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116th Congress    }                                     {       Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                     {       116-86

======================================================================



 
 COASTAL AND OCEAN ACIDIFICATION STRESSORS AND THREATS RESEARCH ACT OF 
                                  2019

                                _______
                                

  May 28, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Ms. Eddie Bernice Johnson of Texas, from the Committee on Science, 
             Space, and Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1237]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. Science, Space, and Technology) to 
amend the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring 
Act of 2009 to establish an Ocean Acidification Advisory Board, 
to expand and improve the research on Ocean Acidification and 
Coastal Acidification, to establish and maintain a data archive 
system for Ocean Acidification data and Coastal Acidification 
data, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that 
the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I.  Amendment......................................................2
  II.  Purpose of the Bill............................................8
 III.  Background and Need for the Legislation........................9
  IV.  Committee Hearings............................................10
   V.  Committee Consideration and Votes.............................10
  VI.  Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill.......................11
 VII.  Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section)............11
VIII.  Committee Views...............................................12
  IX.  Cost Estimate.................................................14
   X.  Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate.....................14
  XI.  Compliance with Public Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)..........15
 XII.  Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations..............15
XIII.  Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives.........15
 XIV.  Federal Advisory Committee Statement..........................15
  XV.  Duplication of Federal Programs...............................16
 XVI.  Earmark Identification........................................16
XVII.  Applicability to the Legislative Branch.......................16
XVIII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law........16

 XIX.  Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported.........16
  XX.  Exchange of Committee Correspondence..........................29
 XXI.  Proceedings of Subcommittee Markup............................32
XXII.  Proceedings of Full Committee Markup..........................76

                              I. Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Coastal and Ocean Acidification 
Stressors and Threats Research Act of 2019'' or the ``COAST Research 
Act of 2019''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

  (a) In General.--Section 12402(a) of the Federal Ocean Acidification 
Research and Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3701(a)) is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (1)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by 
                striking ``development and coordination'' and inserting 
                ``coordination and implementation'';
                  (B) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``acidification 
                on marine organisms'' and inserting ``acidification and 
                coastal acidification on marine organisms''; and
                  (C) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``establish'' 
                and all that follows through the semicolon and 
                inserting ``maintain and advise an interagency 
                research, monitoring, and public outreach program on 
                ocean acidification and coastal acidification;'';
          (2) in paragraph (2), by striking ``establishment'' and 
        inserting ``maintenance'';
          (3) in paragraph (3), by inserting ``and coastal 
        acidification'' after ``ocean acidification''; and
          (4) in paragraph (4), by inserting ``and coastal 
        acidification that take into account other environmental and 
        anthropogenic stressors'' after ``ocean acidification''.
  (b) Technical and Conforming Amendment.--Section 12402 of the Federal 
Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 
3701(a)) is amended by striking ``(a) purposes.--''.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

  Section 12403 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3702) is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (1), by striking ``of the Earth's oceans'' 
        and all that follows before the period at the end and inserting 
        ``and changes in the water chemistry of the Earth's oceans, 
        coastal estuaries, and waterways caused by carbon dioxide from 
        the atmosphere and the breakdown of organic matter'';
          (2) in paragraph (3), by striking ``Joint Subcommittee on 
        Ocean Science and Technology of the National Science and 
        Technology Council'' and inserting ``National Science and 
        Technology Council Subcommittee on Ocean Science and 
        Technology'';
          (3) by redesignating paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) as 
        paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), respectively;
          (4) by inserting before paragraph (2), as so redesignated, 
        the following new paragraph:
          ``(1) Coastal acidification.--The term `coastal 
        acidification' means the combined decrease in pH and changes in 
        the water chemistry of coastal oceans, estuaries, and other 
        bodies of water from chemical inputs (including carbon dioxide 
        from the atmosphere), freshwater inputs, and excess nutrient 
        run-off from land and coastal atmospheric pollution that result 
        in processes that release carbon dioxide, acidic nitrogen, and 
        sulfur compounds as byproducts which end up in coastal 
        waters.''; and
          (5) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(5) State.--The term `State' means each State of the United 
        States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto 
        Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern 
        Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and 
        any other territory or possession of the United States.''.

SEC. 4. INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP.

  Section 12404 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3703) is amended--
          (1) in the heading, by striking ``subcommittee'' and 
        inserting ``working group'';
          (2) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) in paragraph (1), by striking ``Joint 
                Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology of the 
                National Science and Technology Council shall 
                coordinate Federal activities on ocean acidification 
                and'' and insert ``Subcommittee shall'';
                  (B) in paragraph (2), by striking ``Wildlife 
                Service,'' and inserting ``Wildlife Service, the Bureau 
                of Ocean Energy Management, the Environmental 
                Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, the 
                Department of State, the Department of Energy, the 
                Department of the Navy, the National Park Service, the 
                Bureau of Indian Affairs, the National Institute of 
                Standards and Technology, the Smithsonian 
                Institution,''; and
                  (C) in paragraph (3), in the heading, by striking 
                ``Chairman'' and inserting ``Chair'';
          (3) in subsection (b)--
                  (A) in paragraph (1), by inserting ``, including the 
                efforts of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                Administration to facilitate such implementation'' 
                after ``of the plan'';
                  (B) in paragraph (2)--
                          (i) in subparagraph (A), by inserting ``and 
                        coastal acidification'' after ``ocean 
                        acidification''; and
                          (ii) in subparagraph (B), by inserting ``and 
                        coastal acidification'' after ``ocean 
                        acidification'';
                  (C) in paragraph (4), by striking ``; and'' and 
                inserting a semicolon;
                  (D) in paragraph (5)--
                          (i) by striking ``developed'' and inserting 
                        ``and coastal acidification developed''; and
                          (ii) by striking the period at the end and 
                        inserting ``and coastal acidification; and''; 
                        and
                  (E) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(6) ensure that each of the Federal agencies represented on 
        the interagency working group--
                  ``(A) participates in the Ocean Acidification 
                Information Exchange established under paragraph (5); 
                and
                  ``(B) delivers data and information to support the 
                data archive system established under section 
                12406(d).'';
          (4) in subsection (c), in paragraph (2)--
                  (A) by inserting ``, and to the Office of Management 
                and Budget,'' after ``House of Representatives''; and
                  (B) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``the 
                interagency research'' and inserting ``interagency 
                strategic research'';
          (5) by redesignating subsection (c) as subsection (d); and
          (6) by inserting after subsection (b) the following:
  ``(c) Advisory Board.--
          ``(1) Establishment.--The Chair of the Subcommittee shall 
        establish an Ocean Acidification Advisory Board.
          ``(2) Duties.--The Advisory Board shall--
                  ``(A) not later than 180 days before the Subcommittee 
                submits the most recent report under subsection 
                (d)(2)--
                          ``(i) review such report;
                          ``(ii) submit an analysis of such report to 
                        the Subcommittee for consideration in the final 
                        report submitted under subsection (d)(2); and
                          ``(iii) concurrently with the Subcommittee's 
                        final submission of the report under subsection 
                        (d)(2), the Advisory Board shall submit a copy 
                        of the analysis provided to the Subcommittee to 
                        the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                        Transportation of the Senate, the Committee on 
                        Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
                        Representatives, and the Committee on Natural 
                        Resources of the House of Representatives;
                  ``(B) not later than 180 days before the Subcommittee 
                submits the most recent strategic research plan under 
                subsection (d)(3) to Congress--
                          ``(i) review such plan;
                          ``(ii) submit an analysis of such plan and 
                        the implementation thereof to the Subcommittee 
                        for consideration in the final strategic 
                        research plan submitted under subsection 
                        (d)(3); and
                          ``(iii) concurrently with the Subcommittee's 
                        final submission of the strategic research plan 
                        under subsection (d)(3), the Advisory Board 
                        shall submit a copy of the analysis provided to 
                        the Subcommittee to the Committee on Commerce, 
                        Science, and Transportation of the Senate, the 
                        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
                        the House of Representatives, and the Committee 
                        on Natural Resources of the House of 
                        Representatives;
                  ``(C) provide ongoing advice to the Subcommittee and 
                the interagency working group on matters related to 
                Federal activities on ocean acidification and coastal 
                acidification;
                  ``(D) advise the Subcommittee and the interagency 
                working group on--
                          ``(i) efforts to coordinate research and 
                        monitoring activities related to ocean 
                        acidification and coastal acidification; and
                          ``(ii) the best practices for the standards 
                        developed for data archiving under section 
                        12406(e);
                  ``(E) publish in the Federal Register a charter;
                  ``(F) provide the Library of Congress with--
                          ``(i) the charter described in subparagraph 
                        (E);
                          ``(ii) any schedules and minutes for meetings 
                        of the Advisory Board;
                          ``(iii) any documents that are approved by 
                        the Advisory Board; and
                          ``(iv) any reports and analysis prepared by 
                        the Advisory Board; and
                  ``(G) establish a publicly accessible web page on the 
                website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                Administration, that contains the information described 
                in clauses (i) through (iv) of subparagraph (F).
          ``(3) Membership.--The Advisory Board shall consist of 24 
        members as follows:
                  ``(A) 2 representatives of the shellfish and crab 
                industry.
                  ``(B) 1 representative of the finfish industry.
                  ``(C) 1 representative of seafood processors.
                  ``(D) 3 representatives from academia, including both 
                natural and social sciences.
                  ``(E) 1 representative of recreational fishing.
                  ``(F) 1 representative of relevant nongovernmental 
                organizations.
                  ``(G) 6 representatives from relevant State, local, 
                and Tribal governments.
                  ``(H) 1 representative from the Alaska Ocean 
                Acidification Network.
                  ``(I) 1 representative from the California Current 
                Acidification Network.
                  ``(J) 1 representative from the Northeast Coastal 
                Acidification Network.
                  ``(K) 1 representative from the Southeast Coastal 
                Acidification Network.
                  ``(L) 1 representative from the Gulf of Mexico 
                Coastal Acidification Network.
                  ``(M) 1 representative from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal 
                Acidification Network.
                  ``(N) 1 representative from the Pacific Islands Ocean 
                Observing System or similar entity representing the 
                island territories and possessions of the United States 
                in the Pacific Ocean, and the State of Hawaii.
                  ``(O) 1 representative from the Caribbean Regional 
                Association for Coastal Ocean Observing or a similar 
                entity representing Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin 
                Islands.
                  ``(P) 1 representative from the National Oceanic and 
                Atmospheric Administration shall serve as an ex-officio 
                member of the Advisory Board without a vote.
          ``(4) Appointment of members.--The Chair of the Subcommittee 
        shall--
                  ``(A) appoint members to the Advisory Board (taking 
                into account the geographical interests of each 
                individual to be appointed as a member of the Advisory 
                Board to ensure that an appropriate balance of 
                geographical interests are represented by the members 
                of the Advisory Board) who--
                          ``(i) represent the interest group for which 
                        each seat is designated;
                          ``(ii) demonstrate expertise on ocean 
                        acidification or coastal acidification and its 
                        scientific, economic, industry, cultural, and 
                        community impacts; and
                          ``(iii) have a record of distinguished 
                        service with respect to ocean acidification or 
                        coastal acidification, and such impacts;
                  ``(B) give consideration to nominations and 
                recommendations from the members of the interagency 
                working group and the public for such appointments; and
                  ``(C) ensure that an appropriate balance of 
                scientific, industry, and geographical interests are 
                represented by the members of the Advisory Board.
          ``(5) Term of membership.--Each member of the Advisory 
        Board--
                  ``(A) shall be appointed for a 5-year term; and
                  ``(B) may be appointed to more than one term.
          ``(6) Chair.--The Chair of the Subcommittee shall appoint one 
        member of the Advisory Board to serve as the Chair of the 
        Advisory Board.
          ``(7) Meetings.--Not less than once each calendar year, the 
        Advisory Board shall meet at such times and places as may be 
        designated by the Chair of the Advisory Board, in consultation 
        with the Chair of the Subcommittee and the Chair of the 
        interagency working group.
          ``(8) Briefing.--The Chair of the Advisory Board shall brief 
        the Subcommittee and the interagency working group on the 
        progress of the Advisory Board as necessary.
          ``(9) Federal advisory committee act.--Section 14 of the 
        Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to the Advisory 
        Board.''.

SEC. 5. STRATEGIC RESEARCH PLAN.

  Section 12405 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3704) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) by striking ``acidification'' each place it 
                appears and inserting ``acidification and coastal 
                acidification'';
                  (B) in the first sentence--
                          (i) by inserting ``, and not later than every 
                        5 years thereafter'' after ``the date of 
                        enactment of this Act'';
                          (ii) by inserting ``address the socioeconomic 
                        impacts of ocean acidification and coastal 
                        acidification and to'' after ``mitigation 
                        strategies to''; and
                          (iii) by striking ``marine ecosystems'' each 
                        place it appears and inserting ``ecosystems''; 
                        and
                  (C) in the second sentence, by inserting ``and 
                recommendations made by the Advisory Board in the 
                review of the plan required under section 
                12404(c)(2)(B)(i)'' after ``subsection (d)'';
          (2) in subsection (b)--
                  (A) in paragraph (1), by inserting ``and social 
                sciences'' after ``among the ocean sciences'';
                  (B) in paragraph (2)--
                          (i) in subparagraph (A), by striking 
                        ``impacts'' and inserting ``impacts, including 
                        trends of changes in ocean chemistry,'';
                          (ii) in subparagraph (B)--
                                  (I) by striking ``improve the ability 
                                to assess the'' and inserting ``assess 
                                the short-term and long-term''; and
                                  (II) by striking ``; and'' at the end 
                                and inserting a semicolon;
                          (iii) by amending subparagraph (C) to read as 
                        follows:
                  ``(C) provide information for the--
                          ``(i) development of adaptation and 
                        mitigation strategies to address the 
                        socioeconomic impacts of ocean acidification 
                        and coastal acidification;
                          ``(ii) conservation of marine organisms and 
                        ecosystems; and
                          ``(iii) assessment of the effectiveness of 
                        such adaptation and mitigation strategies; 
                        and''; and
                          (iv) by adding at the end the following new 
                        subparagraph:
                  ``(D) improve research on--
                          ``(i) ocean acidification and coastal 
                        acidification;
                          ``(ii) the interactions between and effects 
                        of multiple combined stressors including 
                        changes in water chemistry, changes in sediment 
                        delivery, hypoxia, and harmful algal blooms, on 
                        ocean acidification and coastal acidification; 
                        and
                          ``(iii) the effect of environmental stressors 
                        on marine resources and ecosystems;'';
                  (C) in paragraph (3)--
                          (i) in subparagraph (F), by striking 
                        ``database development'' and inserting ``data 
                        management'';
                          (ii) in subparagraph (H) by striking ``and'' 
                        at the end; and
                          (iii) by adding at the end the following new 
                        subparagraphs:
                  ``(J) assessment of adaptation and mitigation 
                strategies; and
                  ``(K) education and outreach activities;'';
                  (D) in paragraph (4), by striking ``set forth'' and 
                inserting ``ensure an appropriate balance of 
                contribution in establishing'';
                  (E) in paragraph (5), by striking ``reports'' and 
                inserting ``the best available peer-reviewed scientific 
                reports'';
                  (F) in paragraph (6)--
                          (i) by inserting ``and coastal 
                        acidification'' after ``ocean acidification''; 
                        and
                          (ii) by striking ``of the United States'' and 
                        inserting ``within the United States'';
                  (G) in paragraph (7), by striking ``outline budget 
                requirements'' and inserting ``estimate costs 
                associated for full implementation of each element of 
                the plan by fiscal year'';
                  (H) in paragraph (8)--
                          (i) by inserting ``and coastal 
                        acidification'' after ``ocean acidification'' 
                        each place it appears;
                          (ii) by striking ``its'' and inserting 
                        ``their''; and
                          (iii) by striking ``; and'' at the end and 
                        inserting a semicolon;
                  (I) in paragraph (9), by striking the period at the 
                end and inserting ``; and''; and
                  (J) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(10) describe monitoring needs necessary to support 
        potentially affected industry members, coastal stakeholders, 
        fishery management councils and commissions, non-Federal 
        resource managers, and scientific experts on decision-making 
        and adaptation related to ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification.'';
          (3) in subsection (c)--
                  (A) in paragraph (1)(C), by striking ``surface'';
                  (B) in paragraph (2), by inserting ``and coastal 
                acidification'' after ``ocean acidification'' each 
                place it appears;
                  (C) in paragraph (3)--
                          (i) by striking ``input, and'' and inserting 
                        ``inputs,'';
                          (ii) by inserting ``, marine food webs,'' 
                        after ``marine ecosystems''; and
                          (iii) by inserting ``, and modeling that 
                        supports fisheries management'' after ``marine 
                        organisms'';
                  (D) in paragraph (5), by inserting ``and coastal 
                acidification'' after ``ocean acidification''; and
                  (E) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(6) Research to understand related and cumulative stressors 
        and other biogeochemical processes occurring in conjunction 
        with ocean acidification and coastal acidification.''; and
          (4) by striking subsection (e) and inserting the following:
  ``(e) Advisory Board Evaluation.--Not later than 180 days before a 
plan is submitted to Congress, the Subcommittee shall provide the 
Advisory Board established under section 12404(c) a copy of the plan 
for purposes of review under paragraph (2)(B)(i) of such section.
  ``(f) Publication and Public Comment.--Not later than 90 days before 
the strategic research plan, or any revision thereof, is submitted to 
Congress, the Subcommittee shall publish the plan in the Federal 
Register and provide an opportunity for submission of public comments 
for a period of not less than 60 days.''.

SEC. 6. NOAA OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ACTIVITIES.

  Section 12406 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3705) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by 
                inserting ``coordination,'' after ``research, 
                monitoring,'';
                  (B) in paragraph (1)--
                          (i) in subparagraph (B)--
                                  (I) by inserting ``including the 
                                Integrated Ocean Observing System and 
                                the ocean observing assets of other 
                                Federal and State agencies,'' after 
                                ``ocean observing assets,''; and
                                  (II) by inserting ``and agency and 
                                department missions, prioritizing the 
                                location of monitoring instruments, 
                                assets, and projects to maximize the 
                                efficiency of resources and to optimize 
                                understanding of socioeconomic impacts 
                                and ecosystem health'' after ``research 
                                program'';
                          (ii) in subparagraph (C)--
                                  (I) by striking ``adaptation'' and 
                                inserting ``adaptation and 
                                mitigation''; and
                                  (II) by inserting ``and supporting 
                                socioeconomically vulnerable 
                                communities and industries'' after 
                                ``marine ecosystems'';
                          (iii) in subparagraph (E), by striking ``its 
                        impacts'' and inserting ``their respective 
                        impacts'';
                          (iv) in subparagraph (F), by striking 
                        ``monitoring and impacts research'' and 
                        inserting ``research, monitoring, and 
                        adaptation and mitigation strategies''; and
                          (v) by adding at the end the following new 
                        subparagraph:
                  ``(G) research to improve understanding of the effect 
                of--
                          ``(i) other environmental stressors on ocean 
                        acidification and coastal acidification;
                          ``(ii) multiple environmental stressors on 
                        living marine resources and coastal ecosystems; 
                        and
                          ``(iii) adaptation and mitigation strategies 
                        to address the socioeconomic impacts of ocean 
                        acidification and coastal acidification.'';
                  (C) in paragraph (2), by striking ``critical research 
                projects that explore'' and inserting ``critical 
                research and education projects that explore and 
                communicate''; and
                  (D) in paragraphs (1) and (2), by striking 
                ``acidification'' each place it appears and inserting 
                ``acidification and coastal acidification''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new subsections:
  ``(c) Relationship to Interagency Working Group.--The National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall serve as the lead Federal 
agency responsible for coordinating the Federal response to ocean 
acidification and coastal acidification, by--
          ``(1) leading the interagency working group in implementing 
        the strategic research plan under section 12405;
          ``(2) coordinating monitoring and research efforts among 
        Federal agencies in cooperation with State, local, and Tribal 
        government and international partners;
          ``(3) maintaining an Ocean Acidification Information Exchange 
        described under section 12404(b)(5) to allow for information to 
        be electronically accessible, including information--
                  ``(A) on ocean acidification developed through or 
                used by the ocean acidification program described under 
                section 12406(a); or
                  ``(B) that would be useful to State governments, 
                local governments, Tribal governments, resource 
                managers, policymakers, researchers, and other 
                stakeholders in mitigating or adapting to the impacts 
                of ocean acidification and coastal acidification; and
          ``(4) establishing and maintaining the data archive system 
        under subsection (d).
  ``(d) Data Archive System.--
          ``(1) Management.--The Secretary, in coordination with 
        members of the interagency working group, shall provide for the 
        long-term stewardship of, and access to, data relating to ocean 
        acidification and coastal acidification by establishing and 
        maintaining a data archive system that the National Center for 
        Environmental Information uses to process, store, archive, 
        provide access to, and incorporate to the extent possible, such 
        data collected--
                  ``(A) through relevant federally-funded research; and
                  ``(B) by a Federal agency, State agency, local 
                agency, Tribe, academic scientist, citizen scientist, 
                or industry organization.
          ``(2) Existing global or national data assets.--In 
        establishing and maintaining the data archive system under 
        paragraph (1), the Secretary shall ensure that existing global 
        or national data assets (including the data assets maintained 
        by the National Centers for Environmental Information, the 
        Integrated Ocean Observing System, and other existing data 
        systems within Federal agencies) are incorporated to the 
        greatest extent possible.
  ``(e) Standards, Protocols, and Procedures.--With respect to the data 
described in subsection (d), the Secretary, in coordination with 
members of the interagency working group, shall establish and revise as 
necessary the standards, protocols, or procedures for--
          ``(1) processing, storing, archiving, and providing access to 
        such data;
          ``(2) the interoperability and intercalibration of such data;
          ``(3) the collection of any metadata underlying such data; 
        and
          ``(4) sharing such data with State, local, and Tribal 
        government programs, potentially affected industry members, 
        coastal stakeholders, fishery management councils and 
        commissions, non-Federal resource managers, and academia.
  ``(f) Dissemination of Ocean Acidification Data and Coastal 
Acidification Data.--The Secretary, in coordination with members of the 
interagency working group, shall disseminate the data described under 
subsection (d) to the greatest extent practicable by sharing such data 
on full and open access exchanges, including the Ocean Acidification 
Information Exchange described in section 12404(b)(5).
  ``(g) Requirement.--Recipients of grants from the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration under this subtitle that collect data 
described under subsection (d) shall--
          ``(1) collect such data in accordance with the standards, 
        protocols, or procedures established pursuant to subsection 
        (e); and
          ``(2) submit such data to the data archive system under 
        subsection (d), in accordance with any rules promulgated by the 
        Secretary.''.

SEC. 7. NSF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ACTIVITIES.

  Section 12407 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3706) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``ocean acidification'' each place it appears 
        and inserting ``ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification'';
          (2) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1)--
                          (i) by striking ``continue'' and all that 
                        follows through ``which shall'' ;
                          (ii) by striking ``proposals for research'' 
                        and inserting ``proposals for the 
                        researching''; and
                          (iii) by striking ``its impacts'' and 
                        inserting ``their respective impacts'';
                  (B) in paragraph (1), by striking ``marine 
                ecosystems'' and inserting ``ecosystems'';
                  (C) in paragraph (2), by striking ``; and'' at the 
                end and inserting a semicolon;
                  (D) in paragraph (3)--
                          (i) by striking ``and its impacts'' and 
                        inserting ``and their respective impacts''; and
                          (ii) by striking the period at the end and 
                        inserting ``; and''; and
                  (E) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(4) adaptation and mitigation strategies to address 
        socioeconomic effects of ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification.''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(d) Requirement.--Recipients of grants from the National Science 
Foundation under this subtitle that collect data described under 
section 12406(d) shall--
          ``(1) collect data in accordance with the standards, 
        protocols, or procedures established pursuant to section 
        12406(e); and
          ``(2) submit such data to the Director and the Secretary, in 
        accordance with any rules promulgated by the Director or the 
        Secretary.''.

SEC. 8. NASA OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ACTIVITIES.

  Section 12408 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3707) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``ocean acidification'' each place it appears 
        and inserting ``ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification'';
          (2) in subsection (a), by striking ``its impacts'' and 
        inserting ``their respective impacts''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(d) Requirement.--Researchers from the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration under this subtitle that collect data described 
under section 12406(d) shall--
          ``(1) collect such data in accordance with the standards, 
        protocols, or procedures established pursuant to section 
        12406(e); and
          ``(2) submit such data to the Administrator and the 
        Secretary, in accordance with any rules promulgated by the 
        Administrator or the Secretary.''.

SEC. 9. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  Section 12409 of the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and 
Monitoring Act of 2009 (33 U.S.C. 3708) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a), by striking ``subtitle--'' and all 
        that follows through paragraph (4) and inserting the following: 
        ``subtitle $30,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024.''; and
          (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``subtitle--'' and all 
        that follows through paragraph (4) and inserting the following: 
        ``subtitle $20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024.''.

                        II. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of the bill is to reauthorize and update the 
Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act of 2009 
by expanding the scope of federal ocean acidification and 
coastal acidification research, establishing an independent 
Ocean Acidification Advisory Board, establishing and 
maintaining a data archive system for ocean and coastal 
acidification data, and for other purposes. The bill is 
cosponsored by Representatives Beyer, Blumenauer, Brownley, 
Cartwright, Case, Casten, Cox, Crist, DeFazio, Fitzpatrick, 
Gabbard, Gonzalez-Colon, Hastings, Kilmer, Larsen, Lofgren, 
Lowenthal, Luria, Malinowski, Mast, McNerney, Moulton, 
Mucarsel-Powell, Pallone, Panetta, Pappas, Peters, Pingree, 
Posey, Rooney, Rouda, Ryan, Sires, Soto, Speier, Thompson, 
Tonko, Van Drew, Velazquez, Waltz, Wasserman Schultz, and 
Young.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    Ocean acidification is an invisible but growing threat to 
ocean and coastal economies and communities. Ocean 
acidification is the gradual decrease in oceanic pH due 
primarily to the absorption of excess atmospheric carbon 
dioxide by seawater. When carbon dioxide gas reacts with 
seawater, it lowers the pH, which raises the acidity. Since the 
Industrial Revolution, the oceans have absorbed approximately 
one-third of the carbon dioxide emissions from the 
atmosphere.\1\ This has caused ocean surface pH to decrease by 
0.1, corresponding to a nearly 30 percent increase in 
acidity.\2\ Under a higher emissions scenario, global mean 
surface acidity is expected to increase by 100-150 percent by 
the end of the century.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\IPCC Assessment Report 5
    \2\IPCC AR5
    \3\National Climate Assessment 4; Volume I; Ch. 13
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    Acidification is occurring faster in some U.S. coastal 
regions as a result of upwelling of naturally low pH water 
(Pacific Northwest), changes in freshwater inputs (Gulf of 
Maine), and high nutrient inputs (for example, in agricultural 
watersheds).\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\NCA4; Volume I; Ch. 13
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Ocean acidification impairs the growth of shelled marine 
organisms, such as oysters, mussels, clams, and corals, and has 
also been shown to negatively impact some fish species. Some 
scientific models predict that acidification will generally 
reduce fish catch and biomass. Overall, acidification is 
expected to alter marine ecosystems and food webs, which will 
have consequences for the millions of people who live in 
coastal communities across the United States and its 
territories.
    Recognizing the growing threat of ocean acidification, 
Congress enacted the Federal Ocean Acidification and Monitoring 
(FOARAM) Act in 2009, to support research and monitoring 
efforts to better understand ocean acidification and its 
impacts. The bill established the Ocean Acidification Program 
at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 
and the Interagency Working Group on Ocean Acidification, which 
provides a coordinated response by federal agencies to 
understand, monitor, and address ocean acidification.
    Since FOARAM was passed into law, our understanding of 
ocean acidification and its impacts has increased 
substantially. However, research gaps remain, including the 
effects of acidification on many marine organisms, and the 
socioeconomic impacts to coastal communities and industries. 
FOARAM expired in 2012. The COAST Research Act would 
reauthorize FOARAM and improve research on ocean and coastal 
acidification and direct federal agencies to assess adaptation 
and mitigation strategies.

                         IV. Committee Hearings

    For the purposes of section 103(i) of H. Res. 6 of the 
116th Congress, the following hearings were used to develop the 
legislation:
    On March 7, 2019, the Honorable Lizzie Fletcher presiding 
over the Environment Subcommittee of the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology held a hearing focused on climate change 
impacts on our nation's oceans and coasts, where ocean 
acidification was discussed as a major associated impact. There 
were four witnesses: (1) Dr. Sarah Cooley, Director of the 
Ocean Acidification Program at Ocean Conservancy. Dr. Cooley 
provided testimony on the science of ocean warming, 
acidification, and deoxygenation and resulting impacts to 
marine ecosystems and humans. (2) Dr. Radley Horton, Lamont 
Associate Research Professor at Columbia University Earth 
Institute's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Dr. Horton 
testified on sea level rise projections and impacts to coastal 
communities. (3) Dr. Thomas K. Frazer, Professor and Director 
of the School of Natural Resources and Environment at the 
University of Florida. Dr. Frazer testified on the impacts of 
climate change to fisheries and the need for increased federal 
investment in research to promote adaptation and mitigation to 
those changes. (4) Ms. Margaret A. Pilaro, Executive Director 
of the Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association. Ms. Pilaro 
provided testimony on the impacts of ocean acidification and 
deoxygenation to shellfish hatcheries and strategies for how 
their industry has started to adapt.

                  V. Committee Consideration and Votes

    As summarized in Section IV of this report, the 
Subcommittee on Environment heard testimony in the 116th 
Congress relevant to the activities authorized in H.R. 1237 at 
a hearing held on February 27, 2019.
    On February 14, 2019, Representative Suzanne Bonamici of 
the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, for herself 
and Representatives Young, Pingree, and Posey, introduced H.R. 
1237, the COAST Research Act of 2019, to amend the Federal 
Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act of 2009 to 
establish an Ocean Acidification Advisory Board, to expand and 
improve the research on Ocean Acidification and Coastal 
Acidification data, and for other purposes.
    On April 9, 2019, the Subcommittee on Environment met to 
consider H.R. 1237 and three other ocean acidification bills. 
There were no amendments offered to H.R. 1237. Ms. Fletcher 
moved that the Subcommittee favorably report H.R. 1237 to the 
Full Committee. The motion was agreed to by a voice vote.
    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology met to 
consider H.R. 1237 on Wednesday, May 1, 2019 and considered the 
following amendments to the bill:
    1. Ms. Bonamici offered an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute that makes technical changes to the COAST Research 
Act. The amendment was based on feedback from the NOAA Ocean 
Acidification Program and other stakeholders. The feedback was 
gathered after the introduction of the legislation. The 
amendment helps to define NOAA's role in researching the 
impacts of ocean acidification. The amendment was agreed to by 
a voice vote.
    Ms. Johnson moved that the Committee favorably report the 
bill, H.R. 1237, as amended, to the House with the 
recommendation that the bill be approved. The motion was agreed 
to by a voice vote.

              VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    H.R. 1237 amends the Federal Ocean Acidification Research 
and Monitoring Act of 2009 to establish an Ocean Acidification 
Advisory Board, expands and improves federal research on Ocean 
Acidification and Coastal Acidification, and establishes and 
maintains a data archive system for Ocean Acidification data 
and Coastal Acidification data, among other purposes.

        VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section)


Section 1. Short title

    Coastal and Ocean Acidification Stressors and Threats 
Research Act of 2019 or COAST Research Act of 2019

Section 2. Purpose

    This section integrates the importance of research, 
monitoring, and adaptation strategies for both ocean 
acidification and coastal acidification, taking into account 
other environmental and anthropogenic stressors.

Section 3. Definitions

    This section provides definitions for the terms ``coastal 
acidification,'' ``ocean acidification'', ``Secretary'', 
``State'', and ``Subcommittee''.

Section 4. Interagency Working Group

    This section expands the Interagency Working Group on Ocean 
Acidification to include current participating members, 
including: the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, the 
Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, 
the Department of State, the Department of Energy, the 
Department of the Navy, the National Park Service, the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs, the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, and the Smithsonian Institution.
    This section also establishes an Advisory Board comprised 
of representatives of the shellfish and crab industry, finfish 
industry, seafood processors, recreational fishing, academia, 
nongovernmental organizations, state, local, and tribal 
governments, and regional coastal acidification networks. The 
Advisory Board is charged with providing ongoing advice to both 
the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on 
Ocean Science and Technology and the Interagency Working Group 
on Ocean Acidification on federal activities relating to ocean 
and coastal acidification.

Section 5. Strategic research plan

    This section would expand the strategic plan for federal 
research and monitoring on ocean acidification to include an 
assessment of the effects of coastal acidification, the 
effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation strategies, the 
effects of other environmental stressors, and the socioeconomic 
effects of both ocean acidification and coastal acidification. 
The strategic research plan should also address monitoring 
needs necessary to support potentially affected industry 
members, coastal stakeholders, fishery management councils and 
commissions, non-federal resource managers, and scientific 
experts in decision-making and adaptation related to ocean and 
coastal acidification. This section also directs the Advisory 
Board to evaluate the strategic research plan before it is 
submitted to Congress and published in the Federal Register.

Section 6. NOAA Ocean Acidification Activities

    This section would designate NOAA as the lead federal 
agency responsible for coordinating the federal response to 
ocean acidification and coastal acidification, including the 
implementation of the strategic research plan. The section also 
directs the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program to conduct 
research to improve understanding of ocean and coastal 
acidification and adaptation and mitigation strategies that 
could support socioeconomically vulnerable communities, 
establish a long-term monitoring program, and enhance public 
outreach to improve understanding of current scientific 
knowledge of ocean and coastal acidification. The section 
clarifies that NOAA will be responsible for maintaining the 
Ocean Acidification Information Exchange. NOAA is directed to 
establish a data archive system, coordinating with existing 
federal systems, to process, store, archive, and provide access 
to any data relating to ocean acidification and coastal 
acidification collected by federal funded research, and when 
feasible, collected by federal, state, and local agencies, 
tribes, academic scientists, citizen scientists, and industry 
organizations.

Section 7. National Science Foundation ocean acidification activities

    This section directs the National Science Foundation to 
support competitive, merit-based, peer- reviewed proposals for 
research proposals for the researching and monitoring of ocean 
acidification and coastal acidification. Recipients of NSF 
grants are directed to submit collected data to the NOAA data 
archive system.

Section 8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration activities

    This section directs NASA to use space-based monitoring 
assets to monitor ocean acidification and coastal 
acidification. Researchers at NASA are directed to submit 
collected data to the NOAA data archive system.

Section 9. Authorization of appropriations

    This section authorizes $30.5 million for NOAA for fiscal 
years 2020 through 2024. The section also authorizes $20 
million for the NSF for fiscal years 2020 through 2024.

                         VIII. Committee Views

    H.R. 1237, the COAST Research Act of 2019, reauthorizes and 
updates the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring 
(FOARAM) Act of 2009, which expired in 2012. Since FOARAM was 
passed into law, the federal investment in ocean acidification 
research has significantly improved our understanding of how 
ocean chemistry is changing and how certain marine species are 
responding. According to the Fourth National Climate 
Assessment, ocean chemistry is currently changing at a rate 
that is faster than at least the past 66 million years, and 
ocean acidity levels are projected to increase an additional 
100% to 150% by the end of the century. Yet the field of ocean 
acidification is still relatively nascent and the federal 
funding for ocean acidification research has remained roughly 
steady for the last decade, since the passage of FOARAM. The 
Committee believes it is important to enhance the federal 
investment in research and monitoring of ocean acidification to 
reflect the growing scientific needs and to support management, 
adaptation, and mitigation of impacted marine and coastal 
ecosystems and human communities. It is the Committee's view 
that the COAST Research Act of 2019 makes important 
improvements and updates to FOARAM. Among other necessary 
updates, H.R. 1237 expands the definition of ocean 
acidification to include estuaries and adds a formal definition 
of coastal acidification to recognize the specific mechanisms 
that alter coastal chemistry. The bill expands federal research 
and monitoring to improve our understanding of ocean and 
coastal acidification and improves our understanding how ocean 
acidification interacts with other environmental stressors such 
as harmful algal blooms.
    Ocean acidification threatens the viability of certain 
coastal and ocean industries, such as commercial and 
recreational fisheries, tourism, and recreation. The Committee 
views ocean acidification as a multi-sectoral issue that 
requires engagement from a diversity of experts to advise on 
solutions. Based on stakeholder feedback, H.R. 1237 establishes 
an independent Ocean Acidification Advisory Board comprised of 
representatives of the shellfish and other fishing industries, 
academia, local, state, and tribal governments, U.S. 
territories and the regional acidification networks. The 
Committee believes that the regionally balanced Advisory Board 
will provide valuable advice to the interagency working group 
on federal ocean acidification response.
    The COAST Research Act would designate NOAA as the lead 
federal agency responsible for implementing the federal ocean 
acidification response. This was based on a recommendation by a 
2015 Government Accountability Office report that suggested an 
independent national ocean acidification program could help 
advance our understanding of ocean acidification. The Committee 
believes NOAA has already been leading the federal response to 
ocean acidification and that this designation reflects the fact 
that NOAA has the right expertise and tools to lead the federal 
response. H.R. 1237 also directs NOAA to maintain a data 
archive system to process, store, and archive all existing data 
from federally funded sources, including existing global and 
national data sets and research from state, local, tribal, 
academic, citizen science, and industry data sets. The bill 
also ensures the data are open source and available to the 
public. The Committee views the data archive as an important 
source of information to strengthen research and inform 
management, mitigation, and adaptation options for communities 
and industries that are most vulnerable to ocean and coastal 
acidification.

                           IX. Cost Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee adopts as its own the 
estimate of new budget authority, entitlement authority, or tax 
expenditures or revenues contained in the cost estimate 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974.

              X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, May 24, 2019.
Hon. Eddie Bernice Johnson,
Chairwoman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Madam Chairwoman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1237, the COAST 
Research Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Robert Reese.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]
    
    H.R. 1237 would amend the Federal Ocean Acidification 
Research and Monitoring Act of 2009 and would authorize the 
appropriation of about $51 million annually over the 2020-2024 
period for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to implement 
authorized activities related to ocean acidification.
    Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing H.R. 1237 would cost $202 million 
over the 2020-2024 period and $51 million after 2024. In 2019, 
NOAA allocated $12 million to ocean acidification related 
activities. The costs of the legislation, detailed in Table 1, 
would fall into budget functions 300 (natural resources and 
environment) and 250 (general science, space, and technology).

               TABLE 1.--ESTIMATED INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION UNDER H.R. 1237
                                      By fiscal year, millions of dollars--
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   2019     2020     2021     2022     2023     2024   2019-2024
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Authorization..................................        0       51       51       51       51       51        253
Estimated Outlays..............................        0       21       35       45       51       51        202
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.

    The CBO staff contacts for this estimate are Robert Reese 
and Janani Shankaran. The estimate was reviewed by Theresa 
Gullo, Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                     XI. Federal Mandates Statement

    H.R. 1237 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The Committee's oversight findings and recommendations are 
reflected in the body of this report.

              XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals
                             and Objectives

    The goals of H.R. 1237 are to expand the scope of research 
and monitoring on ocean acidification and coastal 
acidification; direct NOAA to maintain a data archive system to 
process, store, archive, all existing data; designate NOAA as 
the lead federal agency responsible for implementing the 
federal ocean acidification response; and establish an Ocean 
Acidification Advisory Board to provide ongoing advice to the 
National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean 
Science and Technology and the Interagency Working Group on 
Ocean Acidification on federal activities relating to ocean and 
coastal acidification.

               XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    The Ocean Acidification Advisory Board that H.R. 1237 
establishes in Section 4(c)(9) is a federal advisory committee. 
H.R. 1237 states that Section 14 of the Federal Advisory 
Committee Act, which would sunset the Advisory Board, shall not 
apply to the Ocean Acidification Advisory Board.
    The functions of the advisory board authorized in H.R. 1237 
are not currently being nor could they be performed by one or 
more agencies or by enlarging the mandate of another existing 
advisory committee.

                  XV. Duplication of Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(5) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the Committee finds that no provision 
of H.R. 1237 establishes or reauthorizes a program of the 
federal government known to be duplicative of another federal 
program, including any program that was included in a report to 
Congress pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139 or the 
most recent Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.

                      XVI. Earmark Identification

    Pursuant to clause 9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of rule XXI, the 
Committee finds that H.R. 1237 contains no earmarks, limited 
tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits.

             XVII. Applicability to the Legislative Branch

    The Committee finds that H.R. 1237 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

            XVIII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local,
                             or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

       XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

    FEDERAL OCEAN ACIDIFICATION RESEARCH AND MONITORING ACT OF 2009




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE XII--NOAA UNDERSEA RESEARCH PROGRAM ACT OF 2009

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle D--Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act of 
2009

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 12402. PURPOSES.

  [(a) Purposes.--]The purposes of this subtitle are to provide 
for--
          (1) [development and coordination] coordination and 
        implementation of a comprehensive interagency plan to--
                  (A) monitor and conduct research on the 
                processes and consequences of ocean 
                [acidification on marine organisms] 
                acidification and coastal acidification on 
                marine organisms and ecosystems; and
                  (B) [establish an interagency research and 
                monitoring program on ocean acidification;] 
                maintain and advise an interagency research, 
                monitoring, and public outreach program on 
                ocean acidification and coastal acidification;
          (2) [establishment] maintenance of an ocean 
        acidification program within the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration;
          (3) assessment and consideration of regional and 
        national ecosystem and socioeconomic impacts of 
        increased ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification; and
          (4) research adaptation strategies and techniques for 
        effectively conserving marine ecosystems as they cope 
        with increased ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification that take into account other 
        environmental and anthropogenic stressors.

SEC. 12403. DEFINITIONS.

  In this subtitle:
          (1) Coastal acidification.--The term ``coastal 
        acidification'' means the combined decrease in pH and 
        changes in the water chemistry of coastal oceans, 
        estuaries, and other bodies of water from chemical 
        inputs (including carbon dioxide from the atmosphere), 
        freshwater inputs, and excess nutrient run-off from 
        land and coastal atmospheric pollution that result in 
        processes that release carbon dioxide, acidic nitrogen, 
        and sulfur compounds as byproducts which end up in 
        coastal waters.
          [(1)] (2) Ocean acidification.--The term ``ocean 
        acidification'' means the decrease in pH [of the 
        Earth's oceans and changes in ocean chemistry caused by 
        chemical inputs from the atmosphere, including carbon 
        dioxide] and changes in the water chemistry of the 
        Earth's oceans, coastal estuaries, and waterways caused 
        by carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and the breakdown 
        of organic matter.
          [(2)] (3) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means 
        the Secretary of Commerce, acting through the 
        Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration.
          [(3)] (4) Subcommittee.--The term ``Subcommittee'' 
        means the [Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and 
        Technology of the National Science and Technology 
        Council] National Science and Technology Council 
        Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology.
          (5) State.--The term ``State'' means each State of 
        the United States, the District of Columbia, the 
        Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the 
        Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the 
        Virgin Islands of the United States, and any other 
        territory or possession of the United States.

SEC. 12404. INTERAGENCY [SUBCOMMITTEE] WORKING GROUP.

  (a) Designation.--
          (1) In general.--The [Joint Subcommittee on Ocean 
        Science and Technology of the National Science and 
        Technology Council shall coordinate Federal activities 
        on ocean acidification and] Subcommittee shall 
        establish an interagency working group.
          (2) Membership.--The interagency working group on 
        ocean acidification shall be comprised of senior 
        representatives from the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration, the National Science 
        Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration, the United States Geological Survey, 
        the United States Fish and [Wildlife Service,] Wildlife 
        Service, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, the 
        Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of 
        Agriculture, the Department of State, the Department of 
        Energy, the Department of the Navy, the National Park 
        Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology, the Smithsonian 
        Institution, and such other Federal agencies as 
        appropriate.
          (3)  [Chairman] Chair.--The interagency working group 
        shall be chaired by the representative from the 
        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  (b) Duties.--The Subcommittee shall--
          (1) develop the strategic research and monitoring 
        plan to guide Federal research on ocean acidification 
        required under section 12405 of this subtitle and 
        oversee the implementation of the plan, including the 
        efforts of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration to facilitate such implementation;
          (2) oversee the development of--
                  (A) an assessment of the potential impacts of 
                ocean acidification and coastal acidification 
                on marine organisms and marine ecosystems; and
                  (B) adaptation and mitigation strategies to 
                conserve marine organisms and ecosystems 
                exposed to ocean acidification and coastal 
                acidification;
          (3) facilitate communication and outreach 
        opportunities with nongovernmental organizations and 
        members of the stakeholder community with interests in 
        marine resources;
          (4) coordinate the United States Federal research and 
        monitoring program with research and monitoring 
        programs and scientists from other nations[; and];
          (5) establish or designate an Ocean Acidification 
        Information Exchange to make information on ocean 
        acidification [developed] and coastal acidification 
        developed through or utilized by the interagency ocean 
        acidification program accessible through electronic 
        means, including information which would be useful to 
        policymakers, researchers, and other stakeholders in 
        mitigating or adapting to the impacts of ocean 
        acidification[.] and coastal acidification; and
          (6) ensure that each of the Federal agencies 
        represented on the interagency working group--
                  (A) participates in the Ocean Acidification 
                Information Exchange established under 
                paragraph (5); and
                  (B) delivers data and information to support 
                the data archive system established under 
                section 12406(d).
  (c) Advisory Board.--
          (1) Establishment.--The Chair of the Subcommittee 
        shall establish an Ocean Acidification Advisory Board.
          (2) Duties.--The Advisory Board shall--
                  (A) not later than 180 days before the 
                Subcommittee submits the most recent report 
                under subsection (d)(2)--
                          (i) review such report;
                          (ii) submit an analysis of such 
                        report to the Subcommittee for 
                        consideration in the final report 
                        submitted under subsection (d)(2); and
                          (iii) concurrently with the 
                        Subcommittee's final submission of the 
                        report under subsection (d)(2), the 
                        Advisory Board shall submit a copy of 
                        the analysis provided to the 
                        Subcommittee to the Committee on 
                        Commerce, Science, and Transportation 
                        of the Senate, the Committee on 
                        Science, Space, and Technology of the 
                        House of Representatives, and the 
                        Committee on Natural Resources of the 
                        House of Representatives;
                  (B) not later than 180 days before the 
                Subcommittee submits the most recent strategic 
                research plan under subsection (d)(3) to 
                Congress--
                          (i) review such plan;
                          (ii) submit an analysis of such plan 
                        and the implementation thereof to the 
                        Subcommittee for consideration in the 
                        final strategic research plan submitted 
                        under subsection (d)(3); and
                          (iii) concurrently with the 
                        Subcommittee's final submission of the 
                        strategic research plan under 
                        subsection (d)(3), the Advisory Board 
                        shall submit a copy of the analysis 
                        provided to the Subcommittee to the 
                        Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                        Transportation of the Senate, the 
                        Committee on Science, Space, and 
                        Technology of the House of 
                        Representatives, and the Committee on 
                        Natural Resources of the House of 
                        Representatives;
                  (C) provide ongoing advice to the 
                Subcommittee and the interagency working group 
                on matters related to Federal activities on 
                ocean acidification and coastal acidification;
                  (D) advise the Subcommittee and the 
                interagency working group on--
                          (i) efforts to coordinate research 
                        and monitoring activities related to 
                        ocean acidification and coastal 
                        acidification; and
                          (ii) the best practices for the 
                        standards developed for data archiving 
                        under section 12406(e);
                  (E) publish in the Federal Register a 
                charter;
                  (F) provide the Library of Congress with--
                          (i) the charter described in 
                        subparagraph (E);
                          (ii) any schedules and minutes for 
                        meetings of the Advisory Board;
                          (iii) any documents that are approved 
                        by the Advisory Board; and
                          (iv) any reports and analysis 
                        prepared by the Advisory Board; and
                  (G) establish a publicly accessible web page 
                on the website of the National Oceanic and 
                Atmospheric Administration, that contains the 
                information described in clauses (i) through 
                (iv) of subparagraph (F).
          (3) Membership.--The Advisory Board shall consist of 
        24 members as follows:
                  (A) 2 representatives of the shellfish and 
                crab industry.
                  (B) 1 representative of the finfish industry.
                  (C) 1 representative of seafood processors.
                  (D) 3 representatives from academia, 
                including both natural and social sciences.
                  (E) 1 representative of recreational fishing.
                  (F) 1 representative of relevant 
                nongovernmental organizations.
                  (G) 6 representatives from relevant State, 
                local, and Tribal governments.
                  (H) 1 representative from the Alaska Ocean 
                Acidification Network.
                  (I) 1 representative from the California 
                Current Acidification Network.
                  (J) 1 representative from the Northeast 
                Coastal Acidification Network.
                  (K) 1 representative from the Southeast 
                Coastal Acidification Network.
                  (L) 1 representative from the Gulf of Mexico 
                Coastal Acidification Network.
                  (M) 1 representative from the Mid-Atlantic 
                Coastal Acidification Network.
                  (N) 1 representative from the Pacific Islands 
                Ocean Observing System or similar entity 
                representing the island territories and 
                possessions of the United States in the Pacific 
                Ocean, and the State of Hawaii.
                  (O) 1 representative from the Caribbean 
                Regional Association for Coastal Ocean 
                Observing or a similar entity representing 
                Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
                  (P) 1 representative from the National 
                Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall 
                serve as an ex-officio member of the Advisory 
                Board without a vote.
          (4) Appointment of members.--The Chair of the 
        Subcommittee shall--
                  (A) appoint members to the Advisory Board 
                (taking into account the geographical interests 
                of each individual to be appointed as a member 
                of the Advisory Board to ensure that an 
                appropriate balance of geographical interests 
                are represented by the members of the Advisory 
                Board) who--
                          (i) represent the interest group for 
                        which each seat is designated;
                          (ii) demonstrate expertise on ocean 
                        acidification or coastal acidification 
                        and its scientific, economic, industry, 
                        cultural, and community impacts; and
                          (iii) have a record of distinguished 
                        service with respect to ocean 
                        acidification or coastal acidification, 
                        and such impacts;
                  (B) give consideration to nominations and 
                recommendations from the members of the 
                interagency working group and the public for 
                such appointments; and
                  (C) ensure that an appropriate balance of 
                scientific, industry, and geographical 
                interests are represented by the members of the 
                Advisory Board.
          (5) Term of membership.--Each member of the Advisory 
        Board--
                  (A) shall be appointed for a 5-year term; and
                  (B) may be appointed to more than one term.
          (6) Chair.--The Chair of the Subcommittee shall 
        appoint one member of the Advisory Board to serve as 
        the Chair of the Advisory Board.
          (7) Meetings.--Not less than once each calendar year, 
        the Advisory Board shall meet at such times and places 
        as may be designated by the Chair of the Advisory 
        Board, in consultation with the Chair of the 
        Subcommittee and the Chair of the interagency working 
        group.
          (8) Briefing.--The Chair of the Advisory Board shall 
        brief the Subcommittee and the interagency working 
        group on the progress of the Advisory Board as 
        necessary.
          (9) Federal advisory committee act.--Section 14 of 
        the Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to 
        the Advisory Board.
  [(c)] (d) Reports to Congress.--
          (1) Initial report.--Not later than 1 year after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the Subcommittee shall 
        transmit a report to the Committee on Commerce, 
        Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
        Committee on Science and Technology and the Committee 
        on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives 
        that--
                  (A) includes a summary of federally funded 
                ocean acidification research and monitoring 
                activities, including the budget for each of 
                these activities; and
                  (B) describes the progress in developing the 
                plan required under section 12405 of this 
                subtitle.
          (2) Biennial Report.--Not later than 2 years after 
        the delivery of the initial report under paragraph (1) 
        and every 2 years thereafter, the Subcommittee shall 
        transmit a report to the Committee on Commerce, 
        Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
        Committee on Science and Technology and the Committee 
        on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives, 
        and to the Office of Management and Budget, that 
        includes--
                  (A) a summary of federally funded ocean 
                acidification research and monitoring 
                activities, including the budget for each of 
                these activities; and
                  (B) an analysis of the progress made toward 
                achieving the goals and priorities for [the 
                interagency research] interagency strategic 
                research plan developed by the Subcommittee 
                under section 12405.
          (3) Strategic research plan.--Not later than 2 years 
        after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
        Subcommittee shall transmit the strategic research plan 
        developed under section 12405 to the Committee on 
        Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and 
        the Committee on Science and Technology and the 
        Committee on Natural Resources of the House of 
        Representatives. A revised plan shall be submitted at 
        least once every 5 years thereafter.

SEC. 12405. STRATEGIC RESEARCH PLAN.

  (a) In General.--Not later than 2 years after the date of 
enactment of this Act, and not later than every 5 years 
thereafter, the Subcommittee shall develop a strategic plan for 
Federal research and monitoring on ocean [acidification] 
acidification and coastal acidification that will provide for 
an assessment of the impacts of ocean [acidification] 
acidification and coastal acidification on marine organisms and 
[marine ecosystems] ecosystems and the development of 
adaptation and mitigation strategies to address the 
socioeconomic impacts of ocean acidification and coastal 
acidification and coastal acidification and coastal 
acidification and to conserve marine organisms and [marine 
ecosystems] ecosystems. In developing the plan, the 
Subcommittee shall consider and use information, reports, and 
studies of ocean [acidification] acidification and coastal 
acidification that have identified research and monitoring 
needed to better understand ocean [acidification] acidification 
and coastal acidification and its potential impacts, and 
recommendations made by the National Academy of Sciences in the 
review of the plan required under subsection (d) and 
recommendations made by the Advisory Board in the review of the 
plan required under section 12404(c)(2)(B)(i).
  (b) Contents of the Plan.--The plan shall--
          (1) provide for interdisciplinary research among the 
        ocean sciences and social sciences, and coordinated 
        research and activities to improve the understanding of 
        ocean chemistry that will affect marine ecosystems;
          (2) establish, for the 10-year period beginning in 
        the year the plan is submitted, the goals and 
        priorities for Federal research and monitoring which 
        will--
                  (A) advance understanding of ocean 
                acidification and its physical, chemical, and 
                biological [impacts] impacts, including trends 
                of changes in ocean chemistry, on marine 
                organisms and marine ecosystems;
                  (B) [improve the ability to assess the] 
                assess the short-term and long-term 
                socioeconomic impacts of ocean acidification[; 
                and];
                  [(C) provide information for the development 
                of adaptation and mitigation strategies to 
                conserve marine organisms and marine 
                ecosystems;]
                  (C) provide information for the--
                          (i) development of adaptation and 
                        mitigation strategies to address the 
                        socioeconomic impacts of ocean 
                        acidification and coastal 
                        acidification;
                          (ii) conservation of marine organisms 
                        and ecosystems; and
                          (iii) assessment of the effectiveness 
                        of such adaptation and mitigation 
                        strategies; and
                  (D) improve research on--
                          (i) ocean acidification and coastal 
                        acidification;
                          (ii) the interactions between and 
                        effects of multiple combined stressors 
                        including changes in water chemistry, 
                        changes in sediment delivery, hypoxia, 
                        and harmful algal blooms, on ocean 
                        acidification and coastal 
                        acidification; and
                          (iii) the effect of environmental 
                        stressors on marine resources and 
                        ecosystems;
          (3) describe specific activities, including--
                  (A) efforts to determine user needs;
                  (B) research activities;
                  (C) monitoring activities;
                  (D) technology and methods development;
                  (E) data collection;
                  (F) [database development] data management;
                  (G) modeling activities;
                  (H) assessment of ocean acidification 
                impacts; [and]
                  (I) participation in international research 
                efforts;
                  (J) assessment of adaptation and mitigation 
                strategies; and
                  (K) education and outreach activities;
          (4) identify relevant programs and activities of the 
        Federal agencies that contribute to the interagency 
        program directly and indirectly and [set forth] ensure 
        an appropriate balance of contribution in establishing 
        the role of each Federal agency in implementing the 
        plan;
          (5) consider and utilize, as appropriate, [reports] 
        the best available peer-reviewed scientific reports and 
        studies conducted by Federal agencies, the National 
        Research Council, or other entities;
          (6) make recommendations for the coordination of the 
        ocean acidification and coastal acidification research 
        and monitoring activities [of the United States] within 
        the United States with such activities of other nations 
        and international organizations;
          (7) [outline budget requirements] estimate costs 
        associated for full implementation of each element of 
        the plan by fiscal year for Federal ocean acidification 
        research and monitoring and assessment activities to be 
        conducted by each agency under the plan;
          (8) identify the monitoring systems and sampling 
        programs currently employed in collecting data relevant 
        to ocean acidification and coastal acidification and 
        prioritize additional monitoring systems that may be 
        needed to ensure adequate data collection and 
        monitoring of ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification and [its] their impacts[; and];
          (9) describe specific activities designed to 
        facilitate outreach and data and information exchange 
        with stakeholder communities[.]; and
          (10) describe monitoring needs necessary to support 
        potentially affected industry members, coastal 
        stakeholders, fishery management councils and 
        commissions, non-Federal resource managers, and 
        scientific experts on decision-making and adaptation 
        related to ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification.
  (c) Program Elements.--The plan shall include at a minimum 
the following program elements:
          (1) Monitoring of ocean chemistry and biological 
        impacts associated with ocean acidification at selected 
        coastal and open-ocean monitoring stations, including 
        satellite-based monitoring to characterize--
                  (A) marine ecosystems;
                  (B) changes in marine productivity; and
                  (C) changes in [surface] ocean chemistry.
          (2) Research to understand the species specific 
        physiological responses of marine organisms to ocean 
        acidification and coastal acidification, impacts on 
        marine food webs of ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification, and to develop environmental and 
        ecological indices that track marine ecosystem 
        responses to ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification.
          (3) Modeling to predict changes in the ocean carbon 
        cycle as a function of carbon dioxide and atmosphere-
        induced changes in temperature, ocean circulation, 
        biogeochemistry, ecosystem and terrestrial [input, and] 
        inputs, modeling to determine impacts on marine 
        ecosystems, marine food webs, and individual marine 
        organisms, and modeling that supports fisheries 
        management.
          (4) Technology development and standardization of 
        carbonate chemistry measurements on moorings and 
        autonomous floats.
          (5) Assessment of socioeconomic impacts of ocean 
        acidification and coastal acidification and development 
        of adaptation and mitigation strategies to conserve 
        marine organisms and marine ecosystems.
          (6) Research to understand related and cumulative 
        stressors and other biogeochemical processes occurring 
        in conjunction with ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification.
  (d) National Academy of Sciences Evaluation.--The Secretary 
shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of 
Sciences to review the plan.
  [(e) Public Participation.--In developing the plan, the 
Subcommittee shall consult with representatives of academic, 
State, industry and environmental groups. Not later than 90 
days before the plan, or any revision thereof, is submitted to 
the Congress, the plan shall be published in the Federal 
Register for a public comment period of not less than 60 days.]
  (e) Advisory Board Evaluation.--Not later than 180 days 
before a plan is submitted to Congress, the Subcommittee shall 
provide the Advisory Board established under section 12404(c) a 
copy of the plan for purposes of review under paragraph 
(2)(B)(i) of such section.
  (f) Publication and Public Comment.--Not later than 90 days 
before the strategic research plan, or any revision thereof, is 
submitted to Congress, the Subcommittee shall publish the plan 
in the Federal Register and provide an opportunity for 
submission of public comments for a period of not less than 60 
days.

SEC. 12406. NOAA OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ACTIVITIES.

  (a) In General.--The Secretary shall establish and maintain 
an ocean acidification program within the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration to conduct research, monitoring, 
coordination, and other activities consistent with the 
strategic research and implementation plan developed by the 
Subcommittee under section 12405 that--
          (1) includes--
                  (A) interdisciplinary research among the 
                ocean and atmospheric sciences, and coordinated 
                research and activities to improve 
                understanding of ocean [acidification] 
                acidification and coastal acidification;
                  (B) the establishment of a long-term 
                monitoring program of ocean [acidification] 
                acidification and coastal acidification 
                utilizing existing global and national ocean 
                observing assets, including the Integrated 
                Ocean Observing System and the ocean observing 
                assets of other Federal and State agencies, and 
                adding instrumentation and sampling stations as 
                appropriate to the aims of the research program 
                and agency and department missions, 
                prioritizing the location of monitoring 
                instruments, assets, and projects to maximize 
                the efficiency of resources and to optimize 
                understanding of socioeconomic impacts and 
                ecosystem health;
                  (C) research to identify and develop 
                [adaptation] adaptation and mitigation 
                strategies and techniques for effectively 
                conserving marine ecosystems and supporting 
                socioeconomically vulnerable communities and 
                industries as they cope with increased ocean 
                [acidification] acidification and coastal 
                acidification;
                  (D) as an integral part of the research 
                programs described in this subtitle, 
                educational opportunities that encourage an 
                interdisciplinary and international approach to 
                exploring the impacts of ocean [acidification] 
                acidification and coastal acidification;
                  (E) as an integral part of the research 
                programs described in this subtitle, national 
                public outreach activities to improve the 
                understanding of current scientific knowledge 
                of ocean [acidification] acidification and 
                coastal acidification and [its impacts] their 
                respective impacts on marine resources; and
                  (F) coordination of ocean [acidification] 
                acidification and coastal acidification 
                [monitoring and impacts research] research, 
                monitoring, and adaptation and mitigation 
                strategies with other appropriate international 
                ocean science bodies such as the International 
                Oceanographic Commission, the International 
                Council for the Exploration of the Sea, the 
                North Pacific Marine Science Organization, and 
                others;
                  (G) research to improve understanding of the 
                effect of--
                          (i) other environmental stressors on 
                        ocean acidification and coastal 
                        acidification;
                          (ii) multiple environmental stressors 
                        on living marine resources and coastal 
                        ecosystems; and
                          (iii) adaptation and mitigation 
                        strategies to address the socioeconomic 
                        impacts of ocean acidification and 
                        coastal acidification.
          (2) provides grants for [critical research projects 
        that explore] critical research and education projects 
        that explore and communicate the effects of ocean 
        [acidification] acidification and coastal acidification 
        on ecosystems and the socioeconomic impacts of 
        increased ocean [acidification] acidification and 
        coastal acidification that are relevant to the goals 
        and priorities of the strategic research plan; and
          (3) incorporates a competitive merit-based process 
        for awarding grants that may be conducted jointly with 
        other participating agencies or under the National 
        Oceanographic Partnership Program under section 8931 of 
        title 10, United States Code.
  (b) Additional Authority.--In conducting the Program, the 
Secretary may enter into and perform such contracts, leases, 
grants, or cooperative agreements as may be necessary to carry 
out the purposes of this subtitle on such terms as the 
Secretary considers appropriate.
  (c) Relationship to Interagency Working Group.--The National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall serve as the lead 
Federal agency responsible for coordinating the Federal 
response to ocean acidification and coastal acidification, by--
          (1) leading the interagency working group in 
        implementing the strategic research plan under section 
        12405;
          (2) coordinating monitoring and research efforts 
        among Federal agencies in cooperation with State, 
        local, and Tribal government and international 
        partners;
          (3) maintaining an Ocean Acidification Information 
        Exchange described under section 12404(b)(5) to allow 
        for information to be electronically accessible, 
        including information--
                  (A) on ocean acidification developed through 
                or used by the ocean acidification program 
                described under section 12406(a); or
                  (B) that would be useful to State 
                governments, local governments, Tribal 
                governments, resource managers, policymakers, 
                researchers, and other stakeholders in 
                mitigating or adapting to the impacts of ocean 
                acidification and coastal acidification; and
          (4) establishing and maintaining the data archive 
        system under subsection (d).
  (d) Data Archive System.--
          (1) Management.--The Secretary, in coordination with 
        members of the interagency working group, shall provide 
        for the long-term stewardship of, and access to, data 
        relating to ocean acidification and coastal 
        acidification by establishing and maintaining a data 
        archive system that the National Center for 
        Environmental Information uses to process, store, 
        archive, provide access to, and incorporate to the 
        extent possible, such data collected--
                  (A) through relevant federally-funded 
                research; and
                  (B) by a Federal agency, State agency, local 
                agency, Tribe, academic scientist, citizen 
                scientist, or industry organization.
          (2) Existing global or national data assets.--In 
        establishing and maintaining the data archive system 
        under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall ensure that 
        existing global or national data assets (including the 
        data assets maintained by the National Centers for 
        Environmental Information, the Integrated Ocean 
        Observing System, and other existing data systems 
        within Federal agencies) are incorporated to the 
        greatest extent possible.
  (e) Standards, Protocols, and Procedures.--With respect to 
the data described in subsection (d), the Secretary, in 
coordination with members of the interagency working group, 
shall establish and revise as necessary the standards, 
protocols, or procedures for--
          (1) processing, storing, archiving, and providing 
        access to such data;
          (2) the interoperability and intercalibration of such 
        data;
          (3) the collection of any metadata underlying such 
        data; and
          (4) sharing such data with State, local, and Tribal 
        government programs, potentially affected industry 
        members, coastal stakeholders, fishery management 
        councils and commissions, non-Federal resource 
        managers, and academia.
  (f) Dissemination of Ocean Acidification Data and Coastal 
Acidification Data.--The Secretary, in coordination with 
members of the interagency working group, shall disseminate the 
data described under subsection (d) to the greatest extent 
practicable by sharing such data on full and open access 
exchanges, including the Ocean Acidification Information 
Exchange described in section 12404(b)(5).
  (g) Requirement.--Recipients of grants from the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under this subtitle that 
collect data described under subsection (d) shall--
          (1) collect such data in accordance with the 
        standards, protocols, or procedures established 
        pursuant to subsection (e); and
          (2) submit such data to the data archive system under 
        subsection (d), in accordance with any rules 
        promulgated by the Secretary.

SEC. 12407. NSF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ACTIVITIES.

  (a) Research Activities.--The Director of the National 
Science Foundation shall [continue to carry out research 
activities on ocean acidification which shall] support 
competitive, merit-based, peer-reviewed [proposals for 
research] proposals for the researching and monitoring of 
[ocean acidification] ocean acidification and coastal 
acidification and [its impacts] their respective impacts, 
including--
          (1) impacts on marine organisms and [marine 
        ecosystems] ecosystems;
          (2) impacts on ocean, coastal, and estuarine 
        biogeochemistry[; and];
          (3) the development of methodologies and technologies 
        to evaluate [ocean acidification] ocean acidification 
        and coastal acidification [and its impacts] and their 
        respective impacts [.]; and
          (4) adaptation and mitigation strategies to address 
        socioeconomic effects of ocean acidification and 
        coastal acidification.
  (b) Consistency.--The research activities shall be consistent 
with the strategic research plan developed by the Subcommittee 
under section 12405.
  (c) Coordination.--The Director shall encourage coordination 
of the Foundation's [ocean acidification] ocean acidification 
and coastal acidification activities with such activities of 
other nations and international organizations.
  (d) Requirement.--Recipients of grants from the National 
Science Foundation under this subtitle that collect data 
described under section 12406(d) shall--
          (1) collect data in accordance with the standards, 
        protocols, or procedures established pursuant to 
        section 12406(e); and
          (2) submit such data to the Director and the 
        Secretary, in accordance with any rules promulgated by 
        the Director or the Secretary.

SEC. 12408. NASA OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ACTIVITIES.

  (a) Ocean Acidification Activities.--The Administrator of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in coordination 
with other relevant agencies, shall ensure that space-based 
monitoring assets are used in as productive a manner as 
possible for monitoring of [ocean acidification] ocean 
acidification and coastal acidification and [its impacts] their 
respective impacts.
  (b) Program Consistency.--The Administrator shall ensure that 
the Agency's research and monitoring activities on [ocean 
acidification] ocean acidification and coastal acidification 
are carried out in a manner consistent with the strategic 
research plan developed by the Subcommittee under section 
12405.
  (c) Coordination.--The Administrator shall encourage 
coordination of the Agency's [ocean acidification] ocean 
acidification and coastal acidification activities with such 
activities of other nations and international organizations.
  (d) Requirement.--Researchers from the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration under this subtitle that collect data 
described under section 12406(d) shall--
          (1) collect such data in accordance with the 
        standards, protocols, or procedures established 
        pursuant to section 12406(e); and
          (2) submit such data to the Administrator and the 
        Secretary, in accordance with any rules promulgated by 
        the Administrator or the Secretary.

SEC. 12409. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  (a) NOAA.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to carry out 
the purposes of this [subtitle--
          [(1) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
          [(2) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
          [(3) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and
          [(4) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.] subtitle 
        $30,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020 through 
        2024.
  (b) NSF.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
National Science Foundation to carry out the purposes of this 
[subtitle--
          [(1) $6,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
          [(2) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
          [(3) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and
          [(4) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.] subtitle 
        $20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020 through 
        2024.

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