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116th Congress    }                                 {    Rept. 116-250
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                 {           Part 1

======================================================================



 
                 RESTORE OUR PARKS AND PUBLIC LANDS ACT

                                _______
                                

October 22, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Grijalva, from the Committee on Natural Resources, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1225]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Natural Resources, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 1225) to establish, fund, and provide for the 
use of amounts in a National Park Service and Public Lands 
Legacy Restoration Fund to address the maintenance backlog of 
the National Park Service, United States Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Indian 
Education, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that 
the bill as amended do pass.
    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Restore Our Parks and Public Lands 
Act''.

SEC. 2. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE AND PUBLIC LANDS LEGACY RESTORATION FUND.

  (a) In General.--There is established in the Treasury of the United 
States a fund, to be known as the ``National Park Service and Public 
Lands Legacy Restoration Fund'' (referred to in this section as the 
``Fund'').
  (b) Deposits.--
          (1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), for 
        each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024, there shall be 
        deposited in the Fund an amount equal to 50 percent of all 
        energy development revenues due and payable to the United 
        States from oil, gas, coal, or alternative or renewable energy 
        development on Federal land and water that would otherwise be 
        credited, covered, or deposited as miscellaneous receipts under 
        Federal law.
          (2) Maximum amount.--The amount deposited in the Fund under 
        paragraph (1) shall not exceed $1,300,000,000 for any fiscal 
        year.
          (3) Effect on other revenues.--Nothing in this section 
        affects the disposition under Federal law, including the Gulf 
        of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (43 U.S.C. 1331 note; 
        Public Law 109-432), the Mineral Leasing Act (30 U.S.C. 181 et 
        seq.), and chapter 2003 of title 54, United States Code, of 
        energy development revenues--
                  (A) to special funds, trust funds, or States; or
                  (B) that have been otherwise appropriated under 
                Federal law.
  (c) Availability of Funds.--Amounts deposited in the Fund shall be 
available to the Secretary of the Interior without further 
appropriation or fiscal year limitation.
  (d) Investment of Amounts.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary of the Interior may request 
        the Secretary of the Treasury to invest any portion of the Fund 
        that is not, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior, 
        required to meet the current needs of the Fund.
          (2) Requirement.--An investment requested under paragraph (1) 
        shall be made by the Secretary of the Treasury in a public debt 
        security--
                  (A) with a maturity suitable to the needs of the 
                Fund, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; 
                and
                  (B) bearing interest at a rate determined by the 
                Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration 
                current market yields on outstanding marketable 
                obligations of the United States of comparable 
                maturity.
          (3) Credits to fund.--The income on investments of the Fund 
        under this subsection shall be credited to, and form a part of, 
        the Fund.
  (e) Use of Funds.--
          (1) In general.--Amounts in the Fund shall be used as 
        follows:
                  (A) Eighty percent of amounts in the Fund shall be 
                allocated for priority deferred maintenance projects, 
                including other infrastructure deficiencies directly 
                related to such deferred maintenance projects, as 
                determined by the Secretary of the Interior and the 
                Director of the National Park Service, with the goal of 
                ensuring overall parity between amounts allocated to 
                transportation and non-transportation projects.
                  (B) Ten percent of amounts in the Fund shall be 
                allocated for purposes of addressing the national 
                wildlife refuge system maintenance backlog, as 
                determined by the Secretary of the Interior and the 
                Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife 
                Service.
                  (C) Five percent of amounts in the Fund shall be 
                allocated for the purposes of addressing the public 
                access and recreation backlog on public lands, as 
                determined by the Secretary of the Interior and the 
                Director of the Bureau of Land Management.
                  (D) Five percent of amounts in the Fund shall be 
                allocated for the purposes of addressing the Bureau of 
                Indian Education school construction and deferred 
                maintenance backlogs, as determined by the Secretary of 
                the Interior and the Director of the Bureau of Indian 
                Education.
          (2) Consideration of project lifespan.--The Secretary of the 
        Interior shall take into consideration the projected lifespan 
        of any project under this Act when prioritizing which such 
        projects to fund under paragraph (1).
  (f) Limit on Use of Funds.--No more than 10 percent of the amounts in 
the Fund may be used for administrative costs incurred in implementing 
this Act.
  (g) Prohibited Use of Funds.--No amounts in the Fund shall be used--
          (1) for land acquisition;
          (2) to supplant discretionary funding made available for the 
        annually recurring facility operations, maintenance, and 
        construction needs of the entities for which amounts from the 
        Fund are allocated under subsection (e); or
          (3) for performance awards for Federal employees who are 
        employed in implementing this Act.
  (h) Submission to Congress.--The Secretary of the Interior shall 
submit to the Committees on Appropriations and Natural Resources of the 
House of Representatives and to the Committees on Appropriations and 
Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, with the annual budget 
submission of the President, a list of projects for which the amounts 
in the Fund are allocated under this section, including a description 
of each such project.
  (i) Public Donations.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary of the Interior, the Director 
        of the National Park Service, the Director of the United States 
        Fish and Wildlife Service, the Director of the Bureau of Land 
        Management, and the Assistant Secretary -- Indian Affairs may 
        accept public cash or in-kind donations that advance efforts--
                  (A) to reduce the deferred maintenance backlog of the 
                National Park Service, the national wildlife refuge 
                system maintenance backlog of the United States Fish 
                and Wildlife Service, the public access and recreation 
                backlog of the Bureau of Land Management, and the 
                school construction backlog of the Bureau of Indian 
                Education, respectively; and
                  (B) to encourage relevant public-private 
                partnerships.
          (2) Credits to fund.--Any cash donations accepted under 
        paragraph (1) shall be credited to, and form a part of, the 
        Fund.
          (3) Reporting.--Each donation received under paragraph (1) 
        that is used for, or directly related to, the reduction of the 
        deferred maintenance backlog of the National Park Service, the 
        national wildlife refuge system maintenance backlog of the 
        United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the public access and 
        recreation backlog of the Bureau of Land Management, and the 
        school construction backlog of the Bureau of Indian Education, 
        shall be included with the annual budget submission of the 
        President to Congress.

                          PURPOSE OF THE BILL

    The purpose of H.R. 1225 is to establish, fund, and provide 
for the use of amounts in a National Park Service and Public 
Lands Legacy Restoration Fund to address the maintenance 
backlog of the National Park Service, United States Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of 
Indian Education, and for other purposes.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    Across our nation's public lands, federal land management 
agencies are facing a deferred maintenance backlog that 
negatively impacts agency budgets and threatens visitor safety, 
access, and enjoyment. Currently, the Department of the 
Interior (DOI) has a deferred maintenance backlog of more than 
$16 billion.\1\ The National Park Service (NPS) alone has a 
backlog of nearly $12 billion\2\--the majority of DOI's total--
but the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Bureau of 
Land Management (BLM) also have substantial maintenance 
backlogs. FWS has a deferred maintenance backlog of $1.3 
billion, and BLM has a backlog of $960 million.\3\ In addition, 
the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE), which serves 47,000 
students in 23 states, has a deferred maintenance backlog of 
$673.9 million--more than half of the agency's total budget 
authority in FY18.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\U.S. Dep't of the Interior, Fiscal Year 2020: The Interior 
Budget in Brief, at DH-7 (2019), https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/
files/uploads/2020_highlights_book.pdf.
    \2\Id. at DH-11.
    \3\Carol Hardy Vincent, Cong. Research Serv., R43997, Deferred 
Maintenance of Federal Land Management Agencies: FY2009-FY2018 
Estimates and Issues 3 (2019).
    \4\See U.S. Dep't of the Interior, Budget Justifications and 
Performance Information Fiscal Year 2020: Bureau of Indian Education 
BIE-CON-ED-19 to -20 (2019), https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/
uploads/fy2020_bie_budget_justification.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Maintaining and preserving America's public lands has long 
been an issue of interest to lawmakers, federal agencies, and 
the public. Unfortunately, years of inadequate funding, 
expansion of the parks system, and increased visitation have 
strained federal land management agencies, inhibiting their 
ability to fund necessary repairs. The cost to repair 
facilities often increases with time, exacerbating the problem. 
Furthermore, repair costs are not limited only to facilities, 
but also to roads, bridges, and other public lands 
infrastructure, which are often expensive to maintain. In an 
effort to address this issue, many agencies are actively 
working to reduce their backlogs through alternative 
strategies. NPS, for example, employs a holistic funding model 
that includes accepting philanthropic donations, utilizing 
volunteers, and partnering with friends' groups.
    Despite these efforts to address deferred maintenance 
through alternative funding sources, the backlog has increased 
over the past decade. From FY2009 through FY2018, NPS spent 
roughly $10.5 billion on maintenance projects, and the backlog 
still increased by $1.7 billion as of FY16. Accordingly, there 
is a significant need for a dedicated, substantial, and 
effective solution to the deferred maintenance backlog.
    The Restore Our Parks and Public Lands Act would reduce the 
maintenance backlog on our public lands through the 
establishment of the National Park Service and Public Lands 
Legacy Restoration Fund (Fund). The Fund will receive 50 
percent of receipts generated from energy development on 
federal land and water not allocated for other purposes.
    The Fund would also receive mandatory funding for the 
deferred maintenance needs on NPS, FWS, and BLM lands, and BIE 
schools. The Fund would draw monies from all sources of federal 
energy revenue--including onshore and offshore development and 
renewable energy sources. This funding will enable land 
management agencies to launch a targeted effort to aggressively 
reduce the deferred maintenance backlog with a dedicated 
funding stream, while ensuring that existing revenue streams 
remain intact and fulfilled.

                            COMMITTEE ACTION

    H.R. 1225 was introduced on February 14, 2019, by Ranking 
Member Rob Bishop (R-UT). The bill was referred to the 
Committee on Natural Resources and in addition to the Committee 
on Education and Labor. Within the former committee, the bill 
was referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, 
and Public Lands; the Subcommittee for Indigenous Peoples of 
the United States; and the Subcommittee on Water, Oceans, and 
Wildlife. On June 26, 2019, the Natural Resources Committee met 
to consider the bill. The Subcommittees were discharged by 
unanimous consent. Chair Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) offered an 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. Representative Bruce 
Westerman (R-AR) offered and withdrew an amendment designated 
Westerman #1 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. 
Representative Garret Graves (R-LA) offered and withdrew an 
amendment designated Graves #1 to the amendment in the nature 
of a substitute. Representative Graves offered an amendment 
designated Graves #2 to the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute. The amendment was not agreed to by a roll call vote 
of 7 yeas and 31 nays, as follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #3 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 4 yeas and 
34 nays, as follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #4 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 6 yeas and 
32 nays, as follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #5 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #6 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by a roll call vote of 6 yeas and 32 nays, as 
follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #7 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #8 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by voice vote. Representative Graves offered an 
amendment designated Graves #9 to the amendment in the nature 
of a substitute. The amendment was not agreed to by a roll call 
vote of 6 yeas and 32 nays, as follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #10 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #11 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by a roll call vote of 5 yeas and 33 nays, as 
follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #12 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #13 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by a roll call vote of 9 yeas and 29 nays, as 
follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #14 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #15 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by a roll call vote of 8 yeas and 30 nays, as 
follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #16 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 14 yeas and 
24 nays, as follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #17 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #18 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by a roll call vote of 4 yeas and 34 nays, as 
follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #19 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by a roll call vote of 7 yeas and 
31 nays, as follows:

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    Representative Graves offered an amendment designated 
Graves #20 to the amendment in the nature of a substitute. The 
amendment was not agreed to by voice vote. Representative 
Graves offered an amendment designated Graves #21 to the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The amendment was not 
agreed to by a roll call vote of 9 yeas and 29 nays, as 
follows:

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    The amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by 
Chair Grijalva was adopted by voice vote. The bill, as amended, 
was ordered favorably reported to the House of Representatives 
by a roll call vote of 36 yeas and 2 nays, as follows:

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                                HEARINGS

    For the purposes of section 103(i) of H. Res. 6 of the 
116th Congress--(1) the following hearing was used to develop 
or consider H.R. 1225: full Committee markup held on June 26, 
2019.

            COMMITTEE OVERSIGHT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Regarding clause 2(b)(1) of rule X and clause 3(c)(1) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
Committee on Natural Resources' oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the body of this report.

      COMPLIANCE WITH HOUSE RULE XIII AND CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET ACT

    1. Cost of Legislation and the Congressional Budget Act. 
With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) and (3) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and 
sections 308(a) and 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974, the Committee has received the following estimate for the 
bill from the Director of the Congressional Budget Office:
                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                Washington, DC, September 26, 2019.
Hon. Raul M. Grijalva,
Chairman, Committee on Natural Resources,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1225, the Restore 
Our Parks and Public Lands Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is David Hughes.
            Sincerely,
                                         Phillip L. Swagel,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

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    Bill summary: H.R. 1225 would establish the National Park 
Service and Public Lands Legacy Restoration Fund within the 
Department of the Treasury. For each fiscal year over the 2020-
2024 period, up to 50 percent of all receipts collected from 
onshore and offshore energy development on public lands and 
waters would be deposited into the fund, not to exceed $1.3 
billion in any year. Deposited funds, including cash donations 
to the fund, would be available to the Department of the 
Interior without further appropriation.
    Under H.R. 1225, the fund's unspent amounts could be 
invested in Treasury securities; the income would be available 
for expenditure without further appropriation. DOI also would 
be required to include in its annual budget request a list and 
description of the projects it plans to pursue.
    Estimated Federal cost: The estimated budgetary effect of 
H.R. 1225 is shown in Table 1. The costs of the legislation 
fall within budget function 300 (natural resources and the 
environment).

                                                   TABLE 1.--ESTIMATED DIRECT SPENDING UNDER H.R. 1225
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 By fiscal year, millions of dollars--
                                            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              2019   2020    2021    2022    2023    2024    2025    2026    2027    2028    2029   2019-2024  2019-2029
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated Budget Authority.................      0   1,300   1,324   1,347   1,365   1,377      90      66      46      27      13     6,713      6,955
Estimated Outlays..........................      0       0      78     218     447     747   1,034   1,179   1,108     924     634     1,490      6,369
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
legislation will be enacted near the end of 2019. CBO estimates 
that enacting H.R. 1225 would cost $6.4 billion over the 2019-
2029 period.

Revenues from Energy Leases

    In its May 2019 baseline, CBO projects that gross 
offsetting receipts from onshore and offshore leases will total 
about $9 billion annually and $46 billion over the 2020-2024 
period. CBO estimates that approximately 51 percent of the 
gross receipts collected in 2020 will be distributed to states 
or allocated for other purposes under current law. Although 
that percentage could change, CBO anticipates that there will 
be more than the bill's limit of $1.3 billion available, so 
that the maximum amount would be deposited each year.

Interest on Treasury Investments

    H.R. 1225 would authorize DOI to invest unspent balances in 
Treasury securities; any interest earned would be available for 
expenditure from the fund. Based on the interest rate 
projections underlying CBO's May 2019 baseline, CBO estimates 
that enacting the bill would result in an additional $455 
million being credited to the fund over the 2019-2029 period.

Pace of Spending

    CBO expects that under H.R. 1225, amounts deposited into 
the fund at the end of each fiscal year effectively would not 
be available for spending until the following year. Thus, CBO 
does not estimate any spending under the bill in 2020.
    H.R. 1225 would require funds to be allocated as follows:
           Eighty percent to the National Park Service 
        (NPS) for deferred maintenance, split equally between 
        transportation and nontransportation projects,
           Ten percent to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
        Service (USFWS) to address the maintenance backlog in 
        the national wildlife refuge system,
           Five percent to the Bureau of Land 
        Management to address a backlog in public access and 
        recreation projects, and
           Five percent to the Bureau of Indian 
        Education for school construction and deferred 
        maintenance.
    Administrative costs would be capped at 10 percent of total 
annual spending; other spending limitations are included in the 
bill.
    Using information from the NPS and USFWS about how the 
funds might be used, CBO anticipates that those agencies would 
primarily focus in the first year on hiring staff for project 
management, planning, and design. Subsequent funding, CBO 
anticipates, would go to small- to large-scale projects for 
transportation, water and utilities, and restoration and 
reconstruction. The cost of individual projects would depend on 
their type and scale.\1\ Based on historical spending patterns, 
CBO estimates that spending from the fund would be slow in the 
early years and would peak over the 2024-2028 period as larger 
projects are completed. (According to the NPS, most projects 
last between 3\1/2\ and 5 years.) Although most currently 
identified projects would be completed by 2029, CBO anticipates 
that DOI would continue to spend amounts in the fund after 
that.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\One larger deferred-maintenance project is construction and 
repairs along the George Washington Memorial Parkway near Washington, 
D.C., estimated in 2015 at about $475 million. See Government 
Accountability Office, National Park Service: Process Exists for 
Prioritizing Asset Maintenance Decisions, but Evaluation Could Improve 
Efforts, GAO-17-136 (December 2016), www.gao.gov/products/GAO-17-136. 
Smaller projects include rehabilitating a flood protection levee at the 
Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge ($6 million) and 
replacing a deficient visitor center and water treatment center at 
Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve ($3 million). More 
information about such projects can be found at the Department of the 
Interior, Budget Justifications and Performance Information: Fiscal 
Year 2020, Department of the Interior, www.doi.gov/budget/
appropriations/2020.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Donations

    H.R. 1225 would authorize DOI to accept cash donations to 
the fund; such collections are treated as reductions in direct 
spending and also would be available for spending without 
further appropriation. CBO expects that any donations would be 
offset by expenditures, and the net effect on direct spending 
would be negligible over the 2019-2029 period.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go 
Act of 2010 establishes budget-reporting and enforcement 
procedures for legislation affecting direct spending or 
revenues. The net changes in outlays that are subject to those 
pay-as-you-go procedures are shown in Table 1.
    Increase in long-term deficits: CBO estimates that enacting 
H.R. 1225 would not increase on-budget deficits by more than $5 
billion in any of the four consecutive 10-year periods 
beginning in 2030.
    Mandates: None.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: David Hughes 
(Department of the Interior); Kathleen Gramp and Janani 
Shankaran (energy receipts);
    Mandates: Lilia Ledezma.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim P. Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.
    2. General Performance Goals and Objectives. As required by 
clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII, the general performance goals and 
objectives of this bill is to establish, fund, and provide for 
the use of amounts in a National Park Service and Public Lands 
Legacy Restoration Fund to address the maintenance backlog of 
the National Park Service, United States Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Indian 
Education.

                           EARMARK STATEMENT

    This bill does not contain any Congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined 
under clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of rule XXI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives.

                 UNFUNDED MANDATES REFORM ACT STATEMENT

    This bill contains no unfunded mandates.

                           EXISTING PROGRAMS

    This bill does not establish or reauthorize a program of 
the federal government known to be duplicative of another 
program. Such program was not included in any report from the 
Government Accountability Office to Congress pursuant to 
section 21 of Public Law 111-139 or identified in the most 
recent Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance published 
pursuant to 31 U.S.C. Sec. 6104 as relating to other programs.

                  APPLICABILITY TO LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not relate to 
the terms and conditions of employment or access to public 
services or accommodations within the meaning of section 
102(b)(3) of the Congressional Accountability Act.

               PREEMPTION OF STATE, LOCAL, OR TRIBAL LAW

    Any preemptive effect of this bill over state, local, or 
tribal law is intended to be consistent with the bill's 
purposes and text and the Supremacy Clause of Article VI of the 
U.S. Constitution.

                        CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW

    If enacted, this bill would make no changes to existing 
law.


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        SUPPLEMENTAL, MINORITY, ADDITIONAL, OR DISSENTING VIEWS

    None.

                                  [all]