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                                                     Calendar No. 221
116th Congress      }                                  {       Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session        }                                  {      116-118

======================================================================



 
 LAUNCHING ENERGY ADVANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT THROUGH INNOVATIONS FOR 
                        NATURAL GAS ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

               September 25, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Ms. Murkowski, from the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 1685]

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was 
referred the bill (S. 1685) to require the Secretary of Energy 
to establish a program for the research, development, and 
demonstration of commercially viable technologies for the 
capture of carbon dioxide produced during the generation of 
natural gas-generated power, having considered the same, 
reports favorably thereon with an amendment (in the nature of a 
substitute) and recommends that the bill, as amended, do pass.

                               Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Launching Energy Advancement and 
Development through Innovations for Natural Gas Act of 2019''.

SEC. 2. NATURAL GAS CARBON CAPTURE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND 
                    DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM.

    (a) In General.--Subtitle F of title IX of the Energy Policy Act of 
2005 (42 U.S.C. 16291 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:

``SEC. 969. NATURAL GAS CARBON CAPTURE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND 
                    DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM.

    ``(a) Definitions.--In this section:
          ``(1) Commercially viable technology.--The term `commercially 
        viable technology' means technology that has the potential to 
        be successfully deployed and compete effectively in the 
        marketplace at an appropriate size or scale.
          ``(2) Eligible entity.--The term `eligible entity' means an 
        entity that documents to the satisfaction of the Secretary 
        that--
                  ``(A) the entity is financially responsible; and
                  ``(B) the entity will provide sufficient information 
                to the Secretary to enable the Secretary to ensure that 
                any funds awarded to the entity are spent efficiently 
                and effectively.
          ``(3) Natural gas.--The term `natural gas' means any fuel 
        consisting in whole or in part of--
                  ``(A) natural gas;
                  ``(B) liquid petroleum gas;
                  ``(C) synthetic gas derived from petroleum or natural 
                gas liquids;
                  ``(D) any mixture of natural gas and synthetic gas; 
                or
                  ``(E) biomethane.
          ``(4) Natural gas-generated power.--The term `natural gas-
        generated power' means--
                  ``(A) electric energy generated through the use of 
                natural gas; and
                  ``(B) the generation of hydrogen from natural gas.
          ``(5) Program.--The term `program' means the program 
        established under subsection (b)(1).
          ``(6) Qualifying electric generation facility.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The term `qualifying electric 
                generation facility' means a facility that generates 
                electric energy using natural gas as the fuel.
                  ``(B) Inclusions.--The term `qualifying electric 
                generation facility' includes a new or existing--
                          ``(i) simple cycle plant;
                          ``(ii) combined cycle plant;
                          ``(iii) combined heat and power plant;
                          ``(iv) steam methane reformer that produces 
                        hydrogen from natural gas for use in the 
                        production of electric energy; or
                          ``(v) facility that uses natural gas as the 
                        fuel for generating electric energy.
          ``(7) Qualifying technology.--The term `qualifying 
        technology' means any commercially viable technology, as 
        determined by the Secretary, for the capture of carbon dioxide 
        produced during the generation of natural gas-generated power.
    ``(b) Establishment of Research, Development, and Demonstration 
Program.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall establish a program of 
        research, development, and demonstration of qualifying 
        technologies for use by qualifying electric generation 
        facilities.
          ``(2) Objectives.--The objectives of the program shall be--
                  ``(A) to identify opportunities to accelerate the 
                development and commercial applications of qualifying 
                technologies to reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide 
                emissions released from qualifying electric generation 
                facilities;
                  ``(B) to enter into cooperative agreements with 
                eligible entities to expedite and carry out 
                demonstration projects (including pilot projects) for 
                qualifying technologies for use by qualifying electric 
                generation facilities to demonstrate the technical and 
                commercial viability of those qualifying technologies 
                for commercial deployment; and
                  ``(C) to identify any barriers to the commercial 
                deployment of any qualifying technologies under 
                development.
          ``(3) Participation of national laboratories, universities, 
        and research facilities.--The program may include the 
        participation of--
                  ``(A) National Laboratories;
                  ``(B) institutions of higher education;
                  ``(C) research facilities; or
                  ``(D) other appropriate entities.
          ``(4) Cooperative agreements.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In carrying out the program, the 
                Secretary may enter into cooperative agreements with 
                eligible entities to carry out research, development, 
                and demonstration projects for qualifying technologies.
                  ``(B) Applications; proposals.--An eligible entity 
                desiring to enter into a cooperative agreement under 
                this paragraph shall submit to the Secretary an 
                application at such time, in such manner, and 
                containing such information as the Secretary may 
                require.
    ``(c) Carbon Capture Facilities Demonstration Program.--
          ``(1) Establishment.--As part of the program, the Secretary 
        shall establish a demonstration program under which the 
        Secretary shall enter into cooperative agreements with eligible 
        entities for demonstration or pilot projects to license, 
        permit, construct, and operate, by not later than September 30, 
        2025, 3 or more facilities to capture carbon dioxide from 
        qualifying electric generation facilities.
          ``(2) Goals.--Each demonstration or pilot project under the 
        demonstration program shall--
                  ``(A) be designed to further the development of 
                qualifying technologies that may be used by a 
                qualifying electric generation facility;
                  ``(B) be financed in part by the private sector;
                  ``(C) if necessary, secure agreements for the offtake 
                of the majority of the carbon dioxide emissions 
                captured by qualifying technologies during the project; 
                and
                  ``(D) support energy production in the United States.
          ``(3) Request for applications.--Not later than 120 days 
        after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall 
        solicit applications for cooperative agreements for projects--
                  ``(A) to demonstrate qualifying technologies at 3 or 
                more qualifying electric generation facilities;
                  ``(B) to obtain any license or permit from a State or 
                Federal agency that is necessary for the construction 
                of 3 or more facilities to capture carbon dioxide from 
                a qualifying electric generation facility; and
                  ``(C) to construct and operate 3 or more facilities 
                to capture carbon dioxide from a qualifying electric 
                generation facility.
          ``(4) Review of applications.--In reviewing applications 
        submitted under paragraph (3), the Secretary, to the maximum 
        extent practicable, shall--
                  ``(A) ensure a broad geographic distribution of 
                project sites;
                  ``(B) ensure that a broad selection of qualifying 
                electric generation facilities are represented;
                  ``(C) ensure that a broad selection of qualifying 
                technologies are represented; and
                  ``(D) leverage existing--
                          ``(i) public-private partnerships; and
                          ``(ii) Federal resources.
    ``(d) Cost Sharing.--In carrying out this section, the Secretary 
shall require cost sharing in accordance with section 988.
    ``(e) Fee Title.--The Secretary may vest fee title or other 
property interests acquired under cooperative agreements entered into 
under subsection (b)(4) in any entity, including the United States.
    ``(f) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date on which the 
Secretary solicits applications under subsection (c)(3), and annually 
thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
jurisdiction of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report 
that--
          ``(1) with respect to subsections (b) and (c), includes 
        recommendations for any legislative changes needed to improve 
        the implementation of those subsections;
          ``(2) with respect to subsection (b), includes--
                  ``(A) a detailed description of how applications for 
                cooperative agreements under paragraph (4) of that 
                subsection will be solicited and evaluated, including--
                          ``(i) a list of any activities carried out by 
                        the Secretary to solicit or evaluate 
                        applications; and
                          ``(ii) a process for ensuring that any 
                        projects carried out under a cooperative 
                        agreement are designed to result in the 
                        development or demonstration of qualifying 
                        technologies;
                  ``(B) a detailed list of technical milestones for 
                each qualifying technology pursued under that 
                subsection;
                  ``(C) a detailed description of how each project 
                carried out pursuant to a cooperative agreement under 
                paragraph (4) of that subsection will meet the 
                milestones for carbon capture described in the 
                September 2017 report of the Office of Fossil Energy 
                entitled `Accelerating Breakthrough Innovation in 
                Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage'; and
                  ``(D) an affirmation from the Secretary that all 
                recipients of funding under that subsection are 
                eligible entities; and
          ``(3) with respect to the demonstration program established 
        under subsection (c), includes--
                  ``(A) an estimate of the cost of licensing, 
                permitting, constructing, and operating each carbon 
                capture facility expected to be constructed under that 
                demonstration program;
                  ``(B) a schedule for--
                          ``(i) obtaining any license or permit 
                        necessary to construct and operate each carbon 
                        capture facility expected to be constructed; 
                        and
                          ``(ii) constructing each facility; and
                  ``(C) an estimate of any financial assistance, 
                compensation, or incentives proposed to be paid by the 
                host State, Indian Tribe, or local government with 
                respect to each facility.
    ``(g) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $50,000,000 for 
each of fiscal years 2020 through 2025.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents for the Energy 
Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58; 119 Stat. 600) is amended by 
inserting after the item relating to section 968 the following:

``SEC. 969. NATURAL GAS CARBON CAPTURE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND 
                    DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM.''.

                                Purpose

    The purpose of S. 1685, as ordered reported, is to require 
the Secretary of Energy to establish a program for the 
research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of commercially 
viable technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide produced 
during the generation of natural gas-generated power.

                          Background and Need

    According to a 2019 report by the International Energy 
Agency, deployment of innovative clean energy technologies is 
essential to offset the increased greenhouse gas emissions 
resulting from increased global energy demand. These 
technologies include carbon capture, utilization, and 
sequestration (CCUS), a process by which manmade carbon dioxide 
is captured at its source and is either stored permanently in a 
geological formation or reused to prevent its release into the 
atmosphere.
    Many facilities across the globe demonstrate the technical 
and commercial viability of CCUS technologies. In total, there 
are 18 large-scale CCUS facilities in commercial operation that 
are capturing 40 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, with 
many more in development.
    The Department of Energy (DOE) has long supported research, 
development, demonstration, and deployment of CCUS through 
research programs within the Office of Fossil Energy. However, 
those programs mainly focus on reducing emissions of coal-fired 
power plants. While coal has historically provided the majority 
of electricity in the United States, natural gas is now the 
largest source of electricity, accounting for 35.1 percent of 
all electricity produced in 2018. The Energy Information 
Administration expects this number to continue to rise for the 
foreseeable future as more natural gas power plants come 
online. To address the need to reduce emissions from natural 
gas plants while creating jobs and supporting domestic energy 
production and security, S. 1685 establishes a program at DOE 
to develop cost-effective CCUS technology for natural gas power 
plants.
    Section 402(i) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 
2005, Public Law 109-58) states that no technology or emissions 
reduction achieved by any facility receiving financial 
assistance under any section of EPAct 2005 shall be considered 
adequately demonstrated for purposes of section 111 of the 
Clean Air Act (CAA) (Public Law 95-95); achievable for purposes 
of section 169 of the CAA; or achievable in practice for 
purposes of section 171 of the CAA. Because S. 1685 amends 
EPAct 2005, section 402(i) of EPAct 2005 applies to all 
technologies or emissions reductions that are achieved by any 
facility receiving assistance under S. 1685.

                          Legislative History

    S. 1685 was introduced by Senators Cornyn, Cassidy, Coons, 
and Sinema on May 23, 2019. The Subcommittee on Energy held a 
legislative hearing on S. 1685 on July 9, 2019.
    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources met in 
open business session on July 16, 2019, and ordered S. 1685 
favorably reported, as amended.

                        Committee Recommendation

    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, in 
open business session on July 16, 2019, by a majority voice 
vote of a quorum present, recommends that the Senate pass S. 
1685, if amended as described herein. Senator Lee asked to be 
recorded as voting no.

                          Committee Amendments

    During its consideration of S. 1685, the Committee adopted 
an amendment in the nature of a substitute and an amendment to 
the substitute. The substitute amendment changes the stated 
objectives of the research and development program established 
by S. 1685 from demonstrating the ``economic potential'' of 
qualifying technologies to the ``commercial viability'' of CCUS 
technologies for commercial deployment. It also adds a 
definition of ``commercially viable technology'' and strikes a 
provision requiring data to be transferred and shared among 
participants in CCUS demonstration projects and other 
interested parties. The amendment to the substitute authorizes 
appropriation of $50 million for each of fiscal years (FYs) 
2020 through 2025 rather than permitting the Secretary to carry 
out the program using funds appropriated for fossil energy 
research and development that are not otherwise obligated.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

    Section 1 sets forth the short title.

Sec. 2. Natural gas carbon capture research, development, and 
        demonstration program

    Sec. 2 amends subtitle F of title IX of EPAct 2005 to add a 
new section 969 titled ``Natural Gas Carbon Capture Research, 
Development, and Demonstration Program.''
    The new section 969(a) provides for definitions of relevant 
terms.
    The new section 969(b) establishes a RD&D program for CCUS 
from natural gas-generated power. It specifies the program's 
objectives, including accelerating the deployment of CCUS 
technologies and entering into cooperative agreements to carry 
out CCUS demonstration projects. It also encourages the 
participation of National Laboratories, higher education 
institutions and research facilities.
    The new section 969(c) requires the Secretary to establish 
a demonstration program under which the Secretary shall enter 
into cooperative agreements with eligible entities for 
demonstration projects to license, permit, construct, and 
operate, by September 30, 2025, three or more facilities to 
capture carbon dioxide from natural gas power generation 
facilities. It also sets goals for the projects and describes 
the application process for eligible entities to obtain a 
grant.
    The new section 969(d) sets forth cost-sharing in 
accordance with section 988 of EPAct 2005.
    The new section 969(e) authorizes the Secretary to vest for 
title or other property interests acquired under cooperative 
agreements entered into under subsection (b)(4) in any entity, 
including the United States.
    The new section 969(f) requires the Secretary to submit an 
annual report on program activities to Congress.
    The new section 969(g) authorizes $50 million to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for each of FYs 2020 through 2025 
to carry out the activities in the new section 969.

                   Cost and Budgetary Considerations

    The Congressional Budget Office estimate of the costs of 
this measure has been requested but was not received at the 
time the report was filed. When the Congressional Budget Office 
completes its cost estimate, it will be posted on the internet 
at www.cbo.gov.

                      Regulatory Impact Evaluation

    In compliance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee makes the following 
evaluation of the regulatory impact which would be incurred in 
carrying out S. 1685. The bill is not a regulatory measure in 
the sense of imposing Government-established standards or 
significant economic responsibilities on private individuals 
and businesses.
    No personal information would be collected in administering 
the program. Therefore, there would be no impact on personal 
privacy.
    Little, if any, additional paperwork would result from the 
enactment of S. 1685, as ordered reported.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    S. 1685, as ordered reported, does not contain any 
congressionally directed spending items, limited tax benefits, 
or limited tariff benefits as defined in rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate.

                        Executive Communications

    The testimony provided by the Department of Energy at the 
July 9, 2019, hearing on S. 1685 follows:

Testimony of the Honorable Bruce J. Walker, Assistant Secretary, Office 
               of Electricity, U.S. Department of Energy


                              introduction


    Chairman Cassidy, Ranking Member Heinrich, and Members of 
the Subcommittee, it is an honor and a privilege to serve at 
the Department of Energy (DOE or the Department), as Assistant 
Secretary for the Office of Electricity. DOE is charged with, 
among other important responsibilities, providing our Nation 
with premier energy research and development (R&D) activities. 
The work being conducted by DOE is setting the course for 
various advancements in the energy field and beyond. Issues 
like energy storage, improving energy efficiency, creating 
breakthroughs in how we extract and utilize our Nation's fossil 
fuels, and Artificial Intelligence are just some of the 
important areas of DOE research. These are also the topics 
being covered at today's hearing.


                             fossil energy


    FE is responsible for Federal research, development, and 
demonstration efforts on advanced power generation; power plant 
efficiency; water management; and carbon capture, utilization, 
and storage (CCUS) technologies. Additionally, FE is 
responsible for the development of technological solutions for 
the prudent and sustainable development of our unconventional 
oil and gas domestic resources.
S. 1685--Launching Energy Advancement and Development through 
        Innovations for Natural Gas Act of 2019
    The Department is advancing an important part of FE's R&D 
portfolio--the commercial deployment of CCUS technologies. With 
ongoing support, the Department is backing up its commitment to 
CCUS with R&D necessary to advance these technologies, improve 
our environmental footprint, and advance U.S. world leadership 
in this critical area.
    This bill directs DOE to establish a program for the 
capture of carbon dioxide produced during the generation of 
natural gas-generated power.
    Specifically, DOE must:
           identify opportunities to accelerate the 
        development of commercially viable carbon capture 
        technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions;
           enter into cooperative agreements with 
        certain entities to license, permit, construct, and 
        operate at least three facilities to capture carbon 
        dioxide from natural gas-fueled power generating 
        facilities; and
           identify any barriers to the commercial 
        development of carbon capture technologies.
    The Department is reviewing the proposed language and we 
look forward to working with the Committee.


                               conclusion


    Thank you again for the opportunity to testify today on 
behalf of DOE. The Department appreciates the ongoing 
bipartisan efforts to address our nation's energy challenges, 
and looks forward to working with the Committee on the 
legislation on today's agenda and any future legislation.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the changes in existing law made 
by the original bill, as reported, are shown as follows 
(existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black 
brackets, new matter is printed in italic, existing law in 
which no change is proposed is shown in roman):

                       ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005

Public Law 109-58, as Amended

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                       Subtitle F--Fossil Energy

Sec. 961. Fossil energy.
Sec. 962. Coal and related technologies program.
Sec. 963. Carbon capture research and development program.
Sec. 964. Research and development for coal mining technologies.
Sec. 965. Oil and gas research programs.
Sec. 966. Low-volume oil and gas reservoir research program.
Sec. 967. Complex well technology testing facility.
Sec. 968. Methane hydrate research.
Sec. 969. Natural gas carbon capture research, development, and 
          demonstration program

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle F--Fossil Energy

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 969. NATURAL GAS CARBON CAPTURE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND 
                    DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM.

    (a) Definitions.--In this section:
          (1) Commercially viable technology.--The term 
        ``commercially viable technology'' means technology 
        that has the potential to be successfully deployed and 
        compete effectively in the marketplace at an 
        appropriate size or scale.
          (2) Eligible entity.--The term ``eligible entity'' 
        means an entity that documents to the satisfaction of 
        the Secretary that--
                  (A) the entity is financially responsible; 
                and
                  (B) the entity will provide sufficient 
                information to the Secretary to enable the 
                Secretary to ensure that any funds awarded to 
                the entity are spent efficiently and 
                effectively.
          (3) Natural gas.--The term ``natural gas''' means any 
        fuel consisting in whole or in part of--
                  (A) natural gas;
                  (B) liquid petroleum gas;
                  (C) synthetic gas derived from petroleum or 
                natural gas liquids;
                  (D) any mixture of natural gas and synthetic 
                gas; or
                  (E) biomethane.
          (4) Natural gas-generated power.--The term ``natural 
        gas-generated power'' means--
                  (A) electric energy generated through the use 
                of natural gas; and
                  (B) the generation of hydrogen from natural 
                gas.
          (5) Program.--The term ``program'' means the program 
        established under subsection (b)(1).
          (6) Qualifying electric generation facility.--
                  (A) In general.--The term ``qualifying 
                electric generation facility'' means a facility 
                that generates electric energy using natural 
                gas as the fuel.
                  (B) Inclusions.--The term ``qualifying 
                electric generation facility'' includes a new 
                or existing--
                          (i) simple cycle plant;
                          (ii) combined cycle plant;
                          (iii) combined heat and power plant;
                          (iv) steam methane reformer that 
                        produces hydrogen from natural gas for 
                        use in the production of electric 
                        energy; or
                          (v) facility that uses natural gas as 
                        the fuel for generating electric 
                        energy.
          (7) Qualifying technology.--The term ``qualifying 
        technology'' means any commercially viable technology, 
        as determined by the Secretary, for the capture of 
        carbon dioxide produced during the generation of 
        natural gas-generated power.
    (b) Establishment of Research, Development, and 
Demonstration Program.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall establish a 
        program of research, development, and demonstration of 
        qualifying technologies for use by qualifying electric 
        generation facilities.
          (2) Objectives.--The objectives of the program shall 
        be--
                  (A) to identify opportunities to accelerate 
                the development and commercial applications of 
                qualifying technologies to reduce the quantity 
                of carbon dioxide emissions released from 
                qualifying electric generation facilities;
                  (B) to enter into cooperative agreements with 
                eligible entities to expedite and carry out 
                demonstration projects (including pilot 
                projects) for qualifying technologies for use 
                by qualifying electric generation facilities to 
                demonstrate the technical and commercial 
                viability of those qualifying technologies for 
                commercial deployment; and
                  (C) to identify any barriers to the 
                commercial deployment of any qualifying 
                technologies under development.
          (3) Participation of national laboratories, 
        universities, and research facilities.--The program may 
        include the participation of--
                  (A) National Laboratories;
                  (B) institutions of higher education;
                  (C) research facilities; or
                  (D) other appropriate entities.
          (4) Cooperative agreements.--
                  (A) In general.--In carrying out the program, 
                the Secretary may enter into cooperative 
                agreements with eligible entities to carry out 
                research, development, and demonstration 
                projects for qualifying technologies.
                  (B) Applications; proposals.--An eligible 
                entity desiring to enter into a cooperative 
                agreement under this paragraph shall submit to 
                the Secretary an application at such time, in 
                such manner, and containing such information as 
                the Secretary may require.
    (c) Carbon Capture Facilities Demonstration Program.--
          (1) Establishment.--As part of the program, the 
        Secretary shall establish a demonstration program under 
        which the Secretary shall enter into cooperative 
        agreements with eligible entities for demonstration or 
        pilot projects to license, permit, construct, and 
        operate, by not later than September 30, 2025, 3 or 
        more facilities to capture carbon dioxide from 
        qualifying electric generation facilities.
          (2) Goals.--Each demonstration or pilot project under 
        the demonstration program shall--
                  (A) be designed to further the development of 
                qualifying technologies that may be used by a 
                qualifying electric generation facility;
                  (B) be financed in part by the private 
                sector;
                  (C) if necessary, secure agreements for the 
                off take of the majority of the carbon dioxide 
                emissions captured by qualifying technologies 
                during the project; and
                  (D) support energy production in the United 
                States.
          (3) Request for applications.--Not later than 120 
        days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
        Secretary shall solicit applications for cooperative 
        agreements for projects--
                  (A) to demonstrate qualifying technologies at 
                3 or more qualifying electric generation 
                facilities;
                  (B) to obtain any license or permit from a 
                State or Federal agency that is necessary for 
                the construction of 3 or more facilities to 
                capture carbon dioxide from a qualifying 
                electric generation facility; and
                  (C) to construct and operate 3 or more 
                facilities to capture carbon dioxide from a 
                qualifying electric generation facility.
          (4) Review of applications.--In reviewing 
        applications submitted under paragraph (3), the 
        Secretary, to the maximum extent practicable, shall--
                  (A) ensure a broad geographic distribution of 
                project sites;
                  (B) ensure that a broad selection of 
                qualifying electric generation facilities are 
                represented;
                  (C) ensure that a broad selection of 
                qualifying technologies are represented; and
                  (D) leverage existing--
                          (i) public-private partnerships; and
                          (ii) Federal resources.
    (d) Cost Sharing.--In carrying out this section, the 
Secretary shall require cost sharing in accordance with section 
988.
    (e) Fee Title.--The Secretary may vest fee title or other 
property interests acquired under cooperative agreements 
entered into under subsection (b)(4) in any entity, including 
the United States.
    (f) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date on 
which the Secretary solicits applications under subsection 
(c)(3), and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to 
the appropriate committees of jurisdiction of the Senate and 
the House of Representatives a report that--
          (1) with respect to subsections (b) and (c), includes 
        recommendations for any legislative changes needed to 
        improve the implementation of those subsections;
          (2) with respect to subsection (b), includes--
                  (A) a detailed description of how 
                applications for cooperative agreements under 
                paragraph (4) of that subsection will be 
                solicited and evaluated, including--
                          (i) a list of any activities carried 
                        out by the Secretary to solicit or 
                        evaluate applications; and
                          (ii) a process for ensuring that any 
                        projects carried out under a 
                        cooperative agreement are designed to 
                        result in the development or 
                        demonstration of qualifying 
                        technologies;
                  (B) a detailed list of technical milestones 
                for each qualifying technology pursued under 
                that subsection;
                  (C) a detailed description of how each 
                project carried out pursuant to a cooperative 
                agreement under paragraph (4) of that 
                subsection will meet the milestones for carbon 
                capture described in the September 2017 report 
                of the Office of Fossil Energy entitled 
                ``Accelerating Breakthrough Innovation in 
                Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage''; and
                  (D) an affirmation from the Secretary that 
                all recipients of funding under that subsection 
                are eligible entities; and (3) with respect to 
                the demonstration program established under 
                subsection (c), includes--
                  (A) an estimate of the cost of licensing, 
                permitting, constructing, and operating each 
                carbon capture facility expected to be 
                constructed under that demonstration program;
                  (B) a schedule for--
                          (i) obtaining any license or permit 
                        necessary to construct and operate each 
                        carbon capture facility expected to be 
                        constructed; and
                          (ii) constructing each facility; and
                  (C) an estimate of any financial assistance, 
                compensation, or incentives proposed to be paid 
                by the host State, Indian Tribe, or local 
                government with respect to each facility.
    (g) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section 
$50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 through 2025.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                                  [all]