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116th Congress    }                                    {        Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                    {       116-308

======================================================================



 
   WEATHERIZING INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE NORTH AND TERRORISM EMERGENCY 
                         READINESS ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

 November 22, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Thompson of Mississippi, from the Committee on Homeland Security, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 3669]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Homeland Security, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 3669) to require the Secretary of Homeland 
Security to conduct a collective response to a terrorism 
exercise that includes the management of cascading effects on 
critical infrastructure during times of extreme cold weather, 
and for other purposes, having considered the same, report 
favorably thereon without amendment and recommend that the bill 
do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Purpose and Summary..............................................     2
Background and Need for Legislation..............................     2
Hearings.........................................................     3
Committee Consideration..........................................     3
Committee Votes..................................................     3
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................     3
C.B.O. Estimate, New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and 
  Tax Expenditures...............................................     4
Federal Mandates Statement.......................................     5
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............     5
Duplicative Federal Programs.....................................     5
Congressional Earmarks, Limited Tax Benefits, and Limited Tariff 
  Benefits.......................................................
Advisory Committee Statement.....................................
Applicability to Legislative Branch..............................
Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation...................     5
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............

                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    H.R. 3669, the ``Weatherizing Infrastructure in the North 
and Terrorism Emergency Readiness Act of 2019,'' or WINTER Act, 
would direct the Department of Homeland Security to develop and 
conduct a terrorism training exercise that addresses the 
effects of a successful terrorist attack on critical 
infrastructure during an extreme cold weather event. The 
exercise will involve a terrorist attack, an extreme cold 
weather event, the effects on critical infrastructure, and how 
the effects of a successful attack against critical 
infrastructure could be mitigated by emergency managers, state 
officials, and community stakeholders. The Department is then 
required to submit a report to the appropriate Congressional 
committees on the findings of such exercise, lessons learned, 
and any proposed legislative changes that may be needed.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    In recent years, the U.S. has faced an increase in severe 
winter weather.\1\ As climate change continues to change 
weather patterns, extreme winter storms will become more 
common.\2\ Climate change's effects to warm the planet also 
produces more snowfall during winter storms--a warmer planet 
evaporates more water into the atmosphere, and that moisture 
means heavier snowfall.\3\ Although average temperatures 
continue to increase across the globe,\4\ scientists are 
beginning to study how a warmer Arctic may contribute to colder 
winters in the eastern United States.\5\ Some studies have 
found that abnormally warm Arctic temperatures make severe 
winters in the Northeast two to four times more likely.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Milman, Olivia. ``Extreme winter weather becoming more common as 
Arctic warms, study finds.'' The Guardian. March 13, 2018. Accessed 
August 16, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/mar/13/
extreme-winter-weather-becoming-more-common-as-arctic-warms-study-
finds.
    \2\Siegel, Ethan. ``This is why global warming is responsible for 
freezing temperatures across the U.S.'' Forbes. January 30, 2019. 
Accessed August 16, 2019. https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/
2019/01/30/this-is-why-global-warming-is-responsible-for-freezing-
temperatures-across-the-usa/#bafc273d8cf8.
    \3\``4 reasons climate change is here, even though it's cold.'' 
Environmental Defense Fund. Accessed August 16, 2019. https://
www.edf.org/card/4-reasons-climate-change-still-happening-despite-cold-
weather.
    \4\Ibid.
    \5\Ibid.
    \6\Gibbens, Sarah. ``Why a warming Arctic may be causing colder 
U.S. winters.'' National Geographic. March 13, 2018. Accessed August 
16, 2019. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2017/07/global-
warming-arctic-colder-winters-climate-change-spd/.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Winter storms and blizzards can bring extreme cold, 
freezing rain, snow, ice, and high winds.\7\ Access to heated 
areas are crucial for the health and safety of individuals in 
extreme cold events. In February 2019, 21 people died in 
weather-related incidents caused by a polar vortex in the 
Midwest.\8\ Across the U.S., 6,660 people died from hypothermia 
or exposure to cold between 2006 and 2010, equating to 1,320 
deaths a year.\9\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\Department of Homeland Security. Snowstorms & Extreme Cold. 
Accessed August 16, 2019. https://www.ready.gov/winter-weather.
    \8\Gajanan, Mahita. ``21 people died in weather-related incidents 
during the polar vortex.'' Time. February 1, 2019. Accessed August 16, 
2019. https://time.com/5518469/21-people-died-cold-polar-vortex/.
    \9\Berko et al. ``Deaths Attributed to Heat, Cold, and Other 
Weather Events in the United States, 2006-2010.'' National Health 
Statistics Reports. July 30, 2014. Accessed August 16, 2019. http://
www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr076.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    On January 29, 2019 in Michigan, a fire at an energy supply 
facility during extreme winter weather had the potential for 
catastrophe.\10\ The fire reduced the capacity for the 
facility, threatening resident's ability to heat their 
homes.\11\ In that instance, the state government sent out a 
notice through the Integrated Public Alert Warning System 
(IPAWS) to residents telling them to turn down their 
thermostats to 65 degrees and use less energy to heat their 
homes, ensuring there was never a shortage.\12\ However, in the 
event of a terrorist attack, such communication may be lost in 
the chaos, or still not enough to stop some customers from 
losing the ability to heat their homes. A terrorist attack 
disrupting critical infrastructure during a winter storm could 
endanger lives, and first responders and others must be 
prepared to mitigate the effects of a loss of power to reduce 
the threat of loss of life.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\Wisely, John and Christina Hall. ``How fire and ice almost took 
down Michigan's Energy Supply.'' Detroit Free Press. February 1, 2019. 
Accessed August 16, 2019. https://www.freep.com/story/news/local/
michigan/2019/02/01/michigan-consumers-energy/2734657002/.
    \11\Ibid.
    \12\Ibid.
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                                HEARINGS

    For the purposes of section 103(i) of H. Res. 6 of the 
116th Congress, the following hearing was used to develop H.R. 
3669:
           On April 9, 2019, the Committee held a 
        hearing entitled, ``Assessing the Homeland Security 
        Impacts of a Changing Climate.'' The Committee received 
        testimony from Astrid Caldas, Ph.D., Senior Climate 
        Change Scientist, Union of Concerned Scientists; 
        Timothy Manning, Senior Advisor to the Pacific Disaster 
        Center and the President and CEO of Berglind-Manning 
        Inc.; Kristie Trousdale, MPH, Deputy Director, 
        Children's Environmental Health Network; and Dan 
        Eggleston, EFO, CEO, CMO, President and Chairman of the 
        Board, International Association of Fire Chiefs.

                        COMMITTEE CONSIDERATION

    The Committee met on July 17, 2019, with a quorum being 
present, to consider H.R. 3669 and ordered the measure to be 
reported to the House with a favorable recommendation, without 
amendment, by unanimous consent.

                            COMMITTEE VOTES

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee to list the recorded 
votes on the motion to report legislation and amendments 
thereto.
    No recorded votes were requested during consideration of 
H.R. 3669.

                      COMMITTEE OVERSIGHT FINDINGS

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the 
descriptive portions of this report.

CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE ESTIMATE NEW BUDGET AUTHORITY, ENTITLEMENT 
                    AUTHORITY, AND TAX EXPENDITURES

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee adopts as its 
own the estimate of the estimate of new budget authority, 
entitlement authority, or tax expenditures or revenues 
contained in the cost estimate prepared by the Director of the 
Congressional Budget Office.

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                    Washington, DC, August 1, 2019.
Hon. Bennie G. Thompson,
Chairman, Committee on Homeland Security,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 3669, the 
Weatherizing Infrastructure in the North and Terrorism 
Emergency Readiness Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Aldo 
Prosperi.
            Sincerely,
                                         Phillip L. Swagel,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

              [GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]
    

    H.R. 3669 would require the Department of Homeland Security 
(DHS) to conduct an exercise to test whether DHS and local 
officials are prepared to respond to the effects of a terrorist 
attack that occurs during a winter storm. The bill also would 
require DHS to submit a report to the Congress on the results 
of the exercise.
    To perform the exercise required by H.R. 3669, DHS would 
use computer simulation models and facilitate the remote 
participation of homeland security personnel and local 
officials. The exercise would simulate the cascading 
consequences of disruptions to critical infrastructure such as 
power generation and transmission facilities. Using information 
about the costs of similar exercises, CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 3669 would cost $1 million over the 2019-2024 
period; such spending would be subject to availability of 
appropriated funds.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Aldo Prosperi. 
The estimate was reviewed by Leo Lex, Deputy Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

                       FEDERAL MANDATES STATEMENT

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of Federal 
mandates prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 423 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform 
Act.

                      DUPLICATIVE FEDERAL PROGRAMS

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of rule XIII, the Committee finds 
that H.R. 3669 does not contain any provision that establishes 
or reauthorizes a program known to be duplicative of another 
Federal program.

                    PERFORMANCE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the objective of H.R. 3669 is to 
require the Department of Homeland Security to conduct a 
training exercise that addresses the effects of a successful 
terrorist attack on critical infrastructure during an extreme 
cold weather event and how to mitigate the consequences.

                          ADVISORY ON EARMARKS

    In compliance with rule XXI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, this bill, as reported, contains no 
congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff 
benefits as defined in clause 9(d), 9(e), or 9(f) of the rule 
XXI.

             SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS OF THE LEGISLATION

Section 1. Short title

    This section provides that this bill may be cited as the 
``Weatherizing Infrastructure in the North and Terrorism 
Emergency Readiness Act of 2019.''

Sec 2. Exercise on terrorist attack during extreme cold

    This section directs the Department of Homeland Security 
(DHS) to develop and conduct a terrorism training exercise that 
addresses the effects of a successful terrorist attack on 
critical infrastructure during an extreme cold weather event. 
The exercise will involve a terrorist attack, an extreme cold 
weather event, the effects on critical infrastructure, and how 
the effects of a successful attack against critical 
infrastructure could be mitigated by emergency managers, state 
officials, and community stakeholders. DHS is then required to 
submit a report to the appropriate Congressional committees on 
the findings of such exercise, lessons learned, and any 
proposed legislative changes that may be needed.

                                  [all]