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                                                      Calendar No. 210
116th Congress     }                                     {      Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session       }                                     {     116-110

======================================================================



 
   AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, AND 
               RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS BILL, 2020
                                _______
                                

               September 19, 2019--Ordered to be printed

           Mr. Hoeven, from the Committee on Appropriations, 
                        submitted the following

                                 REPORT

                         [To accompany S. 2522]

    The Committee on Appropriations reports the bill (S. 2522) 
making appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food 
and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies programs for the 
fiscal year ending September 30, 2020, and for other purposes, 
reports favorably thereon and recommends that the bill do pass.



New obligational authority

Total of bill as reported to the Senate.................$152,098,452,000
Amount of 2019 appropriations........................... 157,491,473,000
Amount of 2020 budget estimate.......................... 148,257,371,000
Bill as recommended to Senate compared to--
    2019 appropriations.................................  -5,393,021,000
    2020 budget estimate................................  +3,841,081,000

















                                CONTENTS

                              ----------                              
                                                                   Page
Breakdown by Title...............................................     4
Overview and Summary of the Bill.................................     4
Reports to Congress..............................................     5
Title I:
    Agricultural Programs:
        Production, Processing, and Marketing:
            Office of the Secretary..............................     6
            Executive Operations.................................    10
            Office of Hearings and Appeals.......................    11
            Office of the Chief Information Officer..............    11
            Office of the Chief Financial Officer................    12
            Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights...    12
            Office of Civil Rights...............................    13
            Agriculture Buildings and Facilities.................    13
            Hazardous Materials Management.......................    13
            Office of Inspector General..........................    14
            Office of the General Counsel........................    14
            Office of Ethics.....................................    15
            Office of the Under Secretary for Research, 
              Education, and Economics...........................    15
            Economic Research Service............................    16
            National Agricultural Statistics Service.............    17
            Agricultural Research Service........................    18
            National Institute of Food and Agriculture...........    30
            Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and 
              Regulatory Programs................................    41
            Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...........    42
            Agricultural Marketing Service.......................    49
            Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety........    53
            Food Safety and Inspection Service...................    54
Title II:
    Farm Production and Conservation Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and 
          Conser-
          vation.................................................    56
        Farm Production and Conservation Business Center.........    56
        Farm Service Agency......................................    57
        Risk Management Agency...................................    63
        Natural Resources Conservation Service...................    63
    Corporations:
        Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund..................    66
        Commodity Credit Corporation Fund........................    67
Title III:
    Rural Development Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development......    69
        Rural Housing Service....................................    70
        Rural Community Facilities Program Account...............    75
        Rural Business--Cooperative Service......................    77
        Rural Utilities Service..................................    82
Title IV:
    Domestic Food Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and 
          Consumer Services......................................    88
        Food and Nutrition Service...............................    89
Title V:
    Foreign Assistance and Related Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign 
          Agricultural Affairs...................................    99
        Foreign Agricultural Service.............................   100
Title VI:
    Related Agency and Food and Drug Administration:
        Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug 
          Administration.........................................   104
        Independent Agency: Farm Credit Administration...........   120
Title VII: General Provisions....................................   123
Program, Project, and Activity...................................   126
Compliance With Paragraph 7, Rule XVI of the Standing Rules of 
  the 
  Senate.........................................................   126
Compliance With Paragraph 7(c), Rule XXVI of the Standing Rules 
  of the Senate..................................................   127
Compliance With Paragraph 12, Rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of 
  the 
  Senate.........................................................   128
Budgetary Impact of Bill.........................................   129
Comparative Statement of Budget Authority........................   130

                           BREAKDOWN BY TITLE

    The amounts of obligational authority for each of the seven 
titles are shown in the following table. A detailed tabulation, 
showing comparisons, appears at the end of this report. 
Recommendations for individual appropriation items, projects 
and activities are carried in this report under the appropriate 
item headings.


                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     Fiscal year 2019      Committee
                                         enacted         recommendation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Title I: Agricultural programs....          7,407,928          7,869,197
Title II: Farm Production and              33,569,899         37,309,500
 Conservation programs............
Title III: Rural economic and               3,011,730          3,016,719
 community development programs...
Title IV: Domestic food programs..        103,180,329         99,271,795
Title V: Foreign assistance and             1,937,983          2,156,348
 related programs.................
Title VI: Related agencies and              3,080,466          3,160,466
 Food and Drug Administration.....
Title VII: General provisions.....              3,496           -693,573
Supplemental Appropriations for     .................              8,000
 Disaster.........................
                                   -------------------------------------
      Total, new budget                   152,191,831        152,098,452
       (obligational) authority...
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                    OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY OF THE BILL

    The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug 
Administration, and Related Agencies appropriations bill 
provides funding for a wide array of Federal programs, mostly 
in the U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]. These programs 
include agricultural research, education, and extension 
activities; natural resources conservation programs; farm 
income and support programs; marketing and inspection 
activities; domestic food assistance programs; rural housing, 
economic and community development, and telecommunication and 
electrification assistance; and various export and 
international activities of the USDA.
    The bill also provides funding for the Food and Drug 
Administration [FDA] and allows the use of collected fees for 
administrative expenses of the Farm Credit Administration 
[FCA].
    The discretionary programs and activities of USDA and FDA 
that are supported by this bill include high priority 
responsibilities entrusted to the Federal Government and its 
partners to protect human health and safety, contribute to 
economic recovery, and achieve policy objectives strongly 
supported by the American people. The ability to provide for 
these measures is made difficult by growing pressure on 
available levels of discretionary spending as a consequence of 
the overall public debate on Federal spending, revenues, and 
size of the Federal debt.
    Too often, the USDA programs funded by this bill are 
confused with farm subsidies and other mandatory spending more 
properly associated with multi-year farm bills. In contrast, 
this bill provides annual funding for programs familiar to all 
Americans such as protecting food safety through the Food 
Safety and Inspection Service and the Food and Drug 
Administration, which also plays a vital role in maintaining 
the safety of the Nation's blood supply and availability of 
safe and effective medical products and other components of our 
health system. This bill also provides funding to fight against 
the introduction and spread of noxious or infectious and often 
invasive pests and diseases that threaten our plant and animal 
health environments, as well as funding for many other missions 
of dire importance to the American people.
    In the context of overall pressures on spending and the 
competing priorities that the Committee faces, this bill as 
reported provides the proper amount of emphasis on 
agricultural, rural development, and other programs and 
activities funded by the bill. It is consistent with the 
Subcommittee's allocation for fiscal year 2020.
    All accounts in the bill have been closely examined to 
ensure that an appropriate level of funding is provided to 
carry out the programs of USDA, FDA, and FCA. Details on each 
of the accounts, the funding level, and the Committee's 
justifications for the funding levels are included in the 
report.

                          REPORTS TO CONGRESS

    The Committee has, throughout this report, requested 
agencies to provide studies and reports on various issues. The 
Committee utilizes these reports to evaluate program 
performance and make decisions on future appropriations. The 
Committee directs that all studies and reports be provided to 
the Committee as electronic documents in an agreed upon format 
within 120 days after the date of enactment, unless an 
alternative submission schedule is specifically stated in the 
report request.

                                TITLE I

                         AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS

                  Processing, Research, and Marketing

                        Office of the Secretary

                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $46,603,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      41,373,000
Committee recommendation................................      46,782,000

    The Secretary of Agriculture, assisted by the Deputy 
Secretary, Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries, Chief 
Information Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and members of 
their immediate staffs, directs and coordinates the work of the 
Department. This includes developing policy, maintaining 
relationships with agricultural organizations and others in the 
development of farm programs, and maintaining liaison with the 
Executive Office of the President and Members of Congress on 
all matters pertaining to agricultural policy.
    The general authority of the Secretary to supervise and 
control the work of the Department is contained in the Organic 
Act (Public Law 101-624). The delegation of regulatory 
functions to Department employees and authorization of 
appropriations to carry out these functions is contained in 7 
U.S.C. 450c-450g.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $46,782,000 
for the Office of the Secretary. The Committee recommendation 
includes the following accounts under the Office of the 
Secretary: Office of the Secretary; Office of Tribal Relations; 
Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Coordination; Office 
of Advocacy and Outreach; Office of the Assistant Secretary for 
Administration; Departmental Administration; Office of 
Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations; and Office of 
Communications. The following table reflects the amount 
provided by the Committee for each office and activity:

                                             OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2019  Fiscal year 2020      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Office of the Secretary...................................             5,051             4,850             6,030
Office of Homeland Security...............................             1,496             1,448             1,496
Office of Partnerships and Public Engagement..............             4,711             1,672             4,711
Office of Assistant Secretary for Administration..........               875               875               875
Departmental Administration...............................            22,301            21,376            22,301
Office of Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations.             3,869             3,091             3,869
Office of Communications..................................             7,500             7,261             7,500
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total...............................................            46,603            41,373            46,782
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Barriers to Trade.--The Committee is aware of trade 
barriers related to herbicide tolerances and recognizes the 
need for research into contamination sources. The Committee 
encourages the Secretary to provide competitive grants to study 
this further.
    Century Farms.--The Committee supports recent authorization 
of the Century Farms Program in the Agriculture Improvement Act 
of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) to recognize farms that have been 
in operation for 100 years and encourages the Department to 
move quickly to establish this program.
    Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC] Obligations and 
Commitments.--The Secretary is directed to notify the 
Committees on Appropriations of the House and Senate in writing 
15 days prior to the obligation or commitment of any emergency 
funds from the CCC.
    Farming Opportunities and Training Outreach Program.--The 
Committee appreciates the advancements made in the Agriculture 
Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) combining the 
Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program [BFRDP] and 
the Outreach and Assistance for Socially Disadvantaged Farmers 
and Ranchers program under an umbrella program called the 
Farming Opportunities Training and Outreach Program, which 
provides permanent baseline funding for the program. Creating 
and expanding new farming opportunities and supporting farmer 
training and technical assistance is critical to the future of 
American agriculture and our food system. The Committee is 
aware that despite these farm bill advances, annual funding for 
BFRDP is actually lower than it was under the Agricultural Act 
of 2014 (Public Law 113-79). The Committee maintains its strong 
interest in supporting beginning farmer training and exploring 
ways to restore and increase program funding.
    Grain Shipment Delays.--The Committee is aware of emergency 
lock repairs on the Columbia River, lock maintenance on the 
Illinois River, and record-breaking flooding that is causing 
significant delays for barge traffic on our Nation's rivers and 
inland waterway system. The Committee notes that such delays 
can have considerable economic impacts on farmers, local ports, 
rural communities, grain exports, the timber industry, gasoline 
prices, and consumers. The Secretary is directed to fully 
utilize all available authorities to support farmers and the 
agricultural industry through this challenging situation.
    Land Grants and Acequias.--The Committee recognizes that 
Section 2304(e) of Public Law 115-334 now allows acequias and 
land-grant mercedes to apply directly to the Enviromental 
Quality Incentives Program [EQIP], which provides Federal 
funding and technical assistance to farmers throughout the 
nation. The Committee appreciates that there are hundreds of 
acequias and dozens of land grants in New Mexico that can now 
gain direct access to this important conservation program. The 
Committee encourages USDA to implement its final interim 
guidance in a manner that provides funding for these important 
conservation programs, including for water conservation and 
irrigation efficiency, so these traditional communities can 
perform work on their communal lands, range lands, general 
infrastructure, and irrigation infrastructure.
    Livestock Crossing.--The Committee is concerned with the 
ongoing problem of the crossing of livestock from Mexico into 
the U.S. without proper inspection, which creates risk of 
disease and loss of forage for U.S. ranchers in the Southwest 
border region. The Committee directs the agency, in 
consultation with other Federal and State agencies, to develop 
a plan of action to better prevent and reduce unauthorized 
international crossing of livestock on the Southwest border.
    Local Agriculture Market Program.--The Committee 
appreciates the advancements made in the Agriculture 
Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) combining the 
Farmers Market and Local Food Promotion Program [FMLFPP] and 
the Value-Added Producer Grant program under an umbrella 
program called the Local Agriculture Market Program, which 
provides permanent baseline funding for the program. Creating 
and expanding new markets is critical to the future of American 
agriculture and our food system. The Committee is aware that 
despite the establishment of permanent baseline funding, annual 
funding for FMLFPP is actually lower than it was under the 
Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 113-79). The Committee 
maintains its strong interest in supporting local and regional 
market development and exploring ways to restore and increase 
program funding.
    Multi-Agency Transparency.--The Committee expresses support 
for increasing transparency within all agencies of USDA. The 
agencies are encouraged to disclose costs associated with 
analyses required by the National Environmental Policy Act.
    Outreach to Socially Disadvantaged and Veteran Farmers and 
Ranchers.--The Committee supports the efforts of the Office of 
Advocacy and Outreach to increase the accessibility of USDA 
programs to underserved constituents and notes that $15,000,000 
in mandatory funds is available to assist socially 
disadvantaged and veteran farmers and ranchers in owning and 
operating farms and ranches to meet the growing need for 
financial, production, management, and other assistance to 
those communities and address workforce shortages. 
Additionally, the Committee recommendation includes $3,000,000 
in discretionary funding for these activities.
    Pricing Concerns.--The Committee is aware that some cattle 
producers are concerned about market conditions in the wake of 
a fire at a large beef processing facility. The Committee 
recognizes the importance of ensuring pricing mechanisms are 
transparent and provide reliable price discovery for cattle 
producers and the rest of the supply chain nationwide. The 
Committee directs the Secretary to have the Office of the Chief 
Economist analyze these issues, including participating in the 
recently announced investigation.
    Resource Conservation and Development Councils.--Since 
1964, the Resource Conservation and Development [RC&D] Councils 
have worked at the grassroots level with local leaders to plan, 
develop, and carry out programs for land and water conservation 
and management. The Committee encourages the Secretary to 
consider the maximum practical use of RC&D Councils, where such 
RC&D Councils meet agency performance requirements, in the 
delivery of USDA programs and services.
    Salton Sea.--The Committee is deeply concerned by the 
current and future health, environmental, agricultural, and 
natural resource impacts at the Salton Sea. The Committee notes 
that the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-
334) made important changes to conservation programs to assist 
States like California in addressing regional natural resource 
priorities, such as the Salton Sea. The Committee directs the 
Department to implement these amended conservation provisions 
as soon as possible and urges the Department to work with the 
State of California, local partners, and other Federal agencies 
to address the growing problems facing the Salton Sea.
    Staff Vacancies.--The Committee is concerned with the 
number of staff vacancies within USDA. The Committee continues 
to provide funding increases for many agencies at USDA, yet 
staffing levels continue to decline. This creates delays in the 
processing of applications and the release of important funding 
throughout the Department. The Committee expects the Secretary 
to staff agencies at the appropriated levels, not the budget 
request level. The Committee also expects a report, no later 
than 180 days after enactment, that details staffing levels for 
all research agencies; the Farm Service Agency; all marketing 
agencies; Rural Development; Food and Nutrition Service; and 
the Foreign Agricultural Service. The report shall include 
vacancies that have remained unfilled for more than six months, 
plans to fill those vacancies, and the percentage and number of 
vacancy announcements that were posted for current internal 
employees only and for less than two weeks. The report shall 
also include for each agency the number of full-time equivalent 
[FTE] staff utilized and the number of vacancies not filled for 
fiscal years 2015 through 2019.
    State Rural Development Councils.--The Committee recognizes 
the successful work of State Rural Development Councils [SRDCs] 
and their role in advancing rural America and promoting 
strength and prosperity across the country and urges the 
Secretary to provide resources to help improve and expand the 
impact of SRDCs.
    Urban Agriculture.--The Committee is aware of a steady 
increase in urban agriculture initiatives taking place in 
metropolitan areas across the country. The Committee strongly 
supports such initiatives and recognizes that successful, 
robust urban farms can positively impact urban communities and 
residents in a variety of ways by providing education, 
entrepreneurial opportunities, and job training; addressing 
shortages of fresh fruits and vegetables; increasing health and 
wellness of pregnant women and young children; and reducing 
obesity rates, recidivism, and urban blight. The Committee 
commends the Department's efforts to foster such initiatives 
and encourages the Secretary to increase support and outreach 
for urban agriculture, including grants, loans, and technical 
assistance for these innovative urban horticulture projects.
    Wheat Grading.--The Committee is concerned about unfair 
wheat grading practices that negatively affect American wheat 
growers that export to Canada. Current Canadian wheat grading 
law and the varietal registration system automatically 
downgrades American wheat to the lowest quality designation 
regardless of the type or quality of the wheat. In the United 
States, however, our grading system provides a fair examination 
for wheat imported from Canada, regardless of the seed variety. 
This discrepancy needs to be addressed to ensure our wheat 
growers are being treated fairly.

                          Executive Operations

    Executive operations were established as a result of the 
reorganization of the Department to provide a support team for 
USDA policy officials and selected department-wide services. 
Activities under the executive operations include the Office of 
the Chief Economist, the National Appeals Division, and the 
Office of Budget and Program Analysis.

                     OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ECONOMIST

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $21,286,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      18,513,000
Committee recommendation................................      24,286,000

    The Office of the Chief Economist advises the Secretary of 
Agriculture on the economic implications of Department policies 
and programs. The Office serves as the single focal point for 
the Nation's economic intelligence and analysis, risk 
assessment, and cost-benefit analysis related to domestic and 
international food and agriculture issues, provides policy 
direction for renewable energy development, conducts analyses 
of climate change impacts on agriculture and forestry, and is 
responsible for coordination and review of all commodity and 
aggregate agricultural and food-related data used to develop 
outlook and situation material within the Department.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $24,286,000 
for the Office of the Chief Economist.
    Policy Research.--The Committee recommendation includes 
$8,000,000 for policy research under 7 U.S.C. 3155 for entities 
with existing institutional capacity to conduct complex 
economic and policy analysis and a lengthy and well-documented 
record of conducting policy analysis for the benefit of USDA, 
the Congressional Budget Office, or the Congress. To maximize 
resources, the Committee expects the Department to focus 
efforts on entities that have developed models, databases, and 
staff necessary to conduct in-depth analysis of impacts of 
agriculture or rural development policy proposals on rural 
communities, farmers, agribusiness, taxpayers, and consumers. 
The Department is encouraged to fund regional and State-level 
baseline projections in addition to currently available 
national and international outlooks.

                     Office of Hearings and Appeals

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $15,222,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      13,474,000
Committee recommendation................................      15,222,000

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals conducts administrative 
hearings and reviews of adverse program decisions made by the 
Rural Development mission area, the Farm Service Agency [FSA], 
the Risk Management Agency [RMA], and the Natural Resources 
Conservation Service [NRCS].

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $15,222,000 
for the Office of Hearings and Appeals.

                 OFFICE OF BUDGET AND PROGRAM ANALYSIS

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $9,525,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       8,199,000
Committee recommendation................................       9,525,000

    The Office of Budget and Program Analysis provides 
direction and administration of the Department's budgetary 
functions including development, presentation, and execution of 
the budget; reviewing program and legislative proposals for 
program, budget, and related implications; analyzing program 
and resource issues and alternatives, and preparing summaries 
of pertinent data to aid the Secretary and departmental policy 
officials and agency program managers in the decisionmaking 
process; and providing departmentwide coordination for and 
participation in the presentation of budget-related matters to 
the Committees of the Congress, the media, and interested 
public. The Office also provides department-wide coordination 
of the preparation and processing of regulations and 
legislative programs and reports.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $9,525,000 for 
the Office of Budget and Program Analysis.

                Office of the Chief Information Officer

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $55,630,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     101,400,000
Committee recommendation................................     101,400,000

    The Office of the Chief Information Officer was established 
in the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-106), which 
required the establishment of a Chief Information Officer for 
major Federal agencies. This Office provides policy guidance, 
leadership, coordination, and direction to the Department's 
information management and information technology [IT] 
investment activities in support of USDA program delivery, and 
is the lead office in USDA e-gov efforts. The Office provides 
long-range planning guidance, implements measures to ensure 
that technology investments are economical and effective, 
coordinates interagency information resources management 
projects, and implements standards to promote information 
exchange and technical interoperability. In addition, the 
Office of the Chief Information Officer is responsible for 
certain activities financed under the Department's Working 
Capital Fund (7 U.S.C. 2235). The Office also provides 
telecommunication and automated data processing [ADP] services 
to USDA agencies through the National Information Technology 
Center with locations in Fort Collins, Colorado; Kansas City, 
Missouri; and Washington, DC. Direct ADP operational services 
are also provided to the Office of the Secretary, the Office of 
the General Counsel, the Office of Communications, the Office 
of the Chief Financial Officer, and Departmental Management.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $101,400,000 
for the Office of the Chief Information Officer. This includes 
an increase of $10,950,000 for enhanced cybersecurity 
activities.
    Software Licenses.--The Committee encourages the 
Department's Chief Information Officer to perform periodic 
automated inventories of software licenses in use across the 
Department. The Department should compare those usage numbers 
to its purchased licenses and seek to increase efficiency 
wherever it identifies discrepancies. The Department is to 
consider using this information to obtain department-wide 
acquisitions as opposed to component-specific purchases of 
licenses.

                 Office of the Chief Financial Officer

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $6,028,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      13,500,000
Committee recommendation................................      13,500,000

    The Office of the Chief Financial Officer is responsible 
for the dual roles of Chief Financial Management Policy Officer 
and Chief Financial Management Advisor to the Secretary and 
mission area heads. The Office provides leadership for all 
financial management, accounting, travel, Federal assistance, 
and strategic planning performance measurement activities 
within the Department. The Office is also responsible for the 
management and operation of the National Finance Center and the 
Departmental Working Capital Fund.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $13,500,000 
for the Office of the Chief Financial Officer.

           Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $901,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         901,000

    The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights 
provides oversight of civil rights and related functions. This 
includes coordination of the administration of civil rights 
laws and regulations for employees of USDA and participants in 
programs of the Department and ensuring compliance with civil 
rights laws.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $901,000 for 
the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.

                         Office of Civil Rights

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $24,206,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      21,228,000
Committee recommendation................................      24,206,000

    The Office of Civil Rights provides overall leadership 
responsibility for all department-wide civil rights activities. 
These activities include employment opportunity as well as 
program nondiscrimination policy development, analysis, 
coordination, and compliance. The Office is responsible for 
providing leadership in facilitating the fair and equitable 
treatment of USDA employees and for monitoring program 
activities to ensure that all USDA programs are delivered in a 
nondiscriminatory manner. The Office's outreach functions 
provide leadership, coordination, facilitation, and expertise 
to internal and external partners to ensure equal and timely 
access to USDA programs for all constituents, with emphasis on 
the underserved, through information sharing, technical 
assistance, and training.

                        COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $24,206,000 
for the Office of Civil Rights.

                  Agriculture Buildings and Facilities


                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $59,967,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     331,114,000
Committee recommendation................................     331,114,000

    Department headquarters presently operates in a two-
building, Government-owned complex in downtown Washington, DC; 
the George Washington Carver Center in Beltsville, Maryland; 
and in leased buildings in the metropolitan Washington, DC, 
area. Under an arrangement with the General Services 
Administration, USDA operates, maintains, and repairs these 
facilities, in lieu of rental payments. For the last several 
years the Department has implemented a strategic space plan to 
locate staff more efficiently, renovate its buildings, and 
eliminate safety hazards, particularly in the Agriculture South 
Building.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $331,114,000 
for Agriculture Buildings and Facilities.

                     Hazardous Materials Management


                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $3,503,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       3,290,000
Committee recommendation................................       3,503,000

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, 
Compensation, and Liability Act (Public Law 96-510) and the 
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law 94-580), the 
Department has the responsibility to meet the same standards 
regarding the storage and disposition of hazardous materials as 
private businesses. The Department is required to contain, 
cleanup, monitor, and inspect for hazardous materials in areas 
under the Department's jurisdiction.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $3,503,000 for 
Hazardous Materials Management.

                      Office of Inspector General

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $98,208,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      98,208,000
Committee recommendation................................      98,208,000

    The Office of Inspector General [OIG] was established on 
October 12, 1978, by the Inspector General Act of 1978 (Public 
Law 95-452). This act expanded and provided specific 
authorities for the activities of OIG which had previously been 
carried out under the general authorities of the Secretary.
    The Office is administered by an inspector general who 
reports directly to the Secretary. Functions and 
responsibilities of this Office include direction and control 
of audit and investigative activities within the Department, 
formulation of audit and investigative policies and procedures 
regarding Department programs and operations, and analysis and 
coordination of program-related audit and investigation 
activities performed by other Department agencies.
    The activities of this Office are designed to assure 
compliance with existing laws, policies, regulations, and 
programs of the Department's agencies, and to provide 
appropriate officials with the means for prompt corrective 
action where deviations have occurred. The scope of audit and 
investigative activities is large and includes administrative, 
program, and criminal matters. These activities are 
coordinated, when appropriate, with various audit and 
investigative agencies of the executive and legislative 
branches of the Government.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $98,208,000 
for the Office of Inspector General. The recommendation also 
includes funding for OIG to address violations of section 26 of 
the Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544) and to coordinate 
with State and local law enforcement personnel in this effort.

                     Office of the General Counsel

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $45,146,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      41,242,000
Committee recommendation................................      45,146,000

    The Office of the General Counsel provides all legal 
advice, counsel, and services to the Secretary and to all 
agencies, offices, and corporations of the Department. The 
Office represents the Department in administrative proceedings; 
nonlitigation debt collection proceedings; State water rights 
adjudications; proceedings before the Environmental Protection 
Agency, Interstate Commerce Commission, Federal Maritime 
Administration, and International Trade Commission; and, in 
conjunction with the Department of Justice, in judicial 
proceedings and litigation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $45,146,000 
for the Office of the General Counsel.

                            Office of Ethics

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $4,136,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       2,752,000
Committee recommendation................................       4,136,000

    The Office of Ethics is the centralized and consolidated 
office implementing USDA's ethics program throughout the 
Department. The Office provides ethics services to all 
employees at the Department concerning advice, training, and 
guidance about compliance with conflict of interest and 
impartiality rules. This includes complying with the 
requirements of the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act 
(Public Law 112-105) and the Office of Government Ethics 
regulatory requirements (5 CFR parts 2634 through 2641).

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $4,136,000 for 
the Office of Ethics.

  Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $800,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, 
and Economics provides direction and coordination in carrying 
out the laws enacted by the Congress for food and agricultural 
research, education, extension, and economic and statistical 
information. The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Agricultural Research Service [ARS]; 
National Institute of Food and Agriculture [NIFA]; Economic 
Research Service [ERS]; and National Agricultural Statistics 
Service [NASS].

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and 
Economics.
    Hemp.--The Committee is aware of statements made by the 
Department acknowledging the eligibility of researchers 
participating in hemp pilot programs, as defined by Section 
7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 113-79) to 
compete for Federal funds awarded by the Department. The 
Committee directs the Department to work with and inform 
stakeholders of this eligibility and to support hemp research, 
as authorized by Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 
(Public Law 113-79) and Subtitle G of the Agricultural 
Marketing Act of 1946.
    Honeybee and Pollinator Research.--The Committee recognizes 
the important role of both native and managed pollinators 
within the U.S. agriculture sector and notes that the 
Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) called 
for enhanced coordination of honeybee and pollinator research. 
The Committee is aware that honeybees and pollinators continue 
to face mounting challenges, including disease and habitat 
loss, and the Committee believes that research and education 
are key to maintaining a healthy honeybee and pollinator 
population. The Committee directs the Secretary to prioritize 
research and work on pollinator health and to continue to 
gather data on an annual basis with respect to the losses of 
such colonies, rising input costs, and pollinators' overall 
economic value to the food economy.
    U.S. Dairy Education and Training.--The Committee 
encourages NIFA to work cooperatively with State-run 
universities in the southwest with experience in bringing 
together students and young dairy professionals from multiple 
States in summer programs designed to provide practical dairy 
teaching, with the goal of facilitating research into workforce 
safety and antimicrobial stewardship.

                       Economic Research Service

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $86,757,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      60,500,000
Committee recommendation................................      86,757,000

    The Economic Research Service [ERS] provides economic and 
other social science research and analysis for public and 
private decisions on agriculture, food, the environment, and 
rural America. The information that ERS produces is available 
to the general public and helps the executive and legislative 
branches develop, administer, and evaluate agricultural and 
rural policies and programs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $86,757,000 
for the Economic Research Service.
    Agricultural Commodity Trade.--The Committee recognizes the 
economic importance of international trade for U.S. 
agricultural commodities and believes that producers and 
markets would benefit from having access to additional data on 
the country of destination or origin of those commodities. 
Therefore, the Committee directs ERS to report on a quarterly 
basis the top five agricultural commodity exports and imports 
by State and to identify the country of destination or origin 
of those commodities.
    Feed Costs.--The Committee maintains funding provided in 
fiscal year 2019 for ERS to expand its current feed cost 
components surveys nationally.
    Organic Data Analysis.--The organic industry has grown at a 
tremendous rate over the past several years, and accurate data 
for the production, pricing, and marketing of organic products 
is essential. Therefore, the Committee encourages ERS to 
continue and expand the efforts relating to organic data 
analysis.
    Rural Tract Codes.--The Committee recognizes the Federal 
Office of Rural Health Policy's [FORHP] use of Rural-Urban 
Commuting Area [RUCA] codes, developed by ERS to define rural 
populations. While FORHP applies RUCA to Census Tracts inside 
Metropolitan counties and considers tracts with codes 4-10 
rural, it does provide exceptions for tracts with codes 2 or 3. 
Currently, exceptions are added for tracts with large areas and 
sparse populations. The Committee directs ERS to coordinate 
with FORHP to conduct research on the feasibility of 
identifying tracts with difficult and mountainous terrain. For 
the purposes of this census tract exception, ``difficult and 
mountainous terrain'' means when traveling between a rural 
hospital and any other hospital in the area, an individual is 
required to traverse at least 15 miles of roads located in 
mountainous terrain. Roads shall be deemed to be located in 
mountainous terrain if such roads are in areas identified as 
mountains on any official maps or other documents prepared for 
and issued to the public by the State agency responsible for 
highways or by the U.S. Geological Survey.

                National Agricultural Statistics Service

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $174,517,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     163,000,000
Committee recommendation................................     175,294,000

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service [NASS] 
administers the Department's program of collecting and 
publishing current National, State, and county agricultural 
statistics. These statistics provide accurate and timely 
projections of current agricultural production and measures of 
the economic and environmental welfare of the agricultural 
sector which are essential for making effective policy, 
production, and marketing decisions. NASS also furnishes 
statistical services to other USDA and Federal agencies in 
support of their missions, and provides consulting, technical 
assistance, and training to developing countries.
    NASS is also responsible for administration of the Census 
of Agriculture, which is taken every five years and provides 
comprehensive data on the agricultural economy, including the 
following: data on the number of farms, land use, production 
expenses, farm product values, value of land and buildings, 
farm size and characteristics of farm operators, market value 
of agricultural production sold, acreage of major crops, 
inventory of livestock and poultry, and farm irrigation 
practices.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $175,294,000 
for the National Agricultural Statistics Service, of which 
$45,300,000 is for the Census of Agriculture.
    The Committee does not accept any proposed eliminations or 
reductions of ongoing activities, including Acreage, Crop 
Production and Grain Stocks; the Bee and Honey Program; the 
Chemical Use Data Series; the Floriculture Crops Report; and 
Fruit and Vegetable Reports. The funding provided will allow 
NASS to resume or begin compilation of these reports at the 
frequency levels assumed in fiscal year 2019, and NASS is 
directed to resume all of these reports immediately upon 
enactment of this act.
    Barley Estimates.--The Committee is encouraged that NASS 
has reinstated acreage and production estimates for barley in 
States that were previously discontinued in 2016 and 2017. The 
Committee expects NASS to continue providing barley acreage and 
production estimates for those States.
    Chemical Use Data Series.--The Committee believes that the 
Chemical Use Data Series provides timely, valuable information 
on fertilizer and chemical use data on major field crops and 
selected specialty crops. The Committee encourages NASS to 
continue funding the collection and analysis of chemical use 
data as well as practices such as integrated pest management. 
The Committee supports the NASS effort to resume collecting 
Fruit Chemical Use data and Vegetable Chemical Use data in 
alternating years and also directs the continuation of this 
practice to ensure equal access to Federal statistics.
    Floriculture Crops Report.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the Floriculture Crops Report and recommends an 
increase of $500,000 for NASS to complete the report. The 
Committee directs NASS to include data from Alaska in compiling 
the report.
    Organic Data Initiative.--The Committee encourages NASS and 
AMS to coordinate activities related to expanding organic price 
reporting and organic data collection.

                     Agricultural Research Service


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

Appropriations, 2019....................................  $1,303,266,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................   1,203,491,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,424,966,000

    The Agricultural Research Service [ARS] is responsible for 
conducting basic, applied, and developmental research through 
its major program areas of New Products/Product Quality/Value 
Added; Livestock/Crop Production; Food Safety; Livestock/Crop 
Protection; Human Nutrition; and Environmental Stewardship. The 
research applies to a wide range of goals; commodities; natural 
resources; fields of science; and geographic, climatic, and 
environmental conditions.
    ARS is also responsible for the Abraham Lincoln National 
Agricultural Library which provides agricultural information 
and library services through traditional library functions and 
modern electronic dissemination to agencies of the USDA, public 
and private organizations, and individuals.
    As the USDA's in-house agricultural research unit, ARS has 
major responsibilities for conducting and leading the national 
agricultural research effort. It provides initiative and 
leadership in five areas: research on broad regional and 
national problems, research to support Federal action and 
regulatory agencies, expertise to meet national emergencies, 
research support for international programs, and scientific 
resources to the Executive Branch and Congress.
    The mission of ARS research is to develop and transfer 
solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority 
and provide information access and dissemination to ensure 
high-quality, safe food and other agricultural products; assess 
the nutritional needs of Americans; sustain a competitive 
agricultural economy; enhance the natural resource base and the 
environment; and provide economic opportunities for rural 
citizens, communities, and society as a whole.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,424,966,000 
for salaries and expenses of the Agricultural Research Service. 
The Committee does not concur with the President's budget 
request regarding the termination of research programs and 
laboratory closures. The Committee expects extramural research 
to be funded at no less than the fiscal year 2019 levels.
    Aerial Application Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the ARS Aerial Application Technology Program. 
The program conducts innovative research making aerial 
applications more efficient, effective, and precise. Research 
for aerial application serves the public good as a vital tool 
for the future, as agriculture strives to meet the food, fiber, 
and bio-energy demands of a growing population.
    Agricultural Genomics.--The Committee provides no less than 
the fiscal year 2019 level for agricultural genomic research to 
expand the knowledge of public and private sector entities and 
persons concerning genomes for species of importance to the 
food and agriculture sectors in order to maximize the return on 
the investment in genomics of agriculturally important species.
    Agroforestry.--Agroforestry can provide on-farm financial 
and environmental benefits while also addressing the regional 
and national-scale issues of clean water, wildlife habitat, and 
hypoxia. Agroforesters manage trees with crops, livestock, and 
pasture to combine the best of both agriculture and forestry. 
Recognizing the importance of agroforestry to farm practices 
and the environment, the Committee recommendation includes no 
less than the fiscal year 2019 level to develop integrated 
strategies to manage multifunctional agricultural landscapes 
that combine trees with agricultural and horticultural crops, 
forages, and grazing livestock for optimal economic, 
environmental, and natural resources benefits.
    Alfalfa Research.--The Committee notes that research into 
alfalfa seed and alfalfa forage systems holds the potential to 
increase yields, increase milk production, and improve 
genetics, and the Committee recommendation includes an increase 
of $1,000,000 to support research focused on alfalfa 
improvement. Research should focus on using tools to accelerate 
and enhance existing breeding programs focused on improving 
yield and quality parameters; developing innovative harvesting 
and utilization systems; developing new markets for co-
products; and quantifying environmental benefits from alfalfa-
based systems.
    Alternative Technologies for Animal Waste Utilization.--The 
Committee provides $1,500,000 for the National Soil Dynamics 
Laboratory to conduct research and development of technologies 
to recover phosphorus from manure, transform manure into 
secondary byproducts, and find alternative, environmentally 
safe, and economical usages of manure. The research may also 
explore environmentally safe methods and appropriate rates of 
manure application for growing crops and vegetables and the 
development of alternative feedstock for livestock by raising 
aquatic zooplanktons on manure wastewater.
    Aquaculture Seedstock.--The Committee remains concerned 
that vital seedstock to support the development of aquaculture 
in Federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico will be sourced from 
foreign aquaculture producers. Domestic on-land recirculating 
aquaculture systems are highly capable of producing seedstock 
to support significant domestic on-land and offshore 
aquaculture industry growth including through broodstock 
acquisition and care, spawning, larval culture techniques. 
Therefore, the Committee encourages USDA to continue working 
collaboratively with U.S. aquaculture producers and research 
institutions that specialize in the development of aquaculture 
technologies and provides an additional $1,000,000 for the 
development of aquaculture technology that will ensure a steady 
supply of warm water marine fish seedstock for economic growth 
of the U.S. aquaculture industry.
    Atlantic Salmon Breeding Program.--The Committee directs 
ARS to continue its Atlantic salmon breeding and domestication 
work. The Committee notes that domestic salmon farms are 
required to only use strains of salmon that are of North 
American origin and that these strains need substantial 
breeding improvement in order to be competitive with strains 
currently used by foreign producers. The Committee notes that 
the current ARS Atlantic salmon breeding program lacks a 
geneticist and supports efforts by the Department to address 
this need.
    Blueberry Breeding.--The Committee provides $1,000,000 to 
fund a comprehensive national blueberry breeding research 
program to support research in the areas of physiology, 
horticulture, plant pathology, entomology, and fruit quality 
that complement breeding. The research will apply the latest 
tools in molecular breeding to blueberry improvement as well as 
developing cultivars suitable for machine harvesting.
    Cattle Fever Ticks.--Cattle fever ticks pose a significant 
health threat to U.S. cattle and other species across the 
entire southern region of the U.S. The Committee provides 
$1,000,000 for research to address the spread of cattle fever 
ticks.
    Center for Pollinator Health.--The Committee is aware that 
bees play a crucial role in U.S. agriculture as pollinators and 
that continued colony loss poses a serious threat to future 
food production. While the Committee commends the Department 
for the steps it has taken to better understand this problem 
and how to best address it, the Committee is concerned that the 
maximum benefits of multiagency efforts have yet to be 
achieved. The Committee provides an additional $2,000,000 for 
the Center for Pollinator Health in order to provide a central 
Federal voice on pollinator health. The Committee encourages 
ARS to collaborate with Federal and land-grant university 
partners to examine the impact of pesticides, varroa mites, and 
other potential contributors to bee colony declines.
    Ceratocystis Disease.--The Committee directs ARS to 
continue its study of Ceratocystis in the United States and 
implement actions and recommendations for response and 
management pursuant to Senate Report 115-131.
    Chronic Wasting Disease.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of a live test for cervids potentially affected with 
chronic wasting disease and provides an additional $1,000,000 
for research dedicated to the development of such test and 
research on pathways of transmission.
    Citrus Greening Disease Research.--The Committee commends 
ARS on its research efforts on citrus greening disease and 
encourages the agency to continue working to develop methods to 
reduce transmission, enhance immunity in citrus trees, and work 
with industry, universities, growers, and other partners to 
develop effective control mechanisms. The Committee also 
encourages ARS to coordinate its efforts with the 
HuanglongbiAng Multi-Agency Coordination [HLB-MAC] group.
    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.--The Committee 
recognizes that the focus of ARS's Foreign Animal Disease 
Diagnostic Laboratory is to research ways to detect and defeat 
dangerous Tier 1 High-Consequence Foreign Animal Diseases and 
Pests and to prevent their introduction and spread in the U.S. 
The Committee is also concerned about the potential harm to the 
cattle industry from contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, which 
can have a mortality rate as high as 80 percent. The Committee 
encourages ARS to partner with academia to develop improved 
diagnostic tests and vaccines for this harmful disease.
    Cotton Blue Disease.--The Committee is aware that emerging 
Cotton Blue Disease identified in Southeastern States could 
have a devastating impact on the cotton industry if it 
continues to spread. The Committee provides $5,000,000 and 
directs ARS to coordinate with APHIS, academic partners, and 
industry to develop a multi-State sentinel program with the 
purpose of conducting research to establish biomarkers for the 
disease and determine if there are viable extension management 
strategies pertaining to aphid control and general cotton 
management.
    Cotton Ginning.--The Committee recognizes the importance of 
pollution abatement, improving fiber quality, ginning 
efficiency, cotton seed and other byproducts, and provides an 
additional $500,000 to expand research in cotton ginning and 
innovation by existing laboratories.
    Cover Crops Research and Outreach.--The Committee 
recognizes the importance of developing profitable and 
practicable cover crop options for use in dairy, grain, and 
vegetable production systems, including for use in no-till 
organic systems and as forages. Therefore, the Committee 
recommendation includes an additional $750,000 to support 
research with the purposes of improving measures of soil health 
and resiliency; varietal development; optimizing dairy forage 
species combinations; timing and strategies for cover crop 
seeding and termination; forage integration into organic dairy 
systems; and mitigation of environmental and extreme rainfall 
impacts on water quality and soil security for diverse cover 
crop systems.
    Cranberry Research.--The Committee recognizes the need for 
advancements in water conservation, pest control, disease 
reduction, and fruit quality improvements in cranberry 
production. The Committee recommendation includes an increase 
of $1,000,000 for the improvement of cranberry yields, pest 
management, disease management, and water resource management 
by developing fields devoted to cranberry research and 
collection and storage of samples for analysis in appropriate 
existing laboratory facilities.
    East Coast Shellfish Breeding.--The Committee recognizes 
the dangers of parasites, bacterial and viral diseases to 
shellfish farmers and the importance of selective breeding to 
combat these infections. The Committee provides $1,200,000 for 
shellfish breeding research focused on the East Coast.
    Emerging Cereal Rust Diseases.--The Committee is aware that 
emerging cereal rust diseases are a threat to domestic and 
world food supplies. Therefore, the Department should continue 
to dedicate funding to speed efforts to combat cereal rust 
disease, including development of Ug99-resistant wheat 
varieties.
    Feed Enhancement.--The Committee recognizes the potential 
benefits of using Bromoform [CHBR3], currently produced by 
Asparagopsis taxiformis (red seaweed), as a cattle feed 
enhancement to reduce pollution. The Committee includes no less 
than the fiscal year 2019 level for the Livestock Nutrient 
Management Research Unit [LNMRU] to examine the applicability 
and potential benefits of Bromoform, whether produced by 
Asparagopsis taxiformis or an alternative method, as a cattle 
feed enhancement.
    Floriculture and Nursery Research.--The Committee 
recognizes the economic importance of the floriculture and 
nursery sector of agriculture and the industry's need for 
continued innovation. The Committee provides no less than the 
fiscal year 2019 funding level for ARS to support academic and 
Federal researchers to pursue efforts in crop protection, 
breeding, mechanization, and other areas through USDA's 
Floriculture and Nursery Research Initiative.
    Food Systems.--The Committee recommendation includes an 
additional $2,000,000 for ARS to support a Food Systems Center 
at a land-grant institution that addresses how local, regional, 
and global food systems can provide nutritious and culturally 
appropriate food, regardless of individual life circumstances.
    Foodborne Pathogens.--Salmonella continues to cause serious 
disease in food animals and, via transmission through 
contaminated food products to people, remains the number one 
bacterial foodborne pathogen in humans. The Committee provides 
no less than the fiscal year 2019 level to develop non-
antibiotic interventions to inhibit environmental movement of 
Salmonella between food animal species and to reduce the 
pathogen load in food animals themselves, using Salmonella-
targeted viruses called bacteriophages, as well as prebiotic 
and probiotic supplements.
    Forest Products.--The Committee recognizes the important 
role of the forests products sector to the U.S. economy. The 
need to create new and improved value-added products and 
renewable energy from our Nation's wood supply is critical to 
the sustainability of the national economy. The Committee 
recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 2019 level 
to support research on wood product quality improvement and 
improvement in forest products evaluation standards and 
valuation techniques. ARS shall conduct this research in 
consultation with the Forest Products Laboratory.
    Fruit Fly and Exotic Pest Control.--The Committee 
recommendation includes an additional $1,000,000 to implement 
recommendations issued pursuant to Senate Report 115-131 to 
provide additional support and capacity to prevent the spread 
of fruit flies and other exotic pests to the U.S. mainland from 
the tropical Pacific.
    Genetic Oat Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
potential genetic oat research has to improve disease 
resistance (especially rusts and viruses), genetics, increase 
yields, and develop crop rotation systems that include oats, 
which will enhance the value of oats and provide benefits to 
producers and consumers. The Committee includes an increase of 
$2,500,000 to expand existing research focused on oat 
improvement.
    Genomes to Fields.--The Committee recommendation includes 
no less than the fiscal year 2019 level to support the 
Germplasm Enhancement of Maize [GEM] project to complement the 
existing USDA maize germplasm programs and support the emerging 
large-scale public sector effort to investigate the interaction 
of maize genome variation and environments, known as the 
Genomes to Fields project.
    Healthy Soils Initiative.--The Committee provides 
$1,000,000 to support the study of enhanced food nutritional 
quality through Healthy Soil--Healthy Food--Healthy People 
Initiatives.
    Hemp Germplasm.--The Committee recognizes the increasing 
demand for hemp for a variety of uses and its growing 
importance as a crop for U.S. farmers. When the Nation's hemp 
germplasm was destroyed in the 1980s, researchers lost access 
to publicly available germplasm for plant breeding purposes. 
The Committee directs ARS to establish and maintain a hemp 
germplasm repository at the Plant Genetics Research Unit and 
provides no less than the fiscal year 2019 level for this 
purpose.
    Hemp Production Systems.--The Committee recognizes the 
emerging market potential for U.S. hemp and hemp-based products 
for a variety of uses. The Committee directs ARS to conduct 
regionally-driven research, development, and stakeholder 
engagement to improve agronomic and agro-economic understanding 
of effectively integrating hemp into existing agricultural 
cropping, processing, and marketing systems. The Committee 
provides $2,500,000 for this purpose. Research, engagement, and 
technology transfer shall be conducted in strict accordance 
with all applicable Federal and State authorities and 
regulations.
    High Performance Computing Support.--The Committee provides 
an additional $3,000,000 to support high performance computing 
capability to address scientific needs and directs ARS to 
collaborate with appropriate partners with the technical 
capacity and scientific synergy to provide cost-effective high 
performance computing support.
    Hops Research.--The Committee recommends no less than the 
fiscal year 2019 level to support hops research.
    Human Nutrition Research.--Maintenance of health throughout 
the lifespan along with prevention of obesity and chronic 
diseases via food-based recommendations are the major emphases 
of human nutrition research. This research supports USDA's 
strategic goals of nutrition monitoring; the scientific basis 
for dietary recommendations; prevention of obesity and related 
diseases; and life stage nutrition and metabolism, in order to 
better define the role of nutrition in pregnancy and growth of 
children and for healthier aging. The Committee includes an 
increase of $1,000,000 to expand research regarding life stage 
nutrition and metabolism; and the growth, health promotion, 
disease prevention, diet, and immune function of the developing 
child, especially the rural child. The Committee also provides 
an increase of $1,000,000 to address gaps in current ARS 
research at the critical intersection between agriculture and 
human nutrition and health.
    Impact of Harmful Algal Bloom [HAB] on Aquaculture.--The 
Committee provides $1,200,000 for the support of cooperative 
projects working on the toxicology of HABs including the algal 
species involved, the factors mediating toxin production or 
release, better detection methods, development of methods to 
predict release of toxins, and new biological or chemical 
approaches to manage harmful algal blooms in a cost-effective 
manner.
    Livestock Genetic Research.--The Committee is aware of the 
promise that genetic engineering holds for addressing livestock 
animal diseases, welfare, and production. However, the 
inability to consistently produce genetically engineered 
``founder animals'' in significant numbers represents the major 
bottle-neck for many promising animal biotechnologies. While 
the National Institutes of Health [NIH] have invested in such 
facilities for human biomedical research activities that 
produced needed mice, rats, and pigs, the USDA has not 
supported similar scale efforts. As such, the Committee 
provides $2,000,000 to partner with a major university where 
genetic engineering expertise is already available and to 
contract for such services for swine models and encourages the 
USDA to leverage existing investments in this area made by the 
NIH.
    Macadamia Tree Health Initiative.--The Macadamia Tree 
Health Initiative was authorized for the purpose of developing 
and disseminating science-based tools and treatments to combat 
the macadamia felted coccid. The Committee provides $1,000,000 
for this purpose.
    National Agricultural Library.--The Committee strongly 
encourages ARS to maintain its focus on agriculture-related 
legal issues within the National Agricultural Library. The 
Committee notes that as the agriculture sector faces increasing 
financial stress, there is a necessity that agriculture-related 
legal issues be addressed on an increasingly frequent basis. 
Further, agricultural-related legal issues are increasingly 
complex and the impact of these legal issues continues to 
broaden in scope. Therefore, the Committee recommendation 
includes an additional $3,000,000 for the National Agricultural 
Library to support the Agricultural Law Information 
Partnership.
    National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility.--The Committee 
provides an additional $41,100,000 for the continued transfer 
of the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility [NBAF] from the 
Department of Homeland Security [DHS] to USDA. The Committee 
reminds ARS of the detailed report (due April 2019) regarding 
NBAF requested in the fiscal year 2019 Senate report (S. Rept. 
115-259).
    Nutrition Research and Aging.--The Committee recognizes the 
critical importance of human nutrition research and its 
significance for preventative healthcare and degenerative and 
age-related diseases. More research is needed to address the 
needs of all Americans, with a particular focus on the elderly, 
the fastest growing segment of the population. Therefore, ARS 
is directed to prioritize human nutrition research across the 
lifespan.
    Pacific Shellfish Genetics and Breeding.--The Committee 
recognizes the economic importance of shellfish aquaculture for 
rural and coastal communities on the Pacific coast and the need 
for resilient, healthy genetic stocks that can withstand the 
region's changing ocean and coastal conditions as well as new 
disease threats. The Committee provides an increase of 
$2,000,000 for a shellfish genetics and breeding program to 
develop genetically improved stock, promote enhanced disease 
resiliency, modernize production technologies, and transfer 
technology and improved stocks to shellfish farmers in Pacific 
States.
    Pear Genetics and Genomics.--The Committee recognizes that 
research into pear genetics and genomics is needed to identify 
genetic sources of pest resistance and to contribute to 
improved, size-controlling rootstocks to enhance orchard 
efficiency, and to otherwise improve cultivated pear research. 
The Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal 
year 2019 level to support research into pear genetics and 
genomics.
    Pollinator Recovery, Education and Research.--The Committee 
is aware that bees play a crucial role in U.S. agriculture as 
pollinators and that colony loss poses a serious threat to 
future food production. The Committee provides $1,500,000 for 
the creation of a Pollinator Recovery, Education, and Research 
Center to be located within Central Appalachia that enjoys 
diverse deciduous forests, a number of micro-climates, and 
pristine environment with abundant nectar sources that would be 
conductive to restoring and nurturing pollinators.
    Postharvest Dairy Research--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of developing solutions to address agricultural 
postharvest inefficiencies to conserve limited resources and 
feed a growing population. The Committee provides no less than 
the fiscal year 2019 level for research to develop postharvest 
technologies that decrease waste and improve resource use of 
protein, fat, and sugar in dairy processing.
    Potato Research.--The Committee provides $1,000,000 for the 
development of new management strategies for potato storage 
that will maintain potato quality, reduce grower and processor 
losses, and increase profits.
    Poultry Production Technology Development.--The Committee 
recognizes the need for advancement in poultry processing as a 
result of increased global competition. The Committee 
recommendation includes $3,000,000 to support cooperative 
research focused on advancing domestic poultry production and 
processing through the development of a technology-driven, 
multidisciplinary approach that will increase innovation and 
discovery, particularly around animal welfare, food safety, 
labor and environmental protection.
    Poultry Research.--The Committee recognizes the important 
role of the poultry sector to the U.S. economy. The Committee 
provides no less than the fiscal year 2019 level to expand the 
research capacity for poultry production and health.
    Precision Agriculture.--The Committee is encouraged by the 
efforts of ARS to develop precision agriculture research 
grants. These grants increase the resilience of agricultural 
food systems by conducting research on data-driven sustainable 
farm management. The Committee encourages ARS to continue 
working collaboratively with research institutions to spur 
agricultural and technological innovation.
    Precision Aquaculture.--The Committee recognizes that land-
based, closed-containment aquaculture provides the capacity to 
raise freshwater or marine species in any locale with minimal 
environmental impacts. Implementing precision agriculture 
technologies in these systems will increase production 
efficiencies and profitability, ultimately increasing capacity 
for meeting the seafood demands of U.S. consumers through 
responsible and sustainable domestic aquaculture production. 
The Committee provides an additional $1,000,000 to implement 
precision aquaculture in land-based, closed-containment 
aquaculture systems.
    Precision Viticulture for Premium Grapes.--The Committee 
recognizes the rapid growth in demand for premium wine and the 
industry's concurrent benefits in terms of helping numerous 
rural communities generate new tourism and tax revenue. 
Relevant stakeholders have identified precision viticulture and 
decision support systems as the preferred path to improving 
grape productivity and quality. The Committee provides 
$1,000,000 for a collaborative research program focused on 
precision viticulture for premium grapes and wine and to 
support existing ARS viticulture and enology research programs.
    Predictive Modeling Tools.--The Committee supports efforts 
to develop sustainable agricultural production systems for 
crops through the use of forecasting tools that incorporate 
post-harvest soil testing and in-season monitoring of plant 
pathogens to combat crop diseases. The Committee provides 
$7,000,000 for ARS to work with Federal and land-grant 
university partners in order to develop predictive modeling 
tools that aid farm management decisions to improve 
agricultural production of row crops.
    Pulse Crop Quality.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of ARS wheat quality laboratories in researching and 
advancing the quality and overall utilization of wheat and 
pulse crops. The Committee provides $1,000,000 to further these 
efforts for pulse crops by establishing quality analysis 
standards, developing innovative production processes, and 
evaluating crop varieties for product functionality and market 
suitability.
    Pulse Health Initiative.--The Committee supports the 
expansion of pulse crop research and provides an additional 
$1,000,000 to enhance scientific research into the health and 
nutritional benefits of dry peas, lentils, chickpeas, and dry 
beans.
    Rangeland Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
demonstrated potential for cooperative partnerships to address 
complex sagebrush steppe ecosystem challenges in the Great 
Basin region. The Committee recommendation includes no less 
than the fiscal year 2019 level for ARS to support a regional, 
multi-institutional cooperative partnership to advance 
collaborative science-based conservation research, extension, 
and education to address time-sensitive and shared rangeland 
challenges affecting sustainable agricultural productivity, 
rural communities, and ecosystem health.
    Research Assistance.--The Committee encourages ARS to 
provide direct, place-based assistance to 1862 Institutions in 
States that do not have ARS facilities to address the research 
priorities of such States, such as invasive plant species and 
insects that cause significant impacts to agriculture, 
aquaculture, and communities in such States and to assist in 
the development of specialty and horticultural crops to 
increase food security and expand marketing opportunities for 
small farmers. The Committee directs ARS to submit a report on 
the prospective options of such assistance.
    Research Facilities.--The Committee understands the 
importance of ARS laboratories and the need for continued 
improvement. The Committee directs ARS to evaluate its capital 
asset requirements for necessary coordination with ongoing and 
emerging research opportunities. As part of this evaluation, 
ARS should provide opportunity for public comment in order to 
incorporate the priorities of all interested stakeholders, 
including ARS and other scientists, and users of ARS data.
    Resilient Dryland Farming.--The Committee recognizes the 
need for advancements in dryland production practices, 
cropping, and equipment to increase profitability, conserve the 
soil, enhance soil water storage, promote soil health, and 
decrease reliance on herbicides. The Committee provides no less 
than the fiscal year 2019 level to expand research focused on 
resilient dryland farming. Research should focus on improving 
yield and quality parameters; developing cropping systems 
capable of tolerating drought, heat, and diseases; and 
quantifying economic and environmental benefits from dryland 
crop production systems.
    Roseau Cane.--The Committee remains concerned with the 
invasive species scale insect pest that is destroying Roseau 
cane in the Mississippi River's Delta region along the Gulf of 
Mexico. An estimated 225,000 acres of wetlands in the Delta 
have been affected with the die-off, and Roseau cane is 
important in maintaining a healthy marsh and preventing 
erosion. The Committee directs ARS to continue to work with the 
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [APHIS] and 
stakeholders to develop an integrated management program for 
control of the Roseau cane scale insect pest infestation.
    Sclerotinia.--The Committee is aware of the economic 
importance of controlling sclerotinia, which affects 
sunflowers, soybeans, canola, edible beans, peas, and lentils 
and encourages ARS to continue both core research and 
cooperative projects of the National Sclerotinia Initiative.
    Shrimp Production Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of increasing domestic shrimp production and 
provides $1,000,000 for research and commercial development of 
production technologies that will improve shrimp health and 
streamline feed management regimes.
    Small Farm Orchard Production Current Research Information 
System [CRIS] Unit.--Development of low-cost technology and 
innovative production strategies for small farm fruit growers 
that enables profitable operations on a variety of lands, 
including reclaimed mines, increases overall fruit quality, 
reduces production costs, and increases economic and ecological 
sustainability is critically needed. The Committee provides 
$1,000,000 for the purpose of implementing a Small Farm Orchard 
Production CRIS. The Small Farm Orchard Production CRIS Unit 
would generate knowledge and technologies required to meet the 
challenges of successful small farm orchard operations located 
in rural and urban renewal locations.
    Small Fruits.--The Committee recognizes the need to support 
research to promote sustainable and organic production of berry 
and grape crops with the goal of reducing pesticide use and 
improving quality and yield. The Committee provides an 
additional $2,500,000 to support research to improve the 
ability to forecast pest and disease spread, implement 
precision management strategies, and to improve the overall 
quality of fruit.
    Small Grains Genomic Initiative.--The Committee supports 
research on barley and wheat high throughput genomics and 
phenotyping and recognizes its importance in improving crop 
traits and developing new cultivars. The Committee 
recommendation includes an additional $1,000,000 to support the 
Small Grains Genomic Initiative.
    Smoke Exposure.--The Committee is concerned about the 
impacts of wildfire smoke on winegrape producers and supports 
research to help growers and processors establish science-based 
threshold levels of smoke compounds that cause smoke-tainted 
grapes, identify the compounds responsible for smoke taints, 
develop mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate smoke taint, 
and conduct research into compounds that can act as a barrier 
between the grapes and the smoke compounds. The Committee 
provides $5,000,000 for this research.
    Soft White Wheat Falling Numbers Test.--The Committee 
recognizes the emerging crisis surrounding wheat starch 
degradation, as detected by the Hagberg-Perten Falling Numbers 
[FN] Test. The quality loss was particularly devastating to 
Pacific Northwest soft white wheat producers in late 2016. The 
Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 
2019 funding level to research the accuracy of the FN test and 
better understand environmental, storage, and genetic 
conditions leading to this quality loss.
    Sorghum Genetic Database.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of phenotyping and genotyping that allows breeders 
to understand which genes are responsible for improvements in 
pest resistance, drought tolerance, and yield. The Committee 
recommends no less than the fiscal year 2019 level to further 
facilitate the partnership between ARS and the Department of 
Energy on sorghum genome mapping, particularly the creation of 
an easily-accessed database to house the information generated 
from the ongoing genetic sequencing research which will 
facilitate further crop development efforts, especially in 
combating the sugarcane aphid, a new and devastating invasive 
pest.
    Sudden Oak Death.--The European strain 1 [EU1] and the 
North American strain 1 [NA1] of the sudden oak death pathogen 
are major threats to western Douglas-fir/tanoak forests, 
resulting in quarantine restrictions that threaten U.S. forests 
and export markets for log shipments and lily bulbs. The 
Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 
2019 level for research to improve understanding of the 
European Strain 1 and North American Strain 1 of the sudden oak 
death pathogen and treatment methods to inform control and 
management techniques in wildlands.
    Sugar Beet Research.--The Committee provides an additional 
$1,000,000 for plant disease research to improve the quality of 
sugar beet production.
    Sugarcane Variety Development.--The Committee recognizes 
the devastating impact wrought by invasive pests on the 
domestic sugarcane industry and provides an additional 
$1,000,000 to support the development of new pest and disease-
resistant varieties.
    Sustainable Aquaculture.--The Committee notes that 
aquaculture is the fastest growing food production industry in 
the world. The Committee provides $3,000,000 for a pilot 
Aquaculture Experiment Station in partnership with universities 
to support rapid response research on sustainable aquaculture 
for coldwater and warmwater production environments, with 
special emphasis on workforce education.
    Sustainable Water Use Research.--The alluvial plain within 
the Lower Mississippi River Basin is one of most productive 
agricultural regions in the United States. The Committee 
remains concerned with the unsustainable use of water in the 
Alluvial Aquifer as a result of increasing water withdrawals 
and stagnant recharging. The Committee provides an additional 
$1,000,000 for research to improve the recharge capabilities of 
the Alluvial Aquifer and to develop new conservation and 
irrigation techniques to reduce water usage in agriculture 
production.
    Tree Fruit Post-Harvest Research.--The Committee recognizes 
that tree fruit production, including pear and cherry, is a 
predominant supplier for domestic and international markets. 
The Committee further recognizes that the tree fruit industry 
faces significant economic vulnerability from variations in 
post-harvest quality control. The Committee provides an 
increase of $1,300,000 for pear and cherry tree fruit research 
to optimize yield and post-harvest quality, extend storage 
life, and promote enhanced resiliency from endemic and emerging 
diseases.
    Tropical and Subtropical Research.--Research on Tropical 
and Subtropical crops is critical as the presence of and 
destruction by invasive pests such as fruit flies, coffee berry 
borer, felted macadamia nut coccid, and plant viruses and 
fungal diseases increasingly threaten crop security in the 
Pacific and Insular Areas, and the Committee encourages ARS to 
support this research.
    UAS Precision Agriculture Applications.--The Committee 
provides no less than the fiscal year 2019 level to support 
efforts utilizing unmanned aerial systems [UAS] in crop 
production operations and to address the challenges associated 
with data capture, transfer and analysis.
    U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative [USWBSI].--The 
Committee recognizes that fusarium head blight is a major 
threat to agriculture, inflicting substantial yield and quality 
losses throughout the U.S. The Committee supports research 
carried out through the USWBSI. The Committee recommendation 
includes an additional $5,500,000 to conduct further research 
on reducing the impact of fusarium head blight on wheat and 
barley.
    Warmwater Aquaculture.--The Committee provides no less than 
the fiscal year 2019 level to facilitate the advancement of 
technologies that improve the efficiency, profitability, and 
sustainability of warmwater aquaculture production.
    Wheat and Sorghum Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
potential impact heat and drought can have on the yield and 
quality of wheat and sorghum and the need for new cultivars to 
adapt to changing climatic conditions. In addition, sorghum 
crops have been particularly hit hard by the invasive sugarcane 
aphid and new resistant cultivars are needed. The Committee 
provides an additional $650,000 for research to improve the 
productivity and quality of wheat and sorghum during uncertain 
growing seasons resulting from extended droughts and increased 
temperatures. Within this increase, funding is included to 
initiate gene flow research to advance the durability and 
sustainability of fitness traits in sorghum.

                        BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $381,200,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      50,000,000
Committee recommendation................................     304,800,000

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $304,800,000 
for Agricultural Research Service, Buildings and Facilities.

               National Institute of Food and Agriculture

    Section 7511(f)(2) of the Food, Conservation, and Energy 
Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-234) amends the Department of 
Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971) by 
establishing an agency to be known as the National Institute of 
Food and Agriculture [NIFA]. The Secretary transferred to the 
Director of NIFA, effective October 1, 2009, all authorities 
administered by the Administrator of the Cooperative State, 
Research, Education and Extension Service. The mission is to 
work with university partners and customers to advance 
research, extension, and higher education in the food and 
agricultural sciences and related environmental and human 
sciences to benefit people, communities, and the Nation.

                   RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ACTIVITIES

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $927,649,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     974,715,000
Committee recommendation................................     937,649,000

    Research and Education programs administered by NIFA are 
USDA's principal entree to the university system of the United 
States for the purpose of conducting agricultural research and 
education programs as authorized by the Hatch Act of 1887, as 
amended (7 U.S.C. 361a-361i); the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative 
Forestry Act of 1962, as amended (Public Law 87-788); the 
Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act, as 
amended (Public Law 89-106); the National Agricultural, 
Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977, as 
amended (Public Law 95-113); the Equity in Educational Land-
Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note); the Agricultural 
Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Public 
Law 105-185), as amended; the Food, Agriculture, Conservation 
and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-624); the Farm Security 
and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-171); and the 
Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-246). 
Through these authorities, USDA participates with State and 
other cooperators to encourage and assist the State 
institutions in conducting agricultural research and education 
through the State Agricultural Experiment Stations of the 50 
States and the territories; by approved Schools of Forestry; 
the 1890 Land-Grant Institutions and Tuskegee University and 
West Virginia State University; 1994 Land-Grant Institutions; 
by Colleges of Veterinary Medicine; and other eligible 
institutions. The appropriated funds provide Federal support 
for research and education programs at these institutions.
    The research and education programs participate in a 
nationwide system of agricultural research program planning and 
coordination among the State institutions, USDA, and the 
agricultural industry of America.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $937,649,000 
for research and education activities of the National Institute 
of Food and Agriculture.
    The following table summarizes the Committee's 
recommendations for research and education activities:

                  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE--RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
                                             [Dollars in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Committee
               Program/Activity                                  Authorization                    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hatch Act.....................................  7 U.S.C. 361a-i................................          259,000
McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act.....  16 U.S.C. 582a through a-7.....................           36,000
Research at 1890 Institutions (Evans-Allen      7 U.S.C. 3222..................................           58,000
 Program).
Payments to the 1994 Institutions.............  534(a)(1) of Public Law 103-382................            3,439
Education Grants for 1890 Institutions........  7 U.S.C. 3152(b)...............................           19,336
Education Grants for Hispanic-Serving           7 U.S.C. 3241..................................            9,219
 Institutions.
Education Grants for Alaska Native and Native   7 U.S.C. 3156..................................            3,194
 Hawaiian-Serving Institutions.
Research Grants for 1994 Institutions.........  536 of Public Law 103-382......................            3,801
Capacity Building for Non Land-Grant Colleges   7 U.S.C. 3319i.................................            5,000
 of Agriculture.
Resident Instruction and Distance Education     7 U.S.C. 3362 and 3363.........................            2,000
 Grants for Insular Areas.
Agriculture and Food Research Initiative......  7 U.S.C. 450i(b)...............................          425,000
Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment............  7 U.S.C. 3151a.................................            8,000
Veterinary Services Grant Program.............  7 U.S.C. 3151b.................................            3,000
Continuing Animal Health and Disease Research   7 U.S.C. 3195..................................            4,000
 Program.
Supplemental and Alternative Crops............  7 U.S.C. 3319d.................................            1,000
Multicultural Scholars, Graduate Fellowship     7 U.S.C. 3152(b)...............................            9,000
 and Institutions Challenge Grants.
Secondary and 2-year Post-Secondary Education.  7 U.S.C. 3152(j)...............................              900
Aquaculture Centers...........................  7 U.S.C. 3322..................................            5,000
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education  7 U.S.C. 5811, 5812, 5831, and 5832............           37,000
Farm Business Management......................  7 U.S.C. 5925f.................................            2,000
Sun Grant Program.............................  7 U.S.C. 8114..................................            3,000
Minor Crop Pest Management (IR-4).............  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................           11,913
Alfalfa Forage and Research Program...........  7 U.S.C. 5925..................................            3,000
Special Research Grants:
    Global Change/UV Monitoring...............  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................            1,405
    Potato Research...........................  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................            2,750
    Aquaculture Research......................  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................            2,000
                                                                                                ----------------
        Total, Special Research Grants........  ...............................................            6,155
                                                                                                ================
Necessary Expenses of Research and Education
 Activities:
    Grants Management System..................  ...............................................            7,830
    Federal Administration--Other Necessary     ...............................................           11,862
     Expenses for Research and Education
     Activities.
                                                                                                ----------------
        Total, Necessary Expenses.............  ...............................................           19,692
                                                                                                ================
        Total, Research and Education           ...............................................          937,649
         Activities.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Agricultural Research Enhancement Awards.--The Committee 
remains determined to see that quality research and enhanced 
human resources development in the agricultural and related 
sciences be a nationwide commitment. Therefore, the Committee 
continues its direction that not less than 15 percent of the 
competitive research grant funds be used for USDA's 
agricultural research enhancement awards program, including 
USDA Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research 
[EPSCOR].
    Agriculture and Food Research Initiative.--The Committee 
recommendation includes $425,000,000 for the Agriculture and 
Food Research Initiative [AFRI].
    Section 7406 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 
2008 (Public Law 110-234) specifies priority areas within AFRI, 
including an emphasis on conventional (classical) plant and 
animal breeding. The Committee strongly supports providing 
farmers nationwide with greater access to cultivars that are 
locally and regionally adapted to their soils, climates, and 
farming systems. The Committee is concerned that insufficient 
progress is being made in prioritizing this effort. As such, 
the Committee directs the agency to make regionally adapted, 
publicly held cultivar development a distinct funding priority 
within AFRI for fiscal year 2020 and directs the agency to take 
steps to improve its tracking of public cultivar projects 
within AFRI and report its progress in meeting this goal.
    Agriculture Technology.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support research and development of agricultural robotics, 
particularly to increase yields in vertically stacked farming 
production.
    Alfalfa and Forage Research.--The Committee notes that 
research into alfalfa and forage holds the potential to 
increase alfalfa and forage yields, increase milk production, 
and improve genetics. The Committee recommendation includes 
funding to support research into the improvement of yields, 
water conservation, creation of new uses, and other research 
areas holding the potential to advance the alfalfa seed and 
alfalfa forage industry.
    Algae Applications in Agriculture Research.--The Committee 
encourages NIFA to support research on algae and algae 
application in agriculture.
    Aquaculture Disease Research.--The Committee encourages 
USDA to support aquaculture disease and vaccine research, 
including research on coldwater aquaculture vaccines. There is 
currently no national facility for pathogen testing. Research 
into finfish vaccines and pathogens has the potential to 
accelerate the growth of sustainable U.S. aquaculture, reduce 
the trade deficit attributable to imported seafood, and reduce 
the pressure on overfished species.
    Aquaculture Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the domestic aquaculture industry to the U.S. 
economy. The Committee recommendation includes $2,000,000 for 
aquaculture research to address issues related to genetics, 
disease, systems, and economics.
    Binational Agricultural Research and Development.--The 
Committee is supportive of the activities carried out under the 
Binational Agricultural Research and Development [BARD] Fund 
and recognizes that this collaboration is of mutual benefit to 
the United States and Israel. BARD research projects have 
contributed significantly to both the U.S. and Israeli 
economies. The Committee is aware that NIFA signed a new 
Memorandum of Understanding with BARD in December 2018, which 
establishes the framework under which the participants will 
cooperate to promote collaboration among U.S. and Israeli 
scientists and engineers. The Committee encourages NIFA to 
leverage all possible funding streams to support BARD 
activities.
    Brucellosis Research.--Federal and State animal health 
officials have made eradicating livestock disease with 
significant reservoirs a national animal health priority. This 
need was reflected in the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 
113-79), which made the research and development of 
surveillance methods, vaccines, vaccination delivery systems, 
or diagnostics tests a priority research area under the 
Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (Public 
Law 89-106) particularly for bovine brucellosis and bovine 
tuberculosis. The Committee recognizes the need for this 
research and encourages the agency to make competitive grants 
available to study improved management tools for zoonotic 
livestock diseases with significant wildlife reservoirs.
    Cereal Crop Research.--Research on cereal crops has 
historically been conducted by USDA and public universities, 
and the Committee recognizes the importance of continuing 
investment in cereal crop research. The Committee strongly 
encourages USDA to provide funding for cereal crop research in 
the areas of genetic and genomic research, plant pest research, 
and improved production systems.
    Childhood Obesity.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support innovative efforts to address the unique challenges 
faced in addressing obesity among children and youth in urban, 
minority low-income populations and remote areas among native 
and underserved populations through a combination of family 
education, community health promotion, and clinical studies.
    Citrus Disease Research Program.--The Emergency Citrus 
Disease Research and Extension Program is intended to discover 
and develop tools for early detection, control, and eradication 
of diseases and pests that threaten domestic citrus production 
and processing and is provided $25,000,000 per year in 
mandatory funding through the Emergency Citrus Disease Research 
and Extension Trust Fund as authorized in the Agriculture 
Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334). The Committee 
believes research projects funded under this authority should 
be prioritized based on the critical threat of citrus greening 
and encourages NIFA, to the maximum extent practicable, to 
follow the recommendations of the National Agricultural 
Research, Extension, and Education Advisory Board's citrus 
disease subcommittee and to collaborate with the HLB-MAC group.
    Community College Centers of Excellence in Agribusiness 
Workforce Training.--The Committee encourages NIFA to designate 
Community College Centers of Excellence in Agribusiness 
Workforce Training, to include a limited number of two-year 
community and technical colleges with a demonstrated capability 
to provide training and education for Agribusiness. The Centers 
of Excellence will seek to develop model programs in 
Agribusiness and promote economic development.
    Community Food Projects.--The Committee is concerned that 
large grocer recruitment remains a problem for many 
communities, particularly those experiencing higher rates of 
abandoned or vacant homes, and encourages the Department to 
explore innovative approaches to address access to nutritional 
food options in urban food deserts. The Committee encourages 
NIFA to explore the development of community-wide urban 
agriculture projects that assist in eliminating vacant 
properties while providing the communities with much-needed 
fresh produce.
    Countering Seafood Fraud.--The Committee remains concerned 
about countering economic fraud and improving food safety of 
the U.S. food supply. The Committee is concerned that adequate 
technology is not yet available to provide for appropriate 
sampling of the food supply. The Committee believes NIFA should 
conduct research to develop technologies that will provide 
rapid, portable, and facile screening of fish species at port 
sites, wholesale, and retail centers.
    Diversification in Agriculture.--The Committee recognizes 
the rapid evolution of U.S. agriculture, including the 
diversification of practices, markets, and technologies as 
farms transition to one generation from another, and encourages 
NIFA to prioritize investments that deliver hands-on technical 
education in diversified agriculture and food systems and 
support technical colleges seeking to establish beginning 
farmer programs serving diversified agriculture, and aid in 
supporting farm viability.
    Dual Use/Dual Benefit.--The Dual Purpose with Dual Benefit: 
Research in Biomedicine and Agriculture Using Agriculturally 
Important Domestic Species is an interagency partnership grants 
program funded by the National Institute of Child Health and 
Human Development [NICHD] and USDA. The Committee strongly 
urges continuation of this partnership because it sponsors use 
of farm animals as dual purpose models to better understand 
developmental origins of disease, fat regulation and obesity, 
stem cell biology, assisted reproductive technologies, and 
infectious disease, which directly benefits both agriculture 
and biomedicine. This program also strengthens ties between 
human medicine, veterinary medicine, and animal sciences, which 
is key to success of the One Health Initiative.
    Food Safety.--The Committee recommends that NIFA prioritize 
research on funding for new food safety technologies relating 
to the Nation's meat supply that helps researchers, producers, 
and manufacturers.
    Food Safety and Defense Technology.--The Committee is 
concerned that insufficient progress is being made in the 
development of detection technology in the food safety sector. 
The ability to rapidly, accurately, and cost effectively detect 
pathogens or contaminants throughout the food supply chain is 
critical to protecting the United States from food-borne 
illnesses and malicious acts. As such, the Committee encourages 
NIFA to increase research of novel biodetection technologies 
and the implementation of mobile biodetection platforms in 
real-world conditions. The Department should consider 
technologies currently in use or under development in other 
fields, such as medicine or homeland security, to determine 
whether the technology can meet the needs in either high volume 
food production or mobile food defense monitoring.
    Foodborne Illness Prevention.--The Committee understands 
the significant threats to public health and to the economic 
viability of communities impacted by foodborne illness and 
believes that coordinated and targeted resources are needed to 
understand the risks and to develop effective strategies for 
control. The Committee continues to encourage NIFA, in 
coordination with the FDA, to establish a Center of Excellence 
for Foodborne Illness to coordinate a research program to 
reduce the risk of Listeria monocytogenes.
    Function and Efficacy of Nutrients to Treat Obesity.--The 
Committee supports research partnerships with academic entities 
to research how bioactive substances help reduce obesity. Given 
the persistent obesity problem in the country and the 
associated and growing costs to Federal healthcare programs, 
the Committee strongly supports increased investment in this 
area, as it holds great promise to develop new methods to 
tackle obesity in our communities.
    Genomes to Phenomes.--The Committee is supportive of the 
multi-university crop research initiative known as Genomes to 
Phenomes and encourages NIFA to support the development of 
tools and datasets that can be used across multiple crop 
species to improve the output and efficiency of agriculture.
    Lowbush Blueberries.--The Committee directs NIFA to work 
with research institutions to develop and refine predictive 
models and monitoring technologies for native and invasive 
pests for incorporation into integrated pest management 
programs for naturally seeded, native berry crops to increase 
the margin of food safety and product quality.
    Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research.--Nearly half the 
seafood consumed across the world is the result of aquaculture, 
and the aquaculture industry is a critical and growing part of 
the U.S. economy. However, less than one percent of worldwide 
production comes from U.S. producers. The Committee is 
concerned that inefficient production technologies hinder the 
ability of the domestic aquaculture industry to compete on a 
global scale. The Committee supports development and 
demonstration of an integrated aquaculture system that would 
contain at one site a highly competitive and sustainable system 
having a low environmental footprint and be primarily self-
contained. The Committee supports the development of a ``Beta'' 
model that would focus on developing, building, operating, 
demonstrating, and teaching around this intensified, 
integrated, bio-secure production technology for feed, fish-
plant, and energy products.
    Oak Mites.--The Committee directs NIFA to study the recent 
infestation of oak mites and focus on suppression and 
eradication possibilities.
    Organic Research.--USDA's National Organic Standards Board 
[NOSB] has identified key organic research priorities, many of 
which would help to address challenges that have limited the 
growth in organic production in this country. The Committee 
encourages NIFA to give strong consideration to the NOSB 
organic research priorities when crafting the fiscal year 2020 
Request for Applications [RFA] for AFRI and the Organic 
Transition Program. Given the growing demand for organic 
products, the Committee also encourages USDA to increase the 
number of organic research projects funded under AFRI and 
Specialty Crop Research Initiative [SCRI].
    Protein Functionality.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support research projects that characterize protein from crop 
plants such as chickpeas, sorghum, lentils, fava beans, lupin, 
rice, oats, mushrooms, and water lentils to assess their 
suitability for use in food products. The Committee is 
particularly interested in research projects involving plants 
that can be easily cultivated in the U.S. and that are 
sustainably grown and produced, such as water usage or 
fertilizer and pesticide requirements.
    Public Plant and Animal Breeding.--The Committee is 
concerned about the decline in public plant and animal breeding 
programs at our Nation's land-grant institutions over the last 
25 years and encourages LGUs to take steps to foster the next 
generation of public plant and animal breeders by placing a 
higher priority on the development of publicly available, 
regionally adapted cultivars and breeds. For all regions of our 
Nation to optimize their productive capacity in an 
environmentally sustainable manner, it is critical that the 
farmers of the region have access to the most up-to-date 
cultivars and breeds to meet ever-changing conditions.
    Regional Research Priorities.--The Committee encourages 
NIFA to consider providing funding within AFRI to assist with 
State and regional research priorities, with USDA oversight and 
review.
    Risk Management Education.--The Committee supports the 
recent expansion of the Risk Management Education Program to 
include educating farmers and providing technical assistance on 
a wide range of farm viability and risk management activities. 
The Committee notes the increase in mandatory funding provided 
by the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) 
for this program, and, in light of that increase, encourages 
NIFA to raise the maximum grant size in order to accommodate a 
wider range of project types and scopes. The Committee also 
urges NIFA to develop a process to support regional, multi-
regional, and national projects, which would require a separate 
larger maximum grant size.
    Seafood.--The Committee encourages USDA, in partnership 
with universities with established domestic shrimp farming 
programs, to support the development of a domestic industry 
that will help ensure the safety and quality of the Nation's 
seafood supply, promote environmentally sustainable 
aquaculture, create new opportunities for U.S. agriculture, and 
forge new markets for U.S. grain and oilseed products and 
technology services.
    Small Fruits Research.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support research to promote sustainable production of berry and 
grape crops with the goal of reducing pesticide use and 
improving quality and yield. Additionally, the Committee 
encourages USDA to support research to improve the ability to 
forecast pest and disease spread and implement precision 
management strategies.
    Specialty Crop Research Initiative.--The Committee 
emphasizes the important role of the Specialty Crop Research 
Initiative in addressing the critical needs of the specialty 
crop industry through research and extension activities. The 
Committee encourages NIFA to prioritize proposals for and 
enhance its overall commitment to identifying and addressing 
threats to pollinators from pests and diseases and the ability 
of farmers to extend their growing season through the use of 
winter growing techniques, including but not limited to high 
tunnel vegetable production.
    Supplemental and Alternative Crops.--The Committee 
recognizes the importance of nationally coordinated, regionally 
managed canola research and extension programs. The Committee 
encourages the Secretary to continue to seek input from 
stakeholders and to give priority consideration to proposals in 
the peer review process that address research needs in 
production areas with the greatest potential to expand, as well 
as those where canola production is established and needs to be 
maintained.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education [SARE].--The 
Committee is strongly supportive of the SARE program and 
directs USDA to ensure that research, education and extension 
activities carried out within SARE remain intact.
    The Committee believes that it is important for NIFA to 
evaluate the performance of each of its regional SARE Host 
Institutions on a regular basis; however, the Committee is 
concerned that the recent change in practice for NIFA to 
broadly solicit competitive Host Institution proposals at least 
every five years may interfere with the ability of the regional 
Host to retain qualified staff, and to establish a stable 
operating base, hindering rather than enhancing SARE program 
delivery. Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Secretary shall report to the Committees on 
Appropriations on whether frequent open competitions for SARE 
Host Institutions optimizes the delivery of the SARE program, 
as compared to previous performance reviews and competitive 
solicitations that were performed every ten years.
    Unmanned Aerial Systems in Agriculture.--The Committee 
encourages USDA to support regional institutes focused on the 
development of UAS and fostering new innovations in agriculture 
and cybersecurity. UAS is a tool to obtain data in a wide 
variety of application areas including energy, agriculture, 
power infrastructure, and transportation, all critical to rural 
States. The Committee encourages NIFA to support the research, 
development, and expansion of the use of UAS and high 
performance computing.
    Veterinary Corps.--Veterinarians fulfilling the terms of a 
contract under USDA's Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment 
Program, authorized by the National Veterinary Medical Services 
Act, shall be members of the National Veterinary Medical 
Services Corps and members who have fulfilled the terms of 
their contract shall be alumni of the Corps.

              NATIVE AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS ENDOWMENT FUND

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $11,880,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      11,857,000
Committee recommendation................................      11,880,000

    The Native American Institutions Endowment Fund authorized 
by Public Law 103-382, the Equity in Educational Land-Grant 
Status Act, provides an endowment for the 1994 land-grant 
institutions (34 tribally controlled colleges). This program 
will enhance educational opportunity for Native Americans by 
building educational capacity at these institutions in the 
areas of student recruitment and retention, curricula 
development, faculty preparation, instruction delivery systems, 
and scientific instrumentation for teaching. Income funds are 
also available for facility renovation, repair, construction, 
and maintenance. On the termination of each fiscal year, the 
Secretary shall withdraw the income from the endowment fund for 
the fiscal year, and after making adjustments for the cost of 
administering the endowment fund, distribute the adjusted 
income as follows: 60 percent of the adjusted income from these 
funds shall be distributed among the 1994 land-grant 
institutions on a pro rata basis, the proportionate share being 
based on the Indian student count; and 40 percent of the 
adjusted income shall be distributed in equal shares to the 
1994 land-grant institutions.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $11,880,000 
for the Native American Institutions Endowment Fund.

                          EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $505,692,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     415,274,000
Committee recommendation................................     509,082,000

    Cooperative extension work was established by the Smith-
Lever Act of May 8, 1914, as amended (Public Law 63-95). USDA 
is authorized to provide, through the land-grant colleges, 
cooperative extension work that consists of the development of 
practical applications of research knowledge and the giving of 
instruction and practical demonstrations of existing or 
improved practices or technologies in agriculture and related 
subjects, and to encourage the application of such information 
by demonstrations, publications, through 4-H clubs, and other 
means to persons not in attendance or resident at the colleges.
    To fulfill the requirements of the Smith-Lever Act, State 
and county extension offices in each State, the District of 
Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American 
Samoa, the Northern Marianas, and Micronesia conduct 
educational programs to improve American agriculture and 
strengthen the Nation's families and communities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $509,082,000 
for extension activities of the National Institute of Food and 
Agriculture.
    The following table summarizes the Committee's 
recommendations for extension activities:

                        NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE--EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
                                             [Dollars in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Committee
               Program/Activity                                  Authorization                    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Smith-Lever Act, Section 3(b) and (c) and       7 U.S.C. 343(b) and (c) and 208(c) of Public             315,000
 Cooperative Extension.                          Law 93-471.
Extension Services at 1890 Institutions.......  7 U.S.C. 3221..................................           48,620
Extension Services at 1994 Institutions.......  7 U.S.C. 343(b)(3).............................            6,446
Facility Improvements at 1890 Institutions....  7 U.S.C. 3222b.................................           19,730
Renewable Resources Extension Act.............  16 U.S.C. 1671 et seq..........................            4,060
Rural Health and Safety Education Programs....  7 U.S.C. 2662(i)...............................            4,000
Food and Animal Residue Avoidance Database      7 U.S.C. 7642..................................            2,500
 Program.
Women and Minorities in STEM Fields...........  7 U.S.C. 5925..................................              400
Food Safety Outreach Program..................  7 U.S.C. 7625..................................            8,000
Food and Agriculture Service Learning.........  7 U.S.C. 7633..................................            1,000
Farm and Ranch Stress Assistance Network......  7 U.S.C. 5936..................................            3,000
Smith-LeverAct, Section 3(d):
    Food and Nutrition Education..............  7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................           70,000
    Farm Safety and Youth Farm Safety           7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            5,000
     Education Programs.
    New Technologies for Agricultural           7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            1,550
     Extension.
    Children, Youth, and Families at Risk.....  7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            8,395
    Federally Recognized Tribes Extension       7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            3,039
     Program.
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Section 3(d).....................  ...............................................           87,984
Necessary Expenses of Research and Education
 Activities:
    Agriculture in the K-12 Classroom.........  ...............................................              552
    Federal Administration--Other Necessary     ...............................................            7,790
     Expenses for Research and Education
     Activities.
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Total, Necessary Expenses.............  ...............................................            8,342
        Total, Extension Activities...........  ...............................................          509,082
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Extension Design Initiative.--The Committee recognizes that 
for decades, the foundation of traditional farm extension 
programs had researchers and educators working on the farms and 
fields alongside crop and livestock producers but that changes 
are needed to develop a 21st century extension to meet the 
needs of today's farmers. The Committee notes that new efforts 
require USDA to use high-performance computing to develop, 
test, and deploy new digital infrastructure and platforms that 
can translate research into real-time interactive feedback, 
online modeling, demonstration, and simulations. The Committee 
directs NIFA to conduct meetings with producers, stakeholders, 
and policymakers to begin developing a framework for the next 
generation of farm extension programs.
    Farmer Stress.--The Committee remains concerned that 
farmers and individuals who work in agriculture face highly 
stressful working conditions, which can contribute to serious 
behavioral health concerns, especially during downturns in the 
farm economy. The Committee notes that Section 7412 of the 
Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) 
reauthorized the Farm and Ranch Stress Assistance Network to 
provide competitive grants to Indian tribes, State Departments 
of Agriculture, State cooperative extension services, and 
nonprofit organizations to carry out programs to address farmer 
stress and suicide.
    Food and Nutrition Education.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the Expanded Food Nutrition Education Program 
[EFNEP] and directs the Secretary to establish a pilot program 
to provide for an evaluation of improved food resource 
management and diet quality in populations not now served, 
including the elderly, households living below 185 percent of 
the poverty level, and low-income households with children of 
any age. The Secretary shall consider land grant universities 
with expertise in food system research.
    Minority Outreach.--The Committee is concerned that 
extension service resources do not reach minority, socially 
disadvantaged, and tribal communities in proportion to their 
participation in the agricultural sector. All institutions that 
receive extension activity funding should seek to ensure that 
an equitable percentage of their overall extension work reaches 
minority, socially disadvantaged, and tribal communities. The 
Committee directs NIFA to evaluate distribution of extension 
resources to these three populations and report to the 
Committee no later than 90 days after enactment of this act.
    Rural Opioid Addiction Training.--The Committee provides 
$4,000,000 for Rural Health and Safety Education Programs to 
combat opioid abuse in rural communities. The Committee is 
especially interested in utilizing innovative and collaborative 
methods to educate nurses and allied health professionals in 
opioid abuse and prevention. The Committee recommendation 
includes not less than $1,000,000 for competitive external 
grants for eligible institutions to support the utilization of 
telehealth, telemedicine, distance learning, and virtual and 
augmented reality experiences for opioid education and training 
in minority rural communities.

                         INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $38,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       1,697,000
Committee recommendation................................      38,000,000

    Section 406, as amended, of the Agricultural Research, 
Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-85) 
authorizes an integrated research, education, and extension 
competitive grants program.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $38,000,000 
for integrated activities of the National Institute of Food and 
Agriculture.
    The following table summarizes the Committee's 
recommendations for integrated activities:

                        NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE--INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES
                                             [Dollars in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Committee
               Program/Activity                                  Authorization                    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Methyl Bromide Transition Program.............  7 U.S.C. 7626..................................            2,000
Organic Transition Program....................  7 U.S.C. 7626..................................            6,000
Regional Rural Development Centers............  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................            2,000
Food and Agriculture Defense Initiative.......  7 U.S.C. 3351..................................            8,000
Crop Protection/Pest Management...............  7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................           20,000
                                                                                                ----------------
      Total, Integrated Activities............  ...............................................           38,000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Food and Agriculture Defense Initiative.--The Committee 
supports the important work being done through the publicly 
funded diagnostic laboratory network and encourages NIFA to 
prioritize funding to strengthen animal health diagnostic 
laboratories, taking into consideration the following: the 
degree to which the capacity for surveillance, monitoring, 
response, and capacity is enhanced; the concentration of human 
and animal populations that are directly at risk; trade, 
tourism, and cultural considerations; geography, ecology, and 
climate; evidence of active collaboration with, and support of, 
the State animal health officials; those States with highest 
risk for the introduction of foreign and emerging pests and 
diseases; and evidence of stakeholder support and engagement.
    Potato Research.--To minimize the application of pesticides 
and to maximize the yield and quality of harvested potatoes, 
the Committee directs the Secretary to support pest management 
programs in potato growing States. Such programs help 
scientists track potential pest outbreaks and provide growers 
and industry professionals with current information on specific 
and timely treatments. Additionally, the programs help identify 
serious diseases, such as late blight disease, in their early 
stages, allowing for preventive measures to be put into place 
quickly to avoid crop losses.

  Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $901,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         901,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and 
Regulatory Programs provides direction and coordination in 
carrying out laws with respect to the Department's marketing, 
grading, and standardization activities related to grain; 
competitive marketing practices of livestock, marketing orders, 
and various programs; veterinary services; and plant protection 
and quarantine. The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service; Agricultural Marketing Service; and Grain Inspection, 
Packers and Stockyards Administration.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $901,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory 
Programs.

               Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

Appropriations, 2019....................................  $1,011,136,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     981,893,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,027,916,000

    The Secretary of Agriculture established the Animal and 
Plant Health Inspection Service [APHIS] on April 2, 1972, under 
the authority of reorganization plan No. 2 of 1953, and other 
authorities. The major objectives of APHIS are to protect the 
animal and plant resources of the Nation from diseases and 
pests. These objectives are carried out under the major areas 
of activity, as follows:
    Safeguarding and Emergency Preparedness/Response.--The 
agency monitors plant and animal health worldwide, and sets 
import polices to prevent the introduction of foreign plant and 
animal pests and diseases. Domestically, the agency works 
cooperatively to conduct plant and animal health monitoring 
programs, pursue eradication, or limit the spread of the 
threat. The agency also conducts diagnostic laboratory 
activities that support disease prevention, detection, control, 
and eradication programs. In addition, the agency protects 
agriculture from detrimental animal predators, and through its 
regulatory structure helps advance genetic research while 
protecting against the release of harmful organisms.
    Safe Trade and International Technical Assistance.--The 
agency helps resolve technical trade issues to ensure the 
smooth and safe movement of agricultural commodities into and 
out of the United States. The agency negotiates animal and 
plant health certification requirements and assists U.S. 
exporters meet foreign regulatory demands. In addition, the 
agency assists developing countries in improving their 
safeguarding systems, to protect the United States from 
emerging plant and animal pests and diseases.
    Animal Care.--The agency conducts regulatory activities 
that ensure the humane care and treatment of animals and horses 
as the Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544) and Horse 
Protection Acts (Public Law 91-540) require. These activities 
include inspection of certain establishments that handle 
animals intended for research, exhibition, and as pets, and 
monitoring certain horse shows.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,027,916,000 
for salaries and expenses of the Animal and Plant Health 
Inspection Service.
    The following table reflects the Committee's specific 
recommendations for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service:

                                   ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Safeguarding and International Technical Assistance:
    Animal Health Technical Services.........................           37,857           44,857           37,857
    Aquatic Animal Health....................................            2,253            2,253            2,253
    Avian Health.............................................           62,840           62,840           62,840
    Cattle Health............................................           96,500           96,500           96,500
    Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant Health.................           20,800           16,500           26,000
    National Veterinary Stockpile............................            5,725            5,725            5,725
    Swine Health.............................................           24,800           19,753           24,800
    Veterinary Biologics.....................................           16,417           16,417           17,417
    Veterinary Diagnostics...................................           50,140           49,230           57,340
    Zoonotic Disease Management..............................           16,523           15,744           16,523
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Animal Health................................          333,855          329,819          347,255
                                                              ==================================================
    Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (Appropriated)........           32,330           31,330           32,330
    Cotton Pests.............................................           11,520            7,000           11,520
    Field Crop & Rangeland Ecosystems Pests..................           11,826            7,809           13,826
    Pest Detection...........................................           27,446           27,446           27,446
    Plant Protection Methods Development.....................           20,686           20,686           20,686
    Specialty Crop Pests.....................................          186,013          176,843          186,013
    Tree & Wood Pests........................................           60,000           56,000           60,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Plant Health.................................          349,821          327,114          351,821
                                                              ==================================================
    Wildlife Damage Management...............................          108,376          108,376          109,756
    Wildlife Services Methods Development....................           18,856           18,856           18,856
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Wildlife Services............................          127,232          127,232          128,612
                                                              ==================================================
    Animal & Plant Health Regulatory Enforcement.............           16,224           16,224           16,224
    Biotechnology Regulatory Services........................           18,875           18,875           18,875
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Regulatory Services..........................           35,099           35,099           35,099
                                                              ==================================================
    Contingency Fund.........................................              470              470              470
    Emergency Preparedness & Response........................           40,966           40,966           40,966
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Emergency Management.........................           41,436           41,436           41,436
                                                              ==================================================
      Subtotal, Safeguarding and Emergency Preparedness/               887,443          860,700          904,223
       Response..............................................
                                                              ==================================================
Safe Trade and International Technical Assistance:
    Agriculture Import/Export................................           15,599           15,599           15,599
    Overseas Technical & Trade Operations....................           24,115           22,115           24,115
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Safe Trade...................................           39,714           37,714           39,714
                                                              ==================================================
Animal Welfare:
    Animal Welfare...........................................           31,310           30,810           31,310
    Horse Protection.........................................              705              705              705
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Animal Welfare...............................           32,015           31,515           32,015
                                                              ==================================================
Agency Management:
    APHIS Information Technology Infrastructure..............            4,251            4,251            4,251
    Physical/Operational Security............................            5,146            5,146            5,146
    Rent and DHS security payments...........................           42,567           42,567           42,567
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Agency Management............................           51,964           51,964           51,964
                                                              ==================================================
      Total, Direct Appropriation............................        1,011,136          981,893        1,027,916
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Agricultural Quarantine Inspection.--The Committee 
recognizes that prevention of infestations of pests and 
diseases is much more cost effective than subsequent control or 
eradication. This is an important Federal responsibility and 
the Committee provides $32,330,000 for the agricultural 
quarantine inspections [AQI] function, including pre-departure 
and interline inspections.
    On July 17, 2017, USDA announced a request for comments and 
information on regulations that are in need of reform. The 
Committee has previously expressed its concern that the 
restructured commercial aircraft fees for the APHIS Agriculture 
Quarantine Inspection [AQI] program may not be equitable to 
small aircraft. The Committee directs the Secretary to 
specifically consider any comments submitted on the impact of 
the AQI fee structure on small aircraft as part of its 
regulatory review process and to provide the Committee with 
detailed rationale for its decision if regulatory relief is not 
granted in this area.
    The Committee notes that assessing AQI treatment monitoring 
fees on a per-enclosure basis imposes disproportionate impacts 
on industry and user groups at certain key ports of entry, 
including ports along the southeast United States. USDA is 
encouraged to continue evaluating alternative and equitable 
funding mechanisms in consultation with relevant stakeholder 
groups.
    Agro-Defense Data Collection and Analysis.--The Committee 
encourages USDA to support data collection and analytics, 
including university-led research, in support of a program to 
detect, aggregate, and analyze man-made and naturally occurring 
disruptive events, both domestically and abroad, to assist in 
developing policy to better secure agricultural infrastructure.
    Avian Influenza.--The Committee recognizes the extreme 
economic hardship posed to gamebird and egg farmers when flocks 
are determined to be infected by high and low pathogenic avian 
influenza and acknowledges the severe limitations on controlled 
marketing available to producers of live game birds, as well as 
the income loss from egg production. The Committee encourages 
APHIS to provide full indemnity coverage for gamebird and egg 
operations and cease attempts to limit coverage.
    Bee Pests.--The Committee remains concerned with declining 
bee populations and the tragic implications for pollination of 
U.S. agriculture. The Committee directs the agency to continue 
priority work with other Federal and State agencies and the 
public to manage, suppress, and eradicate varroa mites, small 
hive beetles, and other pests and diseases contributing to 
colony collapse disorder.
    Cattle Fever Ticks.--The Committee appreciates the 
commitment by APHIS, including recent additional funding, to 
respond to the most recent outbreak of cattle fever ticks. The 
Committee encourages the agency to maintain this focus and 
provide adequate funding for all activities under the Cattle 
Fever Tick Eradication Program [CFTEP]; heighten efforts to 
coordinate the response with the Department of Interior on 
national wildlife refuges; and provide sufficient funding for 
research and scientific tools to be developed that concentrate 
on the following: new systematic cattle fever tick treatment 
products with longer treatment intervals for cattle; new cattle 
fever tick treatment products for wildlife, especially nilgai 
antelope; and new or improved cattle fever tick preventative 
therapies, such as vaccines, for both cattle and wildlife 
hosts. To prevent movement of livestock and game animals 
outside of quarantined or high-risk premises, the Committee 
encourages APHIS to use available funds for a cost-share 
program for the construction and repair of livestock or game 
fencing on private lands.
    Ceratocystis Disease.--The Department is directed to 
continue its reporting on Ceratocystis Disease in the United 
States.
    Chronic Wasting Disease [CWD].--The Committee provides no 
less than $9,000,000 for cervid health activities. Within the 
funds provided, APHIS should give consideration to indemnity 
payments if warranted. The Committee is also concerned about 
the growing threat of chronic wasting disease and its impact on 
free-ranging deer populations. Of the amount provided for 
cervid health activities, $5,000,000 is provided for APHIS to 
allocate funds directly to State departments of wildlife and 
State departments of agriculture to further develop and 
implement chronic wasting disease surveillance, testing, 
management, and response activities. In allocating these funds, 
APHIS shall give priority to States that have experienced a 
recent incident of CWD, have a CWD monitoring and surveillance 
program, and have a diagnostic laboratory system certified for 
CWD testing.
    Citrus Health Response Program [CHRP].--CHRP is a national 
effort to maintain a viable citrus industry within the United 
States, maintain producers' continued access to export markets, 
and safeguard citrus producing States against a variety of 
invasive pests and diseases. These funds are designed to 
partner with State departments of agriculture and industry 
groups to address the challenges of citrus pests and diseases. 
In addition to the funds provided in this account, the 
Committee encourages APHIS to utilize the funds available in 
the Plant Pest and Disease Management and Disaster Prevention 
Programs account to the greatest extent possible in an attempt 
to sustain the economic viability of the citrus industry.
    Cogongrass Management and Control.--The Committee remains 
concerned about the rapid spread of cogongrass and its impact 
on forest productivity, wildlife habitat, and private 
landowners. The Committee provides $3,000,000 for APHIS to 
partner with State departments of agriculture and forestry 
commissions in States considered to be the epicenter of 
infestations, to assist with the control and treatment of 
cogongrass in order to slow the advancing front of this 
invasive plant-pest species.
    Huanglongbing Emergency Response.--The Committee maintains 
the increased funding levels for Huanglongbing Emergency 
Response within the Specialty Crop Pests line item included in 
fiscal year 2019. The Committee encourages APHIS to allocate 
sufficient resources in order to continue vital management, 
control, and associated activities to address citrus greening. 
The disease, for which there is no cure, has caused a reduction 
in citrus production by over 60 percent since 2007 in Florida 
alone. All citrus producing counties in Texas are under 
quarantine, and California has detected the disease in some 
backyard trees in the Los Angeles basin. The spread of this 
disease has called the domestic citrus industry's future into 
question, costing thousands of jobs and millions in lost 
revenue and increased production costs per acre. In addition, 
the agency is encouraged to support priorities and strategies 
identified by the Huanglongbing Multi-Agency Coordination [HLB-
MAC] Group which will benefit the citrus industry. The agency 
should appropriately allocate resources based on critical need 
and maximum effect to the citrus industry. The Committee 
maintains the fiscal year 2019 funding level for citrus health 
to support priorities and strategies identified by the HLB-MAC 
group. The MAC is focused on short-term solutions to help the 
citrus industry, and the cooperative nature of Federal, State, 
and industry representatives in this group is expected to 
result in the development of tools and techniques to address 
this devastating disease. Helping growers explore new possible 
solutions, the MAC has been an effective resource. The agency 
should appropriately allocate resources based on critical need 
and maximum impact to the citrus industry. These citrus health 
activities directly protect citrus production on approximately 
765,000 acres in the United States worth more than 
$11,000,000,000 in total.
    Huanglongbing Multi-Agency Coordination [HLB-MAC] Group.--
The Committee recognizes the significant economic impact of 
this disease on the citrus industry, which is especially acute 
in Florida and a growing concern in both Texas and California. 
The Committee also understands that growers are requesting the 
right to try treatments that have begun to show success in 
early stages of testing. The Committee encourages the HLB-MAC 
group to explore and identify new methods to expedite the 
delivery of promising treatments directly to growers. Finally, 
the Committee expects any funds which are redirected from 
existing HLB-MAC projects be repurposed to other priority HLB-
MAC projects that are showing promising results to ensure these 
critical funds remain committed to help facilitate the design 
and implementation of the rapid delivery pathway to growers.
    Invasive Tree Pests.--The Committee recognizes that the 
forests products industry and family forest owners are under 
increasing threat from a growing number of invasive forest 
pests. It is essential that APHIS carry out a comprehensive 
program to counter the spread of invasive species and work 
towards complete eradication of the Asian long-horned beetle. 
The Secretary is directed to report to the Committee regarding 
the steps being taken to eradicate the Asian long-horned beetle 
and spotted lanternfly and to minimize the spread of other 
pests such as the polyphagous and Kuroshio shot hole borers. As 
the emerald ash borer continues to spread, APHIS shall continue 
to assist States that have recent detections of emerald ash 
borer where assistance will enable States to fully monitor the 
insect and to inform and manage public and private land owner 
issues.
    National Bio and Agro-Defense Human Capital Development.--
The Committee notes that significant resources have been 
invested in NBAF and is concerned about projected staffing 
shortages of qualified veterinary diagnosticians and scientists 
for the NBAF, which is slated for full operation in 2022. The 
Committee provides $3,000,000 to APHIS to ensure necessary 
steps are taken to develop a qualified workforce that are 
subject matter experts in foreign, emerging, and zoonotic 
diseases and capable of developing, validating, and conducting 
needed diagnostics, performing epidemiologic studies, and 
completing bioinformatics analyses. The Committee encourages 
APHIS to establish cooperative agreements with academic 
research institutions, particularly non-land grant Hispanic-
Serving Institutions, to support the next generation of the 
NBAF workforce.
    National Clean Plant Network-Berries.--The Committee notes 
the importance of the National Clean Plant Network [NCPN] and 
its goal to ensure that specialty crop producers have access to 
plant material that is free of pests and diseases. The 
Committee encourages the Department to assess the additional 
needs of the NCPN-Berries to establish an additional full-
service center that provides both diagnostic and therapy 
services.
    Non-lethal Strategies.--The Committee is aware that 
Wildlife Services has worked with landowners to deploy non-
lethal strategies--e.g., fladry, electric fencing, and 
livestock guardian dogs--to reduce predator depredation on 
livestock. The bill provides an increase of $1,380,000 for 
Wildlife Services to hire personnel exclusively to promote and 
implement non-lethal livestock-predator conflict deterrence 
techniques in interested States and to assist in providing 
training in these techniques to agricultural producers, 
landowners, and other agency personnel in collaboration with 
the National Wildlife Research Center.
    Regional Biosecurity Plan for Micronesia and Hawaii.--The 
Secretary is directed to submit a report to this Committee on 
USDA activities to implement the Regional Biosecurity Plan for 
Micronesia and Hawaii [RBP]. The report shall include an update 
on agencies' activities to date to implement the RBP and 
agencies' planned activities for further implementation.
    Roseau Cane.--The Committee remains concerned with the 
invasive species scale insect pest that is destroying Roseau 
cane in the Mississippi River's Delta region along the Gulf of 
Mexico. An estimated 225,000 acres of wetlands in the Delta 
have been affected with the die-off, and Roseau cane is 
important in maintaining a healthy marsh and preventing 
erosion. The Committee directs APHIS to work with ARS and 
stakeholders and provides an additional $1,000,000 to develop 
an integrated management program for control of the Roseau cane 
scale insect pest infestation.
    Sudden Oak Death.--The European strain 1 [EU1] and the 
North American strain 1 [NA1] of the sudden oak death pathogen 
are major threats to western Douglas-fir/tanoak forests, 
resulting in quarantine restrictions that threaten U.S. forests 
and export markets for log shipments and lily bulbs. The 
Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 
2019 funding level to improve understanding of the European 
Strain 1 and North American Strain 1 of the sudden oak death 
pathogen and treatment methods to inform control and management 
techniques in wildlands.
    Tropical Fruit Pest Risks.--The Committee is concerned 
about proposals to allow the importation of fresh tropical 
fruits from Mexico, including mamey sapote, sapodilla, soursop, 
and mombin. In particular, the Committee believes the risks of 
imported pests associated with these fruits are significantly 
understated in the agency's May 2, 2019 pest risk analyses and 
that the specific mitigation measures recommended are not 
robust enough to minimize the threat to U.S. agriculture.
    West Nile Virus.--The Committee remains concerned with the 
threats to human and animal health posed by West Nile virus and 
recognizes that a critical strategy for addressing these 
threats is necessary to prevent the infection and transmission 
by known vectors, including farm-raised alligators. The 
Committee encourages APHIS to further investigate West Nile 
virus and other infectious diseases affecting farm raised 
alligators and develop treatments and methods to prevent 
infection and transmission.
    Wildlife Damage Management.--APHIS is responsible for 
providing Federal leadership in managing problems caused by 
wildlife. The Committee provides $109,756,000 for wildlife 
damage control to maintain priority initiatives, including 
preventing the transport of invasive snakes and other harmful 
species. No less than the fiscal year 2019 level should be 
available for the agency to reduce blackbird depredation in the 
Northern Great Plains.
    The Committee maintains support for assistance to catfish 
producers to help mitigate wildlife depredation, particularly 
as it pertains to fish-eating and disease-carrying birds. The 
Committee provides no less than the fiscal year 2019 level for 
damage management efforts and the development of methods to 
assist producers in combatting the persistent threat and 
economic hardship caused by cormorants, pelicans, and other 
birds.
    The Committee recognizes the importance of the National 
Feral Swine Damage Management Program in reducing adverse 
ecological and economic impacts caused by feral swine. The 
Committee provides no less than the fiscal year 2019 level in 
support of APHIS efforts to decrease these invasive pests' 
damage and risk to agriculture, natural resources, and 
property.
    The Committee provides $28,000,000 for the National Rabies 
Management Program to fortify existing barriers and advance 
prevention and eradication efforts.
    Given the shared and complementary goals of Wildlife Damage 
Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to 
sustainably integrate wildlife into natural habitats while 
protecting livestock, the Secretary is directed to coordinate 
with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on innovative 
strategies to provide predator management and reduce predator-
livestock conflict. The Secretary is further directed to report 
to this Committee on how the two agencies can work together to 
improve wildlife management.
    Wildlife Services Education and Training.--The Committee is 
aware of the wide range of hazardous procedures and materials 
utilized by APHIS personnel in the conduct of daily duties. In 
addition, a recent comprehensive study noted the critical need 
to provide standardized safety training, certification, and 
database management for tracking to ensure the safest working 
environment possible. As such, the Committee provides 
$2,000,000 within Wildlife Damage Management to maintain a 
National Training Academy focused on those areas of greatest 
concern such as pyrotechnics, firearms, hazardous materials, 
immobilization and euthanasia drugs, pesticides, animal care 
and handling, land vehicles, watercraft, and zoonotic diseases.

                        BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $3,175,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       2,709,000
Committee recommendation................................       3,175,000

    The APHIS appropriation for ``Buildings and Facilities'' 
funds major nonrecurring construction projects in support of 
specific program activities and recurring construction, 
alterations, preventive maintenance, and repairs of existing 
APHIS facilities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommendation includes an appropriation of 
$3,175,000 for buildings and facilities of the Animal and Plant 
Health Inspection Service. This funding is necessary to allow 
APHIS to maintain existing facilities and perform critically 
needed repairs to and replacements of building components, such 
as heating, ventilation and air-conditioning on a prioritized 
basis at APHIS facilities. The Committee notes that due to the 
environmentally sensitive nature of many APHIS facilities, 
closure of a facility could result if APHIS is unable to 
complete the required repairs.

                     Agricultural Marketing Service


                           MARKETING SERVICES

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $159,095,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     115,143,000
Committee recommendation................................     181,549,000

    The Agricultural Marketing Service [AMS] was established by 
the Secretary of Agriculture on April 2, 1972. AMS carries out 
programs authorized by more than 50 different statutory 
authorities, the primary ones being the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621-1627, 1635-1638); the U.S. Cotton 
Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 51-65); the Cotton Statistics and 
Estimates Act (7 U.S.C. 471-476); the Tobacco Inspection Act (7 
U.S.C. 511-511q); the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act 
(7 U.S.C. 499a-499t); the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 
U.S.C. 1031-1056); and section 32 of the Act of 1935 (Public 
Law 74-320, 7 U.S.C. 612c).
    Programs administered by this agency include the market 
news services, standardization, grading, classing, shell egg 
surveillance services, transportation services, wholesale 
farmers and alternative market development, grant payments to 
States for marketing activities, the Federal administration of 
marketing agreements and orders, commodity purchases, 
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, the Plant Variety 
Protection Act (Public Law 71-325), and market protection and 
promotion activities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $181,549,000 
for Marketing Services of the Agricultural Marketing Service.
    The Committee provides an additional $2,000,000 for the 
Acer Access and Development Program. The Secretary shall use 
the increase for competitive grants for the promotion of 
research and education.
    Hemp.--The Committee provides $16,500,000 for 
implementation of the hemp provisions of the Agriculture 
Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334). The Committee is 
concerned that the regulations and guidance required to fully 
implement the hemp provisions included in the Agriculture 
Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) may not be 
completed in time to give States and farmers sufficient time to 
plan for the 2020 crop year, which would further delay the 
commercial production and interstate commerce of hemp in the 
United States. Therefore, the Committee directs the Secretary 
to implement the new Hemp Production Program promptly to allow 
for a clear regulatory framework and approval of State plans 
ahead of the 2020 crop year. The Committee further directs the 
Secretary to fully coordinate and communicate among USDA 
agencies and with other Federal agencies to support the 
commercial production and interstate commerce of industrial 
hemp.
    Mango Referendum.--The Committee is aware that, because of 
a controversial referendum, AMS recently announced that frozen 
mangoes would be added as a covered commodity in its fresh 
mango national research and promotion program. The Committee is 
further aware of significant concerns regarding the process by 
which AMS conducted the referendum regarding the inclusion of 
frozen mangoes, including minimal consultation with the frozen 
mango industry and ballot distribution, which gave 
disproportionate representation to the fresh mango industry. 
Therefore, the Committee directs AMS to halt the implementation 
of the assessments on the frozen mango industry.
    National Organic Program.--The Committee provides 
$15,094,000 for the National Organic Program [NOP], an increase 
of $1,000,000. A healthy market for organic products requires a 
clear product distinction backed by a trusted, verified, and 
enforced label. The Committee recognizes that the NOP, which 
enforces the organic regulations and ensures they evolve to 
keep pace with consumer expectations, is essential. In light of 
recent reports of inadequate enforcement of organic standards, 
the Committee directs USDA to provide all resources needed for 
the NOP to deliver the strongest possible oversight before 
allowing the USDA organic seal to be granted to domestic and 
international operations and products.
    Native American Foods and Tourism.--The Committee 
recognizes that enhanced Native American tourism creates 
important job opportunities in Native American communities 
while showcasing their heritage, food, traditions, history, and 
continuing vitality. The Committee encourages USDA to support 
the Native American Tourism and Improving Visitor Experience 
Act (Public Law 114-221) by prioritizing projects that market, 
promote, or expand Native American foods, markets, and 
enterprises.
    Organic Certification for Wild Seafood.--The Committee is 
aware of interest in developing organic production, handling, 
and labeling standards for wild caught seafood as provided for 
in Section 6506 of the Organic Foods Production Act (7 U.S.C. 
6506(c)). The Committee urges USDA to initiate dialogue with 
interested parties, including the wild caught seafood industry 
and the organic community, to determine the feasibility and 
framework for establishing such standards.
    Organic Dairy.--The Committee is disappointed by continued 
reports of inconsistencies in the enforcement and 
interpretation of regulations that apply to organic dairy 
farms. The Committee directs the NOP to resolve these issues 
and eliminate any inconsistencies in applying and enforcing 
regulations relating to the transition of livestock to organic 
dairy production and dry matter intake during the grazing 
season for organic dairy cattle. The Secretary must ensure that 
organic inspectors, certification file review staff, and NOP 
Organic Certification staff have documented training and 
experience in livestock nutrition and grazing on organic 
dairies with more than 1,000 milking cows if they are 
certifying operations of that size, and also that separate dry 
matter intake calculations are made for each category of dairy 
cow and not averaged among milking and dry cows, and that 
inspections are conducted during the grazing season.
    Organic Data Initiative.--The Committee supports continued 
coordination with NASS for activities related to expanding 
organic price reporting and organic data collection.

                 LIMITATION ON ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES

Limitation, 2019........................................     $61,227,000
Budget limitation, 2020.................................      60,982,000
Committee recommendation................................      61,227,000

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Public Law 
97-35) initiated a system of user fees for the cost of grading 
and classing cotton, and tobacco. These activities, authorized 
under the U.S. Cotton Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 51 et seq.), the 
Tobacco Inspection Act (7 U.S.C. 511 et seq.), and other 
provisions of law are designed to facilitate commerce and 
protect participants in the industry.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $61,227,000 on 
administrative expenses of the Agricultural Marketing Service.

    FUNDS FOR STRENGTHENING MARKETS, INCOME, AND SUPPLY (SECTION 32)

                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $20,705,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      20,705,000
Committee recommendation................................      20,705,000

    Under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935, (Public Law 
74-320), an amount equal to 30 percent of customs receipts 
collected during each preceding calendar year and unused 
balances are available for encouraging the domestic consumption 
and exportation of agricultural commodities. An amount equal to 
30 percent of receipts collected on fishery products is 
transferred to the Department of Commerce. Additional transfers 
to the child nutrition programs of the Food and Nutrition 
Service have been provided in recent appropriations Acts.
    The following table reflects the status of this fund for 
fiscal years 2019-2020:

              ESTIMATED TOTAL FUNDS AVAILABLE AND BALANCE CARRIED FORWARD-- FISCAL YEARS 2019-2020
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2019  Fiscal year 2020      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriation (30% of Customs Receipts)...................        10,624,198        15,123,425        15,123,425
Less Transfers:
    Food and Nutrition Service............................        -9,092,218       -13,561,425       -13,561,425
    Commerce Department...................................          -157,980          -158,000          -158,000
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, Transfers....................................        -9,250,198       -13,719,425       -13,719,425
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Budget Authority, Farm Bill.........................         1,374,000         1,404,000         1,404,000
Appropriations Temporarily Reduced--Sequestration.........           -74,400           -72,216           -72,216
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Budget Authority, Appropriations Act................         1,299,600         1,331,784         1,331,784
                                                           =====================================================
Less Obligations:
    Child Nutrition Programs (Entitlement Commodities)....           485,000           485,000           485,000
    State Option Contract.................................             5,000             5,000             5,000
    Removal of Defective Commodities......................             2,500             2,500             2,500
    Disaster Relief.......................................             5,000             5,000             5,000
    Additional Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts Purchases.....           206,000           206,000           206,000
    Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program.....................           174,000           180,000           180,000
    Estimated Future Needs................................           365,542           391,726           391,726
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, Commodity Procurement........................         1,243,042         1,275,226         1,275,226
                                                           =====================================================
Administrative Funds:
    Commodity Purchase Support............................            35,853            35,853            35,853
    Marketing Agreements and Orders.......................            20,705            20,705            20,705
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, Administrative Funds.........................            56,558            56,558            56,558
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total Obligations...................................         1,299,600         1,331,784         1,331,784
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a transfer from section 32 funds 
of $20,705,000 for the formulation and administration of 
marketing agreements and orders.
    Section 32 Authorities.--Under the authority described in 
clause 3 of 7 U.S.C. 612c, the Secretary is able to direct 
funds from the section 32 account to increase the purchasing 
power of producers. This practice has been used on various 
occasions to provide direct assistance to producers when market 
forces or natural conditions adversely affect the financial 
condition of farmers and ranchers. The Committee notes the 
importance of the ability of the Secretary to utilize this 
authority, but believes that communication between the 
Department and the Congress should be improved when this 
practice is used. Therefore, the Committee directs the 
Secretary to provide notification to the Appropriations 
Committee in advance of any public announcement or release of 
section 32 funds under the specific authorities cited above.

                   PAYMENTS TO STATES AND POSSESSIONS

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $1,235,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       1,109,000
Committee recommendation................................       1,235,000

    The Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program [FSMIP] is 
authorized by section 204(b) of the Agricultural Marketing Act 
of 1946 and is also funded from appropriations. Matching grants 
are awarded on a competitive basis to State marketing agencies 
to identify and test market alternative farm commodities, 
determine methods of providing more reliable market 
information, and develop better commodity grading standards. 
This program has made possible many types of projects, such as 
electronic marketing and agricultural product diversification. 
Current projects are focused on the improvement of marketing 
efficiency and effectiveness, and seeking new outlets for 
existing farm produced commodities. The legislation grants USDA 
authority to establish cooperative agreements with State 
departments of agriculture or similar State agencies to improve 
the efficiency of the agricultural marketing chain. The States 
perform the work or contract it to others, and must contribute 
at least one-half of the cost of the projects.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,235,000 for 
Payments to States and Possessions for Federal-State marketing 
projects and activities.

        LIMITATION ON INSPECTION AND WEIGHING SERVICES EXPENSES

Limitation, 2019........................................     $55,000,000
Budget limitation, 2020.................................      80,000,000
Committee recommendation................................      55,000,000

    The agency provides an official grain inspection and 
weighing system under the U.S. Grain Standards Act [USGSA], and 
official inspection of rice and grain-related products under 
the Agricultural Marketing Act [AMA] of 1946. The USGSA was 
amended in 1981 to require the collection of user fees to fund 
the costs associated with the operation, supervision, and 
administration of Federal grain inspection and weighing 
activities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $55,000,000 on 
inspection and weighing services expenses.

             Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $800,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety provides 
direction and coordination in carrying out the laws enacted by 
the Congress with respect to the Department's inspection of 
meat, poultry, and processed egg products. The Office has 
oversight and management responsibilities for the Food Safety 
and Inspection Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety.

                   Food Safety and Inspection Service

Appropriations, 2019....................................  $1,049,344,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................   1,045,320,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,054,344,000

    The major objectives of the Food Safety and Inspection 
Service are to assure that meat and poultry products are 
wholesome, unadulterated, and properly labeled and packaged, as 
required by the Federal Meat Inspection Act (Public Law 59-242) 
and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (Public Law 85-172), as 
amended; and to provide continuous in-plant inspection to egg 
processing plants under the Egg Products Inspection Act.
    The Food Safety and Inspection Service was established on 
June 17, 1981, by Secretary's Memorandum No. 1000-1, issued 
pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1953.
    The inspection program of the Food Safety and Inspection 
Service provides in-plant inspection of all domestic plants 
preparing meat, poultry, or egg products for sale or 
distribution; reviews foreign inspection systems and 
establishments that prepare meat or poultry products for export 
to the United States; and provides technical and financial 
assistance to States which maintain meat and poultry inspection 
programs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,054,344,000 
for the Food Safety and Inspection Service [FSIS].
    Humane Slaughter.--The Committee directs FSIS to continue 
to provide annual reports to the Committee on the 
implementation of objective scoring methods undertaken by FSIS 
to enforce the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (Public Law 85-
765).
    The Committee also directs FSIS to ensure that personnel 
hired with funding previously provided specifically for Humane 
Methods of Slaughter Act (Public Law 85-765) enforcement focus 
their attention on overseeing compliance with humane handling 
rules for live animals as they arrive and are offloaded and 
handled in pens, chutes, and stunning areas and that all 
inspectors receive robust training.
    Public Health Veterinarians.--The Committee remains 
concerned about persistently high levels of public health 
veterinary [PHV] vacancies within FSIS and directs the agency 
to provide a report detailing overall PHV workforce needs, 
including positions that may be chronically hard to fill; the 
recruitment and retention programs implemented to-date, 
including a status of the funding spent on these initiatives 
and an estimate of when funding will be exhausted; additional 
actions taken to resolve the chronic and perpetual workforce 
issues; and a discussion of the agency's efforts to address 
these workforce issues in the long-term.
    The following table represents the Committee's specific 
recommendations for the Food Safety and Inspection Service as 
compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget request levels:

                            FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE SALARIES AND EXPENSES
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Fiscal year
                                                                    Fiscal year     2020 budget      Committee
                                                                   2019 enacted       request     recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Food safety inspection:
    Federal.....................................................         936,324         927,300         936,324
    State.......................................................          61,682          66,682          66,682
    International...............................................          16,758          16,758          16,758
    PHDCIS......................................................          34,580          34,580          34,580
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total.....................................................       1,049,344       1,045,320       1,054,344
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

          

                                TITLE II

               FARM PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION PROGRAMS

   Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $901,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         875,000
Committee recommendation................................         901,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and 
Conservation provides direction and coordination in carrying 
out the laws enacted by the Congress with respect to the 
Department's commodity programs, farm loans, disaster 
assistance, crop insurance, natural resources conservation and 
environment programs, and certain energy programs. The Office 
has oversight and management responsibilities for the Farm 
Service Agency (including the Commodity Credit Corporation), 
Risk Management Agency, and the Natural Resources Conservation 
Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $901,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and 
Conservation.
    Emergency Response.--The Committee directs USDA to produce 
a report outlining the average and longest length of time it 
takes USDA to provide reimbursement under the following 
emergency assistance programs: crop insurance; Noninsured Crop 
Disaster Assistance Program [NAP]; Livestock Indemnity Program 
[LIP]; Livestock Forage Disaster Program [LFP]; Emergency 
Assistance for Livestock, Honey Bees, and Farm-Raised Fish 
Program [ELAP]; Tree Assistance Program [TAP]; Emergency 
Conservation Program; and Emergency Forest Restoration Program 
[EFRP]. USDA is also directed to include in the report any 
barriers to implementing a more efficient reimbursement process 
and recommendations to the Committee on potential improvements.

            Farm Production and Conservation Business Center

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $216,350,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     206,530,000
Committee recommendation................................     206,530,000

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $206,530,000 
for the Farm Production and Conservation Business Center.
    Business Center Report.--The Farm and Production 
Conservation [FPAC] Business Center was created by the 
Secretary in 2018 with the goal of consolidating administrative 
functions within the newly created FPAC mission area, with 
assurances given that this would lead to reduced inefficiencies 
and increased customer service. However, the Committee is aware 
of reports of prolonged delays in filling critical vacancies, 
which has led to delays in the deployment of important 
conservation and commodity programs. The Committee is also 
concerned by reports of additional functions and critical NRCS 
State staff positions being moved to the FPAC Business Center. 
Within 60 days of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall 
report to the Committee on what efficiencies have been gained, 
by which metrics the Business Center is being measured, how the 
Business Center will accelerate hiring going forward, and any 
existing plans for additional reorganizations of staff into the 
Business Center.

                          Farm Service Agency

    The Farm Service Agency [FSA] was established October 13, 
1994, pursuant to the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and 
Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public 
Law 103-354). The FSA administers a variety of activities, such 
as the commodity price support and production adjustment 
programs financed by the Commodity Credit Corporation; the 
Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]; the Emergency Conservation 
Program; the Commodity Operation Programs including the 
warehouse examination function; farm ownership, farm operating, 
emergency disaster, and other loan programs; and the Noninsured 
Crop Disaster Assistance Program [NAP], which provides crop 
loss protection for growers of many crops for which crop 
insurance is not available. In addition, FSA currently provides 
certain administrative support services to the Foreign 
Agricultural Service [FAS] and to the Risk Management Agency 
[RMA].

                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Transfers from    Total, FSA,
                                                                Appropriations      program        salaries and
                                                                                    accounts         expenses
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2019.........................................        1,081,655          293,522        1,375,177
Budget estimate, 2020........................................        1,012,008          294,567        1,306,575
Committee recommendation.....................................        1,127,837          294,574        1,422,411
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The account Salaries and Expenses, Farm Service Agency, 
funds the administrative expenses of program administration and 
other functions assigned to FSA. The funds consist of 
appropriations and transfers from the CCC export credit 
guarantees, Food for Peace loans, and Agricultural Credit 
Insurance Fund program accounts, and miscellaneous advances 
from other sources. All administrative funds used by FSA are 
consolidated into one account. The consolidation provides 
clarity and better management and control of funds and 
facilitates accounting, fiscal, and budgetary work by 
eliminating the necessity for making individual allocations and 
allotments and maintaining and recording obligations and 
expenditures under numerous separate accounts.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,422,269,000 
for salaries and expenses of the Farm Service Agency, including 
a direct appropriation of $1,127,837,000. The Committee 
supports the mission of FSA and the important services that 
they provide across the country; therefore, the Committee does 
not accept the full decrease for information technology as 
proposed in the budget. The Committee accepts the proposed 
information technology savings and provides a net increase of 
$11,182,000 for IT improvements. The Committee recommendation 
also includes an increase of $35,000,000 for implementation of 
the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334).
    Acreage Crop Reporting Streamlining Initiative.--The 
Committee recognizes the importance of reducing administrative 
burdens on farmers, increasing data integrity and accuracy, and 
eliminating redundant reporting and is pleased with the initial 
progress that has been made by FSA and RMA in implementing the 
Acreage Crop Reporting Streamlining Initiative. However, the 
Committee is aware that the success of the initiative is 
dependent on technology and quality information. Therefore, the 
Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation is 
directed to prioritize and dedicate appropriate funding to this 
initiative to ensure there is a seamless transfer of producers' 
information across the agencies within the FPAC mission area.
    Continuous Conservation Reserve Program.--The Secretary is 
strongly encouraged, within the total acreage made available 
for enrollment in the conservation reserve program and without 
reducing the periodic availability of general signup, to 
enroll, to the maximum extent practicable, acreage for 
activities included in the State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement 
practice or other similar administratively established wetland 
and habitat practices that benefit priority fish and wildlife 
species identified in State, regional, and national 
conservation initiatives with a priority for initiatives that 
provide large blocks of cover ideal for wildlife nesting.
    ELAP Farm-Raised Fish Assistance.--The Committee recognizes 
that economic losses due to disease and avian predation 
continue to threaten the viability of the U.S. aquaculture 
industry. Current regulations for the Emergency Assistance for 
Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program [ELAP] 
administered by FSA do not provide adequate protections against 
the primary risks faced by farm-raised fish producers. The 
Committee notes that the statutory authority provided under 7 
U.S.C. 9081(d) directs the Secretary to provide emergency 
assistance for producers of farm-raised fish to aid in the 
reduction of losses due to disease, or other conditions as 
determined by the Secretary, yet the FSA regulations under 7 
CFR part 1416.102 specify that only bait or game fish, not 
farm-raised fish intended for human consumption, are eligible 
for ELAP death losses. To ensure adequate supplemental disaster 
assistance for farm-raised fish producers, the Committee 
directs the Secretary, through the Acting Administrator for 
Farm Programs, to modify its regulations to provide that 
producers of farm-raised fish are eligible for death losses 
under ELAP and that bird predation and disease be deemed 
eligible loss conditions. The Committee recognizes the 
challenges associated with quantifying actual mortality losses 
associated with bird predation and disease, and therefore 
encourages FSA to explore alternative payment calculation 
methods for farm-raised death losses, such as, but not limited 
to, whole-farm actual revenue losses compared to historic five-
year average revenue and compensation based on cost incurred to 
deter predatory avian species.
    Information Technology.--The Committee remains dedicated to 
ensuring FSA has reliable and functioning IT systems because it 
is critical that farmers and ranchers have access to the tools 
they need to succeed. The Committee has invested significant 
taxpayer dollars to modernize outdated systems and continues to 
provide resources above the budget request. The Committee 
continues statutory language that allows funds for IT to be 
obligated only after the Secretary meets certain reporting 
requirements. The Committee has reviewed the third-party IT 
analysis and expects the agency to follow the recommendations 
where applicable.
    Livestock Indemnity Payments.--The Committee is aware of 
the livestock losses that have occurred due to recent severe 
weather events in the Rocky Mountains, the Plains, the 
Mississippi Valley, and the Great Lakes regions. Therefore, the 
Committee encourages the Department to prioritize the 
regulatory updates authorized by Section 1501(b) of the 
Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) to 
ensure that Livestock Indemnity Program assistance is provided 
to producers as soon as possible.
    National Agriculture Imagery Program.--The Committee 
recommends that funding shall be allocated to purchase imagery 
products to meet programmatic requirements.
    Non-Insured Crop Disaster Assistance.--The Committee is 
concerned that the Department is failing to provide adequate 
risk protection through the Non-insured Crop Assistance Program 
for farmers producing hay forage with legume grass mixes. These 
crops often suffer quality loses resulting in adverse economic 
impacts, yet these farms have no meaningful source of risk 
protection. The Committee encourages the Secretary to establish 
within the Non-insured Crop Assistance Program an additional 
Forage Category to reflect the relative feed value, and the 
potential for quality loss, of legume grass mix forage.
    Panther Depredation.--The Committee is aware that livestock 
producers in Florida have suffered from panther depredation. To 
support the ongoing conservation and recovery of endangered 
Florida panthers while minimizing conflicts with ranchers, the 
Committee encourages FSA to work with ranchers to tailor the 
Livestock Indemnity Program [LIP] to address unique 
circumstances currently preventing producers from receiving 
compensation for losses stemming from Florida panther 
depredation events.

                         STATE MEDIATION GRANTS

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $3,904,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       3,067,000
Committee recommendation................................       5,545,000

    This program is authorized under title V of the 
Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-233). 
Originally designed to address agricultural credit disputes, 
the program was expanded by the Federal Crop Insurance Reform 
and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 
(Public Law 103-354) to include other agricultural issues such 
as wetland determinations, conservation compliance, rural water 
loan programs, grazing on National Forest System lands, and 
pesticides. Grants are made to States whose mediation programs 
have been certified by the FSA. Grants will be solely for 
operation and administration of the State's agricultural 
mediation program.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $5,545,000 for 
State Mediation Grants.

               GRASSROOTS SOURCE WATER PROTECTION PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $6,500,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................       6,500,000

    This program is intended to assist in the protection of 
groundwater through State rural water associations.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $6,500,000 for 
Grassroots Source Water Protection.

                        DAIRY INDEMNITY PROGRAM

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $500,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         500,000
Committee recommendation................................         500,000

    Under the program, the Department makes indemnification 
payments to dairy farmers and manufacturers of dairy products 
who, through no fault of their own, suffer income losses 
because they are directed to remove their milk from commercial 
markets due to contamination of their products by registered 
pesticides. The program also authorizes indemnity payments to 
dairy farmers for losses resulting from the removal of cows or 
dairy products from the market due to nuclear radiation or 
fallout.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary, estimated in fiscal year 2020 to be $500,000, 
for indemnity payments to dairy farmers.
    PFAS Contamination.--The Committee is aware that a small 
number of dairy farms are unable to sell their milk as a result 
of contamination from a family of synthetic chemicals, known as 
perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, collectively 
known as ``PFAS'' chemicals. The Committee notes that USDA's 
own research has shown that PFAS residues remain detectable in 
contaminated livestock even after an extended withdrawal 
period, which could result in potential human exposure. 
Therefore, the Secretary is directed to utilize the Dairy 
Indemnity Payment Program to purchase and remove PFAS 
contaminated cows from the market, rather than paying for 
prolonged monthly production indemnities. The Secretary should 
utilize the established, applicable Livestock Indemnity Program 
average fair market value price to compensate for PFAS 
contaminated cows at affected dairies.

           AGRICULTURAL CREDIT INSURANCE FUND PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

    The Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund Program Account is 
used to provide direct and guaranteed farm ownership, farm 
operating, conservation, Indian highly fractioned land, and 
emergency loans to individuals, as well as the following types 
of loans to associations: irrigation and drainage, grazing, 
Indian tribe land acquisition, and boll weevil eradication.
    FSA is also authorized to provide financial assistance to 
borrowers by guaranteeing loans made by private lenders having 
a contract of guarantee from FSA as approved by the Secretary 
of Agriculture and to establish Beginning Farmer and Rancher 
Individual Development grant accounts.
    The following programs are financed through this fund:
    Boll Weevil Eradication Loans.--Made to assist foundations 
in financing the operations of the boll weevil eradication 
programs provided to farmers.
    Credit Sales of Acquired Property.--Property is sold out of 
inventory and is made available to an eligible buyer by 
providing FSA loans.
    Emergency Loans.--Made to producers to aid recovery from 
production and physical losses due to drought, flooding, other 
natural disasters, or quarantine. The loans may be used to: 
restore or replace essential property; pay all or part of 
production costs associated with the disaster year; pay 
essential family living expenses; reorganize the farming 
operation; and refinance certain debts.
    Farm Operating Loans.--Provide short-to-intermediate term 
production or chattel credit to farmers who cannot obtain 
credit elsewhere, to improve their farm and home operations, 
and to develop or maintain a reasonable standard of living. The 
term of the loan varies from one to seven years.
    Farm Ownership Loans.--Made to borrowers who cannot obtain 
credit elsewhere to restructure their debts, improve or 
purchase farms, refinance nonfarm enterprises which supplement 
but do not supplant farm income, or make additions to farms. 
Loans are made for 40 years or less.
    Indian Tribe Land Acquisition Loans.--Made to any Indian 
tribe recognized by the Secretary of the Interior or tribal 
corporation established pursuant to the Indian Reorganization 
Act (Public Law 93-638) which does not have adequate 
uncommitted funds to acquire lands or interest in lands within 
the tribe's reservation or Alaskan Indian community, as 
determined by the Secretary of the Interior, for use of the 
tribe or the corporation or the members thereof.
    Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans.--Made to Indian 
tribal members to purchase highly fractionated lands, as 
authorized by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 
(Public Law 110-234).

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a total loan level of 
$8,037,801,000 for programs within the Agricultural Credit 
Insurance Fund Program Account.
    Loan Programs.--The Committee continues to support FSA loan 
programs that ensure farmers and ranchers have access to credit 
to maintain and improve their operations. The Committee is 
aware of the heightened operating loan activity in fiscal year 
2019 and notes the statutory authority allowing program level 
increases that do not require additional budget authority. The 
Committee will continue to monitor program demand in the coming 
months and directs FSA to provide timely estimates for future 
needs.
    The following table reflects the program levels for farm 
credit programs administered by the Farm Service Agency 
recommended by the Committee, as compared to the fiscal year 
2019 and the budget request levels:

                                    AGRICULTURAL CREDIT PROGRAMS--LOAN LEVELS
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Farm Ownership:
    Direct...................................................        1,500,000        1,500,000        1,500,000
    Guaranteed...............................................        2,750,000        2,750,000        2,750,000
Farm Operating:
    Direct...................................................        1,530,000        1,550,133        1,550,133
    Guaranteed unsubsidized..................................        1,960,000        1,614,953        1,960,000
Emergency Loans..............................................           37,668           29,181           37,668
Indian Tribe Land Acquisition................................           20,000           20,000           20,000
Conservation Loans:
    Guaranteed...............................................          150,000          150,000          150,000
Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans........................           10,000  ...............           10,000
Boll Weevil Eradication......................................           30,000           60,000           60,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
        Total, Loan Authorizations...........................        7,987,668        7,674,267        8,037,801
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 established the 
program account. Appropriations to this account are used to 
cover the lifetime subsidy costs associated with the direct 
loans obligated and loan guarantees committed, as well as for 
administrative expenses.
    The following table reflects the cost of programs under 
credit reform:

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Farm Operating:
    Direct...................................................           59,670           58,440           58,440
    Guaranteed unsubsidized..................................           21,168           17,280           20,972
Emergency Loans..............................................            1,567            1,567            2,023
Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans........................            2,134  ...............            2,745
Boll Weevil Eradication......................................  ...............               60               60
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
    Total, Loan Subsidies....................................           84,539           77,347           84,240
                                                              ==================================================
ACIF Expenses:
    Salaries and Expenses....................................          290,917          294,114          294,114
    Administrative Expenses..................................           10,070            9,567            9,567
Transfer to FPAC Business Center.............................           16,081           16,081           16,081
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
        Total, ACIF Expenses.................................          317,068          319,762          319,762
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Risk Management Agency


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $58,361,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      56,045,000
Committee recommendation................................      58,361,000

    The Risk Management Agency performs administrative 
functions relative to the Federal Crop Insurance program that 
is authorized by the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 
1508), as amended by the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 
2000 [ARPA] (Public Law 106-224), and the Agricultural Act of 
2014 (Public Law 113-79).
    ARPA authorized significant changes in the crop insurance 
program. This act provides higher government subsidies for 
producer premiums to make coverage more affordable; expands 
research and development for new insurance products and under-
served areas through contracts with the private sector; and 
tightens compliance. Functional areas of risk management are: 
research and development; insurance services; and compliance, 
whose functions include policy formulation and procedures and 
regulations development.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $58,361,000 
for Risk Management Agency, Salaries and Expenses.
    The Committee recognizes that there are many research 
priorities that competitive funding may be used to address, 
including the feasibility of insurance programs to cover 
business interruption due to integrator bankruptcy and 
catastrophic loss in the poultry industry. The Committee 
encourages RMA to support research into these priorities.
    Pasture, Rangeland, and Forage Pilot Program.--While the 
Committee supports efforts to ensure that crop insurance 
programs are actuarially sound and reflect the value of the 
commodities, the Committee is concerned by recent adjustments 
to the Pasture, Rangeland, and Forage Pilot Program that have 
resulted in significant fluctuations to the county base values. 
The Secretary is directed to ensure that future adjustments to 
the county base value be phased in or made gradually in order 
to avoid the dramatic changes that some producers have 
experienced in recent years. The Committee expects the 
Secretary to provide policyholders adequate notification of any 
such changes well in advance of the sales closing date.

                 Natural Resources Conservation Service

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service [NRCS] was 
established pursuant to the Department of Agriculture 
Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354). The NRCS works 
with conservation districts, watershed groups, and Federal and 
State agencies to bring about physical adjustments in land use 
that will conserve soil and water resources, provide for 
agricultural production on a sustained basis, and reduce flood 
damage and sedimentation.

                        CONSERVATION OPERATIONS

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $819,492,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     755,000,000
Committee recommendation................................     835,228,000

    Conservation operations are authorized by Public Law 74-46 
(16 U.S.C. 590a-590f). Activities include:
    Conservation Technical Assistance provides assistance to 
district cooperators and other land users in the planning and 
application of conservation treatments to control erosion and 
improve the quantity and quality of soil resources, improve and 
conserve water, enhance fish and wildlife habitat, conserve 
energy, improve woodland, pasture and range conditions, and 
reduce upstream flooding; all to protect and enhance the 
natural resource base.
    Resource appraisal and program development ensures that 
programs administered by the Secretary for the conservation of 
soil, water, and related resources shall respond to the 
Nation's long-term needs.
    Plant Materials Centers assemble, test, and encourage 
increased use of plant species which show promise for use in 
the treatment of conservation problem areas.
    Snow Survey and Water Forecasting provides estimates of 
annual water availability from high mountain snow packs and 
relates to summer stream flow in the Western States and Alaska. 
Information is used by agriculture, industry, and cities in 
estimating future water supplies.
    Soil Surveys inventory the Nation's basic soil resources 
and determine land capabilities and conservation treatment 
needs. Soil survey publications include interpretations useful 
to cooperators, other Federal agencies, State, and local 
organizations.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $835,228,000 
for Conservation Operations. The Committee recommendation 
includes $741,360,000 for Conservation Technical Assistance, 
$74,987,000 for Soil Surveys, $9,400,000 for Snow Survey and 
Water Forecasting, and $9,481,000 for Plant Materials Centers. 
The Committee provides an increase of $9,834,000 for the 
Farmer.gov Customer Experience Portal program.
    Acre-for-Acre Wetlands Mitigation.--The Secretary is 
encouraged to use mitigation with the conversion of a natural 
wetland and equivalent wetlands functions at a ratio not to 
exceed a ratio of 1-to-1 acreage.
    Critical Conservation Areas.--The Committee directs NRCS to 
maintain the status of the Mississippi River Basin [MRB], the 
Ohio River Basin [ORB], and the Chesapeake Bay Watershed [CBW] 
as Critical Conservation Areas under the Regional Conservation 
Partnership Program [RCPP] and to include MRB, ORB, and CBW 
States as priority areas for Critical Conservation Area funding 
under RCPP. The Committee also encourages NRCS to leverage all 
possible resources to identify nutrient loss and reduce runoff 
to achieve the goals of the 2015 Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan.
    Drought Resilience.--The Committee is particularly 
concerned about the severe and prolonged drought in the West 
and applauds the passage of the Colorado River Basin Drought 
Contingency Plans. The Committee appreciates NRCS's efforts to 
increase efficiencies in current water use and expects NRCS to 
utilize all available opportunities to assist producers, 
irrigators, and irrigation districts in implementing area-wide 
plans to address drought resiliency and mitigation in a way 
that maintains strong rural and agriculture communities and 
protects our natural resources. In providing this assistance, 
the Committee further expects the NRCS to prioritize support 
for implementation of Drought Contingency Plans, agreements, or 
programs that would conserve surface or ground water, improve 
drought resiliency, and address current and anticipated 
conservation needs and severe drought-related resource 
concerns.
    Innovative Water Conservation.--The Committee recognizes 
the devastating impacts wrought by severe and prolonged drought 
across many regions of the country. The Committee notes that 
the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) 
made several updates to address water conservation and drought 
mitigation, including eligibility changes for water 
conservation and irrigation efficiency practices. NRCS is 
encouraged to work with eligible entities, including but not 
limited to producers, States, irrigation districts, and 
acequias, to help them implement critical innovative drought 
resiliency and mitigation efforts, which maintain strong rural 
and agriculture communities while protecting natural resources.
    Program Duplication.--The Committee directs NRCS to provide 
a report within 90 days of enactment of this Act on actions it 
will take to eliminate program duplication as identified in IG 
reports.
    Soil Health.--The Committee recognizes that improving soil 
health on agricultural lands is key to achieving both 
meaningful conservation and economic benefits for producers. 
The Committee notes that the Agriculture Improvement Act of 
2018 (Public Law 115-334) provided $25,000,000 in mandatory 
funding to carry out new on-farm conservation innovation trials 
to test new or innovative conservation approaches and directed 
the Secretary to carry out a soil health demonstration trial to 
provide incentives to producers to implement practices that 
improve soil health and increase carbon levels in the soil. The 
Committee encourages the Secretary to implement the soil health 
demonstration trial and establish protocols for measuring and 
testing carbon levels to evaluate gains in soil health.
    Technical Assistance.--The Committee directs NRCS to 
maintain a record of total technical assistance dollars for the 
past three years and annually in the future and provide the 
data to the Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture and the 
Committee on Agriculture Nutrition and Forestry. This report 
should differentiate mandatory and discretionary allocations.

               WATERSHED AND FLOOD PREVENTION OPERATIONS

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $150,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................     175,000,000

    The Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (Public 
Law 566, 83d Cong.) (16 U.S.C. 1000-1005, 1007-1009) provides 
for cooperation between the Federal Government and the States 
and their political subdivisions in a program to prevent 
erosion, floodwater, and sediment damages in the watersheds or 
rivers and streams and to further the conservation, 
development, utilization, and disposal of water and the 
conservation and proper utilization of land in authorized 
watersheds.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $175,000,000 
for the Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations Program.
    The Committee recognizes the critical challenges facing 
rural water resource management and protection and supports 
needed investments in watershed operations. These Federal-
State-local partnerships are uniquely positioned to identify 
critical watershed protection and flood prevention needs in 
rural communities and implement projects that deliver multiple 
streams of benefits for homes, businesses, transportation 
infrastructure, and natural resources. In selecting projects 
for funding, the Committee expects the agency to balance the 
needs of addressing the project backlog, remediation of 
existing structures, and new projects.

                    WATERSHED REHABILITATION PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $10,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................................

    The Watershed Rehabilitation Program account provides for 
technical and financial assistance to carry out rehabilitation 
of structural measures, in accordance with section 14 of the 
Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, approved August 
4, 1954 (16 U.S.C. 1012, U.S.C. 1001, et seq.), as amended by 
section 313 of Public Law 106-472, November 9, 2000, and by 
section 2803 of Public Law 110-246.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee does not recommend an appropriation for the 
Watershed Rehabilitation Program.

                              CORPORATIONS


                Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund

Appropriations, 2019.................................... $15,410,629,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................   8,936,000,000
Committee recommendation................................   8,936,000,000

    The Federal Crop Insurance Act, as amended by the Federal 
Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354), 
authorizes the payment of expenses which may include indemnity 
payments, loss adjustment, delivery expenses, program-related 
research and development, startup costs for implementing this 
legislation such as studies, pilot projects, data processing 
improvements, public outreach, and related tasks and functions.
    All program costs, except for Federal salaries and 
expenses, are mandatory expenditures subject to appropriation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary, estimated to be $8,936,000,000 in fiscal year 
2020 for the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund.

                   Commodity Credit Corporation Fund

    The Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC] is a wholly owned 
Government corporation created in 1933 to stabilize, support, 
and protect farm income and prices; to help maintain balanced 
and adequate supplies of agricultural commodities, including 
products, foods, feeds, and fibers; and to help in the orderly 
distribution of these commodities. CCC was originally 
incorporated under a Delaware charter and was reincorporated 
June 30, 1948, as a Federal corporation within USDA by the 
Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, approved June 29, 
1948 (Public Law 80-806).
    The Commodity Credit Corporation engages in buying, 
selling, lending, and other activities with respect to 
agricultural commodities, their products, food, feed, and 
fibers. Its purposes include stabilizing, supporting, and 
protecting farm income and prices; maintaining the balance and 
adequate supplies of selected commodities; and facilitating the 
orderly distribution of such commodities. In addition, the 
Corporation makes available materials and facilities required 
in connection with the storage and distribution of such 
commodities. The Corporation also disburses funds for sharing 
of costs with producers for the establishment of approved 
conservation practices on environmentally sensitive land and 
subsequent rental payments for such land for the duration of 
Conservation Reserve Program contracts.
    Corporation activities are primarily governed by the 
following statutes: the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter 
Act (Public Law 80-806), as amended; the Agricultural Act of 
1949 (Public Law 81-439), as amended (1949 Act); the 
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (Public Law 75-430), as 
amended (the 1938 Act); the Food Security Act of 1985 (Public 
Law 99-198), as amended (1985 Act); the Food, Conservation, and 
Energy Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-246); the Agricultural Act 
of 2014 (Public Law 113-79); and the Agriculture Improvement 
Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334).
    Management of the Corporation is vested in a board of 
directors, subject to the general supervision and direction of 
the Secretary of Agriculture, who is an ex officio director and 
chairman of the board. The board consists of seven members, in 
addition to the Secretary, who are appointed by the President 
of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
Officers of the Corporation are designated according to their 
positions in USDA.
    The activities of the Corporation are carried out mainly by 
the personnel and through the facilities of the Farm Service 
Agency and FSA State and county committees. The Foreign 
Agricultural Service, the General Sales Manager, other agencies 
and offices of the Department, and commercial agents are also 
used to carry out certain aspects of the Corporation's 
activities.
    Under Public Law 87-155 (15 U.S.C. 713a-11, 713a-12), 
annual appropriations are authorized for each fiscal year, 
commencing with fiscal year 1961. These appropriations are to 
reimburse the Corporation for net realized losses.

                 REIMBURSEMENT FOR NET REALIZED LOSSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019.................................... $15,410,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................  25,553,096,000
Committee recommendation................................  25,553,096,000

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary, estimated in fiscal year 2020 to be 
$25,553,096,000, for the payment to reimburse the Commodity 
Credit Corporation for net realized losses.
    CRP Wetland Restoration and Wildlife Enhancement.--The 
Committee notes that agricultural commodity crops, if left 
unharvested, may help reduce degradation of wetlands and 
improve sediment trapping, surface and ground water supply, 
erosion control, and wildlife habitat while providing winter 
food for waterfowl and other wildlife. The Committee directs 
the Commodity Credit Corporation, within 60 days of enactment, 
to amend its program policies and guidelines for CRP 
conservation practices CP23 and CP23A, to provide that current 
and future participants are permitted to plant--but not 
harvest--agricultural commodity crops as wildlife food plots on 
up to ten percent of the enrolled land to enhance waterfowl and 
upland bird food and habitat.

                       HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

                        (LIMITATION ON EXPENSES)

Limitation, 2019........................................      $5,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       5,000,000
Committee recommendation................................       5,000,000

    The Commodity Credit Corporation's [CCC] hazardous waste 
management program is intended to ensure compliance with the 
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and 
Liability Act (Public Law 96-510) and the Resource Conservation 
and Recovery Act (Public Law 94-580). The CCC funds operations 
and maintenance costs as well as site investigation and cleanup 
expenses. Investigative and cleanup costs associated with the 
management of CCC hazardous waste are also paid from USDA's 
hazardous waste management appropriation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $5,000,000 for the 
Commodity Credit Corporation's hazardous waste management 
program.

                               TITLE III

                       RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

    The Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of 
Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354) 
abolished the Farmers Home Administration, Rural Development 
Administration, and Rural Electrification Administration and 
replaced those agencies with the Rural Housing and Community 
Development Service, (currently, the Rural Housing Service), 
Rural Business and Cooperative Development Service (currently, 
the Rural Business--Cooperative Service), and Rural Utilities 
Service and placed them under the oversight of the Under 
Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, 
(currently, Rural Development). These agencies deliver a 
variety of programs through a network of State and field 
offices.

          Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development

Appropriations, 2019....................................................
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................        $800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development 
provides direction and coordination in carrying out laws with 
respect to the Department's rural economic and community 
development activities. The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Rural Housing Service, Rural 
Business--Cooperative Service, and the Rural Utilities Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development.
    Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels.--The Committee is 
concerned with the interim rule proposed by the Department 
under the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels program 
(section 9005 of Public Law 113-79), which is intended to 
promote the development of different qualifying advanced fuel 
categories. The Committee is concerned that the allocation 
formula for distribution of section 9005 funds among the 
qualified fuel categories is inequitable, disproportionate, and 
inconsistent with the purpose and intent of the section 9005 
program. The Committee urges the Department to administer the 
section 9005 program in a way that is fuel and technology-
neutral. Consistent with these objectives, the Committee 
directs USDA to propose amendments to the interim rule to 
ensure that any final rule to implement section 9005 provides 
for a more equitable and proportional allocation of funding 
among the qualified advanced biofuels and the energy pathways 
they represent.
    RISE Grants.--The Committee recommendation includes 
$5,000,000 in funding for the newly-authorized RISE grants 
enacted as part of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 
(Public Law 115-334). These grants have the potential to help 
struggling communities by funding jobs accelerators in low-
income rural areas. The Committee recommends funding be 
prioritized for entities leveraging next generation gigabit 
broadband service to promote entrepreneurship and entities 
based in geographical areas with established agriculture and 
technology sectors which are focused on the development of 
precision and autonomous agriculture technologies as a way to 
strengthen rural economies and create jobs.

                           Rural Development


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriation................................................          236,835          192,343          242,005
Transfer from:
    Rural Housing Insurance Fund Loan Program Account........          412,254          244,249          412,254
    Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Program                33,270           38,027           33,270
     Account.................................................
    Rural Development Loan Program Account...................            4,468  ...............            4,468
    Community Facilities Program Account.....................  ...............          147,591  ...............
    Business and Industry Loan Program.......................  ...............            7,035  ...............
    Water and Waste Disposal Program Account.................  ...............           18,149  ...............
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, Rural Development salaries and expenses.........          686,827          647,394          691,997
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    These funds are used to administer the loan and grant 
programs of the Rural Utilities Service, the Rural Housing 
Service, and the Rural Business--Cooperative Service, including 
reviewing applications, making and collecting loans and 
providing technical assistance and guidance to borrowers; and 
to assist in extending other Federal programs to people in 
rural areas.
    Under credit reform, administrative costs associated with 
loan programs are appropriated to the program accounts. 
Appropriations to the salaries and expenses account will be for 
costs associated with grant programs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $691,997,000 for salaries and 
expenses of Rural Development.

                         Rural Housing Service

    The Rural Housing Service [RHS] was established under the 
Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture 
Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354).

              RURAL HOUSING INSURANCE FUND PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019 (budget authority).................    $510,317,000
Budget estimate, 2020 (budget authority)................     244,249,000
Committee recommendation (budget authority).............     538,783,000

    This fund was established in 1965 (Public Law 89-117) 
pursuant to section 517 of title V of the Housing Act of 1949 
(Public Law 87-171). This fund may be used to insure or 
guarantee rural housing loans for single-family homes, rental 
and cooperative housing, farm labor housing, and rural housing 
sites. Rural housing loans are made to construct, improve, 
alter, repair, or replace dwellings and essential farm service 
buildings that are modest in size, design, and cost. Rental 
housing insured loans are made to individuals, corporations, 
associations, trusts, or partnerships to provide low-cost 
rental housing and related facilities in rural areas. These 
loans are repayable in terms up to 30 years.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $538,783,000 
for the Rural Housing Insurance Fund Program Account [RHIF].
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508) 
established the RHIF program account. Appropriations to this 
account will be used to cover the lifetime subsidy costs 
associated with the direct loans obligated and loan guarantees 
committed in 2020, as well as for administrative expenses. The 
following table presents the loan subsidy levels as compared to 
the 2019 levels and the 2020 budget request:

                                  RURAL HOUSING INSURANCE FUND PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan Levels:
    Single-Family Housing (sec. 502):
        Direct...............................................        1,000,000  ...............        1,000,000
        Guaranteed...........................................       24,000,000       24,000,000       24,000,000
    Housing repair (sec. 504)................................           28,000  ...............           28,000
    Direct rental housing (sec. 515).........................           40,000  ...............           40,000
    Guaranteed rental housing (sec. 538).....................          230,000          250,000          230,000
    Site development loans (sec. 524)........................            5,000  ...............            5,000
    Credit sales of acquired property........................           10,000           10,000           10,000
    Self help land development loans (sec. 523)..............            5,000  ...............            5,000
    Farm labor housing loans (sec. 514)......................           27,500  ...............           27,500
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, loan levels.....................................       25,345,500       24,260,000       25,345,500
                                                              ==================================================
Loan Subsidies and Grants:
    Single-Family Housing (sec. 502):
        Direct...............................................           67,700  ...............           90,000
    Housing repair (sec. 504)................................            3,419  ...............            4,679
    Direct rental housing (sec. 515).........................            9,484  ...............           12,144
    Site development (sec. 524)..............................              176  ...............              546
    Self help land development (sec. 523)....................              431  ...............              577
    Farm labor housing loans (sec. 514)......................            6,853  ...............            8,583
    Farm labor housing grants (sec. 516).....................           10,000  ...............           10,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, loan subsidies and grants.......................           98,063  ...............          126,529
                                                              ==================================================
Administrative expenses......................................          412,254          244,249          412,254
                                                              ==================================================
      Total, loan subsidies and administrative expenses......          510,317          244,249          538,783
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Housing Preservation.--The Secretary is directed to develop 
a biannual comprehensive multi-family housing preservation plan 
describing how the Department intends to preserve all viable 
Section 514 and 515 properties in the portfolio. This report 
shall also include a comprehensive description of the decision-
making process, including any incentives offered, relating to 
any Section 514 or 515 property that exited the Rural 
Development portfolio during the preceding 24 months.

                       RENTAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2019....................................  $1,331,400,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................  *1,407,000,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,375,000,000

*The budget estimate includes $32,000,000 for housing vouchers.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Rental assistance is authorized under section 521(a)(2) of 
the Housing Act of 1949 (Public Law 87-171). The objective of 
the program is to reduce rents paid by low-income families 
living in Rural Housing Service financed rental projects and 
farm labor housing projects. Under this program, low-income 
tenants will contribute the higher of: (1) 30 percent of 
monthly adjusted income; (2) ten percent of monthly income; or 
(3) designated housing payments from a welfare agency.
    Payments from the fund are made to the project owner for 
the difference between the tenant's payment and the approved 
rental rate established for the unit.
    The program is administered in tandem with the Rural 
Housing Service section 515 rural rental housing program and 
the farm labor loan and grant programs. Priority is given to 
existing projects for units occupied by rent over-burdened low-
income families and projects experiencing financial 
difficulties beyond the control of the owner.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,375,000,000 
for the Rental Assistance Program.
    Housing vouchers are addressed in the Multi-Family Housing 
Revitalization Program Account.
    Rental Assistance Priority.--The Secretary is encouraged to 
prioritize multi-family housing properties acquired by means of 
a section 515 loan within the current fiscal year when 
determining current rental assistance needs.

          MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING REVITALIZATION PROGRAM ACCOUNT

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $51,500,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      56,500,000

    The Rural Housing Voucher Program was authorized under the 
Housing Act of 1949 (Public Law 81-171) to assist very low 
income families and individuals who reside in rental housing in 
rural areas. Housing vouchers may be provided to residents of 
rental housing projects financed by section 515 loans that have 
been prepaid after September 30, 2005. Voucher amounts reflect 
the difference between comparable market rents and tenant-paid 
rent prior to loan prepayment. Vouchers allow tenants to remain 
in existing projects or move to other rental housing.
    The Multi-family Housing Revitalization Program includes 
funding for housing vouchers and a demonstration program for 
the preservation and revitalization of affordable multi-family 
housing projects. Rural Development's multi-family housing 
portfolio faces dual pressures for loan prepayments and repair/
rehabilitation stemming from inadequate reserves resulting in 
deferred property maintenance.
    Provisions of affordable rental housing can be accomplished 
more economically by revitalizing existing housing stock rather 
than funding new construction. The Multi-family Housing 
Revitalization Program includes revitalization tools for 
maintenance of existing units and vouchers to protect tenants 
in those projects that prepay. Flexibility is provided to allow 
Rural Development to utilize funding to meet the most urgent 
local needs for tenant protection and project revitalization.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $56,500,000 
for the Multi-family Housing Revitalization Program, including 
$32,000,000 for vouchers and $24,500,000 for a housing 
preservation demonstration program.
    Multi-Family Housing Health and Safety Concerns.--The 
Committee is concerned regarding sanitary and safety 
deficiencies in rental facilities participating in the Multi-
Family Housing Program, such as those recently reported for 
Okeechobee Center in Belle Glade, Florida. The Committee 
believes such deficiencies are unacceptable and would be 
documented and remediated more promptly with improved 
inspections and coordination with state regulatory agencies. No 
later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this act, the 
Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee regarding the 
status and findings of all inspections within the last 5 years 
of properties that received financial assistance through the 
Multi-Family Housing Program.
    Multi-Family Housing Preservation.--The Committee directs 
the Secretary to provide a report within 120 days of enactment 
of this Act to estimate the cost of providing rural housing 
vouchers to all low income households currently receiving USDA 
rental assistance and residing in a property financed with a 
Section 515 loan that are set to mature in the subsequent 
fiscal year and subsequent ten fiscal years. In addition, the 
Secretary is directed to provide quarterly reports to the 
Committee on transfers between vouchers and the housing 
preservation demonstration program within the Multi-Family 
Housing Revitalization Program Account.

                  MUTUAL AND SELF-HELP HOUSING GRANTS

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $30,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      30,000,000

    The Mutual and Self-Help Housing Grants Program is 
authorized by title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (Public Law 
81-171). Grants are made to local organizations to promote the 
development of mutual or self-help programs under which groups 
of usually six to ten families build their own homes by 
mutually exchanging labor. Funds may be used to pay the cost of 
construction supervisors who work with families in the 
construction of their homes and for administrative expenses of 
the organizations providing the self-help assistance.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $30,000,000 
for Mutual and Self-Help Housing Grants.

                    RURAL HOUSING ASSISTANCE GRANTS

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $45,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      45,000,000

    The Rural Housing Assistance Grants Program consolidates 
funding for rural housing grant programs. This consolidation of 
housing grant funding provides greater flexibility to tailor 
financial assistance to applicant needs.
    Very Low-Income Housing Repair Grants.--The Very Low-Income 
Housing Repair Grants Program is authorized under section 504 
of title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (Public Law 81-171). The 
rural housing repair grant program is carried out by making 
grants to very low-income families to make necessary repairs to 
their homes in order to make such dwellings safe and sanitary, 
and remove hazards to the health of the occupants, their 
families, or the community.
    These grants may be made to cover the cost of improvements 
or additions, such as repairing roofs, providing toilet 
facilities, providing a convenient and sanitary water supply, 
supplying screens, repairing or providing structural supports 
or making similar repairs, additions, or improvements, 
including all preliminary and installation costs in obtaining 
central water and sewer service. A grant can be made in 
combination with a section 504 very low-income housing repair 
loan.
    No assistance can be extended to any one individual in the 
form of a loan, grant, or combined loans and grants in excess 
of $7,500, and grant assistance is limited to persons or 
families headed by persons who are 62 years of age or older.
    Supervisory and Technical Assistance Grants.--Supervisory 
and technical assistance grants are made to public and private 
nonprofit organizations for packaging loan applications for 
housing assistance under sections 502, 504, 514/516, 515, and 
533 of the Housing Act of 1949 (Public Law 81-171). The 
assistance is directed to very low-income families in 
underserved areas where at least 20 percent of the population 
is below the poverty level and at least 10 percent or more of 
the population resides in substandard housing. In fiscal year 
1994, a Homebuyer Education Program was implemented under this 
authority. This program provides low-income individuals and 
families education and counseling on obtaining and/or 
maintaining occupancy of adequate housing and supervised credit 
assistance to become successful homeowners.
    Compensation for Construction Defects.--Compensation for 
construction defects provides funds for grants to eligible 
section 502 borrowers to correct structural defects or to pay 
claims of owners arising from such defects on a newly 
constructed dwelling purchased with RHS financial assistance. 
Claims are not paid until provisions under the builder's 
warranty have been fully pursued. Requests for compensation for 
construction defects must be made by the owner of the property 
within 18 months after the date financial assistance was 
granted.
    Rural Housing Preservation Grants.--Rural housing 
preservation grants (section 533) of the Housing and Urban-
Rural Recovery Act of 1983 (Public Law 98-181) authorizes the 
Rural Housing Service to administer a program of home repair 
directed at low- and very low-income people.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $45,000,000 
for the Rural Housing Assistance Grants Program.
    The following table compares the grant program levels 
recommended by the Committee to the fiscal year 2019 levels and 
the budget request:

                                         RURAL HOUSING ASSISTANCE GRANTS
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Very low-income housing repair grants........................           30,000  ...............           30,000
Housing preservation grants..................................           15,000  ...............           15,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total..................................................           45,000  ...............           45,000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Committee recommends that the Rural Housing Service 
prioritize funding for communities with unique weather patterns 
in need of replacing antiquated heating systems with more 
efficient technologies.

               Rural Community Facilities Program Account


                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $50,063,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     207,591,000
Committee recommendation................................      45,778,000

    Community facility loans were created by the Rural 
Development Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-419) to finance a 
variety of rural community facilities. Loans are made to 
organizations, including certain Indian tribes and corporations 
not operated for profit and public and quasi-public agencies, 
to construct, enlarge, extend, or otherwise improve community 
facilities providing essential services to rural residents. 
Such facilities include those providing or supporting overall 
community development, such as fire and rescue services, 
healthcare, transportation, traffic control, and community, 
social, cultural, and recreational benefits. Loans are made for 
facilities which primarily serve rural residents of open 
country and rural towns and villages of not more than 20,000 
people. Healthcare, fire and rescue facilities, and educational 
facilities are the priorities of the program and receive the 
majority of available funds.
    The Community Facility Grant Program authorized in the 
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public 
Law 104-127), is used in conjunction with the existing direct 
and guaranteed loan programs for the development of community 
facilities, such as hospitals, fire stations, and community 
centers. Grants are targeted to the lowest income communities. 
Communities that have lower population and income levels 
receive a higher cost-share contribution through these grants, 
to a maximum contribution of 75 percent of the cost of 
developing the facility.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $45,778,000 
for the Rural Community Facilities Program Account.
    Rural Community Facilities Program Priorities.--The 
Committee recognizes the important role that the Rural 
Community Facilities program can play in addressing the 
Nation's opioid epidemic. Community Facility programs have 
previously supported efforts to address substance abuse 
disorders through projects such as mobile treatment clinics and 
telemedicine services. The Committee encourages the Secretary 
to make funds available through the Rural Community Facilities 
program to provide prevention, treatment, or recovery services 
for individuals with substance abuse disorders.
    The following table provides the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget 
request levels:

                                   RURAL COMMUNITY FACILITIES PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan levels:
    Community facilities direct loans........................        2,800,000        2,500,000        2,800,000
    Community facilities guaranteed loans....................          148,287          500,000          500,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total loan levels......................................        2,948,287        3,000,000        3,300,000
                                                              ==================================================
Budget authority:
    Community facilities guaranteed loans....................            4,285  ...............  ...............
    Community facilities grants..............................           30,000           50,000           30,000
    Economic initiative grants...............................            5,778  ...............            5,778
    Rural community development initiative...................            6,000  ...............            6,000
    Tribal college grants....................................            4,000           10,000            4,000
    Rural Community Facilities Loan Program Account Transfer.  ...............          147,591  ...............
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total budget authority.................................           50,063          207,591           45,778
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Community Facilities Program.--The Committee directs the 
Secretary to report: the credit quality of loans identified by 
North American Industry Classification System code; the impact 
loans for each facility type have on the Community Facilities 
loan subsidy rate; a list and description of all measures USDA 
tracks to evaluate the effect of projects funded through 
Community Facilities programs on local communities and for how 
long these measures are tracked; a description and 
documentation of the process by which the Department 
prioritizes proposals for Direct and Guaranteed Loan and Grant 
applications; and the number of Community Facilities projects 
under which funding is being used to fulfill obligations to 
bondholders, rather than to support construction, renovation, 
capital improvement, or equipment purchasing.
    Rural Freight Infrastructure.--The Committee notes that 
Community Facility programs have supported efforts to sustain 
and grow the export of U.S. agricultural products. Therefore, 
the Committee encourages the Secretary to use existing 
authorities to support projects and applicants that invest in 
freight infrastructure necessary to get U.S. agricultural 
products to market, including efforts to leverage funding with 
other sources for inland ports and waterways.

                  Rural Business--Cooperative Service

    The Rural Business--Cooperative Service [RBS] was 
established by the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department 
of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354), 
dated October 13, 1994. Its programs were previously 
administered by the Rural Development Administration, the Rural 
Electrification Administration, and the Agricultural 
Cooperative Service.

                     RURAL BUSINESS PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $65,040,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      27,535,000
Committee recommendation................................      65,475,000

    The Rural Business and Industry Loan Program was created by 
the Rural Development Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-419), and 
finances a variety of rural industrial development loans. Loans 
are made for rural industrialization and rural community 
facilities under Rural Development Act amendments to the 
Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1932 et 
seq.) authorities. Business and industrial loans are made to 
public, private, or cooperative organizations organized for 
profit, to certain Indian tribes, or to individuals for the 
purpose of improving, developing or financing business, 
industry, and employment or improving the economic and 
environmental climate in rural areas. Such purposes include 
financing business and industrial acquisition, construction, 
enlargement, repair or modernization; financing the purchase 
and development of land, easements, rights-of-way, buildings, 
payment of startup costs; and supplying working capital.
    Rural business development grants were authorized by the 
Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 113-79) and can be made to 
governmental and nonprofit entities, and Indian tribes. Up to 
10 percent of appropriated funds may be used to: identify and 
analyze business opportunities; identify, train, and provide 
technical assistance to existing or prospective rural 
entrepreneurs and managers; assist in the establishment of new 
rural businesses and the maintenance of existing businesses; 
conduct economic development planning, coordination and 
leadership development; and establish centers for training, 
technology, and trade. The balance of appropriated funding may 
be used for projects that support the development of business 
enterprises that finance or facilitate the development of small 
and emerging private business enterprise; the establishment, 
expansion, and operation of rural distance learning networks; 
the development of rural learning programs; and the provision 
of technical assistance and training to rural communities for 
the purpose of improving passenger transportation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $65,475,000 
for the Rural Business Program Account.
    The following table provides the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget 
request levels:

                                         RURAL BUSINESS PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan levels:
    Business and industry guaranteed loans loan levels.......          950,000        1,000,000          950,000
Budget authority:
    Business and industry guaranteed loans...................           22,040           20,500           19,475
    Rural business development grants........................           35,000  ...............           37,000
    DRA, NBRC, and ARC.......................................            8,000  ...............            9,000
    Business and Industry Loan Program Transfer..............  ...............            7,035  ...............
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total budget authority.................................           65,040           27,535           65,475
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Regional Food Hubs.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
partner with States and other interested partners to build and 
refurbish food hub and food distribution centers that serve 
rural farmers but are located in urban areas.
    Rural Business Development Grants.--The Committee 
recognizes the dynamic nature of our rural coastal economies 
that are often economically diminished by the loss of natural 
resource-related jobs and have been the first to feel the 
negative effects of a changing climate. As these rural 
communities continue to have agriculture-related economic 
opportunity such as value-added seafood processing as well as 
new opportunities, the Committee encourages the use of Rural 
Business Development Grants in rural coastal communities to 
support innovation and job growth within all sectors, 
particularly in the case of public-private partnerships and 
cross-jurisdictional efforts. In addition, the Secretary is 
directed to give priority to National Scenic Areas that were 
devastated by wildfires and are in need of economic development 
assistance.
    Rural Business Program Account.--The Committee recommends 
$500,000 for transportation technical assistance.
    The Committee directs that of the $4,000,000 recommended 
for grants to benefit Federally Recognized Native American 
Tribes, $250,000 shall be used to implement an American Indian 
and Alaska Native passenger transportation development and 
assistance initiative.

              INTERMEDIARY RELENDING PROGRAM FUND ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2019  Fiscal year 2020      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated loan level......................................            18,889  ................            18,889
Direct loan subsidy.......................................             4,157  ................             5,219
Administrative expenses...................................             4,468  ................             4,468
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, loan subsidies and administrative expenses...             8,625  ................             9,687
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The rural development intermediary relending loan program 
was originally authorized by the Economic Opportunity Act of 
1964 (Public Law 88-452). The making of rural development loans 
by USDA was reauthorized by the Agricultural Act of 2014 
(Public Law 113-79).
    Loans are made to intermediary borrowers (small investment 
groups) who in turn will reloan the funds to rural businesses, 
community development corporations, private nonprofit 
organizations, public agencies, et cetera, for the purpose of 
improving business, industry, community facilities, and 
employment opportunities and diversification of the economy in 
rural areas.
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (Public Law 74-605) 
established the program account. Appropriations to this account 
will be used to cover the lifetime subsidy costs associated 
with the direct loans obligated in 2020, as well as for 
administrative expenses.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $9,687,000 for 
the Intermediary Relending Program Fund.

            RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LOANS PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          Estimated loan
                                                              level
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fiscal year 2019 level.................................           50,000
Fiscal year 2020 request...............................  ...............
Committee recommendation...............................           50,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Rural Economic Development Loans program was 
established by the Reconciliation Act of December 1987 (Public 
Law 100-203), which amended the Rural Electrification Act of 
1936 (Act of May 20, 1936), by establishing a new section 313. 
This section of the Rural Electrification Act (7 U.S.C. 901) 
established a cushion of credit payment program and created the 
rural economic development subaccount. The Administrator of RUS 
is authorized under the Act to utilize funds in this program to 
provide zero interest loans to electric and telecommunications 
borrowers for the purpose of promoting rural economic 
development and job creation projects, including funding for 
feasibility studies, startup costs, and other reasonable 
expenses for the purpose of fostering rural economic 
development.

                        COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

    The Committee recommends a loan program level of 
$50,000,000, to be funded from earnings on the Cushion of 
Credit and fees on guaranteed underwriting loans made pursuant 
to section 313A of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936.

                  RURAL COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT GRANTS

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $29,100,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      15,600,000

    Rural cooperative development grants are authorized under 
section 310B(e) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development 
Act (Public Law 113-79), as amended. Grants are made to fund 
the establishment and operation of centers for rural 
cooperative development with the primary purpose of improving 
economic conditions in rural areas. Grants may be made to 
nonprofit institutions or institutions of higher education. 
Grants may be used to pay up to 75 percent of the cost of the 
project and associated administrative costs. The applicant must 
contribute at least 25 percent from non-Federal sources, except 
1994 institutions, which only need to provide 5 percent. Grants 
are competitive and are awarded based on specific selection 
criteria.
    Cooperative research agreements are authorized by 7 U.S.C. 
2204b. The funds are used for cooperative research agreements, 
primarily with colleges and universities, on critical 
operational, organizational, and structural issues facing 
cooperatives.
    Cooperative agreements are authorized under 7 U.S.C. 2201 
to any qualified State departments of agriculture, university, 
and other State entity to conduct research that will strengthen 
and enhance the operations of agricultural marketing 
cooperatives in rural areas.
    The Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas [ATTRA] 
program was first authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 
(Public Law 99-198). The program provides information and 
technical assistance to agricultural producers to adopt 
sustainable agricultural practices that are environmentally 
friendly and lower production costs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $15,600,000 
for Rural Cooperative Development Grants.
    Of the funds recommended, $2,800,000 is for the Appropriate 
Technology Transfer for Rural Areas program.
    The Committee has included language in the bill that not 
more than $3,000,000 shall be made available to cooperatives or 
associations of cooperatives whose primary focus is to provide 
assistance to small, minority producers.
    Agriculture Innovation Centers.--The Committee recommends 
$3,000,000 for Agriculture Innovation Center funding, as 
authorized in section 6402 of Public Law 107-171, available as 
grants to States authorized to host, and that have previously 
hosted, a USDA Agriculture Innovation Center and where the 
State continues to demonstrate support and provide non-Federal 
grant funding to producers developing, producing, and marketing 
value-added agricultural and food products.
    Rural Cooperative Development Grants.--The Committee 
recognizes the important role that cooperatives play in the 
Nation's rural economy and the continued need to fund 
established and successful development centers throughout the 
country.
    Value-Added.--The Committee recognizes the important role 
of value-added products within the U.S. agricultural sector and 
notes that the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 
115-334) provides $17,500,000 in mandatory funding annually. 
The Committee directs that Value-Added Agricultural Product 
Market Development Grants be prioritized to support the 
production of value-added agricultural products, including 
organic hazelnuts, with significant potential to expand 
production and processing in the United States.

                    RURAL ENERGY FOR AMERICA PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $334,500
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................         706,000

    The Rural Energy for America Program is authorized under 
section 9007 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 
2002 (Public Law 107-171). This program may fund energy audits, 
direct loans, loan guarantees, and grants to farmers, ranchers, 
and small rural businesses for the purchase of renewable energy 
systems and for energy efficiency improvements.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $706,000 for 
the Rural Energy for America Program.
    The following table provides the Committee's recommendation 
as compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget request levels:

                                        RURAL ENERGY FOR AMERICA PROGRAM
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Fiscal year
                                                                    Fiscal year     2020 budget      Committee
                                                                   2019 enacted       request     recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated loan level............................................      $7,500,000  ..............     $20,000,000
Guaranteed loan subsidy.........................................         334,500  ..............         706,000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Biogas System Development.--The Secretary is encouraged, in 
coordination with other Federal agencies, to support biogas 
system development with financial and technical assistance 
through existing energy programs and to prioritize the 
collection and analysis of related environmental, technical, 
and economic performance data.
    Energy Efficiency Coordination.--The Committee directs 
increased coordination and cooperation among USDA agencies and 
offices to better utilize the energy efficiency and renewable 
energy programs available through the Rural Energy for America 
program. Additionally, no later than 120 days after enactment 
of this act, USDA is directed to submit a report to the 
Committee detailing how the agencies make information about its 
energy programs accessible to rural communities and how funds 
are being leveraged for energy efficiency investments in rural 
areas.
    Energy Storage Technologies.--The Secretary is directed to 
clarify that energy storage technologies are eligible for Rural 
Energy for America program funding.

                        Rural Utilities Service

    The Rural Utilities Service [RUS] was established under the 
Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture 
Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354), October 13, 
1994. RUS administers the electric and telephone programs of 
the former Rural Electrification Administration and the water 
and waste programs of the former Rural Development 
Administration.

             RURAL WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $548,690,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     545,779,000
Committee recommendation................................     484,980,000

    The water and waste disposal program is authorized by 
sections 306, 306A, 309A, 306C, 306D, 306E, and 310B of the 
Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Public Law 87-
128). This program makes loans for water and waste development 
costs. Development loans are made to associations, including 
corporations operating on a nonprofit basis, municipalities, 
and similar organizations, generally designated as public or 
quasi-public agencies, that propose projects for the 
development, storage, treatment, purification, and distribution 
of domestic water or the collection, treatment, or disposal of 
waste in rural areas. Such grants may not exceed 75 percent of 
the development cost of the projects and can supplement other 
funds borrowed or furnished by applicants to pay development 
costs.
    The solid waste grant program is authorized under section 
310B(b) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act 
(Public Law 87-128). Grants are made to public bodies and 
private nonprofit organizations to provide technical assistance 
to local and regional governments for the purpose of reducing 
or eliminating pollution of water resources and for improving 
the planning and management of solid waste disposal facilities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $484,980,000 
for the Rural Water and Waste Disposal Program Account.
    The Committee recommends $68,000,000 for water and waste 
disposal systems grants for Native Americans, including Native 
Alaskans, and the Colonias. The Committee recognizes the 
special needs and problems for delivery of basic services to 
these populations and encourages the Secretary to distribute 
these funds in line with the fiscal year 2014 distribution, to 
the degree practicable. In addition, the Committee makes up to 
$19,570,000 available for the circuit rider program.
    The Committee is concerned about raw sewage discharge in 
some rural communities in the Mid-South, particularly 
historically impoverished communities that have had difficulty 
utilizing Rural Development programs. The Committee is aware of 
the unique challenges faced by these communities and directs 
the Department to develop a pilot program to coordinate with a 
regional university to solve untreated raw sewage issues with 
innovative technologies and strategic management and regulatory 
models. The pilot should address rural wastewater management 
including: county needs assessments, testing wastewater 
options, defining funding mechanisms for remediation and 
developing regulatory guidance.
    The following table provides the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget 
request levels:

                                 RURAL WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2019  Fiscal year 2020      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan levels:
    Water and waste disposal direct loans.................         1,400,000         1,200,000         1,400,000
    Water and waste disposal guaranteed loans.............            50,000  ................            50,000
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total loan levels...................................         1,450,000         1,200,000         1,450,000
                                                           =====================================================
Budget authority:
    Water and waste disposal direct loans.................  ................            54,720            63,840
    Water and waste disposal guaranteed loans.............               190  ................                70
    Water and waste disposal grants.......................           400,000           324,917           272,000
    Solid waste management grants.........................             4,000             4,000             4,000
    Water well systems grants.............................             1,500               993             1,500
    Colonias, AK and Native American grants...............            68,000            68,000            68,000
    Water and waste water revolving funds.................             1,000             1,000             1,000
    High energy cost grants...............................            10,000  ................            10,000
    Circuit rider.........................................            19,000            19,000            19,570
    Emergency community water assistance grants...........            15,000            15,000            15,000
    Technical assistance grants...........................            30,000            40,000            30,000
    Water and Waste Disposal Program Account Transfer.....  ................            18,149  ................
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, budget authority.............................           548,690           545,779           484,980
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Colonias.--The Committee recognizes the special needs and 
problems for delivery of basic services to these populations 
and urges the agency to coordinate with State and local 
authorities, as well as contiguous local utilities located 
outside of the unserved or underserved service area, to help 
provide sustainable, essential water and/or waste water 
services to these unserved or underserved areas.
    Water and Waste Grants.--Section 761 of the bill includes 
an additional $128,000,000 transfer for Water and Waste grants, 
bringing the total for fiscal year 2020 to $400,000,000.

   RURAL ELECTRIFICATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

    The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (Public Law 74-605) 
provides the statutory authority for the electric and 
telecommunications programs.
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508) 
established the program account. An appropriation to this 
account will be used to cover the lifetime subsidy costs 
associated with the direct loans obligated and loan guarantees 
committed in fiscal year 2020, as well as for administrative 
expenses.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The following table reflects the Committee's recommendation 
for the Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Loans 
Program Account, the loan subsidy and administrative expenses, 
as compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget request levels:

                       RURAL ELECTRIFICATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan authorizations:
    Electric:
        Direct FFB...........................................        5,500,000        5,500,000        5,500,000
        Guaranteed underwriting..............................          750,000  ...............          750,000
    Telecommunications:
        Direct, Treasury Rate................................          345,000          175,727          345,000
        Direct, FFB..........................................          345,000          514,273          345,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total loan authorization...............................        6,940,000        6,190,000        6,940,000
                                                              ==================================================
      Total budget authority.................................           34,995           39,960           37,065
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program 
Oversight.--The Committee is concerned that the Energy 
Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program does not yet have 
performance measures in place, as highlighted by a 2016 
Inspector General report. The Committee directs USDA to 
institute such measures prior to awarding any additional 
funding through the program, or no later than 180 days from 
enactment of this act.

                             DISTANCE LEARNING, TELEMEDICINE, AND BROADBAND PROGRAM
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan and grant levels:
    Distance learning and Telemedicine Program:
        Grants...............................................           34,000           43,600           34,000
Broadband program:
    Treasury rate loans......................................           29,851              (*)           29,851
    Treasury rate loans budget authority.....................            5,830              (*)            5,340
    Grants...................................................           30,000           30,000           30,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total DLT and Broadband Program level..................           93,851              (*)           93,851
                                                              ==================================================
      Total DLT and Broadband Budget authority...............           69,830          273,600           69,340
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*$200 million in budget authority is requested to continue the broadband loan and grant pilot program created in
  Sec. 779 of Public Law 115-141.


    The Distance Learning, Telemedicine, and Broadband Program 
is authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade 
Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-624), as amended by the Federal 
Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-
127). This program provides incentives to improve the quality 
of phone services, to provide access to advanced 
telecommunications services and computer networks, and to 
improve rural opportunities.
    This program provides the facilities and equipment to link 
rural education and medical facilities with more urban centers 
and other facilities, providing rural residents access to 
better healthcare through technology and increasing educational 
opportunities for rural students. These funds are available for 
loans and grants.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $69,340,000 
for the Distance Learning, Telemedicine, and Broadband Program. 
Funds recommended for the RUS broadband program are intended to 
promote broadband availability in those areas where there is 
not otherwise a business case for private investment in a 
broadband network. The Committee encourages RUS to focus 
expenditures on projects that bring broadband service to 
currently unserved households.
    The Committee recommendation includes $3,000,000 to address 
critical healthcare needs, as authorized by section 379G of the 
Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Public Law 115-
334).
    Broadband Grants.--Of the funds recommended, $30,000,000 in 
grants shall be made available to support broadband 
transmission for rural areas.
    Broadband on Tribal Lands.--The Committee notes its concern 
that despite the great need for broadband deployment on tribal 
lands, tribal entities serving these areas are historically 
less likely to receive Federal grant and loan funding for the 
projects when compared with their rural counterparts. The 
Committee directs the Department to provide an accounting of 
the number of funded projects that includes service on tribal 
lands, the number of projects for tribal lands that were 
proposed but unfunded, the number of workshops or events USDA 
participated in to bring attention to this program, and any 
other regulatory barriers that impede tribes from obtaining 
funding.
    High-Cost Universal Service Fund [USF] Recipients with 
Minimum 25/3 Mbps Buildout Obligations.--The Committee directs 
that funding for the Rural eConnectivity Pilot Program 
(ReConnect) for service areas where High-Cost USF recipients 
(including but not limited to CAF II, A-CAM, and CAF-BLS 
recipients) have buildout obligations of 25/3 Mbps or greater 
for fixed terrestrial broadband can only be requested by the 
entity that is receiving such USF support, and project sponsors 
that receive USF support in those areas may only apply for 
funds that serve those areas from the 100 percent Loan funding 
category under the ReConnect Program. For purposes of 
clarification, this limitation on eligibility shall only apply 
to those areas (e.g., study areas or census blocks) for which 
the USF recipient is subject to a buildout obligation of 25/3 
Mbps or greater for fixed terrestrial broadband.
    Mountainous Terrain.--The Committee is concerned that 
States with challenging mountainous terrain face higher costs 
and other implementation problems when it comes to broadband 
deployment. The Committee recognizes the importance of both the 
ReConnect and Community Connect programs and their ability to 
bring much-needed high speed broadband to remote rural 
communities. The Committee urges the Secretary to prioritize 
awarding funding to areas with mountainous terrain.
    ReConnect Application Process.--The Committee understands 
that many of the communities that need broadband deployment 
funding the most have the fewest resources at their disposal to 
research, review, and apply for that funding. The Committee 
remains concerned about reports that the full application for 
the fiscal year 2019 ReConnect pilot was not available online 
until less than 40 days before the application deadline. In an 
effort to ensure that all eligible applicants have an 
opportunity to draft and submit a valid application, the 
Committee directs the Secretary to make the full application 
available on the ReConnect website no later than 90 days before 
future application deadlines. Furthermore, the Secretary shall, 
within the funds provided, leverage existing USDA resources and 
utilize standing contract authorities to provide additional, 
in-person support to ReConnect applicants upon request.
    ReConnect Status.--The ReConnect broadband loan and grant 
pilot program was established in the fiscal year 2018 
Appropriations Act (Public Law 115-141) to expand broadband 
service to rural areas without sufficient access to broadband. 
To date, $1,550,000,000 has been appropriated to this pilot 
program.
    The Committee appreciates that the ReConnect Program was 
recently launched and began accepting applications this year 
for rural communities to build modern broadband infrastructure. 
However, in order to ensure the program reaches the underserved 
and unserved communities it is intended to serve, the Committee 
directs the Secretary to complete a review of the ReConnect 
Program within 6 months of announcing its first ReConnect 
award. The review should include a list of the grant and loan 
recipients and amounts awarded. It should also include an 
assessment of the scoring criteria, including the median score 
for all applicants, the criteria of areas where applicants were 
least likely to receive full points, such as State broadband 
plans and residential only applications, and suggestions for 
modifications to the scoring criteria. The review should 
consider challenges of accurate broadband speed maps self-
reported by Internet service providers (FCC Form 477 data), 
including alternatives to relying on the Federal Communications 
Commission [FCC] maps. The review should also detail the 
Department's efforts to support the deployment of last-mile 
broadband infrastructure and should address how additional ISPs 
can apply for ReConnect funds in the 190,595 locations where 
only one satellite broadband company has received CAFII 
funding.
    In addition, in order to ensure these investments are 
maximized, the Committee reminds the Department to avoid 
efforts that could duplicate existing networks built by private 
investment or those built leveraging and utilizing other 
Federal programs, and in this regard to coordinate the 
activities of the Department with the National 
Telecommunications Information Administration [NTIA] and the 
FCC to ensure wherever possible that any funding provided to 
support deployment of last-mile broadband infrastructure is 
targeted to areas that are currently unserved. Further, the 
Committee encourages the agency to prioritize projects financed 
through public-private partnerships and projects where Federal 
funding will not exceed 50 percent of the project's total cost.
    Furthermore, the Committee is mindful of the unique 
challenges of serving Alaska, which warrant special 
consideration when providing funding for rural broadband. For 
example, the nature of remote Alaskan villages defies 
traditional notions of ``rural'' that are more common to the 
lower 48 States. Therefore, the Committee urges the Rural 
Utilities Service, in implementing the next round of the 
ReConnect program, to examine these barriers to full 
participation by all types of Alaskan providers and consider 
ways that unserved parts of Alaska could receive the 
substantial benefits of this program.
    Rural in Character.--The Committee is concerned that the 
current weighting scale for the ReConnect program disadvantages 
rural households and communities that aren't necessarily 
located on farms. In addition, the Committee is concerned that 
providing preference to 100mbps symmetrical service also 
unfairly disadvantages these communities by limiting the 
deployment of other technologies capable of providing service 
to these areas. Further, the Committee is concerned that the 
current program does not effectively recognize the unique 
challenges and opportunities that different technologies, 
including satellite, provide to delivering broadband in 
noncontiguous states or mountainous terrain.
    RUS Grants and Loans for Open Access Infrastructure 
Projects.--The Committee is aware that public entities have 
invested in open access fiber infrastructure that is 
facilitating the delivery of high-speed broadband services by 
licensed telecommunications providers, including the model 
pioneered by public port authorities. The Committee understands 
that while particular open access fiber projects may be 
eligible for RUS grants and loans, more generally, significant 
barriers exist to government backing for these types of open 
access investments. The Committee believes RUS programs should 
support financially-feasible open access infrastructure 
projects that meet program goals. The Committee urges RUS to 
ensure the agency's criteria and application processes provide 
for fair consideration of open access projects by accounting 
for the unique structures and opportunities such projects 
present in advancing broadband deployment in unserved and 
underserved communities.

                                TITLE IV

                         DOMESTIC FOOD PROGRAMS

    Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer 
                                Services

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $800,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and 
Consumer Services provides direction and coordination in 
carrying out the laws enacted by the Congress with respect to 
the Department's nutrition assistance activities. The Office 
has oversight and management responsibilities for the Food and 
Nutrition Service (FNS).

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and 
Consumer Services.
    Evaluating Food Options and Standards in Retail Settings.--
The Committee understands that States implement and verify 
product nutrition standards for eligibility for the 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP] and the 
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and 
Children [WIC] through contracted in-store visits and reviews 
of food products and labeling. The Committee is concerned that 
such process may be inefficient and potentially limits the 
eligibility of healthier food options, including organic, non-
processed, and ethnic choices. The Committee directs the 
Government Accountability Office to review the current process 
used by States and how such process may restrict the 
eligibility of nutritious food options and to evaluate and 
report on available technologies which may streamline the 
process and improve the product label and standards analysis 
for a wider variety of healthy food options within SNAP and 
WIC.
    Food Security in Frontier Communities.--The Committee 
appreciates the intent of FNS to focus on implementing locally-
designed initiatives to increase food security in frontier 
communities within its area of responsibility. Helping these 
communities adapt to changing growing conditions and 
subsistence food availability and to develop the capacity to 
grow more food locally will improve their tenuous food security 
and provide opportunities for economic development in extremely 
low-income regions. The Committee therefore strongly encourages 
FNS to continue to work closely with relevant stakeholders in 
States with frontier communities to support activities and 
policies that will result in increased food security. The 
Committee directs FNS to collaborate with AMS in implementing 
Micro-Grants for Food Security.
    Nutrition Program Efficiency.--The Committee encourages the 
Secretary to focus process and technology improvement grants 
within FNS to expand public-private partnerships to increase 
food security in a cost-efficient and accountable manner.
    SNAP Eligibility.--The Committee is aware of proposed 
changes to the SNAP program that could impact eligibility. In 
conducting the regulatory impact analysis, the Committee 
directs the Secretary to include the impact on children, 
seniors, individuals with disabilities, and rural and poor 
communities.
    Unsweetened Naturally Flavored Water.--The Committee notes 
that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have found 
that U.S. adolescents who drink less water tend to drink less 
milk, eat fewer fruits and vegetables, drink more sugar-
sweetened beverages, eat more fast food, and get less physical 
activity. Since school nutrition standards were last updated in 
2012, numerous naturally flavored water options now exist that 
that are free of any sweeteners as well as artificial colors 
and flavors. Therefore, the Committee directs USDA to review 
its standards with regard to water and revise them, if 
appropriate, or allow schools to request waivers from the 
current water standards.

                       Food and Nutrition Service

    The Food and Nutrition Service represents an organizational 
effort to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in this country. 
Nutrition assistance programs provide access to a nutritionally 
adequate diet for families and persons with low incomes and 
encourage better eating patterns among the Nation's children. 
These programs include:
    Child Nutrition Programs.--The National School Lunch and 
School Breakfast, Summer Food Service, and Child and Adult Care 
Food programs provide funding to the States, Puerto Rico, the 
Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and Guam for use in serving 
nutritious lunches and breakfasts to children attending schools 
of high school grades and under, to children of preschool age 
in child care centers, and to children in other institutions in 
order to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's 
children and broaden the markets for agricultural food 
commodities. Through the Special Milk Program, assistance is 
provided to the States for making reimbursement payments to 
eligible schools and child care institutions which institute or 
expand milk service in order to increase the consumption of 
fluid milk by children. Funds for this program are provided by 
direct appropriation and transfer from section 32.
    Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, 
and Children [WIC].--This program safeguards the health of 
pregnant, postpartum, and breast-feeding women, and infants and 
children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk because of 
inadequate nutrition and income by providing supplemental 
foods. The delivery of supplemental foods may be done through 
health clinics, vouchers redeemable at retail food stores, or 
other approved methods which a cooperating State health agency 
may select. Funds for this program are provided by direct 
appropriation.
    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.--This program 
seeks to improve nutritional standards of needy persons and 
families. Assistance is provided to eligible households to 
enable them to obtain a better diet by increasing their food 
purchasing capability, usually by furnishing benefits in the 
form of electronic access to funds. The program also includes 
Nutrition Assistance to Puerto Rico.
    The program also includes the Food Distribution Program on 
Indian Reservations, which provides nutritious agricultural 
commodities to low-income persons living on or near Indian 
reservations who choose not to participate in the Supplemental 
Nutrition Assistance Program.
    Commodity Assistance Program [CAP].--This program provides 
funding for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program [CSFP], the 
Farmers' Market Nutrition Program, Disaster Assistance, Pacific 
Island Assistance, and administrative expenses for TEFAP.
    CSFP provides supplemental foods to low-income elderly 
persons age 60 and over.
    TEFAP provides commodities and grant funds to State 
agencies to assist in the cost of storage and distribution of 
donated commodities.
    Nutritious agricultural commodities are provided to 
residents of the Federated States of Micronesia and the 
Marshall Islands. Cash assistance is provided to distributing 
agencies to assist them in meeting administrative expenses 
incurred. It also provides funding for use in non-
presidentially declared disasters and for FNS's administrative 
costs in connection with relief for all disasters. Funds for 
this program are provided by direct appropriation.
    Nutrition Programs Administration.--Most salaries and 
Federal operating expenses of FNS are funded from this account. 
Also included is the Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion 
[CNPP], which oversees improvements in and revisions to the 
food guidance systems and serves as the focal point for 
advancing and coordinating nutrition promotion and education 
policy to improve the health of all Americans.

                        CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019.................................... $23,140,781,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................  23,943,216,000
Committee recommendation................................  23,602,569,000

    The Child Nutrition Programs, authorized by the Richard B. 
Russell National School Lunch Act (Public Law 79-396) and the 
Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-642), provide 
Federal assistance to State agencies in the form of cash and 
commodities for use in preparing and serving nutritious meals 
to children while they are attending school, residing in 
service institutions, or participating in other organized 
activities away from home. The purpose of these programs is to 
help maintain the health and proper physical development of 
America's children. Milk is provided to children either free or 
at a low cost, depending on their family income level. FNS 
provides cash subsidies to States for administering the 
programs and directly administers the program in the States 
which choose not to do so. Grants are also made for nutritional 
training and surveys and for State administrative expenses. 
Under current law, most of these payments are made on the basis 
of reimbursement rates established by law and applied to 
lunches and breakfasts actually served by the States. The 
reimbursement rates are adjusted annually to reflect changes in 
the Consumer Price Index for food away from home.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $23,602,569,000 for the Child 
Nutrition Programs.
    Crediting System.--The Committee recognizes that the 
current crediting system used by FNS in administering the 
School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program has not 
been updated to keep pace with products in the marketplace. 
Specifically, Greek yogurt receives the same protein crediting 
as other products with less protein. The Committee directs the 
Secretary to update the system of crediting high-protein yogurt 
to accurately reflect scientifically demonstrated higher 
protein content in strained yogurt.
    Farm to School Program.--Successful implementation of Farm 
to School programs requires broad-based knowledge of best 
practices regarding coordination among farmers, processors, 
distributers, students, teachers, dietary and food preparation 
staff, and USDA professionals. Since the scope of some Farm to 
School projects have expanded in recent years, the Secretary 
may allow maximum grant amounts to increase to $250,000. Of the 
grant funds provided, the Committee directs the Secretary to 
use at least $150,000 to coordinate with established entities, 
such as regional Farm to School institutes, for the creation 
and dissemination of information on farm to school program 
development and to provide practitioner education and training, 
and ongoing school year coaching and technical assistance.
    Lunch Shaming.--The Committee remains concerned with the 
practice of lunch shaming, when students with unpaid school 
meal fees are treated unfairly. The Committee directs the 
Secretary to provide additional guidance to program operators 
to address the ongoing issue of shaming school children for 
unpaid school lunch fees, including identifying approaches that 
protect children from public embarrassment; encouraging all 
communications about unpaid school lunch fees be directed to 
the parent or guardian, not the child; and encouraging schools 
to take additional steps to ensure that all students who 
qualify for free and reduced meals are efficiently enrolled to 
receive them.
    Pulse Crops.--The Committee recognizes the nutritional 
value of pulse crops for children and encourages FNS to support 
school food authorities in sourcing and serving pulse crops.
    School Breakfast Commodities.--Of the $485,000,000 
appropriated for Child Nutrition Programs Entitlement 
Commodities under Section 714 of this Act, $20,000,000 shall be 
proportionally offered to States based on the number of 
breakfasts served in the preceding school year.
    Summer EBT.--The Committee understands that Summer EBT has 
been proven to lower food insecurity among children during the 
summer months when school is not in session. The Committee is 
displeased that the Secretary changed the methodology for 
funding this program in fiscal year 2019. Therefore, the 
Committee directs the Secretary to fund this program in fiscal 
year 2020 in the same manner, including the same States and 
tribal organizations, as it was funded in fiscal year 2018.
    Summer Food Service Program.--The Committee recognizes that 
in many rural and frontier areas of the country where homes are 
widely scattered, children and youth are unable to access 
congregate feeding sites that participate in the Summer Food 
Service Program and that existing mobile food delivery efforts 
are not able to meet the need. The Committee supports FNS 
allowing State Agencies to enable Summer Food Service Program 
service institutions that serve such areas where eligible 
children and youth have barriers to access or limited access to 
a congregate feeding site to use their customary reimbursement 
payments to develop and implement innovative methods to deliver 
or otherwise make available foods to eligible children and 
youth by non-congregate means or in non-congregate settings. In 
addition, the Committee requests USDA submit a report within 1 
year of enactment describing how many Summer Food Service 
Program grantees, in which States, put in place innovative 
methods of food delivery by non-congregate means and in non-
congregate settings, what innovative methods were used, and how 
many additional youth were served as a result.
    The Committee's recommendation provides for the following 
annual rates for the child nutrition programs.

                      TOTAL OBLIGATIONAL AUTHORITY
                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Committee
                Child nutrition programs                  recommendation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
School Lunch Program...................................       12,507,478
School Breakfast Program...............................        4,831,384
Child and Adult Care Food Program......................        3,835,706
Summer Food Service Program............................          526,385
Special Milk Program...................................            7,064
State Administrative Expenses..........................          314,922
Commodity Procurement..................................        1,419,968
Team Nutrition/HUSSC/CMS...............................           12,475
Food Safety Education..................................            2,929
Coordinated Review.....................................           10,000
Computer Support.......................................           12,124
Training and Technical Assistance......................           33,935
CNP Studies and Evaluation.............................           14,999
Farm to School Team....................................            3,997
Payment Accuracy.......................................           11,203
School Meal Equipment Grants...........................           30,000
Summer EBT Demonstration...............................           28,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Committee expects FNS to utilize the National Food 
Service Management Institute to carry out the food safety 
education program.

SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN 
                                 [WIC]

Appropriations, 2019....................................  $6,075,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................   5,750,000,000
Committee recommendation................................   6,000,000,000

    The WIC program is authorized by section 17 of the Child 
Nutrition Act of 1966. Its purpose is to safeguard the health 
of pregnant, breast-feeding and postpartum women, and infants 
and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk because of 
inadequate nutrition and inadequate income.
    The WIC program food packages are designed to provide foods 
which studies have demonstrated are lacking in the diets of the 
WIC program target population. The authorized supplemental 
foods are iron-fortified breakfast cereal, fruit or vegetable 
juice which contains vitamin C, dry beans, peas, and peanut 
butter.
    There are three general types of delivery systems for WIC 
foods: (1) retail purchase in which participants obtain 
supplemental foods through retail stores; (2) home delivery 
systems in which food is delivered to the participant's home; 
and (3) direct distribution systems in which participants pick 
up food from a distribution outlet. The food is free of charge 
to all participants.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $6,000,000,000 
for the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, 
and Children [WIC].
    The Committee recommendation fully funds estimated WIC 
participation in fiscal year 2020. The Committee recommendation 
includes $80,000,000 for breastfeeding support initiatives and 
$14,000,000 for infrastructure.
    WIC Food Package.--The Committee appreciates the work of 
the National Academies of Science to review and make 
recommendations for updating the WIC food packages to reflect 
current science and cultural factors. The Committee notes, 
however, that while all revised packages now allow some fish, 
the amounts remain low compared to the recommendations of 
authoritative agencies such as the World Health Organization 
and in some cases, sporadic. The Committee strongly encourages 
the Department to prioritize the health and cultural benefits 
of fish consumption as regulations are revised to implement the 
NAS recommendations and to increase the amount of healthful 
fish above the amounts recommended by the NAS. The Committee 
also strongly encourages the Department to allow States to 
prioritize fish over legumes and peanut butter to respond to 
the cultural preferences of WIC participants in States like 
Alaska.
    WIC Information Transparency.--In an effort to promote 
competition and ensure transparency within the WIC bid process, 
the Committee directs FNS to make all information pertaining to 
State rebate bid solicitations available on a public website 
within 1 week of the announcements. In addition, FNS shall 
continue posting to a publicly accessible website any policy 
document related to the WIC program, including, but not limited 
to: instructions, memoranda, guidance, and response feedback 
within 1 week of its release to WIC State administrators.

               SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2019.................................... $73,476,921,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................  69,069,910,000
Committee recommendation................................  69,163,287,000

    SNAP attempts to alleviate hunger and malnutrition among 
low-income persons by increasing their food purchasing power. 
Eligible households receive SNAP benefits with which they can 
purchase food through regular retail stores.
    Other programs funded through SNAP include Nutrition 
Assistance to Puerto Rico and American Samoa, the Food 
Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, the Emergency Food 
Assistance Program, and the Community Food Projects program.
    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is currently 
in operation in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, the 
Virgin Islands, and Guam. Participating households receive food 
benefits, the value of which is determined by household size 
and income. The cost of the benefits is paid by the Federal 
Government. As required by law, FNS annually revises household 
benefit allotments to reflect changes in the cost of the 
thrifty food plan.
    Administrative Costs.--All direct and indirect 
administrative costs incurred for certification of households, 
issuance of benefits, quality control, outreach, and fair 
hearing efforts are shared by the Federal Government and the 
States on a 50-50 basis.
    State Antifraud Activities.--Under the provisions of the 
Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-246), States are 
eligible to be reimbursed for 50 percent of the costs of their 
fraud investigations and prosecutions.
    States are required to implement an employment and training 
program for the purpose of assisting members of households 
participating in SNAP in gaining skills, training, or 
experience that will increase their ability to obtain regular 
employment. USDA has implemented a grant program to States to 
assist them in providing employment and training services.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $69,163,287,000 for the 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Of the amount 
recommended, $3,000,000,000 is made available as a contingency 
reserve.
    Within the funds provided, the Committee directs FNS to 
initiate implementation of practices around electronic data 
matching for income verification.
    Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations [FDPIR] 
Food Package.--The Committee commends the Department for 
convening the FDPIR Food Package Review Work Group, which 
includes tribal representatives and staff from FNS, to increase 
the amount and variety of traditional foods included in FDPIR 
food packages and to increase the amount of foods purchased 
from American Indian and Alaska Native producers and 
businesses. The Committee directs the Department to provide a 
report detailing its plans to include a greater variety of 
traditional foods as regular components of FDPIR food baskets; 
its plans to identify additional Native American and Alaska 
Native producers of traditional foods, including wild salmon, 
caribou, reindeer, elk, and other foods; and its plans to 
purchase additional traditional foods from a greater number of 
indigenous producers and businesses.
    Improving Accuracy in SNAP.--The Committee acknowledges the 
importance of accuracy in the applicant certification process 
for SNAP, as indicated by the enactment of related provisions 
in the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-
334). In implementing these new provisions, the Committee 
encourages the Secretary to pursue the most cost-effective and 
transparent means of providing State agencies access to 
accurate commercial data.
    SNAP Data Matching.--The Agriculture Improvement Act of 
2018 (Public Law 115-334) amended Section 11 of the Food and 
Nutrition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-246) by requiring the 
Secretary to establish an interstate data matching system to 
prevent multiple issuances of SNAP benefits to an individual by 
more than one State agency simultaneously. In implementing the 
data matching system, the Committee encourages the Department 
to engage partners that have extensive experience working with 
State social service programs. The Committee encourages USDA to 
establish an interagency working group with the Department of 
Health and Human Services to explore expanding the scope of the 
data matching program to prevent duplication and improve 
program integrity across all of the means-tested programs that 
assist low-income families.
    SNAP Eligibility for College Students.--The Committee is 
deeply concerned by the findings of the December 2018 GAO 
report titled ``Food Insecurity--Better Information Could Help 
Eligible College Students Access Federal Food Assistance 
Benefits'' in which GAO found that students may be unaware or 
misinformed about their potential eligibility for SNAP. GAO 
found that FNS has not provided clear explanation to students 
on SNAP eligibility requirements, easily accessible to students 
and college officials and, as result, students experiencing 
food insecurity may remain unaware that they could be eligible 
for SNAP. Therefore, the Committee directs the Secretary to 
provide a report, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on 
its current outreach efforts to colleges and their students on 
potential eligibility. Further, the Department should 
coordinate with the Department of Education to improve outreach 
to eligible college students and report on its efforts within 
180 days after enactment of this act.
    SNAP Fraud.--A January 2017 OIG report entitled ``Detecting 
Potential SNAP Trafficking Using Data Analysis'' found that FNS 
lacked methods to reconcile data discrepancies across their 
administration systems and that retailers were providing 
benefits to individuals using fraudulent credentials. The 
Committee directs FNS to provide an update on the 
implementation of controls to address these problems, as well 
as data demonstrating whether the controls have reduced error 
rates.
    State SNAP Implementation.--The Committee is concerned 
about implementation of the SNAP program in certain States 
where States are failing to meet the required deadlines for 
processing applications. USDA is encouraged to work closely 
with States to remedy program deficiency and be aggressive in 
combating any falsification of SNAP implementation data.

                      COMMODITY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $322,139,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      55,471,000
Committee recommendation................................     344,248,000

    The Commodity Assistance Program includes funding for the 
Commodity Supplemental Food Program and funding to pay expenses 
associated with the storage and distribution of commodities 
through The Emergency Food Assistance Program.
    The Commodity Supplemental Food Program [CSFP].--Authorized 
by section 4(a) of the Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act 
of 1973 (7 U.S.C. 612c note), as amended in 1981 by Public Law 
97-98 and in 2014 by Public Law 113-79, this program provides 
supplemental food to low-income senior citizens and in some 
cases low-income infants and children up to age six, low-income 
pregnant and postpartum women. The Agricultural Act of 2014 
(Public Law 113-79) discontinued the admission of new pregnant 
and postpartum women and children into the program. Those 
already in the program can continue to receive assistance until 
they are no longer eligible.
    The foods for CSFP are provided by USDA for distribution 
through State agencies. The authorized commodities include: 
iron-fortified infant formula, rice cereal, cheese, canned 
juice, evaporated milk and/or nonfat dry milk, canned 
vegetables or fruits, canned meat or poultry, egg mix, 
dehydrated potatoes, farina, and peanut butter and dry beans. 
Elderly participants may receive all commodities except iron-
fortified infant formula and rice cereal.
    The Emergency Food Assistance Program [TEFAP].--Authorized 
by the Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983 (7 U.S.C. 7501 et 
seq.), as amended, the program provides nutrition assistance to 
low-income people through prepared meals served on site and 
through the distribution of commodities to low-income 
households for home consumption. The commodities are provided 
by USDA to State agencies for distribution through State-
established networks. State agencies make the commodities 
available to local organizations, such as soup kitchens, food 
pantries, food banks, and community action agencies, for their 
use in providing nutrition assistance to those in need.
    Funds are administered by FNS through grants to State 
agencies which operate commodity distribution programs. 
Allocation of the funds to States is based on a formula which 
considers the States' unemployment rate and the number of 
persons with income below the poverty level.
    Farmers' Market Nutrition Program.--The Farmers' Market 
Nutrition Program [FMNP] provides WIC or WIC-eligible 
participants with coupons to purchase fresh, nutritious, 
unprepared foods, such as fruits and vegetables, from farmers' 
markets. This benefits both participants and local farmers by 
increasing the awareness and use of farmers' markets by low-
income households.
    Pacific Island and Disaster Assistance.--This program 
provides funding for assistance to the nuclear-affected islands 
in the form of commodities and administrative funds. It also 
provides funding for use in non-presidentially declared 
disasters and for FNS's administrative costs in connection with 
relief for all disasters.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $344,248,000 
for the Commodity Assistance Program. The Committee continues 
to encourage the Department to distribute Commodity Assistance 
Program funds equitably among the States, based on an 
assessment of the needs and priorities of each State and the 
State's preference to receive commodity allocations through 
each of the programs funded under this account.
    Commodity Supplemental Food Program.--The Committee 
recommends $245,000,000 for the Commodity Supplemental Food 
Program. This amount fully funds participation in fiscal year 
2020.
    Farmers' Market Nutrition Program.--The Committee is aware 
that the Farmers' Market Nutrition Program provides fresh 
fruits and vegetables to low-income mothers and children, 
benefiting not only WIC participants, but local farmers as 
well. Therefore, the Committee recommends $18,548,000 for the 
Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and directs the Secretary to 
obligate these funds within 45 days.
    The Emergency Food Assistance Program.--The Agriculture 
Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-334) provides 
$322,250,000 for TEFAP commodities to be purchased with 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program funds. The Committee 
recommendation includes $79,630,000 for TEFAP transportation, 
storage, and program integrity. In addition, the Committee 
recommendation grants the Secretary authority to transfer up to 
an additional 10 percent from TEFAP commodities for this 
purpose and urges the Secretary to use this authority.
    The Committee encourages the Secretary to identify 
opportunities for increasing the supply of TEFAP commodities in 
the coming fiscal year through bonus and specialty crop 
purchases. The Department shall make available to the States 
domestically produced catfish fillets for distribution to local 
agencies.

                   NUTRITION PROGRAMS ADMINISTRATION

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $164,688,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................     152,041,000
Committee recommendation................................     160,891,000

    The Nutrition Programs Administration appropriation 
provides for most of the Federal operating expenses of the Food 
and Nutrition Service, which includes the Child Nutrition 
Programs; Special Milk Program; WIC; SNAP; Nutrition Assistance 
for Puerto Rico; the Commodity Assistance Program, including 
the Commodity Supplemental Food Program and the Emergency Food 
Assistance Program; and Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and 
Pacific Island and Disaster Assistance.
    The major objective of Nutrition Programs Administration is 
to efficiently and effectively carry out the nutrition 
assistance programs mandated by law. This is to be accomplished 
by the following: (1) giving clear and consistent guidance and 
supervision to State agencies and other cooperators; (2) 
assisting the States and other cooperators by providing 
program, managerial, financial, and other advice and expertise; 
(3) measuring, reviewing, and analyzing the progress being made 
toward achieving program objectives; and (4) carrying out 
regular staff support functions.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $160,891,000 
for Nutrition Programs Administration.
    National Accuracy Clearinghouse.--The Committee recognizes 
the importance of implementing the National Accuracy 
Clearinghouse on a nationwide basis to prevent multiple 
issuances of supplemental nutrition program benefits to an 
individual by more than one State simultaneously. The Committee 
provides $5,000,000 for the nationwide implementation of the 
National Accuracy Clearinghouse, as described in Section 4011 
of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Public Law 115-
334).

                                TITLE V

                FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AND RELATED PROGRAMS

   Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural 
                                Affairs

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $875,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         875,000
Committee recommendation................................         875,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign 
Agricultural Affairs provides direction and coordination in 
carrying out the laws enacted by the Congress with respect to 
the Department's international affairs (except for foreign 
economic development). The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Foreign Agricultural Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriations of $875,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign 
Agricultural Affairs.
    Food Chain Systems.--The Committee is aware that the lack 
of comprehensive cold food chain systems is one of the main 
causes of food loss and results in a significant percentage of 
food spoilage from farm-to-market. Preventing food loss and 
implementing a robust cold food chain results in substantial 
benefits such as increased nutrition, a safer food supply, 
greater economic opportunity, and increased resilience. In 
order to maximize the benefit investment in the agricultural 
productivity of the developing world, the Committee encourages 
the Department to give strong consideration to the use of cold 
chain technologies and include the development of appropriate 
cooling technologies in programs, policies, and strategic plans 
aimed at hunger prevention and food security in developing 
agricultural markets.

                      OFFICE OF CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

Appropriations, 2019....................................      $3,976,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................       4,775,000
Committee recommendation................................       4,775,000

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $4,775,000 for 
the Office of Codex Alimentarius. Funding was previously 
provided through the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

                      Foreign Agricultural Service


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Transfers from
                                                                Appropriations   loan accounts        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2019.........................................          213,890            6,382          220,272
Budget estimate, 2020........................................          192,824            6,063          198,887
Committee recommendation.....................................          217,920            6,063          223,983
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Foreign Agricultural Service [FAS] was established 
March 10, 1953, by Secretary's Memorandum No. 1320, supplement 
1. Public Law 83-690, approved August 28, 1954, transferred the 
agricultural attaches from the Department of State to the 
Foreign Agricultural Service.
    The mission of FAS overseas is to represent U.S. 
agricultural interests, to promote export of domestic farm 
products, improve world trade conditions, and report on 
agricultural production and trade in foreign countries. FAS 
staff are stationed at 98 offices around the world where they 
provide expertise in agricultural economics and marketing, as 
well as provide attache services.
    FAS carries out several export assistance programs to 
counter the adverse effects of unfair trade practices by 
competitors on U.S. agricultural trade. The Market Access 
Program [MAP] conducts both generic and brand-identified 
promotional programs in conjunction with nonprofit agricultural 
associations and private firms financed through reimbursable 
CCC payments.
    The General Sales Manager was established pursuant to 
section 5(f) of the charter of the Commodity Credit Corporation 
and 15 U.S.C. 714-714p. The funds allocated to the General 
Sales Manager are used for conducting the following programs: 
(1) CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102), including 
facilities financing guarantees; (2) Food for Peace; (3) 
section 416b Overseas Donations Program; (4) Market Access 
Program; and (5) programs authorized by the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Charter Act including barter, export sales of most 
CCC-owned commodities, export payments, and other programs as 
assigned to encourage and enhance the export of U.S. 
agricultural commodities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $223,983,000 for the Foreign 
Agricultural Service, including a direct appropriation of 
$217,920,000.
    The Committee recommendation includes $900,000 for Capital 
Security Cost Sharing; $1,600,000 for International Cooperative 
Administrative Support Services; and $1,530,000 for pay costs 
for Locally Engaged Staff.
    Borlaug Fellows Program.--The Committee recommendation 
includes $3,500,000 for the Borlaug International Agricultural 
Science and Technology Fellows Program. This program provides 
training for international scientists and policymakers from 
selected developing countries. The fellows work closely with 
U.S. specialists in their fields of expertise and apply that 
knowledge in their home countries. The Committee recognizes the 
importance of this program in helping developing countries 
strengthen their agricultural practices and food security.
    Cochran Fellowship Program.--The Committee recommendation 
includes $6,500,000 for the Cochran Fellowship Program. The 
Committee encourages the Secretary to continue to provide 
additional support for the program through the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Emerging Markets Program.

  FOOD FOR PEACE TITLE I DIRECT CREDIT AND FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM 
                                ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2019....................................        $142,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................         135,000
Committee recommendation................................         142,000

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $142,000 for 
administrative expenses to continue servicing existing Food for 
Peace title I agreements.

                     FOOD FOR PEACE TITLE II GRANTS

Appropriations, 2019....................................  $1,500,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................   1,716,000,000

    Commodities Supplied in Connection With Dispositions Abroad 
(Title II) (7 U.S.C. 1721-1726).--Commodities are supplied 
without cost through foreign governments to combat malnutrition 
and to meet famine and other emergency requirements. 
Commodities are also supplied for nonemergencies through public 
and private agencies, including intergovernmental 
organizations. The CCC pays ocean freight on shipments under 
this title and may also pay overland transportation costs to a 
landlocked country, as well as internal distribution costs in 
emergency situations. The funds appropriated for title II are 
made available to private voluntary organizations and 
cooperatives to assist these organizations in meeting 
administrative and related costs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,716,000,000 
for Food for Peace title II grants.

  MCGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION 
                             PROGRAM GRANTS

Appropriations, 2019....................................    $210,255,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................................
Committee recommendation................................     210,255,000

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and 
Child Nutrition Program helps support education, child 
development, and food security for some of the world's poorest 
children. The program provides for donations of U.S. 
agricultural products, as well as financial and technical 
assistance, for school feeding and maternal and child nutrition 
projects in low-income, food-deficit countries that are 
committed to universal education. Commodities made available 
for donation through agreements with private voluntary 
organizations, cooperatives, intergovernmental organizations, 
and foreign governments may be donated for direct feeding or 
for local sale to generate proceeds to support school feeding 
and nutrition projects.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $210,255,000 
for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and 
Child Nutrition Program.
    Local and Regional Procurement.--The Committee provides an 
appropriation of $15,000,000 for efforts to build long-term 
agriculture sustainability and establish a local investment in 
school feeding programs. With direct U.S. commodity 
contributions, projects supported by the McGovern-Dole Food for 
Education Program have significantly improved the attendance, 
nourishment, and learning capacity of school-aged children in 
low-income countries throughout the impoverished world. New 
funding authorities would enable school feeding programs to 
proactively transition from direct commodity assistance to 
locally sourced agriculture products. The Committee directs the 
Secretary to conduct the Local and Regional Food Aid 
Procurement Project Program in accordance with the priorities 
of the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child 
Nutrition Program.

              COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION EXPORT (LOANS)

                    CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Guaranteed loan   Administrative
                                             levels          expenses
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2019..................            6,382            2,463
Budget estimate, 2020.................            6,063              318
Committee recommendation..............            6,063              318
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In 1980, the CCC instituted the Export Credit Guarantee 
Program (GSM-102) under its charter authority. With this 
program, CCC guarantees, for a fee, payments due U.S. exporters 
under deferred payment sales contracts (up to 36 months) for 
defaults due to commercial as well as noncommercial risks. The 
risk to CCC extends from the date of export to the end of the 
deferred payment period covered in the export sales contract 
and covers only that portion of the payments agreed to in the 
assurance agreement. Operation of this program is based on 
criteria which will assure that it is used only where it is 
determined that it will develop new market opportunities and 
maintain and expand existing world markets for U.S. 
agricultural commodities. The program encourages U.S. financial 
institutions to provide financing to those areas where the 
institutions would be unwilling to provide financing in the 
absence of the CCC guarantees. CCC also provides facilities 
financing guarantees.
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 establishes the 
program account. The subsidy costs of the CCC export guarantee 
programs are exempt from the requirement of advance 
appropriations of budget authority according to section 
504(c)(2) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, Public Law 
101-508. Appropriations to this account will be used for 
administrative expenses.

                                TITLE VI

            RELATED AGENCY AND FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

                Department of Health and Human Services

                      FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

    The Food and Drug Administration [FDA] is a scientific 
regulatory agency whose mission is to promote and protect the 
public health and safety of Americans. FDA's work is a blend of 
science and law. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments 
Act of 2007 [FDAAA] (Public Law 110-85) reaffirmed the 
responsibilities of the FDA: to ensure safe and effective 
products reach the market in a timely way, and to monitor 
products for continued safety while they are in use. In 
addition, FDA is entrusted with two critical functions in the 
Nation's war on terrorism: preventing willful contamination of 
all regulated products, including food, and improving the 
availability of medications to prevent or treat injuries caused 
by biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agents.
    The FDA Foods program has the primary responsibility for 
assuring that the food supply, quality of foods, food 
ingredients, and dietary supplements are safe, sanitary, 
nutritious, wholesome, and honestly labeled, and that cosmetic 
products are safe and properly labeled. The variety and 
complexity of the food supply has grown dramatically while new 
and more complex safety issues, such as emerging microbial 
pathogens, natural toxins, and technological innovations in 
production and processing, have developed. This program plays a 
major role in keeping the U.S. food supply among the safest in 
the world.
    In January 2011, the Food Safety Modernization Act (Public 
Law 111-353) was signed into law. This law enables FDA to 
better protect public health by strengthening the food safety 
system. It enables FDA to focus more on preventing food safety 
and feed problems rather than relying primarily on reacting to 
problems after they occur. The law also provides FDA with new 
enforcement authorities designed to achieve higher rates of 
compliance with prevention- and risk-based food and feed safety 
standards and to better respond to and contain problems when 
they do occur. The law also gives FDA important new tools to 
hold imported food and feed to the same standards as domestic 
food and feed and directs FDA to build an integrated national 
food safety system in partnership with State and local 
authorities.
    The FDA Drugs programs are comprised of four separate 
areas, Human Drugs, Animal Drugs, Medical Devices and 
Biologics. FDA is responsible for the lifecycle of products, 
including premarket review and postmarket surveillance of human 
and animal drugs, medical devices, and biological products to 
ensure their safety and effectiveness. For Human Drugs this 
includes assuring that all drug products used for the 
prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease are safe and 
effective. Additional procedures include reviewing and 
evaluating investigational new drug applications; evaluation of 
market applications for new and generic drugs, labeling and 
composition of prescription and over-the-counter drugs; 
monitoring the quality and safety of products manufactured in, 
or imported into, the United States; and, regulating the 
advertising and promotion of prescription drugs. The Animal 
Drugs and Feeds program ensures only safe and effective 
veterinary drugs, intended for the treatment and/or prevention 
of diseases in animals and the improved production of food-
producing animals, are approved for marketing.
    The FDA Biologics program assures that blood and blood 
products, blood test kits, vaccines, and therapeutics are pure, 
potent, safe, effective, and properly labeled. The program 
inspects blood banks and blood processors; licenses and 
inspects firms collecting human source plasma; evaluates and 
licenses biologics manufacturing firms and products; lot 
releases licensed products; and monitors adverse events 
associated with vaccine immunization, blood products, and other 
biologics.
    The FDA Devices and Radiological program ensures the safety 
and effectiveness of medical devices and eliminates unnecessary 
human exposure to manmade radiation from medical, occupational, 
and consumer products. In addition, the program enforces 
quality standards under the Mammography Quality Standards Act 
(Public Law 108-365). Medical devices include thousands of 
products from thermometers and contact lenses to heart 
pacemakers, hearing aids, and MRIs. Radiological products 
include items such as microwave ovens and video display 
terminals.
    FDA's National Center for Toxicological Research in 
Jefferson, Arkansas, serves as a specialized resource, 
conducting peer-review scientific research that provides the 
basis for FDA to make sound science-based regulatory decisions 
through its premarket review and postmarket surveillance. The 
research is designed to define and understand the biological 
mechanisms of action underlying the toxicity of products and 
lead to developing methods to improve assessment of human 
exposure, susceptibility, and risk of those products regulated 
by FDA.
    In 2009, Congress granted FDA new authority to regulate the 
manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products. 
FDA exercises this responsibility by protecting the public 
health from the health effects of tobacco, setting scientific 
standards and standards for tobacco product review, conducting 
compliance activities to enforce its authority over tobacco, 
and conducting public education and outreach about the health 
effects of tobacco products.

                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Appropriation    User fees       Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2019.........      3,068,678     2,516,287     5,584,965
Budget estimate, 2020........      3,239,524     2,594,418     5,833,942
Committee recommendation.....      3,148,678     2,612,764     5,761,442
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $3,148,678,000 
for FDA salaries and expenses. The Committee also recommends 
$2,612,764,000 in definite user fees, including: $1,074,714,000 
in Prescription Drug user fee collections; $220,142,000 in 
Medical Device user fee collections; and $30,611,000,000 in 
Animal Drug user fee collections; $20,151,000 in Animal Generic 
Drug user fee collections; $712,000,000 in Tobacco Product user 
fee collections; $513,223,000 in Generic Drug user fee 
collections; and $41,923,000 in Biosimilar user fee 
collections. The Committee also recommends $60,676,000 in 
permanent, indefinite user fees, including: $5,515,000 in 
Voluntary Qualified Importer Program collections; $1,492,000 in 
food and feed recall collections; $6,673,000 in food 
reinspection collections; $21,351,000 in Mammography Quality 
Standards fee collections; $10,534,000 in color certification 
collections; $7,997,000 in Pediatric Disease Priority Review 
Voucher collections; $742,000 in third-party auditor 
collections; $1,676,000 in outsourcing facility collections; 
and $4,696,000 in export and certification fees, as assumed in 
the President's budget. The Committee recommendation includes 
bill language which prohibits FDA from developing, 
establishing, or operating any program of user fees authorized 
by 31 U.S.C. 9701. The Committee recommendation does not 
include proposed user fees for food facility registration and 
inspection, food import, food contact substance notification, 
cosmetics, and international courier imports. None of these 
user fee proposals have been authorized by Congress. The 
Committee will continue to monitor any action by the 
appropriate authorizing Committees regarding these proposed 
user fees.
    The Committee expects the FDA to continue all projects, 
activities, laboratories, and programs as included in fiscal 
year 2019 unless otherwise specified. The Committee does not 
support $3,500,000 of the proposed reductions; however, it does 
accept a $3,000,000 reduction for consumer education and 
outreach regarding agricultural biotechnology.
    The Committee recommendation includes a net increase of 
$80,000,000 for medical product and food safety activities 
requested in the budget. Included in this funding is $8,000,000 
for opioid prevention activities; $7,000,000 for Medical 
Countermeasures Initiatives; $10,000,000 for Integrated 
Pathogen Reduction of the Blood Supply; $6,000,000 for 
Compounding; $4,000,000 for New Medical Device Enterprise; 
$4,000,000 for Medical Device/Cyber Review; $2,000,000 for 
MedTech Manufacturing; $1,000,000 for Lab Science; $7,000,000 
for Advancing FSMA; $8,000,000 for Food Outbreaks; $5,000,000 
for Animal Feed Ingredient Review; $1,000,000 for Seafood 
Inspections; $3,000,000 for Dietary Supplements; $2,000,000 
Cannabidiol [CBD] activities; and $15,000,000 for 
infrastructure improvements.
    In fiscal year 2019, the FDA received significant increases 
for medical product safety activities, including funding for 
the following initiatives: Promote Domestic Manufacturing, New 
Platform for Drug Development, Modernizing Generic Drug 
Development and Review, and Investment and Innovation for Rare 
Diseases. The Committee supports these activities and directs 
the FDA to report back on how these increases have been 
utilized and recommendations on future needs.
    The following table reflects the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2019 and budget 
request levels:

                               FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SALARIES AND EXPENSES
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2020 budget       Committee
                                                                 2019 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Centers and related field activities:
    Foods....................................................        1,059,980        1,084,636        1,081,356
        Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition [CFSAN].          327,962          334,712          335,966
        Field Activities.....................................          732,018          749,924          745,390
    Human Drugs..............................................          662,907          713,895          678,295
        Center for Drug Evaluation and Research [CDER].......          524,738          551,084          517,040
        Field Activities.....................................          138,169          162,811          161,255
    Biologics................................................          240,138          262,138          252,138
        Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research [CBER]..          198,132          220,132          210,132
        Field Activities.....................................           42,006           42,006           42,006
    Animal Drugs.............................................          178,934          192,314          194,094
        Center for Veterinary Medicine [CVM].................          113,419          121,199          125,324
        Field Activities.....................................           65,515           71,115           68,770
    Medical and radiological devices.........................          386,743          423,893          393,893
        Center for Devices and Radiological Health...........          301,738          338,888          308,888
        Field Activities.....................................           85,005           85,005           85,005
    National Center for Toxicological Research...............           66,712           66,512           66,712
Other Activities.............................................          188,069          180,195          181,995
Rent and related activities..................................          114,987          144,371          129,322
Rental Payments to GSA.......................................          170,208          171,570          170,873
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, FDA salaries and expenses, new budget authority.        3,068,678        3,239,524        3,148,678
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Autoantibody Qualification.--The appearance of certain 
islet autoantibodies in the serum of individuals increases the 
chance of developing type 1 diabetes at some point in the 
future. Therefore, the Committee encourages the FDA to work 
with the Type 1 diabetes community on the assessment of 
potential diabetes biomarkers related to islet autoimmunity, 
which might help inform the design of clinical studies.
    Botanical Dietary Supplements.--The Committee encourages 
FDA to continue to invest in the science base for regulatory 
decisions on botanical dietary supplements. Expanding outreach 
and broadening safety evaluations of botanical supplements will 
help further that work. Studies of the interactions between 
botanical supplements and prescription drugs would help further 
patient safety and help inform the FDA's scientific review of 
botanical dietary supplements.
    Cancer Immunotherapy Clinical Trials.--The Committee 
commends the FDA for its recent efforts to accelerate the 
review and approval of immune-oncology therapies that safely 
and meaningfully improve the lives of patients with cancer. 
With thousands of immuno-oncology clinical trials currently 
underway or in development, understanding how to make 
comparisons across studies and identify the highest priority 
treatments is becoming increasingly important, especially when 
evaluating early clinical data. The Committee understands that 
early endpoints commonly used to evaluate standard cancer 
treatments may not always be appropriate for predicting overall 
survival outcomes from cancer immunotherapy treatments. 
Therefore, the Committee urges the FDA to work with the 
research community and the pharmaceutical industry to develop 
surrogate endpoints for cancer immunotherapy treatments that 
can be standardized and recognized by the entire drug 
development community as avenues toward regulatory approval.
    Cannabidiol [CBD].--As previously noted, the Committee 
provides the FDA with $2,000,000 for research, policy 
evaluation, market surveillance, issuance of an enforcement 
discretion policy, and appropriate regulatory activities with 
respect to products under the jurisdiction of the FDA which 
contain CBD and meet the definition of hemp, as set forth in 
section 297A of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 
U.S.C. 1639o). Within 90 days of enactment of this act, the FDA 
shall provide the Committee with a report regarding the 
agency's progress toward obtaining and analyzing data to help 
determine a policy of enforcement discretion and the process in 
which CBD meeting the definition of hemp will be evaluated for 
use in products. Within 120 days of enactment of this act, the 
FDA shall issue a policy of enforcement discretion with regard 
to certain products containing CBD meeting the definition of 
hemp as defined by section 297A of the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1964 (7 U.S.C. 1639). Such enforcement discretion shall 
be in effect until the FDA establishes a process for 
stakeholders to notify the FDA for use of CBD in products that 
include safety studies for intended use per product and makes a 
determination about such product. The FDA is encouraged to 
consider existing and ongoing medical research related to CBD 
that is being undertaken pursuant to an Investigation New Drug 
[IND] application in the development of a regulatory pathway 
for CBD in products under the jurisdiction of the FDA and to 
ensure that any future regulatory activity does not discourage 
the development of new drugs.
    Canned Tuna.--The Committee is concerned that the FDA has 
not revised the standard of identity for canned tuna to adopt 
the drained weight fill of container standard, despite requests 
in the 1994 ``Citizens Petition to Amend Canned Tuna Standard 
of Identity, 21 CFR 161.190,'' Docket No. 94P-0286, H. Rept. 
113-116'', ``Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug 
Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 
2014,'' and an updated 2015 ``Citizen Petition from Bumble Bee 
Foods, LLC, et al.'' Docket No. FDA-2016-P-0147. According to 
the Congressional Research Service, the United States is the 
only country that uses the pressed cake weight fill of 
container standard that requires outdated 1950s technology. The 
Codex Alimentarius Commission, the Association of Official 
Analytical Chemists, and all other countries use the drained 
weight fill of container. The FDA is directed to provide an 
update on the status of its review of the citizen petitions 
related to the standard of identity for canned tuna within 90 
days. Until a determination on updating the standard of 
identity for canned tuna is made, the FDA shall, to the extent 
consistent with applicable regulations, continue to approve in 
a timely manner temporary marketing permits that adopt the 
drained weight method consistent with international standards 
and to approve in a timely manner updates to product labeling 
under existing temporary marketing permits.
    Centers for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Centers of 
Excellence.--The Committee is aware of the important 
contribution of the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied 
Nutrition's Centers of Excellence [COEs] program in supporting 
critical basic research as well as facilitating the 
implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act [FSMA]. 
The Committee encourages the agency to continue to fully 
utilize the COEs to accomplish these goals, and instructs that 
it enhance its level of support for FDA FSMA activities.
    Clinical Trials.--The Committee acknowledges the 
responsibilities of FDA to protect public health and advance 
medical innovation and encourages FDA to continue its efforts 
to improve the effectiveness of the clinical trial process. The 
Committee is encouraged by the development of novel digital 
technologies to facilitate the use of virtual clinical trials 
that would make it easier for patients to participate in trials 
regardless of where they live. Through telemedicine, connected 
sensors, patient engagement applications, and direct data 
capture tools, virtual trials are conducted geographically near 
the patient. Direct contact with the patient is still 
maintained remotely, but reducing or eliminating on-site visits 
has the potential to increase patient convenience and lower 
study costs. The Committee recommends that the FDA develop the 
necessary framework to advance the use of virtual trials while 
still maintaining quality data necessary for FDA approval. The 
FDA shall report to the Committee on their activities to 
advance digital technologies and the impact on patient access 
to clinical trials.
    Corneal Crosslinking.--The Committee applauds FDA for 
placing unapproved drugs intended for corneal crosslinking on 
the agency's Red List in November 2018. The Committee is aware 
that medical devices for the treatment of keratoconus are still 
being sold to U.S. physicians by multiple manufacturers for use 
in human patients without an Investigational Device Exemption 
[IDE] and Premarket Approval [PMA] . The Committee is concerned 
that, while there is an FDA-approved treatment available, as 
many as 25 percent of all patients receiving corneal 
crosslinking procedures are put at risk by these non-approved 
devices. The Committee encourages the FDA to investigate the 
manufacturers of these non-FDA approved devices, with specific 
regard to their marketing practices and medical claims, and to 
take action to prohibit the utilization of non-FDA approved 
devices for corneal crosslinking procedures.
    Deemed Biological Products.--The Committee is concerned 
that the FDA's interpretation of the Biologics Price 
Competition and Innovation Act [BPCIA] related to the 
transition of biological products to the biologic product 
regulatory review pathway will result in delayed access to 
lower-cost biosimilar products, including insulin. Further, the 
Committee is concerned that the FDA's interpretation and 
guidance related to this transition will create a scenario 
where sponsors of applications for biological products 
submitted as a new drug application under section 505 of the 
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Public Law 75-717) that 
have not received final approval before March 23, 2020 would 
have to resubmit the application as a biological license 
application under the biologic product review pathway created 
under the BPCIA. This could have significant public health 
consequences and delay access to lower-cost biosimilar 
products, such as insulin, for millions of Americans. To 
address these concerns and ensure patients' access to lower-
cost biosimilar drugs, such as insulin, the Committee directs 
the FDA to undertake the following measures: (1) ensure final 
review of all such pending applications for biological products 
to be deemed a licensed biological product pursuant to the 
BPCIA are completed prior to March 23, 2020; (2) provide that 
applications submitted under section 505 of the Federal Food, 
Drug, and Cosmetic Act, but did not receive a complete review 
prior to March 23, 2020, receive priority review under section 
351 of the Public Health Service Act (Public Law 78-410) and 
are allowed to rely on FDA's prior review and any data 
submitted under the new drug application submitted pursuant to 
section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Public 
Law 75-717); and (3) provide flexibility in deeming follow-on 
insulin products to be biological products or biosimilar 
biologic products after March 23, 2020.
    Dietary Supplements.--As previously noted, the Committee 
provides an additional $3,000,000 for the Office of Dietary 
Supplements programs. The Committee applauds the FDA's 
inspection of and enforcement actions against manufacturers of 
dietary supplement products that are adulterated or misbranded 
but recognizes that more resources are needed to oversee 
products that are contaminated, either intentionally or 
unintentionally, with unsafe ingredients. The Committee has 
been pleased with ongoing interagency collaborations and urges 
the FDA to continue working with the Department of Justice to 
remove illegal dietary supplements from the market. The 
Committee directs these increased resources toward enforcement 
of DSHEA, including inspection and enforcement activities. The 
FDA shall report to the Committee explaining how the agency 
carries out risk-based enforcement of dietary supplement 
product manufacturers and the resources it uses for these 
activities.
    Electrical Stimulation Devices.--The Committee remains 
concerned about the FDA's delay in promulgating Federal 
regulations prohibiting the use of electrical stimulation 
devices against persons with Intellectual and Developmental 
Disabilities. The Committee encourages the FDA to expeditiously 
issue the final rule and provide to the Senate Appropriations 
Committee an update on the rule within 45 days of enactment of 
this act.
    Food Contact Notification User Fees.--The Committee 
recommendation does not include proposed user fees.
    Food Mislabeling.--The Committee is concerned about the 
proliferation of products marketed and labeled with names that 
include the names of dairy products that do not contain milk or 
ingredients derived from milk and the lack of clear labeling of 
these products. The Committee directs the agency to implement 
an updated approach and report to the Committee on steps taken 
to enforce against dairy imitation products marketed using 
dairy names.
    Food Safety Block Chain Testbed.--The Committee supports 
FDA sponsorship of a food safety block chain testbed, in a 
partnership with food safety elements of the Centers for 
Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] and USDA, to enable 
voluntary sharing of information from existing commercial food 
safety block chain systems with regulatory agencies. The 
Committee notes that multiple food retailers and distributors 
have adopted private block chain-based systems to more 
effectively manage their supply chains. These types of systems 
could significantly streamline and reduce the cost of 
coordination between supply chain participants and regulators, 
as well as accelerate food safety trace back investigations. 
The Committee directs the FDA to report on the progress of this 
effort within 180 days of enactment of this act.
    Food Safety Mission.--The Committee is concerned that the 
FDA is implementing a one-size-fits-all regulatory framework 
for our diverse food productions systems. FSMA emphasized the 
need for risk-based, flexible, and science-based regulations to 
fit varying business models and food production practices. The 
main focus of the FDA should be to prevent and, if necessary, 
communicate and mitigate, the roughly 48 million foodborne 
illnesses each year, not limit consumer choices. The FDA must 
report to the Committee metrics by which it measures any 
reductions in foodborne illnesses that have been found since 
FSMA was signed into law and how the FDA takes into account 
additional awareness of foodborne illnesses through new 
technology, such as whole genome sequencing. The Committee 
directs the FDA to report to the Committee all activities and 
resources for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition 
that are not spent on implementing food safety programs and on 
preventing foodborne illnesses.
    Foreign High Risk Inspections.--The Committee has provided 
robust funding for this initiative over the last several years 
and directs the FDA to provide an update on these efforts, 
including estimated efficiencies and concerns, and plans to 
continue or expand this effort in the future.
    FSMA Clarification for Small Farms.--The Committee directs 
the FDA to continue working with small farms to clarify 
requirements for FSMA compliance, including information on the 
qualified exemptions available to small and very small farms 
and the actions required to achieve compliance under these 
exemptions. The Committee also urges the FDA to communicate, 
including through appropriate guidance, offer technical 
assistance, and provide other resources to assist small farms 
with compliance.
    FSMA Cooperative Agreements.--The Committee is aware that 
some States that have entered into cooperative agreements under 
the State Produce Implementation Cooperative Agreement Program 
to provide education, outreach, and technical assistance have 
or are considering changing the State agency responsible for 
implementing these agreements. The FDA is directed to work with 
any State that designates a new implementing agency to ensure 
it can continue to receive funding under existing cooperative 
agreements without delay or loss of funding.
    Human Drug Review Committee.--The Committee encourages the 
FDA to fully utilize its authorities under 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(3) 
to include no less than two members with an expertise in the 
indication for which the drug is meant to treat on each 
Advisory Committee when that Committee is reviewing a drug that 
has been designated as an Orphan Drug.
    Import Officer Staffing Review.--The Committee recognizes 
the importance of ensuring that imports of agricultural 
products are inspected in a timely and efficient manner. The 
FDA plays a critical role in helping to safeguard the U.S. food 
supply, and agricultural import inspections are an important 
component of achieving the FDA's safety mission. The Committee 
is aware that agricultural import shipments can be delayed due 
to staffing challenges, including limited hours, at ports of 
entry. The Committee encourages the FDA to review its existing 
import office hours and subsequently provide Congress an update 
should the agency determine that additional resources are 
necessary to ensure timely inspection of agricultural imports 
arriving at ports of entry.
    Improving Import Review.--The Committee directs the FDA to 
report how the agency is monitoring the impact of the 
reorganization under Program Alignment and whether such 
reorganization has improved the consistency of facility 
inspections.
    Innovative Glass Packaging.--The Committee directs the FDA 
to work with glass packaging suppliers and pharmaceutical 
manufacturers to evaluate and promote streamlined approval 
requirements designed to expedite the adoption and use of 
innovative glass packaging technologies with the capacity to 
improve product quality, reduce product recalls, reduce drug 
shortages, and protect public health. Such streamlined approval 
requirements should address stability testing and other 
relevant types of data to be submitted in support of product 
approval.
    Intentional Adulteration.--The Committee supports the 
important role of food defense plans to protect the food supply 
from acts intended to cause wide-scale harm to public health. 
The Committee encourages the FDA to continue to work with 
industry to make Intentional Adulteration [IA] rule 
implementation as practical and flexible as possible, while 
also protecting public health through compliance with IA rule 
requirements.
    Medical Gas.--The Committee is pleased that the FDA has 
convened three public meetings with stakeholders and announced 
in the Unified Agenda that it intended to issue a proposed rule 
on medical gases by April 2019. However, the Committee is 
concerned that the FDA originally committed to issue separate 
regulations for medical gases in 1978 and has missed the 
statutory deadlines for medical gas rulemaking in section 1112 
of Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act 
[FDASIA] (Public Law 112-144) and section 756 of the Fiscal 
Year 2017 Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 115-31). 
The Committee believes that now is the appropriate time to 
complete that commitment for a separate section of regulations 
for medical gases. Therefore, the Committee directs the FDA to 
issue final regulations required by the Fiscal Year 2017 
Consolidated Appropriations Act no later than December 31, 
2019.
    Modeling and Simulation in Clinical Trials.--The Committee 
commends the FDA for its continued support for and use of 
computer enabled in silico modeling and simulation in clinical 
trials and for its close affiliation with academic 
institutional leaders in this field. Partnership in this 
endeavor allows the development of personalized medical 
interventions, optimizes the regulatory process, and bridges 
gaps in the current regulatory infrastructure, which may 
advance the availability of new generic drugs, biological 
products, and devices to market at a potentially reduced cost. 
The Committee directs the FDA to further invest in advancing 
these applications and deepening its academic affiliations to 
this end.
    Nanotechnology.--The Committee recognizes the increased 
capabilities that the FDA has developed to study environment, 
health, and safety of nanomaterials within FDA's Jefferson 
Laboratory Campus, including the National Center for 
Toxicological Research and its consolidated headquarters at 
White Oak, Maryland. The Committee expects the FDA to continue 
to support collaborative research with universities and 
industry on the toxicology of nanotechnology products and 
processes in accordance with the National Nanotechnology 
Initiative Environment, Health, and Safety Research Strategy as 
updated in October 2011.
    National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 
[NARMS].--The Committee recommendation includes $11,300,000 for 
the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. The 
Committee directs that no less than $500,000 shall be used to 
conduct one or more pilot studies to assess types and levels of 
antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacteria on food products of 
species not currently tested by NARMS, such as imported 
seafood.
    National Toxicology Program.--The Committee requests a 
report describing how the agency will make use of the 
integrated Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights 
on BPA Toxicity study results in subsequent evaluations of BPA.
    Nephrotic Syndrome.--The Committee supports the FDA's 
efforts to find better treatments and cures for Nephrotic 
Syndrome and believes that the FDA should continue to work with 
stakeholders to ensure patients have access to and knowledge 
about available clinical trials. The Committee encourages the 
FDA to maintain support for the Kidney Health Gateway, which is 
becoming a central hub for information, entry to clinical 
trials, and expert opinion resources for patients and 
professionals.
    Olive Oil.--The Committee is particularly concerned with 
the number of different standards for olive oil and directs the 
FDA to consult with domestic producers and importers of olive 
oil to develop a science-based Standard of Identity for the 
different grades (e.g. extra virgin, virgin, and refined) of 
olive oil and olive-pomace oils.
    Opioid Epidemic.--The Committee is deeply concerned about 
the opioid abuse epidemic that has taken the lives of more than 
70,000 Americans. As previously noted, the Committee 
recommendation includes additional funding to support ongoing 
efforts to address the opioid crisis, as well as support 
existing investments and additional lab needs for the 
International Mail Facilities initiative.
    The Committee notes that fifty million Americans suffer 
from chronic pain and that living with chronic pain can be 
life-altering and deeply impact people on many levels. The 
current state of chronic pain management is often inadequate 
for many patients and places an economic burden on the 
healthcare system, costing the U.S. $560,000,000,000 a year. 
Management of chronic pain often requires both non-
pharmacological treatment, as well as medicines. Unfortunately, 
the current pharmacological options do not meet the needs of 
all patients, and additional treatments are needed. Therefore, 
the Committee directs the FDA to comply with Section 3001 of 
the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid 
Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities [SUPPORT] 
Act, which directs the FDA to hold public meetings and issue 
guidance regarding the challenges and barriers of developing 
non-addictive medical products intended to treat pain or 
addiction and expects the agency to comply with this directive.
    The Committee also notes that the FDA has a responsibility 
to seek the advice of experts on the safety and efficacy of 
both new opioid medications as is required under the 
Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act. Therefore, the 
Committee continues its directive for FDA to refer any drug 
application for an opioid to an advisory committee for their 
recommendations prior to approval unless the FDA finds that 
holding such advisory committee is not in the interest of 
protecting and promoting public health.
    The Committee also supports the FDA's efforts to transition 
from the conventional opioid analgesic formulations that 
dominate the market today to safer products, including, but not 
limited to, more effective abuse-deterrent opioid analgesic 
formulations. The Committee directs the FDA to comply with 
Section 3032 of the SUPPORT Act (Public Law 115-271) and 
explore other safety-enhancing features, like special packaging 
or disposal options, that could assist with deterring abuse, 
misuse, and diversion. The Committee also encourages the FDA to 
continue to monitor the effectiveness of existing Opioid 
Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigations Strategy to determine 
whether further modifications are necessary.
    The Committee is also aware of concerns pertaining to the 
use of opioid analgesics with ultra-high doses and directs the 
FDA to evaluate potential safety issues associated with higher 
dose opioid analgesics, as well as potential adverse or public 
health consequences associated restrictions on higher dose 
opioid analgesics.
    Over-the-Counter Monograph.--The Committee is concerned 
with free-riders of the FDA Over-the-Counter [OTC] Monograph. 
The Committee recognizes that the OTC process 
disproportionately places costs and burdens on companies who 
proactively participate in studies requested by the FDA. This 
permissively allows non-contributors to gain financial rewards 
and marketplace advantages resulting from FDA-requested 
studies. The Committee appreciates the ongoing work and 
relationship between the FDA and external partners to finalize 
antiseptic OTC monographs and encourages all parties to 
continue their strong collaboration. The Committee urges the 
FDA to continue reviewing the free-rider issue and ways to 
provide relief to companies that conduct the requested human 
data studies. The Committee expects a briefing on progress made 
within six months of enactment of this Act.
    Oversight Activities.--The Committee recommendation 
includes $1,500,000 for the HHS Office of Inspector General 
specifically for oversight of FDA activities.
    Patent Information Related to Generic Drug Approval.--The 
Committee directs the FDA to submit a report 180 days after 
enactment of this act that provides a listing of the product 
names, dates, and number of all brand-name drugs with patents 
listed in the FDA's Orange Book for which a stay of approval 
under section 505(c)(3)(C) or 505(j)(5)(B)(iii) of the Federal 
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Public Law 75-717) was triggered 
for an abbreviated new drug application [ANDA] containing a 
paragraph IV certification that was approved or tentatively 
approved during fiscal years 2017 and 2018, and the total 
number of patents listed in the Orange Book, including the date 
of their listing, for each such brand name drug at the time the 
stay of approval was triggered.
    Patient Experience in Drug Reviews.--The Committee is aware 
that the FDA is implementing policies to promote public access 
to information about how patient experience information 
factored into the review of approved products. The Committee 
supports this step forward and encourages the FDA to continue 
refining the instrument and ways to improve its visibility and 
requests an update on the status of such efforts. The Committee 
also requests information on FDA efforts to include patient-
experience information in relevant labeling and accompanying 
documentation to inform patient/provider decision-making and 
payer determinations.
    Patient-Focused Drug Development.--The Committee is 
appreciative of the steps the FDA has taken to implement 
subtitle A of title III within the 21st Century Cures Act 
(Public Law 114-255) to better incorporate patient experience 
in the drug development and approval processes and requests a 
status report from the FDA on implementation of these 
provisions including any challenges or impediments being faced.
    Pediatric Device Consortia Grants.--The Committee is 
pleased that the seven FDA-funded Pediatric Device Consortia 
have assisted in the development of more than 1,000 potential 
pediatric medical devices since its inception in 2009, as well 
as promoting job-growth in the healthcare sector, and as such, 
continues to support this critical effort. The program funds 
consortia to assist innovators in developing medical and 
surgical devices designed for the unique needs of children that 
often go unmet by devices currently available on the market. 
The Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal 
year 2019 funding level for Pediatric Device Consortia Grants.
    Pediatric IBD Clinical Trial Working Group.--The Committee 
is concerned about the growing incidence of pediatric 
inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] and the limited number of 
approved therapies for this population. The Committee commends 
the FDA for convening a workshop in November of 2018 to examine 
barriers to drug development for pediatric IBD, including 
clinical trials, and recognizes the work done so far to 
identify the variables that impede trial participation. To 
advance this work, the Committee strongly encourages the FDA to 
partner with stakeholders, including patient advocates, 
healthcare professionals, researchers, and industry, to 
establish a working group to develop a plan for reducing 
barriers to pediatric IBD clinical trial participation and drug 
development.
    Pediatric Labeling.--The Committee is aware that labeling 
for OTC single-ingredient acetaminophen does not contain 
weight-based dosing instructions for children ages six months 
to two years despite the recommendations of the FDA 
Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee [NDAC] and Pediatric 
Advisory Committee in 2011 that data supported this information 
being added to the label. The Committee is concerned that the 
lack of dosing information for this vulnerable population may 
lead to dosing errors, adverse events, and inadequate treatment 
of fever and pain. As such, the Committee instructs the 
Commissioner, within 90 days of enactment of this act, to 
provide a plan and timetable for updating the monograph label 
for acetaminophen to include weight-based dosing instructions 
for children ages six months to two years.
    Pesticide Residues in Imported Human Foods.--The Committee 
is concerned that imported human food continues to have 
significantly higher pesticide violation rates than 
domestically produced food. The Committee recognizes that 
identifying a high violation rate for an imported commodity 
attests to FDA's sampling design. However, such differences 
between domestic and import violation rates for specific food 
commodities produced both domestically and abroad remains 
concerning with respect to human health and differences in 
regulatory burdens that contribute to trade and market 
distortions. The Committee encourages the FDA to partner with 
State inspection services to significantly increase the volume 
of inspections on imported food samples. Additionally, the FDA 
shall treat products that exceed their threshold for the 
special attention list with higher priority for increased 
inspections. The Committee notes that, while some imported 
products may not meet the ten percent threshold, certain 
imported products in the 2016 report had disproportionately 
higher violation rates than domestic products, such as 
strawberries, which had no domestic violations but an eight 
percent violation rate for imported strawberries. In the 
future, the FDA shall add imported products with significantly 
higher rates of foreign violations compared to domestic 
violations to the list of products that warrant special 
attention.
    Pet Food.--The Committee is interested in obtaining more 
information on the FDA's approach to the investigation it is 
undertaking regarding canine dilated cardiomyopathy [DCM] and 
the manner in which it has released information to the public. 
The Committee directs the FDA to brief the Committee within 60 
days about how it is conducting its investigation, including 
the case definition the FDA uses to include or exclude cases 
and the scientific work ongoing at the agency and with 
collaborating partners for identifying a causation of DCM; how 
it distinguishes DCM due to genetic predisposition in certain 
breeds; how the agency plans to work with pet food companies 
and the veterinary cardiology community during the 
investigation; and the timing and nature of any future public 
reporting.
    Polypharmacy.--The routine usage of five or more 
prescription medications within the same period is becoming 
increasingly prevalent among older adults, elevating risk 
factors for drug-drug interactions and adverse events. The 
Committee directs the FDA to assess potential impacts of 
polypharmacy, which might help inform the design of clinical 
studies.
    Promoting Domestic Manufacturing.--The Committee supports 
the agency's work to promote the domestic manufacturing of drug 
and biological products. The Committee encourages the FDA to 
increase its efforts to encourage the pharmaceutical industry 
to adopt advanced manufacturing technologies that have the 
potential to improve product quality. The Committee directs the 
FDA to brief the Committee within 180 days of its efforts to 
promote advanced manufacturing technologies.
    Purple Book Publication.--The Committee directs the agency 
to allocate sufficient resources to support publication and 
enhancement of the ``Lists of Licensed Biological Products with 
Reference Product Exclusivity and Biosimilarity or 
Interchangeability Evaluations'' for the purpose of promoting 
the use of biosimilars, encouraging biosimilar competition, and 
improving transparency.
    Pyrogen Testing.--The Committee is aware of currently 
available human biology-based tests that could be used in place 
of animal-based tests for assessing pyrogencity. The Committee 
encourages the agency to establish processes for evaluating 
alternative pyrogencitiy tests and report back on steps taken 
to increase their use and effectiveness.
    Rare Cancer Therapeutic Development Program.--The FDA's 
Oncology Center of Excellence was formed to streamline the 
development of cancer therapies by creating a unified and 
collaborative scientific environment to advance the development 
and regulation of oncology products for cancer patients. 
However, there continues to be a significant development gap 
for rare cancer therapies while all 22 of the common cancers, 
which account for 5.5 percent of all cancer types, have 
multiple treatment options. Therefore, the Committee urges the 
FDA to focus additional resources on the Rare Cancer 
Therapeutic Development Program to address gaps in the system, 
streamline resources, accelerate the development of rare cancer 
therapies and advance the field of cancer research overall.
    Ready-to-Eat [RTE] Foods.--The Committee is aware that the 
FDA is in the process of finalizing guidance regarding Listeria 
monocytogenes (Lm) in RTE foods. Reducing incidents of 
listeriosis is an important health goal and the Committee 
supports efforts to accomplish this objective. The Committee 
urges the FDA to complete a comprehensive quantitative risk 
assessment of the presence of Lm in various foods, which will 
help to provide a scientific basis for determining a reliable 
and achievable Lm action limit for frozen foods.
    Regenerative Medicine Standards.--The Committee is aware of 
ongoing efforts between the FDA and the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology [NIST] to coordinate standard 
development activities that support innovation for regenerative 
medicine therapies. The Committee recognizes the potential that 
innovative medical treatments such as regenerative medicine 
therapies hold to improve the lives of those living with 
serious and complex medical conditions such as cancer. The 
Committee encourages the ongoing work of the FDA and NIST to 
identify, develop, and assess quality standards for components 
that are key to advancing regenerative medicine, including 
plasmids. Providing greater certainty surrounding quality 
standards and regulatory predictability may allow industry, 
regulatory authorities, and other stakeholders to decrease time 
to market in making such products available to the public.
    Seafood Advice.--The Committee remains concerned that 
pregnant women do not have Federal advice on seafood 
consumption based on the latest nutrition science that has been 
subject to interagency review under Executive Order 12866 and 
that is consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as 
required under 7 U.S. Code Sec. 5341(b). Therefore, the 
Committee directs the FDA to implement Section 773 of Public 
Law 116-6 by reissuing the final ``Advice About Eating Fish'' 
(published in 82 Fed. Reg. 6571 (January 19, 2017)) in a manner 
that is consistent with the FDA ``Quantitative Assessment of 
the Net Effects on Fetal Neurodevelopment from Eating 
Commercial Fish'' (announced in 79 Fed. Reg. 33559 (June 11, 
2014)).
    Seafood Labeling.--The Committee is concerned about 
imitation seafood products being marketed as seafood. As the 
FDA continues to update the standards of identity for certain 
foods, the Committee directs the FDA Commissioner to coordinate 
with the seafood industry to ensure that such products are 
properly labeled in accordance with such standards of identity.
    Seafood Safety.--As previously noted, the Committee 
provides a $1,000,000 increase for foreign seafood safety 
inspections, as well as additional funding under the Building 
and Facilities account for seafood safety improvements.
    Sesame Allergen Labeling.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of sesame allergy as the ninth most prevalent food 
allergen, with the potential to cause severe adverse events 
among some Americans. The Committee is concerned that one in 
every three children with a sesame allergy visits the emergency 
room [ER] each year and that adults with a sesame allergy are 
more likely to visit the ER in a given year than adults with 
any of the top eight food allergens. The Committee is 
encouraged that the FDA recently requested information to 
inform possible regulatory action, and encourages the FDA to 
make use of its authority under the Food Allergen Labeling and 
Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-282) to require 
labeling for sesame. The Committee urges the FDA to issue a 
report to Congress within six months of enactment of this act 
outlining a process and timeline for determining further 
regulatory action on sesame allergen labeling.
    Shellfish Safety.--The Committee urges the FDA to complete 
the single laboratory validation of the liquid chromatography 
mass spectrometry [LC-MS]-based method for detecting 
brevetoxins association with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in 
molluscan shellfish. The Committee further urges the Interstate 
Shellfish Sanitation Conference to adopt the FDA's proposal for 
the LC-MS method for brevetoxin testing of shellfish as an 
Approved Method under the National Shellfish Sanitation 
Program.
    Sunscreen Ingredients.--The Committee has expressed concern 
about the FDA's lack of progress in approving new sunscreen 
ingredients despite passage of the Sunscreen Innovation Act 
[SIA] (Public Law 113-195). The FDA's recently proposed 
sunscreen regulation has led to media reports that raise 
questions about the safety of sunscreen ingredients that have 
demonstrated success in preventing skin cancer around the 
world. The Committee is concerned that the rule may create 
confusion about sunscreens with a sun protection factor [SPF] 
over 60. The Committee urges the FDA to clarify its messaging 
concerning currently marketed sunscreen ingredients as an 
effective method to prevent skin cancer while additional 
testing is underway and to work with stakeholders to develop a 
testing regime that sufficiently balances the risks and 
benefits of using sunscreen ingredients to prevent skin cancer.
    Thermal Packaging.--Food and pharmaceutical delivery is one 
of the fastest growing shipping markets, and with that come a 
significant increase in packaging waste. The Committee is aware 
of design-forward approaches that merge sustainability and 
functionality for entities shipping time-sensitive materials, 
and accordingly, directs the FDA to provide awareness on the 
economic and environmental benefits of sustainable thermal 
packaging alternatives.
    Tuberculosis [TB].--The Committee directs the agency to 
work with the Centers for Disease Control to explore 
interagency mechanisms to mitigate TB drug shortages, including 
centralizing procurement and supply, securing resources to 
maintain the limited emergency TB drug stockpile, developing 
policies to allow for the importation of needed quality-assured 
drugs, and formalizing a patient assistance program for 
accessing treatments.
    User Fee Goals Letters.--The Committee affirms the 
important role of user fees in supporting programs across the 
FDA and supports the negotiations between the agency and 
regulated industry partners to compose a goals letter 
establishing clear expectations for both parties regarding 
timelines and processes associated with implementation of the 
law. Historically these goals letters are added to the 
Congressional Record, unedited by Congress, and referenced in 
the law authorizing the collection of such fees. The Committee 
is concerned that recent user fee negotiations between the FDA 
and regulated industries have resulted in goals letters 
submitted to Congress containing policy changes that require 
statutory changes and presume that Congress will adopt 
suggested statutory changes. While the Committee encourages the 
agency to continue to provide suggested statutory changes in a 
timely manner to Congress that can help the agency meet its 
mission, the Committee finds that it is inappropriate for the 
agency and its regulated industry partners to negotiate 
statutory or other legal changes as part of user fee goals 
letters.
    Vaccine Models for HIV.--The Committee supports the FDA's 
commitment to drug and biological product evaluation and 
research and encourages the agency to continue its research on 
HIV infection, specifically vaccine models for HIV.
    Vaping Illness Response.--The Committee commends the 
Administration's recent actions to confront underage nicotine 
vaping, which has increased over the past year. Preliminary 
data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey show an increase in 
e-vapor use among high schoolers from 20 percent to 27.5 
percent. However, the Committee remains deeply concerned about 
a separate public health crisis involving vapor products that 
is affecting both children and adults--the recent outbreak in 
pulmonary illnesses likely caused by low quality or adulterated 
vaping products that contain THC. The CDC has reported 380 
cases of acute lung illness across the U.S., including seven 
deaths. The CDC and the FDA have not ruled out any particular 
product type. The Committee is deeply concerned about the role 
that low-quality, easily adulterated, or abused vapor products, 
whether containing nicotine or any cannabinoid, are playing in 
such illnesses and directs the FDA to continue working with the 
CDC and other relevant agencies such as the Drug Enforcement 
Agency [DEA] to investigate this matter fully.
    Vibrio.--The Committee is aware of the public health 
challenge related to the naturally occurring bacteria called 
Vibrio parahaemolyticus that can accumulate in shellfish and 
believes that more scientific research is necessary to develop 
proper controls that will reduce the risk to consumers and 
sustain a healthy domestic shellfish industry. The Committee 
encourages the FDA to increase funding for research into Vibrio 
illnesses associated with the consumption of raw molluscan 
shellfish, improve risk assessment models, and develop improved 
rapid detection methods for virulent Vibrio strains.
    White Oak.--The FDA's growing staff will require leasing 
additional office locations until the 2018 Federal Research 
Center Master Plan for the White Oak Campus expansion can be 
fully implemented. To determine the lowest cost technically 
acceptable for a prospectus lease, the FDA should consider the 
effect of local travel on staff productivity, adjacency to 
existing FDA leases, and the cost of lost productivity when 
evaluating the costs of lease proposals.

                        BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $11,788,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      11,788,000
Committee recommendation................................      11,788,000

    FDA maintains offices and staff in 49 States and in the 
District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, including field 
laboratories and specialized facilities, as well as the 
National Center for Toxicological Research complex. Repairs, 
modifications, improvements, and construction to FDA 
headquarters and field facilities must be made to preserve the 
properties, ensure employee safety, meet changing program 
requirements, and permit the agency to keep its laboratory 
methods up to date.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $11,788,000 
for FDA buildings and facilities. This funding shall be used to 
upgrade FDA facilities and laboratories which are currently 
below public safety standards and incapable of performing 
agency requirements.

                   FDA Innovation Account, Cures Act

Appropriations, 2019....................................     $70,000,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      75,000,000
Committee recommendation................................      75,000,000

    The Committee recommends $75,000,000 for the FDA as 
authorized in the 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114-255).

                           INDEPENDENT AGENCY


                       Farm Credit Administration


                 LIMITATION ON ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES

Limitation, 2019........................................     $74,600,000
Budget estimate, 2020...................................      76,000,000
Committee recommendation................................      77,000,000

    The Farm Credit Administration [FCA] is the independent 
agency in the executive branch of the Government responsible 
for the examination and regulation of the banks, associations, 
and other institutions of the Farm Credit System.
    Activities of the Farm Credit Administration include the 
planning and execution of examinations of Farm Credit System 
institutions and the preparation of examination reports. FCA 
also promulgates regulations, establishes standards, enforces 
rules and regulations, and approves certain actions of the 
institutions.
    The administration and the institutions under its 
jurisdiction now operate under authorities contained in the 
Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law 92-181, effective December 
10, 1971. Public Law 99-205, effective December 23, 1985, 
restructured FCA and gave the agency regulatory authorities and 
enforcement powers.
    The Act provides for the farmer-owned cooperative system to 
make sound, adequate, and constructive credit available to 
farmers and ranchers and their cooperatives, rural residences, 
and associations and other entities upon which farming 
operations are dependent, and to modernize existing farm credit 
law to meet current and future rural credit needs.
    The Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-233) 
authorized the formation of the Federal Agricultural Mortgage 
Corporation [FAMC] to operate a secondary market for 
agricultural and rural housing mortgages. The Farm Credit 
Administration, under section 8.11 of the Farm Credit Act of 
1971 (Public Law 92-181), as amended, is assigned the 
responsibility of regulating this entity and assuring its safe 
and sound operation.
    Expenses of the Farm Credit Administration are paid by 
assessments collected from the Farm Credit System institutions 
and by assessments to the Federal Agricultural Mortgage 
Corporation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $77,000,000 on 
administrative expenses of the Farm Credit Administration 
[FCA].
    Financing Agricultural Exports.--The Committee directs FCA 
to report on options for risk management practices of the Farm 
Credit System in order to alleviate constraints on financing 
agricultural exports to new and existing markets.
    Hemp-Based Products.--The Committee recognizes the growing 
interest for U.S. hemp and hemp-based products for a variety of 
uses and directs the Administration to work with the 
institutions under its jurisdiction to provide access to 
guaranteed loans for hemp producers and businesses.
    Public-private Partnerships.--The Committee recognizes the 
value of public-private partnerships in financing rural 
communities and facilities and also recognizes that the Farm 
Credit Act of 1971, as amended, provides clear authority for 
Farm Credit System institutions to make investments in vital 
rural community facilities. The Committee recognizes that FCA's 
current approach to approving these types of Farm Credit System 
investments on an individual basis does not meet the needs of 
rural communities. FCA is strongly encouraged to substantially 
change its current process to create a clear, programmatic 
approval process which enables timely, comprehensive, and cost 
effective rural community facilities financing packages by 
allowing and expediting Farm Credit System institutions' 
partnerships with community banks, other financial 
institutions, and USDA.

                               TITLE VII

                           GENERAL PROVISIONS

             (INCLUDING RESCISSIONS AND TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

    The Committee recommends the following provisions:
    Section 701. This section includes language regarding 
passenger motor vehicles.
    Section 702. This section includes language regarding the 
Working Capital Fund.
    Section 703. This section limits the funding provided in 
the bill to one year, unless otherwise specified.
    Section 704. This section includes language regarding 
indirect costs.
    Section 705. This section includes language regarding Rural 
Development programs.
    Section 706. This section includes language regarding new 
information technology.
    Section 707. This section includes language regarding 
conservation programs.
    Section 708. This section includes language regarding Rural 
Utilities Service program eligibility.
    Section 709. This section includes language regarding 
information technology expenses.
    Section 710. This section includes language regarding 
first-class travel.
    Section 711. This section includes language regarding the 
Commodity Credit Corporation.
    Section 712. This section includes language regarding 
advisory committees.
    Section 713. This section includes language regarding 
information technology systems.
    Section 714. This section includes language regarding 
section 32 activities.
    Section 715. This section includes language regarding user 
fee proposals without offsets.
    Section 716. This section includes language regarding the 
reprogramming of funds and notification requirements.
    Section 717. This section includes language regarding fees 
for the guaranteed business and industry loan program.
    Section 718. This section includes language regarding the 
appropriations hearing process.
    Section 719. This section includes language regarding 
prepackaged news.
    Section 720. This section includes language regarding 
details and assignments of Department of Agriculture employees.
    Section 721. This section includes language regarding 
spending plans.
    Section 722. This section includes language regarding a 
rescission of funds.
    Section 723. This section includes language regarding 
section 502 single family direct loans.
    Section 724. This section includes language regarding loans 
and loan guarantees.
    Section 725. This section includes language regarding 
credit card refunds.
    Section 726. This section includes language regarding the 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
    Section 727. This section includes language regarding hemp.
    Section 728. This section includes language regarding 
housing loan programs.
    Section 729. This section includes language regarding 
disclosure of information for pharmaceuticals.
    Section 730. This section includes language regarding gene 
editing.
    Section 731. This section includes language regarding dried 
spent grain products.
    Section 732. This section includes language a pilot program 
through the Rural Housing Service.
    Section 733. This section includes language regarding APHIS 
inspections.
    Section 734. This section includes language regarding 
partially hydrogenated oils.
    Section 735. This section includes language regarding the 
National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility.
    Section 736. This section includes language regarding the 
Conservation Reserve Program.
    Section 737. This section includes language regarding the 
Water Bank program.
    Section 738. This section includes language regarding 
geographically disadvantaged farmers.
    Section 739. This section includes language regarding 
animal welfare.
    Section 740. This section includes language regarding 
domestic preference.
    Section 741. This section includes language regarding Rural 
Economic Area Partnership zones.
    Section 742. This section includes language regarding a 
pilot program through the Rural Housing Service.
    Section 743. This section includes language regarding 
lobbying.
    Section 744. This section includes language regarding 
potable water.
    Section 745. This section includes language regarding Rural 
Development programs.
    Section 746. This section includes language regarding Farm 
to School programs.
    Section 747. This section includes language regarding the 
Healthy Food Financing Initiative.
    Section 748. This section includes language regarding 
citrus greening.
    Section 749. This section includes language regarding FDA 
regulation.
    Section 750. This section includes language regarding a 
NIFA pilot program.
    Section 751. This section includes language regarding 
school meal programs.
    Section 752. This section includes language regarding AMS 
rulemaking.
    Section 753. This section includes language regarding dairy 
innovation centers.
    Section 754. This section includes language regarding 
mitigation banking.
    Section 755. This section includes language regarding fluid 
milk.
    Section 756. This section includes language regarding 
micro-grants for food security.
    Section 757. This section includes language regarding FDA 
Buildings & Facilities.
    Section 758. This section includes language regarding RISE 
grants.
    Section 759. This section includes language regarding a 
rescission of funds.
    Section 760. This section includes language regarding a 
pilot program through the Rural Utilities Service.
    Section 761. This section includes language regarding Water 
and Waste grants.
    Section 762. This section includes language regarding the 
Economic Research Service and the National Institute of Food 
and Agriculture.
    Section 763. This section includes language regarding FDA 
regulation.
    Section 764. This section includes language regarding the 
WHIP program.
    Section 765. This section includes language regarding horse 
slaughter.
    Section 766. This section includes language regarding SNAP.
    Section 767. This section includes language regarding FDA 
regulation.
                     PROGRAM, PROJECT, AND ACTIVITY

    During fiscal year 2020, for purposes of the Balanced 
Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Public Law 
99-177) or the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control 
Reaffirmation Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-119), the following 
information provides the definition of the term ``program, 
project, and activity'' for departments and agencies under the 
jurisdiction of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and 
Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Subcommittee. The 
term ``program, project, and activity'' shall include the most 
specific level of budget items identified in the Agriculture, 
Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related 
Agencies Appropriations Act, 2020, and the accompanying Senate 
Report.
    If a sequestration order is necessary, in implementing the 
Presidential order, departments and agencies shall apply any 
percentage reduction required for fiscal year 2020 pursuant to 
the provisions of Public Law 99-177 or Public Law 100-119 to 
all items specified in the explanatory notes submitted to the 
Committees on Appropriations of the House and Senate in support 
of the fiscal year 2020 budget estimates, as amended, for such 
departments and agencies, as modified by congressional action, 
and in addition:
    For the Agricultural Research Service the definition shall 
include specific research locations as identified in the 
explanatory notes.
    For the Natural Resources Conservation Service the 
definition shall include individual flood prevention projects 
as identified in the explanatory notes and individual 
operational watershed projects as summarized in the notes.
    For the Farm Service Agency the definition shall include 
individual, regional, State, district, and county offices.

  COMPLIANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 7, RULE XVI OF THE STANDING RULES OF THE 
                                 SENATE

    Paragraph 7 of rule XVI requires that Committee reports 
accompanying general appropriations bills identify each 
recommended amendment which proposes an item of appropriation 
which is not made to carry out the provisions of an existing 
law, a treaty stipulation, or an act or resolution previously 
passed by the Senate during that session.
    The Committee is filing an original bill, which is not 
covered under this rule, but reports this information in the 
spirit of full disclosure.
    The Committee recommends funding for the following programs 
or activities which currently lack authorization for fiscal 
year 2020:
      Broadband Telecommunications Grants
      Child Nutrition Program State Administrative Expenses
      Farmers Market Nutrition Program
      Multi-family Housing Revitalization Program
      National School Lunch Act - Information Clearinghouse
      School Meals Program - Compliance and Accountability
      Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants 
        and Children
      Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
      Summer Food Service Program

COMPLIANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 7(c), RULE XXVI OF THE STANDING RULES OF THE 
                                 SENATE

    Pursuant to paragraph 7(c) of rule XXVI, on September 19, 
2019, the Committee ordered favorably reported an original bill 
(S. 2522) making appropriations for Agriculture, Rural 
Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies 
programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2020, and for 
other purposes, provided, that the bill be subject to amendment 
and that the bill be consistent with its budget allocation, and 
provided that the Chairman of the Committee or his designee be 
authorized to offer the substance of the original bill as a 
Committee amendment in the nature of a substitute to the House 
companion measure, by a recorded vote of 31-0, a quorum being 
present. The vote was as follows:
        Yeas                          Nays
Chairman Shelby
Mr. McConnell
Mr. Alexander
Ms. Collins
Ms. Murkowski
Mr. Graham
Mr. Blunt
Mr. Moran
Mr. Hoeven
Mr. Boozman
Mrs. Capito
Mr. Kennedy
Mrs. Hyde-Smith
Mr. Daines
Mr. Rubio
Mr. Lankford
Mr. Leahy
Mrs. Murray
Mrs. Feinstein
Mr. Durbin
Mr. Reed
Mr. Tester
Mr. Udall
Mrs. Shaheen
Mr. Merkley
Mr. Coons
Mr. Schatz
Ms. Baldwin
Mr. Murphy
Mr. Manchin
Mr. Van Hollen
 COMPLIANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 12, RULE XXVI OF THE STANDING RULES OF THE 
                                 SENATE

    Paragraph 12 of rule XXVI requires that Committee reports 
on a bill or joint resolution repealing or amending any statute 
or part of any statute include ``(a) the text of the statute or 
part thereof which is proposed to be repealed; and (b) a 
comparative print of that part of the bill or joint resolution 
making the amendment and of the statute or part thereof 
proposed to be amended, showing by stricken-through type and 
italics, parallel columns, or other appropriate typographical 
devices the omissions and insertions which would be made by the 
bill or joint resolution if enacted in the form recommended by 
the Committee.''
    In compliance with this rule, changes in existing law 
proposed to be made by the bill are shown as follows: existing 
law to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets; new matter is 
printed in italic; and existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman.

                TITLE 42--THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE


                   Chapter 13--School Lunch Programs


Sec. 1758. Program requirements

(a) Nutritional requirements

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

(h) Food safety

  (1) In general

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (3) Audits and reports by States

    [For fiscal year 2019] For fiscal year 2020, each State 
shall annually--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (4) Audit by the Secretary

    [For fiscal year 2019] For fiscal year 2020, the Secretary 
shall annually audit State reports of food safety inspections 
of schools submitted under paragraph (3).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1769g. Information clearinghouse

(a) In general

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

(d) Funding

    Out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise 
appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to the 
Secretary to provide to the organization selected under this 
section, to establish and maintain the information 
clearinghouse, $200,000 for each of fiscal years 1995 and 1996, 
$150,000 for fiscal year 1997, $100,000 for fiscal year 1998, 
$166,000 for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2004, and 
$250,000 for each of fiscal years [2010 through 2019] 2010 
through 2020. The Secretary shall be entitled to receive the 
funds and shall accept the funds, without further 
appropriation.

                        BUDGETARY IMPACT OF BILL


  PREPARED IN CONSULTATION WITH THE CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE PURSUANT TO SEC. 308(A), PUBLIC LAW 93-344, AS
                                                     AMENDED
                                            [In millions of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Budget authority                 Outlays
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Committee    Amount  in     Committee    Amount  in
                                                           allocation       bill       allocation       bill
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comparison of amounts in the bill with the subcommittee
 allocation for 2020: Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural
 Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related
 Agencies:
    Mandatory...........................................      105,588       105,588        97,934     \1\97,934
    Discretionary.......................................       23,108        23,108        24,540     \1\24,540
        Security........................................  ............  ............  ............           NA
        Nonsecurity.....................................       23,108        23,108            NA            NA
Projection of outlays associated with the
 recommendation:
    2020................................................  ............  ............  ............   \2\103,690
    2021................................................  ............  ............  ............        6,568
    2022................................................  ............  ............  ............        1,461
    2023................................................  ............  ............  ............          686
    2024 and future years...............................  ............  ............  ............          396
Financial assistance to State and local governments for            NA        39,368            NA    \2\32,824
 P2020..................................................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\Includes outlays from prior-year budget authority.
\2\Excludes outlays from prior-year budget authority.
 
NA: Not applicable.
 
NOTE.--Pursuant to section 1002(b)(3)(B) of the 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114-255), $75,000,000 in
  budget authority and the resulting outlays do not count for the purposes of estimates under the Congressional
  Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 or the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.


  COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF NEW BUDGET (OBLIGATIONAL) AUTHORITY FOR FISCAL YEAR 2019 AND BUDGET ESTIMATES AND AMOUNTS RECOMMENDED IN THE BILL FOR FISCAL
                                                                        YEAR 2020
                                                                [In thousands of dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                         Senate Committee recommendation
                                                                                                                             compared with (+ or -)
                                Item                                       2019            Budget         Committee    ---------------------------------
                                                                      appropriation       estimate      recommendation        2019            Budget
                                                                                                                         appropriation       estimate
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   TITLE I--AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS
 
                Processing, Research, and Marketing
 
                           Staff Offices
 
                      Office of the Secretary
 
Office of the Secretary............................................           5,051            4,850            6,030             +979           +1,180
Assistant to the Secretary for Rural Development...................             800              800   ...............            -800             -800
Office of Homeland Security........................................           1,496            1,448            1,496   ...............             +48
Office of Partnerships and Public Engagement.......................           4,711            1,672            4,711   ...............          +3,039
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration...............             875              875              875   ...............  ...............
Departmental Administration........................................          22,301           21,376           22,301   ...............            +925
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.....................................................          23,176           22,251           23,176   ...............            +925
 
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations and             3,869            3,091            3,869   ...............            +778
 Intergovernmental Affairs.........................................
Office of Communications...........................................           7,500            7,261            7,500   ...............            +239
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Office of the Secretary...............................          46,603           41,373           46,782             +179           +5,409
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                        Executive Operations
 
Office of the Chief Economist......................................          21,286           18,513           24,286           +3,000           +5,773
Office of Hearings and Appeals.....................................          15,222           13,474           15,222   ...............          +1,748
Office of Budget and Program Analysis..............................           9,525            8,199            9,525   ...............          +1,326
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.....................................................          46,033           40,186           49,033           +3,000           +8,847
 
Office of the Chief Information Officer............................          55,630          101,400          101,400          +45,770   ...............
Office of the Chief Financial Officer..............................           6,028           13,500           13,500           +7,472   ...............
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.................             901              800              901   ...............            +101
Office of Civil Rights.............................................          24,206           21,228           24,206   ...............          +2,978
Agriculture Buildings and Facilities...............................          59,967          331,114          331,114         +271,147   ...............
Hazardous materials management.....................................           3,503            3,290            3,503   ...............            +213
Office of Inspector General........................................          98,208           98,208           98,208   ...............  ...............
Office of the General Counsel......................................          45,146           41,242           45,146   ...............          +3,904
Office of Ethics...................................................           4,136            2,752            4,136   ...............          +1,384
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Executive Operations..................................         343,758          653,720          671,147         +327,389          +17,427
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Staff Offices.........................................         390,361          695,093          717,929         +327,568          +22,836
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and                      800              800              800   ...............  ...............
 Economics.........................................................
Economic Research Service..........................................          86,757           60,500           86,757   ...............         +26,257
National Agricultural Statistics Service...........................         174,517          163,000          175,294             +777          +12,294
    Census of Agriculture..........................................         (45,300)         (45,300)         (45,300)  ...............  ...............
 
                   Agricultural Research Service
 
Salaries and expenses..............................................       1,303,266        1,203,491        1,424,966         +121,700         +221,475
Buildings and facilities...........................................         381,200           50,000          304,800          -76,400         +254,800
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Agricultural Research Service.........................       1,684,466        1,253,491        1,729,766          +45,300         +476,275
                                                                    ====================================================================================
             National Institute of Food and Agriculture
 
Research and education activities..................................         927,649          974,715          937,649          +10,000          -37,066
Native American Institutions Endowment Fund........................         (11,880)         (11,857)         (11,880)  ...............            (+23)
Extension activities...............................................         505,692          415,274          509,082           +3,390          +93,808
Integrated activities..............................................          38,000            1,697           38,000   ...............         +36,303
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, National Institute of Food and Agriculture............       1,471,341        1,391,686        1,484,731          +13,390          +93,045
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs             901              800              901   ...............            +101
 
             Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
 
Salaries and expenses..............................................       1,011,136          981,893        1,027,916          +16,780          +46,023
Buildings and facilities...........................................           3,175            2,709            3,175   ...............            +466
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service............       1,014,311          984,602        1,031,091          +16,780          +46,489
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                   Agricultural Marketing Service
 
Marketing Services.................................................         159,095          115,143          181,549          +22,454          +66,406
(Limitation on administrative expenses, from fees collected).......         (61,227)         (60,982)         (61,227)  ...............           (+245)
Funds for strengthening markets, income, and supply (Section 32):
    Permanent, Section 32..........................................       1,374,000        1,404,000        1,404,000          +30,000   ...............
        Marketing agreements and orders (transfer from Section 32).         (20,705)         (20,705)         (20,705)  ...............  ...............
    Payments to States and Possessions.............................           1,235            1,109            1,235   ...............            +126
    Limitation on inspection and weighing services.................         (55,000)         (80,000)         (55,000)  ...............        (-25,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Agricultural Marketing Service program................       1,650,557        1,661,234        1,703,011          +52,454          +41,777
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety......................             800              800              800   ...............  ...............
Food Safety and Inspection Service.................................       1,049,344        1,045,320        1,054,344           +5,000           +9,024
    Lab accreditation fees.........................................          (1,000)          (1,000)          (1,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, title I, Agricultural Programs........................       7,407,928        7,116,344        7,869,197         +461,269         +752,853
          (By transfer)............................................         (20,705)         (20,705)         (20,705)  ...............  ...............
          (Limitation on administrative expenses)..................        (116,227)        (140,982)        (116,227)  ...............        (-24,755)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        TITLE II--Farm Production and Conservation Programs
 
                      Farm Production Programs
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation.             901              875              901   ...............             +26
Farm Production and Conservation Business Center...................         216,350          206,530          206,530           -9,820   ...............
    (By transfer from CCC).........................................         (60,228)         (60,228)         (60,228)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, FPAC Business Center (including transfers)............        (276,578)        (266,758)        (266,758)         (-9,820)  ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                        Farm Service Agency
 
Salaries and expenses..............................................       1,081,655        1,012,008        1,127,837          +46,182         +115,829
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Salaries and expenses (including transfers)...........      (1,081,655)      (1,012,008)      (1,127,837)        (+46,182)       (+115,829)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
State mediation grants.............................................           3,904            3,067            5,545           +1,641           +2,478
Grassroots source water protection program.........................           6,500   ...............           6,500   ...............          +6,500
Dairy indemnity program............................................             500              500              500   ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Farm Service Agency................................       1,092,559        1,015,575        1,140,382          +47,823         +124,807
 
Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund [ACIF] Program Account:
    Loan authorizations:
        Farm ownership loans:
            Direct.................................................      (1,500,000)      (1,500,000)      (1,500,000)  ...............  ...............
            Guaranteed.............................................      (2,750,000)      (2,750,000)      (2,750,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Subtotal.............................................      (4,250,000)      (4,250,000)      (4,250,000)  ...............  ...............
 
        Farm operating loans:
            Direct.................................................      (1,530,000)      (1,550,133)      (1,550,133)        (+20,133)  ...............
            Unsubsidized guaranteed................................      (1,960,000)      (1,614,953)      (1,960,000)  ...............       (+345,047)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Subtotal.............................................      (3,490,000)      (3,165,086)      (3,510,133)        (+20,133)       (+345,047)
 
            Emergency loans........................................         (37,668)         (29,181)         (37,668)  ...............         (+8,487)
            Indian tribe land acquisition loans....................         (20,000)         (20,000)         (20,000)  ...............  ...............
        Conservation loans:
            Guaranteed.............................................        (150,000)        (150,000)        (150,000)  ...............  ...............
            Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans..................         (10,000)  ...............         (10,000)  ...............        (+10,000)
            Boll weevil eradication loans..........................         (30,000)         (60,000)         (60,000)        (+30,000)  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................      (7,987,668)      (7,674,267)      (8,037,801)        (+50,133)       (+363,534)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Loan subsidies:
        Farm operating loans:
            Direct.................................................          59,670           58,440           58,440           -1,230   ...............
            Unsubsidized guaranteed................................          21,168           17,280           20,972             -196           +3,692
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Subtotal.............................................          80,838           75,720           79,412           -1,426           +3,692
 
            Emergency Loans........................................           1,567            1,567            2,023             +456             +456
            Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans..................           2,134   ...............           2,745             +611           +2,745
            Boll weevil eradication loans..........................  ...............              60               60              +60   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan subsidies and grants.....................          84,539           77,347           84,240             -299           +6,893
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    ACIF administrative expenses:
        Administrative Expenses....................................         317,068          319,762          319,762           +2,694   ...............
            (Program Loan Cost Expenses)...........................         (10,070)          (9,567)          (9,567)           (-503)  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund Program Account....         401,607          397,109          404,002           +2,395           +6,893
      (Loan authorizations)........................................      (7,987,668)      (7,674,267)      (8,037,801)        (+50,133)       (+363,534)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Farm Service Agency...................................       1,494,166        1,412,684        1,544,384          +50,218         +131,700
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                       Risk Management Agency
 
RMA Salaries and Expenses..........................................          58,361           56,045           58,361   ...............          +2,316
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Farm Production Programs..............................       1,769,778        1,676,134        1,810,176          +40,398         +134,042
                                                                    ====================================================================================
 
Natural Resources Conservation Service:
    Private Lands Conservation Operations..........................         819,492          755,000          835,228          +15,736          +80,228
        (By transfer from FSRI)....................................  ...............      (1,230,000)  ...............  ...............     (-1,230,000)
 
Farm Security and Rural Investment Program:
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Conservation operations...............................         819,492          755,000          835,228          +15,736          +80,228
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Watershed flood and prevention operations......................         150,000   ...............         175,000          +25,000         +175,000
    Watershed rehabilitation program...............................          10,000   ...............  ...............         -10,000   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Natural Resources Conservation Service................         979,492          755,000        1,010,228          +30,736         +255,228
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                            Corporations
 
Federal Crop Insurance Corporation:
    Federal crop insurance corporation fund........................      15,410,629        8,936,000        8,936,000       -6,474,629   ...............
 
Commodity Credit Corporation Fund:
    Reimbursement for net realized losses..........................      15,410,000       25,553,096       25,553,096      +10,143,096   ...............
    Hazardous waste management (limitation on expenses)............          (5,000)          (5,000)          (5,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Corporations..........................................      30,820,629       34,489,096       34,489,096       +3,668,467   ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, title II, Farm Production and Conservation Programs...      33,569,899       36,920,230       37,309,500       +3,739,601         +389,270
          (By transfer)............................................         (60,228)      (1,290,228)         (60,228)  ...............     (-1,230,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                    TITLE III--RURAL DEVELOPMENT
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development................  ...............  ...............             800             +800             +800
 
                         Rural Development
 
Rural development expenses:
    Salaries and expenses..........................................         236,835          192,343          242,005           +5,170          +49,662
    (By transfer from RHIF)........................................        (412,254)        (244,249)        (412,254)  ...............       (+168,005)
    (By transfer from RCFP)........................................  ...............        (147,591)  ...............  ...............       (-147,591)
    (By transfer from RDLFP).......................................          (4,468)  ...............          (4,468)  ...............         (+4,468)
    (By transfer from RETLP).......................................         (33,270)         (38,027)         (33,270)  ...............         (-4,757)
    (By transfer from B&I).........................................  ...............          (7,035)  ...............  ...............         (-7,035)
    (By transfer from RWWDP).......................................  ...............         (18,149)  ...............  ...............        (-18,149)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, transfers from program accounts....................         449,992          455,051          449,992   ...............          -5,059
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Rural development expenses............................         686,827          647,394          691,997           +5,170          +44,603
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                       Rural Housing Service
 
Rural Housing Insurance Fund Program Account:
    Loan authorizations:
        Single family direct (Sec. 502)............................      (1,000,000)  ...............      (1,000,000)  ...............     (+1,000,000)
            Unsubsidized guaranteed................................     (24,000,000)     (24,000,000)     (24,000,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Subtotal, Single family..............................      25,000,000       24,000,000       25,000,000   ...............      +1,000,000
 
            Housing repair (Sec. 504)..............................         (28,000)  ...............         (28,000)  ...............        (+28,000)
            Rental housing (Sec. 515)..............................         (40,000)  ...............         (40,000)  ...............        (+40,000)
            Multi-family housing guarantees (Sec. 538).............        (230,000)        (250,000)        (230,000)  ...............        (-20,000)
            Site development loans (Sec. 524)......................          (5,000)  ...............          (5,000)  ...............         (+5,000)
            Single family housing credit sales.....................         (10,000)         (10,000)         (10,000)  ...............  ...............
            Self-help housing land development housing loans (Sec.           (5,000)  ...............          (5,000)  ...............         (+5,000)
             523)..................................................
            Farm Labor Housing (Sec. 514)..........................         (27,500)  ...............         (27,500)  ...............        (+27,500)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................      25,345,500       24,260,000       25,345,500   ...............      +1,085,500
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Loan subsidies:
        Single family direct (Sec. 502)............................          67,700   ...............          90,000          +22,300          +90,000
        Housing repair (Sec. 504)..................................           3,419   ...............           4,679           +1,260           +4,679
        Rental housing (Sec. 515)..................................           9,484   ...............          12,144           +2,660          +12,144
        Farm labor housing (Sec. 514)..............................           6,853   ...............           8,583           +1,730           +8,583
        Self-Help Land Development Housing Loans (Sec. 523)........             431   ...............             577             +146             +577
        Site Development Loans (Sec. 524)..........................             176   ...............             546             +370             +546
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Loan subsidies....................................          88,063   ...............         116,529          +28,466         +116,529
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Farm labor housing grants..................................          10,000   ...............          10,000   ...............         +10,000
        RHIF administrative expenses...............................         412,254          244,249          412,254   ...............        +168,005
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural Housing Insurance Fund program..............         510,317          244,249          538,783          +28,466         +294,534
                (Loan authorization)...............................     (25,345,500)     (24,260,000)     (25,345,500)  ...............     (+1,085,500)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rental assistance program:
        Rental assistance (Sec. 521)...............................       1,331,400        1,375,000        1,375,000          +43,600   ...............
        Rural housing vouchers.....................................  ...............          32,000   ...............  ...............         -32,000
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Subtotal, Rental Assistance Program......................       1,331,400        1,407,000        1,375,000          +43,600          -32,000
 
Multi-Family Housing Revitalization Program Account:
    Rural housing voucher program..................................          27,000   ...............          32,000           +5,000          +32,000
    Multi-family housing revitalization program....................          24,500   ...............          24,500   ...............         +24,500
    Mutual and self-help housing grants............................          30,000   ...............          30,000   ...............         +30,000
    Rural housing assistance grants................................          45,000   ...............          45,000   ...............         +45,000
    Rural community facilities program account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Community facility:
                Direct.............................................      (2,800,000)      (2,500,000)      (2,800,000)  ...............       (+300,000)
                Guaranteed.........................................        (148,287)        (500,000)        (500,000)       (+351,713)  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................       2,948,287        3,000,000        3,300,000         +351,713         +300,000
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Community facility:
                Guaranteed.........................................           4,285   ...............  ...............          -4,285   ...............
                Grants.............................................          30,000           50,000           30,000   ...............         -20,000
            Rural community development initiative.................           6,000   ...............           6,000   ...............          +6,000
            Economic impact initiative grants......................           5,778   ...............           5,778   ...............          +5,778
            Tribal college grants..................................           4,000           10,000            4,000   ...............          -6,000
            RCFP administrative expenses...........................  ...............         147,591   ...............  ...............        -147,591
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Subtotal, Loan subsidies and grants..................          50,063          207,591           45,778           -4,285         -161,813
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, grants and payments...........................         125,063          207,591          120,778           -4,285          -86,813
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Rural Housing Service.........................       2,018,280        1,858,840        2,091,061          +72,781         +232,221
      (Loan authorization).........................................     (28,293,787)     (27,260,000)     (28,645,500)       (+351,713)     (+1,385,500)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
 
Rural Business--Cooperative Service:
    Rural Business Program Account:
        (Guaranteed business and industry loan authorization)......        (950,000)      (1,000,000)        (950,000)  ...............        (-50,000)
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Guaranteed business and industry subsidy...............          22,040           20,500           19,475           -2,565           -1,025
                Rural business development grants..................          35,000   ...............          37,000           +2,000          +37,000
                Delta Regional Authority and Appalachian Regional             8,000   ...............           9,000           +1,000           +9,000
                 Commission........................................
                Administrative expenses............................  ...............           7,035   ...............  ...............          -7,035
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, RBP loan subsidies and grants.........................          65,040           27,535           65,475             +435          +37,940
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Intermediary Relending Program Fund Account:
        (Loan authorization).......................................         (18,889)  ...............         (18,889)  ...............        (+18,889)
        Loan subsidy...............................................           4,157   ...............           5,219           +1,062           +5,219
        Administrative expenses....................................           4,468   ...............           4,468   ...............          +4,468
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Intermediary Relending Program Account................           8,625   ...............           9,687           +1,062           +9,687
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rural Economic Development Loans Program Account:
        (Loan authorization).......................................         (50,000)  ...............         (50,000)  ...............        (+50,000)
        Limit cushion of credit interest spending..................         (50,000)  ...............         (50,000)  ...............        (+50,000)
    Rural Cooperative Development Grants:
        Cooperative development....................................           5,800   ...............           6,800           +1,000           +6,800
        Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas............           2,800   ...............           2,800   ...............          +2,800
        Grants to assist minority producers........................           3,000   ...............           3,000   ...............          +3,000
        Value-added agricultural product market development........          17,500   ...............  ...............         -17,500   ...............
        Agriculture innovation centers.............................  ...............  ...............           3,000           +3,000           +3,000
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural Cooperative development grants..............          29,100   ...............          15,600          -13,500          +15,600
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rural Energy for America Program:
        (Loan authorization).......................................          (7,500)  ...............         (20,000)        (+12,500)        (+20,000)
        Loan subsidy and grants....................................             335   ...............             706             +371             +706
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural Business--Cooperative Service...............         103,100           27,535           91,468          -11,632          +63,933
        (Loan authorization).......................................      (1,026,389)      (1,000,000)      (1,038,889)        (+12,500)        (+38,889)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
 
Rural Utilities Service:
    Rural water and waste disposal program account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Direct.................................................      (1,400,000)      (1,200,000)      (1,400,000)  ...............       (+200,000)
            Guaranteed.............................................         (50,000)  ...............         (50,000)  ...............        (+50,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................       1,450,000        1,200,000        1,450,000   ...............        +250,000
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Direct subsidy.........................................  ...............          54,720           63,840          +63,840           +9,120
            Guaranteed subsidy.....................................             190   ...............              70             -120              +70
            Water and waste revolving fund.........................           1,000            1,000            1,000   ...............  ...............
            Water well system grants...............................           1,500              993            1,500   ...............            +507
            Colonias and AK/HI grants..............................          68,000           68,000           68,000   ...............  ...............
            Water and waste technical assistance...................          30,000           40,000           30,000   ...............         -10,000
            Circuit rider program..................................          19,000           19,000           19,570             +570             +570
            Solid waste management grants..........................           4,000            4,000            4,000   ...............  ...............
            High energy cost grants................................          10,000   ...............          10,000   ...............         +10,000
            Water and waste disposal grants........................         400,000          324,917          272,000         -128,000          -52,917
            306A(i)(2) grants......................................          15,000           15,000           15,000   ...............  ...............
            WWDP Administrative expenses...........................  ...............          18,149   ...............  ...............         -18,149
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan subsidies and grants.....................         548,690          545,779          484,980          -63,710          -60,799
                                                                    ====================================================================================
         Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Loans
 
    Program Account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Electric:
                Direct, FFB........................................      (5,500,000)      (5,500,000)      (5,500,000)  ...............  ...............
                Guaranteed underwriting............................        (750,000)  ...............        (750,000)  ...............       (+750,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal, Electric...............................       6,250,000        5,500,000        6,250,000   ...............        +750,000
 
            Telecommunications:
                Direct, Treasury rate..............................        (345,000)        (175,727)        (345,000)  ...............       (+169,273)
                Direct, FFB........................................        (345,000)        (514,273)        (345,000)  ...............       (-169,273)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal, Telecommunications.....................         690,000          690,000          690,000   ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Total, Loan authorizations.......................       6,940,000        6,190,000        6,940,000   ...............        +750,000
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan Subsidy:
                Telecommunications Direct, Treasury Rate...........           1,725            1,933            3,795           +2,070           +1,862
 
        RETLP administrative expenses..............................          33,270           38,027           33,270   ...............          -4,757
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total, Rural Electrification and Telecommunications              34,995           39,960           37,065           +2,070           -2,895
             Loans Program Account.................................
            (Loan authorization)...................................      (6,940,000)      (6,190,000)      (6,940,000)  ...............       (+750,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Broadband Program:
        Loan authorizations:
            Broadband telecommunications...........................         (29,851)  ...............         (29,851)  ...............        (+29,851)
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Distance learning and telemedicine:
                Grants.............................................          34,000           43,600           34,000   ...............          -9,600
            Broadband telecommunications:
                Direct.............................................           5,830   ...............           5,340             -490           +5,340
                Grants.............................................          30,000           30,000           30,000   ...............  ...............
            Broadband E-Connect:
                Loan subsidies and grants..........................  ...............         186,000   ...............  ...............        -186,000
                Technical assistance and administrative expenses...  ...............          14,000   ...............  ...............         -14,000
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Total, Loan subsidies and grants.................          69,830          273,600           69,340             -490         -204,260
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Rural Utilities Service...............................         653,515          859,339          591,385          -62,130         -267,954
      (Loan authorization).........................................      (8,419,851)      (7,390,000)      (8,419,851)  ...............     (+1,029,851)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, title III, Rural Development Programs.................       3,011,730        2,938,057        3,016,719           +4,989          +78,662
          (By transfer)............................................        (449,992)        (455,051)        (449,992)  ...............         (-5,059)
          (Loan authorizations)....................................     (37,740,027)     (35,650,000)     (38,104,240)       (+364,213)     (+2,454,240)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                  TITLE IV--DOMESTIC FOOD PROGRAMS
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and Consumer                  800              800              800   ...............  ...............
 Services..........................................................
 
Food and Nutrition Service:
    Child nutrition programs.......................................      23,082,781       23,943,216       23,544,569         +461,788         -398,647
        School breakfast program equipment grants..................          30,000   ...............          30,000   ...............         +30,000
        Demonstration projects (Summer EBT)........................          28,000   ...............          28,000   ...............         +28,000
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Child nutrition programs..........................      23,140,781       23,943,216       23,602,569         +461,788         -340,647
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and        6,075,000        5,750,000        6,000,000          -75,000         +250,000
     children (WIC)................................................
    Supplemental nutrition assistance program:
        (Food stamp program).......................................      70,475,923       66,069,910       66,162,289       -4,313,634          +92,379
            Reserve................................................       3,000,000        3,000,000        3,000,000   ...............  ...............
            FDPIR nutrition education services.....................             998   ...............             998   ...............            +998
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Food stamp program............................      73,476,921       69,069,910       69,163,287       -4,313,634          +93,377
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Commodity assistance program:
        Commodity supplemental food program........................         222,891   ...............         245,000          +22,109         +245,000
        Farmers market nutrition program...........................          18,548   ...............          18,548   ...............         +18,548
        Emergency food assistance program..........................          79,630           54,401           79,630   ...............         +25,229
        Pacific island and disaster assistance.....................           1,070            1,070            1,070   ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Commodity assistance program......................         322,139           55,471          344,248          +22,109         +288,777
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Nutrition programs administration..............................         164,688          152,041          160,891           -3,797           +8,850
        Congressional Hunger Center................................          (2,000)  ...............          (2,000)  ...............         (+2,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Food and Nutrition Service........................     103,179,529       98,970,638       99,270,995       -3,908,534         +300,357
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, title IV, Domestic Food Programs......................     103,180,329       98,971,438       99,271,795       -3,908,534         +300,357
                                                                    ====================================================================================
          TITLE V--FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AND RELATED PROGRAMS
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural                875              875              875   ...............  ...............
 Affairs...........................................................
Office of Codex Alimentarius.......................................           3,976            4,775            4,775             +799   ...............
 
                    Foreign Agricultural Service
 
Salaries and expenses..............................................         213,890          192,824          217,920           +4,030          +25,096
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Salaries and expenses (including transfers)...........         213,890          192,824          217,920           +4,030          +25,096
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Food for Peace Title I Direct Credit and Food for Progress Program
 Account:
    Administrative expenses........................................             142              135              142   ...............              +7
 
Food for Peace Title II Grants:
    Expenses.......................................................       1,500,000   ...............       1,716,000         +216,000       +1,716,000
 
Commodity Credit Corporation Export Loans Program Account:
    Administrative expenses........................................           8,845            6,381            6,381           -2,464   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, CCC Export Loans Program Account......................           8,845            6,381            6,381           -2,464   ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition          210,255   ...............         210,255   ...............        +210,255
 program grants....................................................
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, title V, Foreign Assistance and Related Programs......       1,937,983          204,990        2,156,348         +218,365       +1,951,358
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    TITLE VI--RELATED AGENCIES AND FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
 
              DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
 
                    Food and Drug Administration
 
Salaries and expenses, direct appropriation........................       3,068,678        3,239,524        3,148,678          +80,000          -90,846
    Prescription drug user fees....................................      (1,010,323)      (1,062,367)      (1,074,714)        (+64,391)        (+12,347)
    Medical device user fees.......................................        (204,730)        (219,527)        (220,142)        (+15,412)           (+615)
    Human generic drug user fees...................................        (501,721)        (511,682)        (513,223)        (+11,502)         (+1,541)
    Biosimilar biological products user fees.......................         (38,847)         (39,618)         (41,923)         (+3,076)         (+2,305)
    Animal drug user fees..........................................         (30,331)         (30,524)         (30,611)           (+280)            (+87)
    Animal generic drug user fees..................................         (18,335)         (18,700)         (20,151)         (+1,816)         (+1,451)
    Tobacco product user fees......................................        (712,000)        (712,000)        (712,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, user fees (appropriated)...........................      (2,516,287)      (2,594,418)      (2,612,764)        (+96,477)        (+18,346)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal (including appropriated user fees)..................      (5,584,965)      (5,833,942)      (5,761,442)       (+176,477)        (-72,500)
 
    Mammography user fees..........................................         (20,522)         (21,351)         (21,351)           (+829)  ...............
    Export user fees...............................................          (4,696)          (4,696)          (4,696)  ...............  ...............
    Color certification user fees..................................         (10,062)         (10,534)         (10,534)           (+472)  ...............
    Food and Feed Recall user fees.................................          (1,434)          (1,492)          (1,492)            (+58)  ...............
    Food Reinspection fees.........................................          (6,414)          (6,673)          (6,673)           (+259)  ...............
    Voluntary qualified importer program fees......................          (5,300)          (5,515)          (5,515)           (+215)  ...............
    Pharmacy compounding fees......................................          (1,446)          (1,676)          (1,676)           (+230)  ...............
    Priority review vouchers (PRV) pediatric disease...............          (7,686)          (7,997)          (7,997)           (+311)  ...............
    Third party auditor............................................            (712)            (742)            (742)            (+30)  ...............
    Over-the-Counter Monograph fees................................         (22,000)         (28,400)         (28,400)         (+6,400)  ...............
    Increased export certification fees (legislative proposal).....  ...............          (4,280)  ...............  ...............         (-4,280)
    Innovative food products fees (legislative proposal)...........  ...............         (28,000)  ...............  ...............        (-28,000)
    Expand tobacco products fees (legislative proposal)............  ...............        (100,000)  ...............  ...............       (-100,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, FDA user fees......................................      (2,596,559)      (2,815,774)      (2,701,840)       (+105,281)       (-113,934)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, FDA (including user fees)..........................      (5,665,237)      (6,055,298)      (5,850,518)       (+185,281)       (-204,780)
 
Buildings and facilities...........................................          11,788           11,788           11,788   ...............  ...............
FDA Innovation account.............................................          70,000           75,000           75,000           +5,000   ...............
 
Offset of appropriation pursuant to Section 1002(b)(3)(B) of the            -70,000          -75,000          -75,000           -5,000   ...............
 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114-255).......................
Spending of FDA innovation account (transfer)......................          70,000           75,000           75,000           +5,000   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, FDA (w/enacted user fees only)........................      (5,677,025)      (6,067,086)      (5,862,306)       (+185,281)       (-204,780)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, FDA (excluding user fees).............................       3,080,466        3,251,312        3,160,466          +80,000          -90,846
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                        INDEPENDENT AGENCIES
 
Commodity Futures Trading Commission...............................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Farm Credit Administration (limitation on administrative expenses).         (74,600)         (76,000)         (77,000)         (+2,400)         (+1,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, title VI, Related Agencies and Food and Drug                 3,080,466        3,251,312        3,160,466          +80,000          -90,846
       Administration..............................................
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                   TITLE VII--GENERAL PROVISIONS
 
Rural Energy Savings Program.......................................          10,000   ...............          10,000   ...............         +10,000
Farm to School.....................................................           5,000   ...............           5,000   ...............          +5,000
Healthy Food Financing Initiative..................................           2,000   ...............           2,000   ...............          +2,000
Citrus Greening....................................................           8,500   ...............           8,500   ...............          +8,500
Broadband Pilot....................................................         125,000   ...............  ...............        -125,000   ...............
    Section 313 funds..............................................        (425,000)  ...............        (128,000)       (-297,000)       (+128,000)
NIFA Military Veteran Grants.......................................           5,000   ...............           5,000   ...............          +5,000
Centers of Excellence..............................................           5,000   ...............  ...............          -5,000   ...............
Healthy Fluid Milk.................................................  ...............  ...............           1,000           +1,000           +1,000
Micro-grants for Food Security.....................................  ...............  ...............           2,000           +2,000           +2,000
Water and Waste....................................................          75,000   ...............  ...............         -75,000   ...............
RMAP...............................................................           3,000   ...............  ...............          -3,000   ...............
Food for Progress..................................................          10,000   ...............  ...............         -10,000   ...............
Food for Progress..................................................           6,000   ...............  ...............          -6,000   ...............
Water Bank program.................................................           4,000   ...............           4,000   ...............          +4,000
Geographic Disadvantaged farmers\1\................................           1,996   ...............           2,000               +4           +2,000
Food for Peace.....................................................         216,000   ...............  ...............        -216,000   ...............
Maturing mortgage pilot............................................           1,000   ...............           1,000   ...............          +1,000
FSA ARC pilot......................................................           5,000   ...............  ...............          -5,000   ...............
Conservation Reserve Program Pilot.................................           1,000   ...............           1,000   ...............          +1,000
Distance Learning Telemedicine.....................................          16,000   ...............  ...............         -16,000   ...............
Fruit Fly Quarantine...............................................           9,000   ...............  ...............          -9,000   ...............
Treasury symbol 128/90600 (rescission).............................          -5,000   ...............  ...............          +5,000   ...............
WIC (rescission)...................................................        -500,000       -1,000,000         -800,000         -300,000         +200,000
Rental Assistance Program (rescission).............................  ...............         -40,000   ...............  ...............         +40,000
Rural Water and Waste Disposal Program Account (rescission)........  ...............        -100,000   ...............  ...............        +100,000
RCFP (rescission)..................................................  ...............          -4,200   ...............  ...............          +4,200
Foreign Agricultural Service S&E (rescission)......................  ...............          -8,800   ...............  ...............          +8,800
Relocation expenses................................................  ...............  ...............          25,000          +25,000          +25,000
Dairy Innovation...................................................  ...............  ...............          20,000          +20,000          +20,000
RISE grants........................................................  ...............  ...............           5,000           +5,000           +5,000
FDA Buildings and Facilities.......................................  ...............  ...............          20,000          +20,000          +20,000
Mitigation Banking.................................................  ...............  ...............           5,000           +5,000           +5,000
Electric refinancing...............................................  ...............  ...............         -15,073          -15,073          -15,073
Waste Water Pilot..................................................  ...............  ...............           5,000           +5,000           +5,000
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, title VII, General Provisions.........................           3,496       -1,153,000         -693,573         -697,069         +459,427
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                        OTHER APPROPRIATIONS
 
  ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR DISASTER RELIEF ACT,
                                2019
 
                     DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
 
Office of the Secretary (emergency)................................       3,005,442   ...............  ...............      -3,005,442   ...............
Emergency Forest Restoration Program (emergency)...................         480,000   ...............  ...............        -480,000   ...............
Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations (emergency)..............         435,000   ...............  ...............        -435,000   ...............
Rural Community Facilities Program Account (emergency).............         150,000   ...............  ...............        -150,000   ...............
Grant for Puerto Rico (emergency)..................................         600,000   ...............  ...............        -600,000   ...............
Grant for Northern Marianas (emergency)............................          25,200   ...............  ...............         -25,200   ...............
Crop insurance purchasing requirement (emergency)..................           8,000            7,000            7,000           -1,000   ...............
Revenue protection insurance for hemp (emergency)..................  ...............           1,000            1,000           +1,000   ...............
Exempt AGI provisions (emergency)..................................          15,000   ...............  ...............         -15,000   ...............
Independent study for Puerto Rico (emergency)......................           5,000   ...............  ...............          -5,000   ...............
Grant for American Samoa (emergency)...............................          18,000   ...............  ...............         -18,000   ...............
Emergency Conservation Program (emergency).........................         558,000   ...............  ...............        -558,000   ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster          5,299,642            8,000            8,000       -5,291,642   ...............
       Relief Act..................................................
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Grand total..................................................     157,491,473      148,257,371      152,098,452       -5,393,021       +3,841,081
          Appropriations...........................................    (152,696,831)    (149,402,371)    (152,890,452)       (+193,621)     (+3,488,081)
          Emergency appropriations.................................      (5,299,642)          (8,000)          (8,000)     (-5,291,642)  ...............
          Rescissions..............................................       (-505,000)     (-1,153,000)       (-800,000)       (-295,000)       (+353,000)
      (By transfer)................................................      (1,020,440)      (3,490,558)      (1,020,440)  ...............     (-2,470,118)
      (Loan authorization).........................................     (45,727,695)     (43,324,267)     (46,142,041)       (+414,346)     (+2,817,774)
      (Limitation on administrative expenses)......................        (195,827)        (221,982)        (198,227)         (+2,400)        (-23,755)
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