with statistical centers at other 
        Federal agencies; or
          (2) award a grant or contract to an institution of higher 
        education or other nonprofit organization to take such 
        considerations into account.
  (c) Reporting Data.--The Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall publish statistical summary data collected under this section, 
including as part of the National Science Foundation's report required 
by section 37 of the Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act (42 
U.S.C. 1885d; Public Law 96-516).
  (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Director of the National Science Foundation 
$3,000,000 in each of fiscal years 2020 through 2022 to develop and 
carry out the initial survey required under subsection (a).

SEC. 7. CULTURAL AND INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO EXPANDING THE ACADEMIC 
                    AND FEDERAL STEM WORKFORCE.

  (a) Best Practices at Institutions of Higher Education and Federal 
Laboratories.--
          (1) Development of guidance.--Not later than 12 months after 
        the date of enactment of this Act, the Director, in 
        consultation with the interagency working group on inclusion in 
        STEM, shall develop written guidance for institutions of higher 
        education and Federal laboratories on the best practices for--
                  (A) conducting periodic climate surveys of STEM 
                departments and divisions, with a particular focus on 
                identifying any cultural or institutional barriers to 
                the recruitment, retention, or advancement of women, 
                racial and ethnic minorities, and other groups 
                historically underrepresented in STEM studies and 
                careers; and
                  (B) providing educational opportunities, including 
                workshops as described in subsection (b), for STEM 
                faculty, research personnel, and administrators to 
                learn about current research on implicit bias in 
                recruitment, evaluation, and promotion of undergraduate 
                and graduate students and research personnel.
          (2) Existing guidance.--In developing the guidance under 
        paragraph (1), the Director shall utilize guidance already 
        developed by Federal science agencies.
          (3) Dissemination of guidance.--Federal science agencies 
        shall broadly disseminate the guidance developed under 
        paragraph (1) to institutions of higher education that receive 
        Federal research funding and Federal laboratories.
          (4) Establishment of policies.--Consistent with the guidance 
        developed under paragraph (1)--
                  (A) the Director of the National Science Foundation 
                shall develop a policy that--
                          (i) applies to, at a minimum, doctoral degree 
                        granting institutions that receive Federal 
                        research funding; and
                          (ii) requires each such institution, not 
                        later than 3 years after the date of enactment 
                        of this Act, to report to the Director of the 
                        National Science Foundation on activities and 
                        policies developed and implemented based on the 
                        guidance developed under paragraph (1); and
                  (B) each Federal science agency with a Federal 
                laboratory shall maintain or develop and implement 
                practices and policies for the purposes described in 
                paragraph (1) for such laboratory.
  (b) Workshops To Address Cultural Barriers to Expanding the Academic 
and Federal STEM Workforce.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 6 months after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Director, in consultation with the 
        interagency working group on inclusion in STEM, shall recommend 
        a uniform policy for Federal science agencies to carry out a 
        program of workshops that educate STEM department chairs at 
        institutions of higher education, senior managers at Federal 
        laboratories, and other federally funded researchers about 
        methods that minimize the effects of implicit bias in the 
        career advancement, including hiring, tenure, promotion, and 
        selection for any honor based in part on the recipient's 
        research record, of academic and Federal STEM researchers.
          (2) Interagency coordination.--The Director shall, to the 
        extent practicable, ensure that workshops supported under this 
        subsection are coordinated across Federal science agencies and 
        jointly supported as appropriate.
          (3) Minimizing costs.--To the extent practicable, workshops 
        shall be held in conjunction with national or regional STEM 
        disciplinary meetings to minimize costs associated with 
        participant travel.
          (4) Priority fields for academic participants.--In 
        considering the participation of STEM department chairs and 
        other academic researchers, the Director shall prioritize 
        workshops for the broad fields of STEM in which the national 
        rate of representation of women among tenured or tenure-track 
        faculty or nonfaculty researchers at doctorate-granting 
        institutions of higher education is less than 25 percent, 
        according to the most recent data available from the National 
        Center for Science and Engineering Statistics.
          (5) Organizations eligible to carry out workshops.--A Federal 
        science agency may carry out the program of workshops under 
        this subsection by making grants to organizations made eligible 
        by the Federal science agency and any of the following 
        organizations:
                  (A) Nonprofit scientific and professional societies 
                and organizations that represent one or more STEM 
                disciplines.
                  (B) Nonprofit organizations that have the primary 
                mission of advancing the participation of women, 
                minorities, or other groups historically 
                underrepresented in STEM.
          (6) Characteristics of workshops.--The workshops shall have 
        the following characteristics:
                  (A) Invitees to workshops shall include at least--
                          (i) the chairs of departments in the relevant 
                        STEM discipline or disciplines from doctoral 
                        degree granting institutions that receive 
                        Federal research funding; and
                          (ii) in the case of Federal laboratories, 
                        individuals with personnel management 
                        responsibilities comparable to those of an 
                        institution of higher education department 
                        chair.
                  (B) Activities at the workshops shall include 
                research presentations and interactive discussions or 
                other activities that increase the awareness of the 
                existence of implicit bias in recruitment, hiring, 
                tenure review, promotion, and other forms of formal 
                recognition of individual achievement for faculty and 
                other federally funded STEM researchers and shall 
                provide strategies to overcome such bias.
                  (C) Research presentations and other workshop 
                programs, as appropriate, shall include a discussion of 
                the unique challenges faced by different 
                underrepresented groups, including minority women, 
                minority men, persons from rural and underserved areas, 
                persons with disabilities, gender and sexual minority 
                individuals, and first generation graduates in 
                research.
                  (D) Workshop programs shall include information on 
                best practices for mentoring undergraduate, graduate, 
                and postdoctoral women, minorities, and other students 
                from groups historically underrepresented in STEM.
          (7) Data on workshops.--Any proposal for funding by an 
        organization seeking to carry out a workshop under this 
        subsection shall include a description of how such organization 
        will--
                  (A) collect data on the rates of attendance by 
                invitees in workshops, including information on the 
                home institution and department of attendees, and the 
                rank of faculty attendees;
                  (B) conduct attitudinal surveys on workshop attendees 
                before and after the workshops; and
                  (C) collect follow-up data on any relevant 
                institutional policy or practice changes reported by 
                attendees not later than one year after attendance in 
                such a workshop.
          (8) Report to nsf.--Organizations receiving funding to carry 
        out workshops under this subsection shall report the data 
        required in paragraph (7) to the Director of the National 
        Science Foundation in such form as required by such Director.
  (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 4 years after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall submit a report to Congress that includes--
          (1) a summary and analysis of the types and frequency of 
        activities and policies developed and carried out under 
        subsection (a) based on the reports submitted under paragraph 
        (4) of such subsection; and
          (2) a description and evaluation of the status and 
        effectiveness of the program of workshops required under 
        subsection (b), including a summary of any data reported under 
        paragraph (8) of such subsection.
  (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Director of the National Science Foundation 
$1,000,000 in each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024 to carry out this 
section.

SEC. 8. RESEARCH AND DISSEMINATION AT THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall award research grants and carry out dissemination activities 
consistent with the purposes of this Act, including--
          (1) research grants to analyze the record-level data 
        collected under section 4 and section 6, consistent with 
        policies to ensure the privacy of individuals identifiable by 
        such data;
          (2) research grants to study best practices for work-life 
        accommodation;
          (3) research grants to study the impact of policies and 
        practices that are implemented under this Act or that are 
        otherwise consistent with the purposes of this Act;
          (4) collaboration with other Federal science agencies and 
        professional associations to exchange best practices, harmonize 
        work-life accommodation policies and practices, and overcome 
        common barriers to work-life accommodation; and
          (5) collaboration with institutions of higher education in 
        order to clarify and catalyze the adoption of a coherent and 
        consistent set of work-life accommodation policies and 
        practices.
  (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Director of the National Science Foundation 
$5,000,000 in each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024 to carry out this 
section.

SEC. 9. RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES TO EXPAND STEM OPPORTUNITIES.

  (a) National Science Foundation Support for Increasing Diversity 
Among Stem Faculty at Institutions of Higher Education.--Section 305 of 
the American Innovation and Competitiveness Act (42 U.S.C. 1862s-5) is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsections (e) and (f) as subsections 
        (g) and (h), respectively; and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (d) the following:
  ``(e) Support for Increasing Diversity Among STEM Faculty at 
Institutions of Higher Education.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall award 
        grants to institutions of higher education (or consortia 
        thereof) for the development and assessment of innovative 
        reform efforts designed to increase the recruitment, retention, 
        and advancement of individuals from underrepresented minority 
        groups in academic STEM careers.
          ``(2) Merit review; competition.--Grants shall be awarded 
        under this subsection on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis.
          ``(3) Use of funds.--Activities supported by grants under 
        this subsection may include--
                  ``(A) institutional assessment activities, such as 
                data analyses and policy review, in order to identify 
                and address specific issues in the recruitment, 
                retention, and advancement of faculty members from 
                underrepresented minority groups;
                  ``(B) implementation of institution-wide improvements 
                in workload distribution, such that faculty members 
                from underrepresented minority groups are not 
                disadvantaged in the amount of time available to focus 
                on research, publishing papers, and engaging in other 
                activities required to achieve tenure status and run a 
                productive research program;
                  ``(C) development and implementation of training 
                courses for administrators and search committee members 
                to ensure that candidates from underrepresented 
                minority groups are not subject to implicit biases in 
                the search and hiring process;
                  ``(D) development and hosting of intra- or inter-
                institutional workshops to propagate best practices in 
                recruiting, retaining, and advancing faculty members 
                from underrepresented minority groups;
                  ``(E) professional development opportunities for 
                faculty members from underrepresented minority groups;
                  ``(F) activities aimed at making undergraduate STEM 
                students from underrepresented minority groups aware of 
                opportunities for academic careers in STEM fields;
                  ``(G) activities to identify and engage exceptional 
                graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from 
                underrepresented minority groups at various stages of 
                their studies and to encourage them to enter academic 
                careers; and
                  ``(H) other activities consistent with paragraph (1), 
                as determined by the Director of the Foundation.
          ``(4) Selection process.--
                  ``(A) Application.--An institution of higher 
                education (or a consortium of such institutions) 
                seeking funding under this subsection shall submit an 
                application to the Director of the Foundation at such 
                time, in such manner, and containing such information 
                and assurances as such Director may require. The 
                application shall include, at a minimum, a description 
                of--
                          ``(i) the reform effort that is being 
                        proposed for implementation by the institution 
                        of higher education;
                          ``(ii) any available evidence of specific 
                        difficulties in the recruitment, retention, and 
                        advancement of faculty members from 
                        underrepresented minority groups in STEM 
                        academic careers within the institution of 
                        higher education submitting an application, and 
                        how the proposed reform effort would address 
                        such issues;
                          ``(iii) how the institution of higher 
                        education submitting an application plans to 
                        sustain the proposed reform effort beyond the 
                        duration of the grant; and
                          ``(iv) how the success and effectiveness of 
                        the proposed reform effort will be evaluated 
                        and assessed in order to contribute to the 
                        national knowledge base about models for 
                        catalyzing institutional change.
                  ``(B) Review of applications.--In selecting grant 
                recipients under this subsection, the Director of the 
                Foundation shall consider, at a minimum--
                          ``(i) the likelihood of success in 
                        undertaking the proposed reform effort at the 
                        institution of higher education submitting the 
                        application, including the extent to which the 
                        administrators of the institution are committed 
                        to making the proposed reform effort a 
                        priority;
                          ``(ii) the degree to which the proposed 
                        reform effort will contribute to change in 
                        institutional culture and policy such that 
                        greater value is placed on the recruitment, 
                        retention, and advancement of faculty members 
                        from underrepresented minority groups;
                          ``(iii) the likelihood that the institution 
                        of higher education will sustain or expand the 
                        proposed reform effort beyond the period of the 
                        grant; and
                          ``(iv) the degree to which evaluation and 
                        assessment plans are included in the design of 
                        the proposed reform effort.
                  ``(C) Grant distribution.--The Director of the 
                Foundation shall ensure, to the extent practicable, 
                that grants awarded under this section are made to a 
                variety of types of institutions of higher education.
          ``(5) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized 
        to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $8,000,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.''.
  (b) National Science Foundation Support for Broadening Participation 
in Undergraduate STEM Education.--Section 305 of the American 
Innovation and Competitiveness Act (42 U.S.C. 1862s-5), as amended by 
subsection (b), is further amended by inserting after subsection (e) 
the following:
  ``(f) Support for Broadening Participation in Undergraduate STEM 
Education.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall award 
        grants to institutions of higher education (or a consortium of 
        such institutions) to implement or expand research-based 
        reforms in undergraduate STEM education for the purpose of 
        recruiting and retaining students from minority groups who are 
        underrepresented in STEM fields.
          ``(2) Merit review; competition.--Grants shall be awarded 
        under this subsection on a merit-reviewed, competitive basis.
          ``(3) Use of funds.--Activities supported by grants under 
        this subsection may include--
                  ``(A) implementation or expansion of innovative, 
                research-based approaches to broaden participation of 
                underrepresented minority groups in STEM fields;
                  ``(B) implementation or expansion of bridge, cohort, 
                tutoring, or mentoring programs, including those 
                involving community colleges and technical schools, 
                designed to enhance the recruitment and retention of 
                students from underrepresented minority groups in STEM 
                fields;
                  ``(C) implementation or expansion of outreach 
                programs linking institutions of higher education and 
                K-12 school systems in order to heighten awareness 
                among pre-college students from underrepresented 
                minority groups of opportunities in college-level STEM 
                fields and STEM careers;
                  ``(D) implementation or expansion of faculty 
                development programs focused on improving retention of 
                undergraduate STEM students from underrepresented 
                minority groups;
                  ``(E) implementation or expansion of mechanisms 
                designed to recognize and reward faculty members who 
                demonstrate a commitment to increasing the 
                participation of students from underrepresented 
                minority groups in STEM fields;
                  ``(F) expansion of successful reforms aimed at 
                increasing the number of STEM students from 
                underrepresented minority groups beyond a single course 
                or group of courses to achieve reform within an entire 
                academic unit, or expansion of successful reform 
                efforts beyond a single academic unit or field to other 
                STEM academic units or fields within an institution of 
                higher education;
                  ``(G) expansion of opportunities for students from 
                underrepresented minority groups to conduct STEM 
                research in industry, at Federal labs, and at 
                international research institutions or research sites;
                  ``(H) provision of stipends for students from 
                underrepresented minority groups participating in 
                research;
                  ``(I) development of research collaborations between 
                research-intensive universities and primarily 
                undergraduate minority-serving institutions;
                  ``(J) support for graduate students and postdoctoral 
                fellows from underrepresented minority groups to 
                participate in instructional or assessment activities 
                at primarily undergraduate institutions, including 
                primarily undergraduate minority-serving institutions 
                and two-year institutions of higher education; and
                  ``(K) other activities consistent with paragraph (1), 
                as determined by the Director of the Foundation.
          ``(4) Selection process.--
                  ``(A) Application.--An institution of higher 
                education (or a consortia thereof) seeking a grant 
                under this subsection shall submit an application to 
                the Director of the Foundation at such time, in such 
                manner, and containing such information and assurances 
                as such Director may require. The application shall 
                include, at a minimum--
                          ``(i) a description of the proposed reform 
                        effort;
                          ``(ii) a description of the research findings 
                        that will serve as the basis for the proposed 
                        reform effort or, in the case of applications 
                        that propose an expansion of a previously 
                        implemented reform, a description of the 
                        previously implemented reform effort, including 
                        data about the recruitment, retention, and 
                        academic achievement of students from 
                        underrepresented minority groups;
                          ``(iii) evidence of an institutional 
                        commitment to, and support for, the proposed 
                        reform effort, including a long-term commitment 
                        to implement successful strategies from the 
                        current reform beyond the academic unit or 
                        units included in the grant proposal;
                          ``(iv) a description of existing or planned 
                        institutional policies and practices regarding 
                        faculty hiring, promotion, tenure, and teaching 
                        assignment that reward faculty contributions to 
                        improving the education of students from 
                        underrepresented minority groups in STEM; and
                          ``(v) how the success and effectiveness of 
                        the proposed reform effort will be evaluated 
                        and assessed in order to contribute to the 
                        national knowledge base about models for 
                        catalyzing institutional change.
                  ``(B) Review of applications.--In selecting grant 
                recipients under this subsection, the Director of the 
                Foundation shall consider, at a minimum--
                          ``(i) the likelihood of success of the 
                        proposed reform effort at the institution 
                        submitting the application, including the 
                        extent to which the faculty, staff, and 
                        administrators of the institution are committed 
                        to making the proposed institutional reform a 
                        priority of the participating academic unit or 
                        units;
                          ``(ii) the degree to which the proposed 
                        reform effort will contribute to change in 
                        institutional culture and policy such that 
                        greater value is placed on faculty engagement 
                        in the retention of students from 
                        underrepresented minority groups;
                          ``(iii) the likelihood that the institution 
                        will sustain or expand the proposed reform 
                        effort beyond the period of the grant; and
                          ``(iv) the degree to which evaluation and 
                        assessment plans are included in the design of 
                        the proposed reform effort.
                  ``(C) Grant distribution.--The Director of the 
                Foundation shall ensure, to the extent practicable, 
                that grants awarded under this subsection are made to a 
                variety of types of institutions of higher education, 
                including two-year and minority-serving institutions of 
                higher education.
          ``(5) Education research.--
                  ``(A) In general.--All grants made under this 
                subsection shall include an education research 
                component that will support the design and 
                implementation of a system for data collection and 
                evaluation of proposed reform efforts in order to build 
                the knowledge base on promising models for increasing 
                recruitment and retention of students from 
                underrepresented minority groups in STEM education at 
                the undergraduate level across a diverse set of 
                institutions.
                  ``(B) Dissemination.--The Director of the Foundation 
                shall coordinate with relevant Federal agencies in 
                disseminating the results of the research under this 
                paragraph to ensure that best practices in broadening 
                participation in STEM education at the undergraduate 
                level are made readily available to all institutions of 
                higher education, other Federal agencies that support 
                STEM programs, non-Federal funders of STEM education, 
                and the general public.
          ``(6) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized 
        to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $15,000,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.''.

SEC. 10. TRIBAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM.

  (a) Grants To Broaden Tribal College and University Student 
Participation in Computer Science.--Section 525 of the America COMPETES 
Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-13) is amended by 
inserting after subsection (c) the following:
  ``(d) Grants To Broaden Tribal College and University Student 
Participation in Computer Science.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Director, as part of the program 
        authorized under this section, shall award grants on a 
        competitive, merit-reviewed basis to eligible entities to 
        increase the participation of tribal populations in computer 
        science and computational thinking education programs to enable 
        students to develop skills and competencies in coding, problem-
        solving, critical thinking, creativity and collaboration.
          ``(2) Purpose.--Grants awarded under this subsection shall 
        support--
                  ``(A) research and development needed to bring 
                computer science and computational thinking courses and 
                degrees to tribal colleges and universities;
                  ``(B) research and development of instructional 
                materials needed to integrate computer science and 
                computational thinking into programs that are 
                culturally relevant to students attending tribal 
                colleges and universities;
                  ``(C) research, development and evaluation of 
                distance education for computer science and 
                computational thinking courses and degree programs for 
                students attending tribal colleges and universities; 
                and
                  ``(D) other activities consistent with the activities 
                described in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection 
                (b), as determined by the Director.
          ``(3) Partnerships.--A tribal college or university seeking a 
        grant under this subsection, or a consortia thereof, may 
        partner with an institution of higher education or nonprofit 
        organization with demonstrated expertise in academic program 
        development.
          ``(4) Coordination.--In carrying out this subsection, the 
        Director shall consult and cooperate with the programs and 
        policies of other relevant Federal agencies to avoid 
        duplication with and enhance the effectiveness of the program 
        under this subsection.
          ``(5) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized 
        to be appropriated to the Director of the Foundation $2,000,000 
        in each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024 to carry out this 
        subsection.''.
  (b) Evaluation.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 2 years after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Director of the National Science 
        Foundation shall evaluate the grant program authorized under 
        section 525 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 1862p-13), as amended.
          (2) Requirements.--In conducting the evaluation under 
        paragraph (1), the Director of the National Science Foundation 
        shall, as practicable--
                  (A) use a common set of benchmarks and assessment 
                tools to identify best practices and materials 
                developed or demonstrated by the research conducted 
                pursuant to grants programs under section 525 of the 
                America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
                1862p-13);
                  (B) include an assessment of the effectiveness of 
                such grant programs in expanding access to high quality 
                STEM education, research, and outreach at tribal 
                colleges and universities, as applicable;
                  (C) assess the number of students who participated in 
                such grant programs; and
                  (D) assess the percentage of students participating 
                in such grant programs who successfully complete their 
                education programs.
          (3) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date on which 
        the evaluation under paragraph (1) is completed, the Director 
        of the National Science Foundation shall submit to Congress and 
        make available to the public, a report on the results of the 
        evaluation, including any recommendations for legislative 
        action that could optimize the effectiveness of the grant 
        program authorized under section 525 of the America COMPETES 
        Reauthorization Act of 2010, as amended by subsection (a).

SEC. 11. REPORT TO CONGRESS.

  Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Director shall submit a report to Congress that includes--
          (1) a description and evaluation of the status and usage of 
        policies implemented pursuant to section 3 at all Federal 
        science agencies, including any recommendations for revising or 
        expanding such policies;
          (2) with respect to efforts to minimize the effects of 
        implicit bias in the review of extramural and intramural 
        Federal research grants under section 5--
                  (A) what steps all Federal science agencies have 
                taken to implement policies and practices to minimize 
                such effects;
                  (B) a description of any significant updates to the 
                policies for review of Federal research grants required 
                under such section; and
                  (C) any evidence of the impact of such policies on 
                the review or awarding of Federal research grants; and
          (3) a description and evaluation of the status of institution 
        of higher education and Federal laboratory policies and 
        practices required under section 7(a), including any 
        recommendations for revising or expanding such policies.

SEC. 12. MERIT REVIEW.

  Nothing in this Act shall be construed as altering any intellectual 
or broader impacts criteria at Federal science agencies for evaluating 
grant applications.

SEC. 13. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the Office of Science and Technology Policy.
          (2) Federal laboratory.--The term ``Federal laboratory'' has 
        the meaning given such term in section 4 of the Stevenson-
        Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3703).
          (3) Federal science agency.--The term ``Federal science 
        agency'' means any Federal agency with at least $100,000,000 in 
        research and development expenditures in fiscal year 2018.
          (4) Institution of higher education.--The term ``institution 
        of higher education'' has the meaning given such term in 
        section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        1001(a)).
          (5) Interagency working group on inclusion in stem.--The term 
        ``interagency working group on inclusion in STEM'' means the 
        interagency working group established by section 308 of the 
        American Innovation and Competitiveness Act (42 U.S.C. 6626).
          (6) STEM.--The term ``STEM'' means science, technology, 
        engineering, and mathematics, including computer science.

                        II. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of the bill is to provide for research and 
evidence-based interventions to address the underrepresentation 
of women and racial and ethnic minority groups in STEM studies 
and research careers at institutions of higher education and at 
Federal laboratories.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    The U.S. science and engineering enterprise is essential to 
national defense, the public welfare, economic competitiveness, 
and the capacity to address national challenges. While the U.S. 
continues to lead the world in spending on science research, 
advanced STEM degrees, high-quality research publications, and 
Nobel laureates, the nation's long-standing dominance in 
science and innovation is eroding. Other nations are investing 
heavily in their STEM workforce. In 2014, almost half of all 
STEM bachelor's degrees were conferred in India (25 percent) 
and China (22 percent), compared with 10 percent conferred in 
the U.S. China increased spending on research and development 
by 18 percent per year between 2000 and 2015, compared with 4 
percent in the U.S. China has accelerated its research output 
in recent years, surpassing the U.S. in the number of research 
articles published for the first time in 2016. One of the key 
challenges facing the U.S. science and engineering enterprise 
is a lack of diversity in the STEM workforce.
    Despite accounting for one-half of the college-educated 
workforce, in 2015 women represented 28 percent of people 
working in STEM occupations. Women's participation in the STEM 
workforce varies across STEM fields. While women have made 
significant gains in fields like biological, agricultural, and 
environmental sciences (47.9 percent), their proportions are 
low in engineering (14.5 percent) and computer and mathematical 
science (26.4).
    Low rates of women in the STEM workforce is driven, in 
part, by their underrepresentation in STEM degree programs. 
Women's share of bachelor's degrees fell between 2006 and 2016 
in computer science (from 20.7 to 18.7 percent) and physics 
(from 20.7 to 19.3 percent) and women earned only 20.9 percent 
of bachelor's degrees in engineering. For women of color, the 
disparity is more pronounced. In 2016, Hispanic women comprised 
10.6 percent of the college-age population yet earned just 1.9 
percent of bachelor's degrees in computer science and 2.3 
percent of bachelor's degrees in engineering. While black women 
comprise 7.6 percent of the college-age population, their share 
of bachelor's degrees most STEM fields is stagnated or in 
decline. Black women earned just 1 percent of engineering 
bachelor's degrees in 2016, down from 1.5 percent in 2006. The 
sharpest decline was in computer science, which fell from 4.4 
percent to 2.2 percent.
    Compared with their proportions in the U.S. population, 
members of racial and ethnic minority groups are significantly 
underrepresented in the STEM workforce. Asians and whites are 
overrepresented. While the representation of American Indians 
in STEM occupations increased from 1993 (0.2 percent) to 2006 
(0.4 percent), that progress was reversed and only 0.2 percent 
of STEM occupations were held by American Indians in 2015. 
While Hispanic employment in STEM occupations has steadily 
increased (from 2.9 to 6 percent) from 1993 to 2015, progress 
for African Americans has been much slower (from 3.6 to 4.8 
percent).

                         IV. Committee Hearings

    On May 9, 2019, the full Committee held a hearing entitled, 
``Achieving the Promise of a Diverse STEM Workforce.'' This was 
the first hearing the Committee held focused solely on the 
issue of diversity in STEM since 2010. The purpose of the 
hearing was to explore the need for a diverse STEM workforce 
and assess the lessons learned, model programs, enduring 
challenges, and future opportunities for expanding access to 
STEM studies and careers. The Committee also received testimony 
on H.R. 2528 the STEM Opportunities Act of 2019.
    Five witnesses testified: (1) Dr. Mae Jemison, Principal, 
100 Year Starship. Dr. Jemison provided testimony on a National 
Academies of Science study underway to examine ``the evidence 
behind the most successful policies, practices, and strategies 
that have demonstrated effectiveness in opening doors to 
women's participation and success'' in STEM. (2) Dr. Shirley 
Malcom, Senior Advisor and Director of SEA Change, American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Malcom provided 
testimony on the SEA Change initiative and other AAAS 
activities in support of increasing diversity in STEM. (3) Dr. 
Lorelle Espinosa, Vice President for Research, American Council 
on Education. Dr. Espinosa provided testimony on the findings 
and recommendations of the 2018 National Academies of Science 
report entitled Minority Serving Institutions: America's 
Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. 
(4) Dr. James L. Moore III, Vice Provost for Diversity and 
Inclusion and Chief Diversity Officer, The Ohio State 
University. Dr. Moore provided testimony on activities at The 
Ohio State University institution to address the issue of 
diversity and the role that public and land-grant universities 
play in broadening participation in STEM. (5) Ms. Barbara Whye, 
Chief Diversity and Inclusion Officer, Vice President of Human 
Resources, Intel. Ms. Whye provided testimony on efforts 
underway at Intel to increase the diversity of its workforce.

                  V. Committee Consideration and Votes

    On May 7, 2019 Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson and Ranking 
Member Frank Lucas introduced H.R. 2528, the STEM Opportunities 
Act of 2019. The bill was referred to the House Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology.
    On June 20, 2019, the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology met to consider H.R. 2528. Ms. Johnson offered an 
amendment in the nature of a substitute to make technical 
corrections and conforming changes. The amendment was agreed to 
on a voice vote. Mr. Lipinski offered an amendment to include 
discussions of best practices for mentoring postdoctoral 
researchers in the scope of workshops carried out by Federal 
science agencies. The amendment also includes activities to 
encourage postdoctoral researchers from underrepresented 
minorities groups to enter academic careers as an allowable use 
of funds for grants awarded by the Director of the National 
Science Foundation (NSF). The amendment was agreed to on a 
voice vote. Ms. Johnson moved that the Committee favorably 
report the bill, H.R. 2528, to the House with the 
recommendation that the bill be approved. The motion was agreed 
to by a voice vote.

              VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    The Act requires all Federal science agencies, based on 
guidance developed by the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy, to establish and maintain policies to support principal 
investigators who have caregiving responsibilities; collect 
demographic data on research grant applications; implement 
evidence-based policies to raise awareness of and reduce the 
impact of implicit bias in the merit-review process; 
disseminate guidance to universities and Federal labs on best 
practices for assessing organizational culture and climate and 
raising awareness of research on implicit bias; and carry out 
workshops for leaders in STEM departments at universities and 
Federal labs about minimizing implicit bias in STEM.
    The Act requires the National Science Foundation (NSF) to 
publish a statistical summary of the data collected by all 
agencies on research grant applications; carry out a survey to 
collect demographic data on STEM faculty at colleges and 
universities; award grants to analyze data collected under this 
Act; and assess the impact of policies and practices 
implemented under this Act. Further, the Act authorizes NSF to 
award grants to support increased diversity of students and 
faculty at colleges and universities and to increase the 
participation of tribal populations in computer science 
education programs through its Tribal Colleges and Universities 
Program.

        VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section)


Section 1. Short title; Table of Contents; Findings

    STEM Opportunities Act of 2019

Section 2. Purposes

    The purposes of this Act are to: (1) ensure Federal science 
agencies and institutions of higher education are fully 
engaging their entire talent pool; (2) to provide for research 
and data collection on the participation and trajectories of 
groups historically underrepresented in STEM studies and 
careers; (3) to raise awareness within Federal science agencies 
and institutions of higher education about the barriers faced 
by these groups; (4) to identify, disseminate, and implement 
best practices for lowering these barriers at Federal science 
agencies and institutions of higher education; (5) to provide 
grants to institutions of higher education to implement or 
expand evidence-based reforms to increase the number of 
individuals from underrepresented groups in STEM studies and 
careers.

Section 3. Federal science agency policies for caregivers

    Requires OSTP to develop guidance to Federal science 
agencies regarding establishment of policies to provide no-cost 
extensions and flexibility in award start time to grantees with 
caregiving responsibilities.

Section 4. Collection and reporting of data on Federal research grants

    Requires each Federal science agency to collect 
comprehensive demographic data on recipients of Federal grants 
and to report this data to NSF for summarization and 
publication.

Section 5. Policies for review of Federal research grants

    Requires Federal science agencies to implement 
recommendations from the 2016 OSTP Report ``Reducing the Impact 
of Bias in the STEM Workforce'' in reviewing grant 
applications, hiring policies, and workforce policies. Also 
requires agencies to carry out pilot programs and develop 
evidence-based policies to minimize the effect of implicit bias 
in the grant review process.

Section 6. Collection of data on demographics of faculty

    Requires NSF to carry out a survey of STEM faculty 
demographics at institutions of higher education and to 
summarize and publish data collected under this section. 
Authorizes $3 million for each of fiscal years 2020 through 
2022 for this purpose.

Section 7. Cultural and institutional barriers to expanding the 
        academic and Federal STEM workforce

    Requires OSTP to develop and disseminate guidance to 
universities and Federal laboratories on best practices to help 
identify any cultural or institutional barriers limiting the 
recruitment, retention, and advancement of women and minorities 
in STEM research careers. Directs NSF to develop policies to 
requiring institutions to report on steps taken based on OSTP 
guidance. Requires OSTP to develop uniform policy guidance on 
agency support for workshops for researchers and STEM 
departments on methods that minimize the effects of implicit 
bias. Authorizes $1 million for each of fiscal years 2020 
through 2024 for NSF to carry out this section.

Section 8. Research and dissemination at the National Science 
        Foundation

    Requires NSF to award research grants and carry out 
dissemination activities using data from Sections 4 and 6. 
Authorizes $5 million for each of fiscal years 2020 through 
2024 for this purpose.

Section 9. Research and related activities to expand STEM opportunities

    Requires NSF to award grants to universities to implement 
or expand research-based practices aimed at increasing the 
recruitment, retention, and advancement of minority faculty. 
Authorizes $8 million for each of fiscal years 2020 through 
2024 for this purpose. Further, authorizes NSF to award grants 
to research, develop and assess scalable reforms in 
undergraduate STEM education, with a focus on increasing the 
recruitment and retention of minority students. Authorizes $15 
million for each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024 for this 
purpose.

Section 10. Tribal Colleges and Universities Program

    Requires NSF to award grants through the Tribal Colleges 
and Universities Program to increase participation in computer 
science and computational thinking education programs. 
Authorizes $2 million for each of fiscal years 2020 through 
2024 for this purpose.

Section 11. Report to Congress

    Requires OSTP submit a report to Congress with a 
description and evaluation of the status and usage of policies, 
and progress on efforts to minimize effects of implicit bias in 
the review of Federal research grants.

Section 12. Merit review

    Nothing in this Act shall be construed as altering any 
intellectual or broader impacts criteria at Federal science 
agencies for evaluating grant applications.

Section 13. Definitions

                         VIII. Committee Views

    The intent of this legislation is to accelerate progress in 
expanding access to STEM studies and careers for women and 
racial and ethnic minorities.
    Section 3. The Committee intends for each Federal science 
agency to establish policies to provide accommodations for 
principal investigators with caregiving responsibilities. These 
policies should be harmonized across Federal science agencies 
to minimize administrative burden for institutions of higher 
education and Federal laboratories.
    Section 4. The Committee acknowledges that each Federal 
science agency has distinct processes for collecting data on 
grant applications. The Committee intends for these processes 
to be standardized to the maximum extent practicable to enable 
these data to be statistically summarized and disaggregated and 
cross-tabulated using the indicated demographic 
characteristics. The Committee recognizes that Federal science 
agencies cannot mandate the provision of demographic data and 
intends for these data to be provided voluntarily. The 
Committee also intends for the privacy of individuals to be 
protected when small numbers become an issue. The Committee 
intends for only a statistical summary of the data collected by 
each Federal science agency to be made public. The Committee 
intends for the collection of proposal review rating and 
funding outcome data to identify applications rated as strong 
or competitive, but not ultimately selected for funding. These 
data will help to identify any inequities in the merit-review 
process and inform interventions to address such inequities.
    Section 7. The intent of the Act is to support, through 
workshop programs, the education of individuals in leadership 
positions at institutions of higher education and Federal 
laboratories about evidence-based methods for reducing the 
impact of implicit bias on the career advancement of STEM 
researchers. The Committee intends for this education to inform 
personnel management policies, procedures, and processes 
carried out by such leaders, including STEM department chairs 
and senior managers at Federal laboratories. Researchers not in 
leadership positions are not precluded from participating in 
workshop programs.
    Section 9. While the Committee views commitment from 
institutional administrators and the likelihood that an 
institution will sustain or expand a proposed reform beyond the 
period of the grant as important metrics for selecting grant 
recipients, the Committee does not intend for small or under-
resourced institutions to be excluded from consideration.
    Section 10. The Committee intends for partnerships between 
tribal colleges and universities and an institution of higher 
education or nonprofit organization with demonstrated expertise 
in academic program development to be of mutual interest and 
benefit. The Committee intends that the process for collecting 
data as part of the evaluation of this grant program, be 
carried out in a culturally-sensitive manner.

                           IX. Cost Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee adopts as its own the 
estimate of new budget authority, entitlement authority, or tax 
expenditures or revenues contained in the cost estimate 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974.

              X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, July 24, 2019.
Hon. Eddie Bernice Johnson,
Chairwoman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Madam Chairwoman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 2528, the STEM 
Opportunities Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Janani 
Shankaran.
            Sincerely,
                                         Phillip L. Swagel,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

    [GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]
    

    Bill summary: H.R. 2528 would specifically authorize 
appropriations totaling $164 million over the 2020-2024 period 
for the National Science Foundation to award grants to study 
participation in STEM and computer science education and 
employment by people in underrepresented groups, to carry out 
surveys, and to establish policies on implicit bias at certain 
grantee institutions. The bill also would initiate a program to 
collect data uniformly about grant applicants across certain 
federal agencies and would require those agencies to implement 
other activities to improve the recruitment and retention of 
people in underrepresented populations in STEM fields.
    Estimated federal cost: The estimated budgetary effect of 
H.R. 2528 is shown in Table 1. The costs of the legislation 
fall primarily within budget function 250 (general science, 
space, and technology).

               TABLE 1.--ESTIMATED INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION UNDER H.R. 2528
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           By fiscal year, millions of dollars--
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             2019      2020      2021      2022      2023      2024    2019-2024
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NSF Grants:
    Authorization........................         0        30        30        30        30        30        150
    Estimated Outlays....................         0         5        17        24        30        30        106
Data Collection Program:
    Estimated Authorization..............         0        16        17        12        12        12         69
    Estimated Outlays....................         0        16        17        12        12        12         69
Other Activities:
    Estimated Authorization..............         0         8         7         7         5         4         31
    Estimated Outlays....................         0         8         7         7         5         4         31
    Total Changes:
        Estimated Authorization..........         0        54        54        49        47        46        250
        Estimated Outlays................         0        29        41        43        47        46        206
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
legislation will be enacted near the end of 2019 and that the 
authorized and necessary amounts will be appropriated each 
year. Estimated outlays are based on historical spending 
patterns for similar activities. CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 2528 would cost $206 million over the 2020-
2024 period.
    NSF grants: H.R. 2528 would authorize the appropriation of 
$30 million annually over the 2020-2024 period for the NSF to 
award grants to nonprofit organizations and institutions of 
higher education to develop policies and programs that improve 
the recruitment, retention, and advancement of people in 
underrepresented populations in academic STEM careers, 
undergraduate STEM education, and computer science and to carry 
out data analysis on the demographic characteristics of 
applicants for federal research and development (R&D) grants. 
CBO estimates that providing those grants would cost $106 
million over the 2020-2024 period and $44 million after 2024.
    Data collection program: Section 4 would direct federal 
agencies with at least $100 million in R&D spending in 2018 to 
collect and submit detailed information to the NSF about their 
federal R&D grant applicants. The Office of Science and 
Technology Policy (OSTP) and the NSF would be required to 
establish a policy to ensure that the data are collected 
uniformly. CBO expects that five agencies--the Departments of 
Agriculture, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration--would incur 
higher costs to comply with the new policy, to update 
databases, and to prepare data for annual submission. Using 
information from those agencies, CBO estimates that 
implementing the bill's provisions would cost OSTP and each 
agency, on average, about $1 million annually for additional 
staff.
    In addition, using information from the NSF, CBO estimates 
that the agency would incur average annual costs of $8 million 
to implement the data collection program. About half of that 
amount would be for 25 additional employees at an average 
annual cost of $150,000 each; the other half would be for 
database maintenance. In total, CBO estimates, implementing 
section 4 would cost $69 million over the 2020-2024 period.
    Other activities: The bill would authorize the 
appropriation of $3 million annually over the 2020-2022 period 
for the NSF to create and distribute surveys to collect 
demographic information on STEM faculty at grantee 
institutions. In addition, the bill would authorize the 
appropriation of $1 million annually over the 2020-2024 period 
for the NSF to develop a policy on implicit bias at doctoral-
degree-granting institutions that receive federal funding. CBO 
estimates that implementing those activities would cost $14 
million over the 2020-2024 period.
    H.R. 2528 also would require agencies to implement the 
recommendations of a previous OSTP report on implicit bias, 
conduct pilot orientation activities to train agency staff 
concerning implicit bias, and hold related workshops in 
conjunction with meetings of STEM-related organizations. 
Finally, the NSF would be required to report on the 
implementation of activities under the bill. Based on the costs 
of similar tasks, CBO estimates that meeting those and other 
requirements would cost about $3 million annually, and $17 
million over the 2020-2024 period.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in long-term deficits: None.
    Mandates: None.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Janani Shankaran; 
Mandates: Brandon Lever.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim P. Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                     XI. Federal Mandates Statement

    H.R. 2528 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The Committee's oversight findings and recommendations are 
reflected in the body of this report.

      XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of House Rule XIII, the goal of 
H.R. 2528 is to direct the Director of the Office of Science 
and Technology Policy and Federal science agencies to carry out 
programs and activities to ensure that Federal science agencies 
and institutions of higher education receiving Federal research 
and development funding are fully engaging the entire talent 
pool of the United States, and for other purposes.

               XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    H.R. 2528 does not create any advisory committees.

                  XV. Duplication of Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(5) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee finds that no provision 
of H.R. 2528 establishes or reauthorizes a program of the 
federal government known to be duplicative of another federal 
program, including any program that was included in a report to 
Congress pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139 or the 
most recent Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.

                      XVI. Earmark Identification

    Pursuant to clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of rule XXI, the 
Committee finds that H.R. 2528 contains no earmarks, limited 
tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits.

             XVII. Applicability to the Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that H.R. 25228 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

     XVIII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

       XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported


         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

              AMERICAN INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS ACT




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE III--SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATH EDUCATION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 305. PROGRAMS TO EXPAND STEM OPPORTUNITIES.

  (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Economic projections by the Bureau of Labor 
        Statistics indicate that by 2018, there could be 
        2,400,000 unfilled STEM jobs.
          (2) Women represent slightly more than half the 
        United States population, and projections indicate that 
        54 percent of the population will be a member of a 
        racial or ethnic minority group by 2050.
          (3) Despite representing half the population, women 
        comprise only about 30 percent of STEM workers 
        according to a 2015 report by the National Center for 
        Science and Engineering Statistics.
          (4) A 2014 National Center for Education Statistics 
        study found that underrepresented populations leave the 
        STEM fields at higher rates than their counterparts.
          (5) The representation of women in STEM drops 
        significantly at the faculty level. Overall, women hold 
        only 25 percent of all tenured and tenure-track 
        positions and 17 percent of full professor positions in 
        STEM fields in our Nation's universities and 4-year 
        colleges.
          (6) Black and Hispanic faculty together hold about 
        6.5 percent of all tenured and tenure-track positions 
        and 5 percent of full professor positions.
          (7) Many of the numbers in the American Indian or 
        Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific 
        Islander categories for different faculty ranks were 
        too small for the Foundation to report publicly without 
        potentially compromising confidential information about 
        the individuals being surveyed.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) it is critical to our Nation's economic 
        leadership and global competitiveness that the United 
        States educate, train, and retain more scientists, 
        engineers, and computer scientists;
          (2) there is currently a disconnect between the 
        availability of and growing demand for STEM-skilled 
        workers;
          (3) historically, underrepresented populations are 
        the largest untapped STEM talent pools in the United 
        States; and
          (4) given the shifting demographic landscape, the 
        United States should encourage full participation of 
        individuals from underrepresented populations in STEM 
        fields.
  (c) Reaffirmation.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
continue to support programs designed to broaden participation 
of underrepresented populations in STEM fields.
  (d) Grants To Broaden Participation.--
          (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
        award grants on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, to 
        eligible entities to increase the participation of 
        underrepresented populations in STEM fields, including 
        individuals identified in section 33 or section 34 of 
        the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 
        U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b).
          (2) Center of excellence.--
                  (A) In general.--Grants awarded under this 
                subsection may include grants for the 
                establishment of a Center of Excellence to 
                collect, maintain, and disseminate information 
                to increase participation of underrepresented 
                populations in STEM fields.
                  (B) Purpose.--The purpose of a Center of 
                Excellence under this subsection is to promote 
                diversity in STEM fields by building on the 
                success of the INCLUDES programs, providing 
                technical assistance, maintaining best 
                practices, and providing related training at 
                federally funded academic institutions.
  (e) Support for Increasing Diversity Among STEM Faculty at 
Institutions of Higher Education.--
          (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
        award grants to institutions of higher education (or 
        consortia thereof) for the development and assessment 
        of innovative reform efforts designed to increase the 
        recruitment, retention, and advancement of individuals 
        from underrepresented minority groups in academic STEM 
        careers.
          (2) Merit review; competition.--Grants shall be 
        awarded under this subsection on a merit-reviewed, 
        competitive basis.
          (3) Use of funds.--Activities supported by grants 
        under this subsection may include--
                  (A) institutional assessment activities, such 
                as data analyses and policy review, in order to 
                identify and address specific issues in the 
                recruitment, retention, and advancement of 
                faculty members from underrepresented minority 
                groups;
                  (B) implementation of institution-wide 
                improvements in workload distribution, such 
                that faculty members from underrepresented 
                minority groups are not disadvantaged in the 
                amount of time available to focus on research, 
                publishing papers, and engaging in other 
                activities required to achieve tenure status 
                and run a productive research program;
                  (C) development and implementation of 
                training courses for administrators and search 
                committee members to ensure that candidates 
                from underrepresented minority groups are not 
                subject to implicit biases in the search and 
                hiring process;
                  (D) development and hosting of intra- or 
                inter-institutional workshops to propagate best 
                practices in recruiting, retaining, and 
                advancing faculty members from underrepresented 
                minority groups;
                  (E) professional development opportunities 
                for faculty members from underrepresented 
                minority groups;
                  (F) activities aimed at making undergraduate 
                STEM students from underrepresented minority 
                groups aware of opportunities for academic 
                careers in STEM fields;
                  (G) activities to identify and engage 
                exceptional graduate students and postdoctoral 
                researchers from underrepresented minority 
                groups at various stages of their studies and 
                to encourage them to enter academic careers; 
                and
                  (H) other activities consistent with 
                paragraph (1), as determined by the Director of 
                the Foundation.
          (4) Selection process.--
                  (A) Application.--An institution of higher 
                education (or a consortium of such 
                institutions) seeking funding under this 
                subsection shall submit an application to the 
                Director of the Foundation at such time, in 
                such manner, and containing such information 
                and assurances as such Director may require. 
                The application shall include, at a minimum, a 
                description of--
                          (i) the reform effort that is being 
                        proposed for implementation by the 
                        institution of higher education;
                          (ii) any available evidence of 
                        specific difficulties in the 
                        recruitment, retention, and advancement 
                        of faculty members from 
                        underrepresented minority groups in 
                        STEM academic careers within the 
                        institution of higher education 
                        submitting an application, and how the 
                        proposed reform effort would address 
                        such issues;
                          (iii) how the institution of higher 
                        education submitting an application 
                        plans to sustain the proposed reform 
                        effort beyond the duration of the 
                        grant; and
                          (iv) how the success and 
                        effectiveness of the proposed reform 
                        effort will be evaluated and assessed 
                        in order to contribute to the national 
                        knowledge base about models for 
                        catalyzing institutional change.
                  (B) Review of applications.--In selecting 
                grant recipients under this subsection, the 
                Director of the Foundation shall consider, at a 
                minimum--
                          (i) the likelihood of success in 
                        undertaking the proposed reform effort 
                        at the institution of higher education 
                        submitting the application, including 
                        the extent to which the administrators 
                        of the institution are committed to 
                        making the proposed reform effort a 
                        priority;
                          (ii) the degree to which the proposed 
                        reform effort will contribute to change 
                        in institutional culture and policy 
                        such that greater value is placed on 
                        the recruitment, retention, and 
                        advancement of faculty members from 
                        underrepresented minority groups;
                          (iii) the likelihood that the 
                        institution of higher education will 
                        sustain or expand the proposed reform 
                        effort beyond the period of the grant; 
                        and
                          (iv) the degree to which evaluation 
                        and assessment plans are included in 
                        the design of the proposed reform 
                        effort.
                  (C) Grant distribution.--The Director of the 
                Foundation shall ensure, to the extent 
                practicable, that grants awarded under this 
                section are made to a variety of types of 
                institutions of higher education.
          (5) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to carry out this 
        subsection $8,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024.
  (f) Support for Broadening Participation in Undergraduate 
STEM Education.--
          (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
        award grants to institutions of higher education (or a 
        consortium of such institutions) to implement or expand 
        research-based reforms in undergraduate STEM education 
        for the purpose of recruiting and retaining students 
        from minority groups who are underrepresented in STEM 
        fields.
          (2) Merit review; competition.--Grants shall be 
        awarded under this subsection on a merit-reviewed, 
        competitive basis.
          (3) Use of funds.--Activities supported by grants 
        under this subsection may include--
                  (A) implementation or expansion of 
                innovative, research-based approaches to 
                broaden participation of underrepresented 
                minority groups in STEM fields;
                  (B) implementation or expansion of bridge, 
                cohort, tutoring, or mentoring programs, 
                including those involving community colleges 
                and technical schools, designed to enhance the 
                recruitment and retention of students from 
                underrepresented minority groups in STEM 
                fields;
                  (C) implementation or expansion of outreach 
                programs linking institutions of higher 
                education and K-12 school systems in order to 
                heighten awareness among pre-college students 
                from underrepresented minority groups of 
                opportunities in college-level STEM fields and 
                STEM careers;
                  (D) implementation or expansion of faculty 
                development programs focused on improving 
                retention of undergraduate STEM students from 
                underrepresented minority groups;
                  (E) implementation or expansion of mechanisms 
                designed to recognize and reward faculty 
                members who demonstrate a commitment to 
                increasing the participation of students from 
                underrepresented minority groups in STEM 
                fields;
                  (F) expansion of successful reforms aimed at 
                increasing the number of STEM students from 
                underrepresented minority groups beyond a 
                single course or group of courses to achieve 
                reform within an entire academic unit, or 
                expansion of successful reform efforts beyond a 
                single academic unit or field to other STEM 
                academic units or fields within an institution 
                of higher education;
                  (G) expansion of opportunities for students 
                from underrepresented minority groups to 
                conduct STEM research in industry, at Federal 
                labs, and at international research 
                institutions or research sites;
                  (H) provision of stipends for students from 
                underrepresented minority groups participating 
                in research;
                  (I) development of research collaborations 
                between research-intensive universities and 
                primarily undergraduate minority-serving 
                institutions;
                  (J) support for graduate students and post-
                doctoral fellows from underrepresented minority 
                groups to participate in instructional or 
                assessment activities at primarily 
                undergraduate institutions, including primarily 
                undergraduate minority-serving institutions and 
                two-year institutions of higher education; and
                  (K) other activities consistent with 
                paragraph (1), as determined by the Director of 
                the Foundation.
          (4) Selection process.--
                  (A) Application.--An institution of higher 
                education (or a consortia thereof) seeking a 
                grant under this subsection shall submit an 
                application to the Director of the Foundation 
                at such time, in such manner, and containing 
                such information and assurances as such 
                Director may require. The application shall 
                include, at a minimum--
                          (i) a description of the proposed 
                        reform effort;
                          (ii) a description of the research 
                        findings that will serve as the basis 
                        for the proposed reform effort or, in 
                        the case of applications that propose 
                        an expansion of a previously 
                        implemented reform, a description of 
                        the previously implemented reform 
                        effort, including data about the 
                        recruitment, retention, and academic 
                        achievement of students from 
                        underrepresented minority groups;
                          (iii) evidence of an institutional 
                        commitment to, and support for, the 
                        proposed reform effort, including a 
                        long-term commitment to implement 
                        successful strategies from the current 
                        reform beyond the academic unit or 
                        units included in the grant proposal;
                          (iv) a description of existing or 
                        planned institutional policies and 
                        practices regarding faculty hiring, 
                        promotion, tenure, and teaching 
                        assignment that reward faculty 
                        contributions to improving the 
                        education of students from 
                        underrepresented minority groups in 
                        STEM; and
                          (v) how the success and effectiveness 
                        of the proposed reform effort will be 
                        evaluated and assessed in order to 
                        contribute to the national knowledge 
                        base about models for catalyzing 
                        institutional change.
                  (B) Review of applications.--In selecting 
                grant recipients under this subsection, the 
                Director of the Foundation shall consider, at a 
                minimum--
                          (i) the likelihood of success of the 
                        proposed reform effort at the 
                        institution submitting the application, 
                        including the extent to which the 
                        faculty, staff, and administrators of 
                        the institution are committed to making 
                        the proposed institutional reform a 
                        priority of the participating academic 
                        unit or units;
                          (ii) the degree to which the proposed 
                        reform effort will contribute to change 
                        in institutional culture and policy 
                        such that greater value is placed on 
                        faculty engagement in the retention of 
                        students from underrepresented minority 
                        groups;
                          (iii) the likelihood that the 
                        institution will sustain or expand the 
                        proposed reform effort beyond the 
                        period of the grant; and
                          (iv) the degree to which evaluation 
                        and assessment plans are included in 
                        the design of the proposed reform 
                        effort.
                  (C) Grant distribution.--The Director of the 
                Foundation shall ensure, to the extent 
                practicable, that grants awarded under this 
                subsection are made to a variety of types of 
                institutions of higher education, including 
                two-year and minority-serving institutions of 
                higher education.
          (5) Education research.--
                  (A) In general.--All grants made under this 
                subsection shall include an education research 
                component that will support the design and 
                implementation of a system for data collection 
                and evaluation of proposed reform efforts in 
                order to build the knowledge base on promising 
                models for increasing recruitment and retention 
                of students from underrepresented minority 
                groups in STEM education at the undergraduate 
                level across a diverse set of institutions.
                  (B) Dissemination.--The Director of the 
                Foundation shall coordinate with relevant 
                Federal agencies in disseminating the results 
                of the research under this paragraph to ensure 
                that best practices in broadening participation 
                in STEM education at the undergraduate level 
                are made readily available to all institutions 
                of higher education, other Federal agencies 
                that support STEM programs, non-Federal funders 
                of STEM education, and the general public.
          (6) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to carry out this 
        subsection $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024.
  [(e)] (g) Accountability and Dissemination.--
          (1) Evaluation.--
                  (A) In general.--Not later than 5 years after 
                the date of enactment of this Act, the Director 
                of the Foundation shall evaluate the grants 
                provided under this section.
                  (B) Requirements.--In conducting the 
                evaluation under subparagraph (A), the Director 
                shall--
                          (i) use a common set of benchmarks 
                        and assessment tools to identify best 
                        practices and materials developed or 
                        demonstrated by the research; and
                          (ii) to the extent practicable, 
                        combine the research resulting from the 
                        grant activity under subsection (e) 
                        with the current research on serving 
                        underrepresented students in grades 
                        kindergarten through 8.
          (2) Report on evaluations.--Not later than 180 days 
        after the completion of the evaluation under paragraph 
        (1), the Director of the Foundation shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress and make widely 
        available to the public a report that includes--
                  (A) the results of the evaluation; and
                  (B) any recommendations for administrative 
                and legislative action that could optimize the 
                effectiveness of the program.
  [(f)] (h) Coordination.--In carrying out this section, the 
Director of the Foundation shall consult and cooperate with the 
programs and policies of other relevant Federal agencies to 
avoid duplication with and enhance the effectiveness of the 
program under this section.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


              AMERICA COMPETES REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2010




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
  TITLE V--SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS SUPPORT 
            PROGRAMS SUBTITLE A--NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

Subtitle A--NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 525. TRIBAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM.

  (a) In general.--The Director shall continue to support a 
program to award grants on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis 
to tribal colleges and universities (as defined in section 316 
of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1059c), 
including institutions described in section 317 of such Act (20 
U.S.C. 1059d), to enhance the quality of undergraduate STEM 
education at such institutions and to increase the retention 
and graduation rates of Native American students pursuing 
associate's or baccalaureate degrees in STEM.
  (b) Program Components.--Grants awarded under this section 
shall support--
          (1) activities to improve courses and curriculum in 
        STEM;
          (2) faculty development;
          (3) stipends for undergraduate students participating 
        in research; and
          (4) other activities consistent with subsection (a), 
        as determined by the Director.
  (c) Instrumentation.--Funding provided under this section may 
be used for laboratory equipment and materials.
  (d) Grants to Broaden Tribal College and University Student 
Participation in Computer Science.--
          (1) In general.--The Director, as part of the program 
        authorized under this section, shall award grants on a 
        competitive, merit-reviewed basis to eligible entities 
        to increase the participation of tribal populations in 
        computer science and computational thinking education 
        programs to enable students to develop skills and 
        competencies in coding, problem-solving, critical 
        thinking, creativity and collaboration.
          (2) Purpose.--Grants awarded under this subsection 
        shall support--
                  (A) research and development needed to bring 
                computer science and computational thinking 
                courses and degrees to tribal colleges and 
                universities;
                  (B) research and development of instructional 
                materials needed to integrate computer science 
                and computational thinking into programs that 
                are culturally relevant to students attending 
                tribal colleges and universities;
                  (C) research, development and evaluation of 
                distance education for computer science and 
                computational thinking courses and degree 
                programs for students attending tribal colleges 
                and universities; and
                  (D) other activities consistent with the 
                activities described in paragraphs (1) through 
                (4) of subsection (b), as determined by the 
                Director.
          (3) Partnerships.--A tribal college or university 
        seeking a grant under this subsection, or a consortia 
        thereof, may partner with an institution of higher 
        education or nonprofit organization with demonstrated 
        expertise in academic program development.
          (4) Coordination.--In carrying out this subsection, 
        the Director shall consult and cooperate with the 
        programs and policies of other relevant Federal 
        agencies to avoid duplication with and enhance the 
        effectiveness of the program under this subsection.
          (5) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the Director of the 
        Foundation $2,000,000 in each of fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024 to carry out this subsection.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

              XX. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup













                        MARKUPS: H.R. 2528, STEM
                       Opportunities Act of 2019;
                  H.R. 36, Combating Sexual Harassment
                        in Science Act of 2019;
                 H.R. 3196, Vera Rubin Survey Telescope
                          Designation Act; and
            H.R. 3153, Expanding Findings for Federal Opioid
                       Research and Treatment Act

=======================================================================

                                 MARKUP

                               BEFORE THE

              COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                     ONE HUNDRED SIXTEENTH CONGRESS

                             FIRST SESSION

                               __________

                             JUNE 20, 2019

                               __________

                          Serial No. CP 116-4

                               __________

 Printed for the use of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology


       Available via the World Wide Web: http://science.house.gov
       
       
                               __________
                               
             U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE
             
                      WASHINGTON : 2019
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
              COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY

             HON. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON, Texas, Chairwoman
ZOE LOFGREN, California              FRANK D. LUCAS, Oklahoma,
DANIEL LIPINSKI, Illinois              Ranking Member
SUZANNE BONAMICI, Oregon             MO BROOKS, Alabama
AMI BERA, California,                BILL PPOSEY, Florida
  Vice Chair                         RANDY WEBER, Texas
CONOR LAMB, Pennsylvania             BRIAN BABIN, Texas
LIZZIE FLETCHER, Texas               ANDY BIGGS, Arizona
HALEY STEVENS, Michigan              ROGER MARSHALL, Kansas
KENDRA HORN, Oklahoma                RALPH NORMAN, South Carolina
MIKIE SHERRILL, New Jersey           MICHAEL CLOUD, Texas
BRAD SHERMAN, California             TROY BALDERSON, Ohio
STEVE COHEN, Tennessee               PETE OLSON, Texas
JERRY McNERNEY, California           ANTHONY GONZALEZ, Ohio
ED PERLMUTTER, Colorado              MICHAEL WALTZ, Florida
PAUL TONKO, New York                 JIM BAIRD, Indiana
BILL FOSTER, Illinois                JAIME HERRERA BEUTLER, Washington
DON BEYER, Virginia                  JENNIFFER GONZALEZ-COLON, Puerto 
CHARLIE CRIST, Florida                   Rico
SEAN CASTEN, Illinois                VACANCY
KATIE HILL, California
BEN McADAMS, Utah
JENNIFER WEXTON, Virginia





                            C O N T E N T S

                             June 20, 2019

                                                                   Page
H.R. 2528--STEM Opportunities Act of 2019........................    35

H.R. 36--Combating Sexual Harassment in Science Act of 2019......    35

H.R. 3196--Vera Rubin Survey Telescope Designation Act...........    35

H.R. 3153--Expanding Findings for Federal Opioid Research and 
  Treatment Act..................................................    35






                        MARKUPS: H.R. 2528, STEM
                      Opportunities Act of 2019;
                  H.R. 36, Combating Sexual Harassment
                        in Science Act of 2019;
                 H.R. 3196, Vera Rubin Survey Telescope
                          Designation Act; and
               H.R. 3153, Expanding Findings for Federal
                   Opioid Research and Treatment Act

                              ----------                              


                        THURSDAY, JUNE 20, 2019

                          House of Representatives,
               Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
                                                   Washington, D.C.
    The Committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:04 a.m., in 
room 2318, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Eddie Bernice 
Johnson [Chairwoman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairwoman JOHNSON. Good morning. The Committee will come 
to order. And without objection, the Chair is authorizes to 
declare recess at any time. Pursuant to Committee rule 2(e) and 
House rule XI, the Chair announces that she may postpone roll 
call votes.
    Pursuant to notice, the Committee meets to consider the 
following measures: H.R. 2528, STEM Opportunities Act of 2019; 
H.R. 36, Combating Sexual Harassment in Science Act of 2019; 
H.R. 3196, Vera Rubin Survey Telescope Designation Act; and 
H.R. 3153, Expanding Findings for Federal Opioid Research and 
Treatment Act.
    I want to welcome everyone to today's markup. Today, we 
meet to mark up four good bipartisan bills. First, we will 
consider the STEM Opportunities Act, which has been a priority 
of mine of course for many years. This bill will help us 
address the disparity in the number of women and minorities in 
the STEM fields.
    Without including all of our Nation's brain power in the 
fight for 21st-century competitiveness, it is unlikely that our 
country will remain the world leader in science and innovation. 
It is therefore my hope that this bill will play a major role 
in ensuring our country's competitiveness in the coming years.
    It is not enough to simply attract women to the STEM 
fields. We must also ensure they stay in these fields, and the 
second bill in our markup addresses one of the reasons women 
leave the STEM sciences in such high rates: Sexual harassment. 
The problem of sexual harassment in the STEM fields has not 
been addressed in a comprehensive fashion. I hope that the 
Combating Sexual Harassment in Science Act of 2019 can play an 
important role in focusing Federal efforts to stamp out sexual 
harassment in the sciences.
    I want to take a moment to recognize my colleague Ranking 
Member Lucas, who is an original co-sponsor of both of these 
bills. Both he and his staff have provided very constructive 
input into these bills and the hearings we held on these 
topics. I think the bills before us today are better off 
because of these efforts, and I want to sincerely thank him and 
his staff for their work.
    The third bill before us today is the Vera Rubin Survey 
Telescope Designation Act. I'll speak more about this bill in a 
minute, but I think it is appropriate that on the same day our 
Committee tries to address the issues facing women in the STEM 
fields, we also take a moment to recognize a woman who overcame 
the hurdles she faced to provide significant contributions to 
the field of astronomy.
    Finally, we will consider the Expanding Findings for 
Federal Opioid Research and Treatment Act, which is offered by 
Ms. Wexton. The scourge of opioid addiction is one of the most 
serious problems facing our Nation right now. It only makes 
sense to bring all of our resources to bear on this issue, and 
I think the National Science Foundation (NSF) can bring unique 
capabilities to the fight to better understand and deal with 
this critical issue.
    I look forward to a productive markup and moving these 
bills very quickly to the House floor.
    [The prepared statement of Chairwoman Johnson follows:]

    I want to welcome everyone to today's markup. Today we meet to 
markup four good bipartisan bills.
    First, we will consider the STEM Opportunities Act, which has been 
a priority of mine for many years. This bill will help us address the 
disparity in the number of women and minorities in the STEM fields.
    Without including all of our Nation's brain power in the fight for 
21st century competitiveness, it is unlikely that our country will 
remain the world leader in science and innovation. It is therefore my 
hope that this bill will play a major role in ensuring our country's 
competitiveness in the coming years.
    It is not enough to simply attract women to the STEM fields. We 
must also ensure they stay in those fields, and the second bill in our 
markup addresses one of the reasons women leave the sciences in such 
high rates: sexual harassment.
    The problem of sexual harassment in the STEM fields has not been 
addressed in a comprehensive fashion. I hope that the Combating Sexual 
Harassment in Science Act of 2019 can play an important role in 
focusing federal efforts to stamp out sexual harassment in the 
sciences.
    I want to take a moment to recognize my friend and colleague, 
Ranking Member Lucas, who is an original cosponsor of both of these 
bills. Both he and his staff have provided very constructive input into 
these bills and the hearings we have held on these topics. I think the 
bills before us today are better off because of these efforts, and I 
want to sincerely thank him and his staff for their work.
    The third bill before us today is the Vera Rubin Survey Telescope 
Designation Act. I'll speak more about this bill in a minute, but I 
think it is appropriate that on the same day our Committee tries to 
address the issues facing women in the STEM fields, we also take a 
moment to recognize a woman who overcame the hurdles she faced to 
provide significant contributions to the field of astronomy.
    Finally, we will consider the Expanding Findings for Federal Opioid 
Research and Treatment Act, which is offered by Ms. Wexton. The scourge 
of opioid addiction is one of the most serious problems facing our 
nation right now.
    It only makes sense to bring all of our resources to bear on this 
issue, and I think the National Science Foundation can bring unique 
capabilities to the fight to better understand and deal with this 
critical issue.
    I look forward to a productive markup and moving these bills very 
quickly to the House floor.

    Chairwoman Johnson. I now recognize the Ranking Member to 
present an opening statement.
    Mr. Lucas. Thank you, Chairwoman Johnson, for holding this 
markup.
    Today, we'll consider four bipartisan bills. The first is 
H.R. 2528, STEM Opportunities Act of 2019. H.R. 2528 continues 
this Committee's long bipartisan history of supporting and 
expanding STEM education for all. The only way we'll achieve 
our potential is by utilizing America's most valuable resource: 
Our people. That means developing a diverse STEM-capable 
workforce at every education level and from every background.
    One of the key provisions of H.R. 2528 is a requirement for 
more comprehensive data collection and analysis on the 
students, re- searchers, and faculty receiving Federal science 
grants. This data will help us identify and reduce the barriers 
that prevent underrepresented groups from entering and 
advancing in STEM. It will also help us measure the success of 
Federal STEM programs.
    The bill also includes a provision directing NSF to support 
computer science education through the existing Tribal Colleges 
and Universities program. Access to computer science resources 
and the development of computing skills is critical in today's 
economy. I am pleased to join Chairwoman Johnson in 
cosponsoring this legislation. I want to thank her and her 
entire staff for working with us to refine the bill for 
reintroduction and incorporating our feedback and ideas. I look 
forward to continuing to work with the Chair- woman and Members 
of the Committee to advance more STEM education efforts for 
this Congress to support, encourage, and develop the next 
generation of STEM students.
    Our second bill this morning is H.R. 36, Combating Sexual 
Harassment in Science Act of 2019. Chairwoman Johnson and I 
made this one of our highest priorities, introducing it on the 
first day of the 116th Congress. This bill has a foundation of 
more than a year of investigation, analysis, and 
recommendations to the Science Committee. Engaging more women 
in STEM studies and careers is essential to American 
competitiveness. Women make up half the workforce but account 
for less than 25 percent of America's STEM workforce.
    Unfortunately, too many women have been driven out of STEM 
careers due to a culture of harassment and abuse. H.R. 36 takes 
the first steps to addressing this problem. The bill supports 
the adoption of uniform guidance across the Federal science 
agencies to reduce the prevalence of sexual harassment 
involving grant personnel. The bill also directs the NSF to 
conduct further research into the causes and consequences of 
harassment, as well as interventions to mitigate the problem.
    There is an established legal process in place within 
higher education and in the workplace for handling claims of 
sexual harassment. This bill does not alter that process. What 
this bill does do is create a uniform policy for universities 
and research institutions to report to Federal science agencies 
when an administrative action is taken that impacts the ability 
of a researcher to carry out a grant. We want to ensure the 
safety of all grant personnel supported by taxpayer funding. 
I'll be offering an amendment later in the markup that we hope 
makes this requirement even more clear.
    Again, thank you, Chairwoman Johnson, for working in a 
bipartisan and collaborative way to move this legislation 
forward.
    Next, we will consider H.R. 3196, Vera Rubin Survey 
Telescope Designation Act, sponsored by Chairwoman Johnson and 
Representative Jenniffer Gonzalez-Colon. This bill honors the 
contributions of the late Dr. Vera Rubin, an astronomer who 
made groundbreaking discoveries in the field of dark matter and 
was a pioneer and life-long advocate for women in astronomy.
    This new LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope), under 
construction in Chile, funded by the National Science 
Foundation and the Department of Energy, will photograph the 
entire sky every few nights. One of the goals of the project is 
to study the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Naming the 
observatory in her honor is a fitting tribute to the 
contributions to the field, and I--her contributions to the 
field, I should note, and I hope will inspire future 
generations of women in astronomy.
    Finally, the Committee will consider H.R. 3153, Expanding 
Findings for Federal Opioid Research and Treatment Act. This 
legislation identifies current gaps that exist in research on 
the prevention and treatment of opioid addiction and authorizes 
the NSF to support research grants in those areas.
    I want to thank Representative Jennifer Wexton and 
Representative Jim Baird for their bipartisan work on this 
bill. Opioid addiction affects too many in our communities, and 
I applaud this effort to support more basic research on the 
science of addiction.
    Once again, thank you, Chairwoman Johnson, for holding 
today's markup, and I encourage the Members of the Committee to 
support all these bills.
    I yield back the balance of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Lucas follows:]

    Thank you, Chairwoman Johnson, for holding this mark-up. Today we 
will consider four bipartisan bills.
    The first is H.R. 2528, STEM Opportunities Act of 2019. H.R. 2528 
continues this Committee's long bipartisan history of supporting and 
expanding STEM education for all.
    The only way we'll achieve our potential is by utilizing America's 
most valuable resource: our people. That means developing a diverse 
STEM-capable workforce at every education level and from every 
background.
    One of the key provisions of H.R. 2528 is a requirement for more 
comprehensive data collection and analysis on the students, 
researchers, and faculty receiving federal science grants. This data 
will help us identify and reduce the barriers that prevent 
underrepresented groups from entering and advancing in STEM. It will 
also help us measure the success of federal STEM programs.
    The bill also includes a provision directing NSF to support 
computer science education through the existing Tribal Colleges and 
Universities program. Access to computer science resources and the 
development of computing skills is critical in today's economy.
    I was pleased to join Chairwoman Johnson in co-sponsoring this 
legislation. I want to thank her and her staff for working with us to 
refine the bill for reintroduction and incorporating our feedback and 
ideas.
    I look forward to continuing to work with the Chairwoman and 
members of the Committee to advance more STEM education efforts this 
Congress to support, encourage and develop the next generation of STEM 
students.
    Our second bill this morning is H.R. 36, Combating Sexual 
Harassment in Science Act of 2019. Chairwoman Johnson and I made this 
one of our highest priorities, introducing it on the first day of the 
116th Congress. This bill has a foundation of more than a year of 
investigation, analysis, and recommendations to the Science Committee.
    Engaging more women in STEM studies and careers is essential to 
American competitiveness. Women make up half of the workforce, but 
account for less than 25 percent of America's STEM workforce.
    Unfortunately, too many women have been driven out of STEM careers 
due to a culture of harassment and abuse. H.R. 36 takes the first steps 
to addressing this problem. The bill supports the adoption of uniform 
guidance across the federal science agencies to reduce the prevalence 
of sexual harassment involving grant personnel. The bill also directs 
NSF to conduct further research into the causes and consequences of 
harassment, as well as interventions to mitigate the problem.
    There is an established legal process in place within higher 
education and in the workplace for handling claims of sexual 
harassment. This bill does not alter that process. What this bill does 
do, is create a new uniform policy that universities and research 
institutions report to federal science agencies when an administrative 
action is taken that impacts the ability of a researcher to carry out a 
grant.
    We want to ensure the safety of all grant personnel supported by 
taxpayer funding. I'll be offering an amendment later in the mark-up 
that we hope makes this requirement even more clear.
    Again, thank you Chairwoman Johnson for working in a bipartisan and 
collaborative way to move this legislation forward.
    Next we will consider H.R. 3196, Vera Rubin Survey Telescope 
Designation Act, sponsored by Chairwoman Johnson and Representative 
Jenniffer Gonzalez-Colon. This bill honors the contributions of the 
late Dr. Vera Rubin, an astronomer who made groundbreaking discoveries 
in the field of dark matter and was a pioneer and life-long advocate 
for women in astronomy.
    The new LSST Telescope under construction in Chile, funded by the 
National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy, will 
photograph the entire sky every few nights. One of the goals of the 
project is to study the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Naming 
the observatory in her honor is a fitting tribute to her contributions 
to the field and I hope will inspire future generations of women in 
astronomy.
    Finally, the Committee will consider H.R. 3153, Expanding Findings 
for Federal Opioid Research and Treatment Act. The legislation 
identifies current gaps that exist in research on the prevention and 
treatment of opioid addiction and authorizes NSF to support research 
grants in these areas.
    I thank Rep. Jennifer Wexton and Rep. Jim Baird for their 
bipartisan work on this bill. Opioid addiction affects too many in our 
communities, and I applaud this effort to support more basic research 
on the science of addiction.
    Once again, thank you Chairwoman Johnson for holding today's mark-
up, and I encourage the Members of this Committee to support these 
bills. I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairwoman Johnson. Thank you, Mr. Lucas.
    H.R. 2528
    10:13 a.m.
    Chairwoman Johnson. We will now consider H.R. 2528, STEM 
Opportunities Act of 2019. The clerk will report the bill.
    The Clerk. H.R. 2528, a bill to direct the Director----
    [The bill follows:]

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    Chairman Johnson. Without objection, the bill is considered 
as read and open to amendment at any point.
    I recognize myself for a comment on the bill.
    For decades, the scientific enterprise has been the very 
envy of the world. Our success has been driven by investments 
in people and STEM students and blue-collar STEM workers, and 
in scientists and engineers. We've managed so far with a STEM 
workforce that does not represent the diversity of the Nation.
    However, we cannot afford to rest on our laurels. With 
intensifying global competition in urgent environmental, 
societal, and technological challenges before us, we must do 
more to ensure that we are bringing all of our brain power and 
talent to bear. Unfortunately, research shows that 
discrimination, harassment, bias, hostile work cultures, and 
institutional barriers are pushing scores of talented people to 
abandon their STEM studies and careers.
    I'm pleased to be joined by my good friend, Ranking Member 
Lucas, earlier this year introducing H.R. 2528, STEM 
Opportunities Act of 2019. The STEM Opportunities Act supports 
research, data collection, and evidence-based interventions to 
identify and lower barriers to recruitment, retention, and 
advancement of women and underrepresented minorities in STEM 
education and research careers.
    The bill also directs the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy--excuse me--to develop consistent guidelines for Federal 
science agencies on providing caregiving accommodations--thank 
you--reducing the impact of implicit bias and best practices 
for assessing organizational culture.
    In 2017, the National Academies published a report ``Beyond 
Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in 
Academic Science and Engineering.'' The recommendations in that 
report became the basis for the very first version of this 
bill.
    Today's bill includes many updates and improvements based 
on the recommendations we've received since that time. If we 
are to lead the world in meeting the challenges of the 21st 
century, we need all of our brightest minds at the table. This 
can only happen with meaningful and lasting cultural change. 
H.R. 2528 is an important step in that direction, and I urge my 
colleagues to support it.
    Does anyone else wish to be recognized? Ms. Bonamici.
    Ms. Bonamici. Chairwoman Johnson, thank you. I move to 
strike the last word.
    Chairwoman Johnson. The gentlelady is recognized.
    Ms. Bonamici. Thank you, Chairwoman. Our Committee's work 
today is an important step to address the underrepresentation 
of women and people of color in STEM fields, and I strongly 
support the STEM Opportunities Act. I'm grateful to Chairwoman 
Johnson and Ranking Member Lucas for their leadership on this 
bill.
    The STEM Opportunities Act would improve our understanding 
of the persistent biases and barriers that exist for increasing 
the diversity of the STEM workforce. The bill would direct 
Federal science agencies to collect comprehensive demographic 
data on the recipients of Federal research awards and STEM 
faculty at universities. It would require the Office of Science 
and Technology Policy to develop Federal guidelines to improve 
the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women and 
underrepresented populations in STEM research careers.
    But the development and diversification of the STEM 
pipeline must begin in our Nation's K-12 schools. As a Member 
of the Education and Labor Committee and the Founder and Co-
Chair of the congressional STEAM Caucus, I continue to advocate 
for the integration of art and design into STEM fields. STEAM 
education can build more inclusive classroom environments that 
support greater diversity of students interested in STEM, 
especially girls and people of color. STEAM education 
recognizes the benefits of both the arts and sciences and their 
intersections to our country's future.
    Our future will require innovation, creative ideas, and new 
ways to solve problems, all of which are bolstered by educating 
the whole brain. And research shows that students are more 
engaged in the classroom when arts, music, and other creative 
outlets are included in instruction.
    There are two nationally recognized STEAM schools in the 
district I represent in northwest Oregon, and I have seen 
firsthand the power of these programs to engage all students in 
STEM.
    Earlier this week, I introduced the bipartisan Building 
STEAM Education Act of 2019 with Representatives Langevin and 
Stefanik to expand resources and grant opportunities that 
support STEAM education programs. Notably, this bill would 
require the STEM Education Advisory Panel, which brings 
together leaders from the National Science Foundation, 
Department of Education, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration), and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration) to consider ways to integrate art and design 
into STEM education programs. It would also promote creativity 
and innovation by expanding resources through the National 
Science Foundation's Math and Science Partnership grant program 
to include the development of STEM education curricula that 
incorporate art and design.
    I hope that in addition to advancing the STEM Opportunities 
Act I can work with the Chairwoman, Ranking Member, and my 
colleagues on this Committee to make sure that all students, 
including girls and students of color, have the creative and 
critical thinking skills they will need to solve 21st-century 
problems through increased STEAM education.
    I thank the Chairwoman for the time and her leadership on 
this important issue. I urge my colleagues to support the STEM 
Opportunities Act, and I yield back the balance of my time.
    Chairwoman Johnson. Thank you very much.
    Are there any other comments?
    We now will proceed with the amendments in the order on the 
roster.
    The first amendment on the roster is an amendment in the 
nature of a substitute offered by the Chair, and the clerk will 
report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 1, amendment in the nature----
    [The amendment of Chairwoman Johnson follows:]
   
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    Chairwoman Johnson. I ask unanimous consent to dispense of 
the reading, and without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize myself to explain the amendment. Excuse me.
    The amendment includes clarifying and technical changes, 
including changes to reflect feedback from Federal and non-
Federal stakeholders. I urge support of this amendment.
    Are there any other----
    Mr. Lucas. Madam Chair?
    Chairwoman Johnson. Mr. Lucas.
    Mr. Lucas. Thank you, Chairwoman Johnson.
    This amendment strikes and replaces the text of H.R. 2528 
to 
incorporate stakeholder and agency feedback in the bill. This 
amendment was drafted in a bipartisan way and includes a number 
of improvements to the original draft. Among the changes, the 
amendment incorporates feedback from the White House Office of 
Science and Technology Policy, which is consistent with the 
Administration's 5-year strategic plan and specifically calls 
for an increase of diversity, equity, and inclusion of STEM 
programs.
    I encourage my colleagues to support this amendment. I 
yield back, Madam Chair.
    Chairwoman Johnson. Thank you very much.
    Are there any other comments or any other amendments?
    Then we will proceed with the next amendment and vote on my 
amendment after it has been amended.
    Mr. Lipinski.
    Mr. Lipinski. Madam Chair, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairwoman Johnson. The clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment number 2 offered by----
    [The amendment of Mr. Lipinski follows:]
  
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    Chairwoman Johnson. I ask unanimous consent to dispense 
with the reading, and without objection, so ordered.
    I recognize the gentleman for 5 minutes to explain his 
amendment.
    Mr. Lipinski. Thank you, Madam Chair.
    I applaud your leadership to make opportunities in STEM 
more accessible to those from underrepresented groups. I think 
the work in this bill would make great strides toward improving 
diversity in the STEM workforce, especially in academia. I want 
STEM careers to be accessible to all, and my amendment would 
explicitly include in this bill postdoctoral researchers as 
trainees who would benefit from mentoring and encouragement to 
pursue academic careers.
    Postdoctoral researchers are important to our universities 
in a greater research enterprise. These scholars hold doctoral 
degrees and engage in mentored research or scholarly training 
as a means of professional development often to learn a new 
skill or gain more experience before moving on to more 
permanent positions. In addition to broadening or deepening 
their own skill set, postdoctoral researchers often serve as 
mentors and day-to-day supervisors to graduate and 
undergraduate students. This unique place in the research 
environment makes postdoc researchers both mentees and mentors. 
The quality of mentoring that postdocs receive heavily 
influences their career choices, and it's important that 
faculty and senior researchers are prepared to mentor 
postdoctoral researchers.
    We can probably all agree that the mentoring of graduate 
students is fundamentally different from mentoring 
undergraduate students, as these populations have different 
needs. Similarly, the mentoring of postdoctoral researchers 
requires attention to different details, and these researchers 
are simultaneously colleagues and trainees.
    By explicitly mentioning postdoctoral researchers, as 
proposed in my amendment, we will ensure that the mentoring 
workshop programs, as funded by the National Science 
Foundation, may include best practices in the mentoring of 
postdoctoral researchers.
    I'm also glad to see this bill would encourage 
undergraduate and graduate students from underrepresented 
groups to consider academic careers. I believe that we should 
also encourage our postdoctoral researchers from 
underrepresented groups to pursue academic careers. My 
amendment also makes a provision explicit in the bill such that 
funds from the National Science Foundation may be used for this 
purpose.
    Madam Chair, I ask for my colleagues' support for this 
amendment, and I yield back.
    Chairwoman Johnson. Thank you.
    Any further discussion on this amendment?
    If not, the vote occurs on the amendment.
    All in favor, say aye.
    Those opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it, and the amendment is agreed to.
    Now, we will have the vote on the amendment in the nature 
of a substitute.
    Are there any other amendments?
    If not, the vote occurs on the Chair's amendment in the 
nature of a substitute.
    All in favor, say aye.
    Those opposed, no.
    The ayes have it, and the amendment is agreed to.
    A reporting quorum being present, I move that the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology report H.R. 2528, as amended, 
to the House and with the recommendation that the bill be 
approved.
    Those in favor of the motion may signify by saying aye.
    Those opposed, nay.
    The ayes have it, and the bill is favorably considered.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon 
the table, and I ask unanimous consent that staff be authorized 
to make any necessary technical and conforming changes to the 
bill. Without objection, so ordered.
    Members will have 2 subsequent calendar days in which to 
submit supplementary, minority, or additional views on this 
measure.

    H.R. 36
    10:25 a.m.
    Chairwoman Johnson. We now will move to H.R. 36, Combating 
Sexual Harassment in Science Act of 2019. The clerk will report 
the bill.
    The Clerk. H.R. 36, a bill to provide for research to 
better understand the causes and consequences of sexual 
harassment----
    [The bill follows:]

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