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                                                      Calendar No. 401


116th Congress  }                                         {  Report
                                SENATE                          
2d Session      }                                         {  116-192
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                                                       


             DOTGOV ONLINE TRUST IN GOVERNMENT ACT OF 2019

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND

                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                              to accompany

                                S. 2749

          TO PROVIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE .GOV DOMAIN, AND FOR
                             OTHER PURPOSES
                             
                             

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]


                January 6, 2020.--Ordered to be printed
                
                
                
                             ______

              U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
 99-010                 WASHINGTON : 2020
 
 
 
                
                
                
        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             MAGGIE HASSAN, New Hampshire
MITT ROMNEY, Utah                    KAMALA D. HARRIS, California
RICK SCOTT, Florida                  KYRSTEN SINEMA, Arizona
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             JACKY ROSEN, Nevada
JOSH HAWLEY, Missouri

                Gabrielle D'Adamo Singer, Staff Director
                   Joseph C. Folio III, Chief Counsel
              Colleen E. Berny, Professional Staff Member
               David M. Weinberg, Minority Staff Director
               Zachary I. Schram, Minority Chief Counsel
     Jeffrey D. Rothblum, Minority Senior Professional Staff Member
                     Laura W. Kilbride, Chief Clerk
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     

                                                       Calendar No. 401
                                                       
                                                       
                                                       
116th Congress   }                                           {  Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session      }                                           { 116-192

======================================================================



 
             DOTGOV ONLINE TRUST IN GOVERNMENT ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

                January 6, 2020.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

       Mr. Johnson, from the Committee on Homeland Security and 
             Governmental Affairs, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 2749]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs, to which was referred the bill (S. 2749), to provide 
requirements for the .gov domain, and for other purposes, 
having considered the same, reports favorably thereon with 
amendments and recommends that the bill, as amended, do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
  I. Purpose and Summary..............................................1
 II. Background and Need for the Legislation..........................2
III. Legislative History..............................................5
 IV. Section-by-Section Analysis......................................6
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................9
 VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................9
VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported...........10

                         I. Purpose and Summary

    S. 2749, the DOTGOV Online Trust in Government Act of 2019, 
increases the utility and availability of the .gov domain to 
Federal agencies, state, local, tribal and territorial (SLTT) 
governments, and publicly-controlled entities. This bill sets 
specific timeline requirements for the transition of the .gov 
program and administration. Upon enactment, the .gov domain 
program is to transition from the General Services 
Administration (GSA) to the Department of Homeland Security's 
(DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). 
On a continuous basis thereafter, CISA is required to inventory 
all active hostnames and services in the .gov domain and 
provide that data to domain registrants at no cost.
    Within 30 days of the bill's enactment, CISA is required to 
submit its operational and contractual transition plan for the 
.gov program to Congress. CISA is also required to begin 
administering the .gov domain program and publish domain 
registration requirements on a public website within 120 days 
of the bill's enactment. Upon CISA's publication of its 
registration requirements, GSA is required to rescind the 
requirements of 41 CFR, parts 102-173. Within 180 days, CISA is 
to develop and submit to Congress a strategy to counter 
malicious cyber activity using the .gov domain information.
    CISA is also required to, within one year, publish an 
outreach strategy for engaging with SLTT and publicly-
controlled entities on the benefits of the .gov domain, and 
develop and publish a reference guide for migrating to the .gov 
domain. Additionally, no later than one year after the bill's 
enactment, CISA must develop a five-year security enhancement 
strategy and implementation plan for the .gov domain and submit 
it to Congress. CISA is also required to submit a report to 
Congress on the outreach strategy, security strategy, 
inventory, services, and fees associated with .gov domain 
registration. After the submission of the initial report, CISA 
is to submit follow-up reports on a biannual basis for four 
years. Finally, this bill limits the fees charged for the 
administration of the program to the amounts charged on October 
1, 2019, for the first five years of enactment.

              II. Background and the Need for Legislation


Background on the .gov domain program

    Over thirty years ago, in 1985, the .gov top-level domain 
(TLD) was established in the United States.\1\ The GSA started 
administering the .gov program and registering Federal agencies 
in 1997.\2\ In 2003, the .gov domain expanded to include SLTT 
governments.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Jessica Salmoiraghi, U.S. Gen. Serv's Admin., The DotGov 
Program: Putting the US Government on the Internet, at 3 (2019), 
https://www.nass.org/sites/default/files/2019%20Summer/presentations/
presentation-dotgov-summer19.pdf; See also Zahra, Everything You Need 
to Know About .Gov Domains, TownWeb (May 2018), https://
www.townweb.com/2016/09/30/everything-need-know-gov-domains/.
    \2\Id.
    \3\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Today, there are a variety of TLDs available for websites, 
including .com, .org, .net, and .us.\4\ However, these types of 
domains are not exclusive, whereas the .gov domain is only 
available to U.S. Government organizations.\5\ To receive a 
.gov domain, registrants must meet the eligibility 
requirements, pass the validation process, and verify that they 
are legitimate U.S. Government entities.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\Salmoiraghi, supra note 1, at 9-10.
    \5\Id.; See also U.S. Gen. Serv's Admin., Why .gov?, https://
www.gsa.gov/cdnstatic/DotGov_One-Pager.pdf.
    \6\DotGov Portal, Domain Requirements, https://home.dotgov.gov/
registration/requirements/; See also Steve Grobman, State County 
Authorities Fail at Midterm Election Internet Security, McAfee (Oct. 
24, 2018), https://www.mcafee.com/blogs/other-blogs/executive-
perspectives/state-county-authorities-fail-at-midterm-election-
internet-security/.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Committee has determined that additional reforms are 
needed to secure and safeguard the .gov domain program. As 
discussed below, S. 2749 implements those reforms as 
improvements to the .gov internet domain program.

Increases awareness and supports the transition to .gov

    As of April 2019, there were 6,000 .gov domain customers 
comprised of 56 percent local government, 22 percent Federal 
Government, 20 percent state government, and 3 percent tribal/
native sovereign nations.\7\ Local governments make up more 
than half of the .gov domain participation rate with 
approximately 3,360 participants, yet the U.S. Census Bureau 
reported 38,779 general purpose governments (counties, cities, 
towns, townships, villages, and additional jurisdictions) in 
2017.\8\ Thus, only approximately 8.7 percent of these types of 
local governments are currently utilizing the .gov domain.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\Salmoiraghi, supra note 1, at 3-4, 6.
    \8\U.S. Census Bureau, 2017 Census of Governments--Organization, 
Table 2. Local Governments by Type and State: 2017 (2017), https://
www.census.gov/data/tables/2017/econ/gus/2017-governments.html; 
Governing: the States and Localities, Number of Local Governments by 
State, e.Republic (2017), https://www.governing.com/gov-data/number-of-
governments-by-state.html (citing U.S. Census Bureau); See also 
Salmoiraghi, supra note 1.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In October 2018, McAfee examined the security of election 
infrastructure at the state and county level and found that 
``large majorities of county websites use top level domain 
names such as .com, .net and .us rather than the government 
validated .gov in their web addresses.''\9\ Specifically, 
``Minnesota and Texas had the largest percentage of non-.gov 
domain names with 95.4% and 95% respectively. They were 
followed by Michigan (91.2%), New Hampshire (90%), Mississippi 
(86.6%) and Ohio (85.9%).''\10\ Arizona had the largest .gov 
domain participation with 66.7 percent of counties using 
validated addresses.\11\ In addition, major cities throughout 
the nation are not utilizing the .gov domain, including 
Houston, Los Angeles, New York City, and Philadelphia.\12\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \9\Grobman, supra note 6.
    \10\Id.
    \11\Id.
    \12\Brian Krebs, It's Way Too Easy to Get a .gov Domain Name, 
KrebsonSecurity (Nov. 26, 2019), https://krebsonsecurity.com/2019/11/
its-way-too-easy-to-get-a-gov-domain-name/.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Utilizing the .gov domain helps local governments validate 
their information to residents. For example, in December 2018, 
the town website of Falmouth, Massachusetts switched from 
falmouthmass.us to falmouthma.gov.\13\ According to their 
information technology director, Gregory Banwarth, ``the .com., 
.org, .us name space is basically a public domain, so just 
about any company or any entity can grab those things, and 
we've seen an increase in the number of services [. . .] that 
are actually just masquerading state or municipal services with 
an extra cost attached . . .'' In addition, he stated the 
public is becoming more aware of the .gov domain and knows it 
is legitimate government information.\14\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \13\Salmoiraghi, supra note 1, at 11; See also Brad Cole, Falmouth 
Getting New Website, E-Mail Address, Falmouth Enter. (Dec. 6, 2018), 
https://www.capenews.net/falmouth/news/falmouth-getting-new-website-e-
mail-addresses/article_bae21f6c-f0fe-54f3-bcf8-30dce2aaa202.html.
    \14\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Currently, the Federal Government's authority to provision 
.gov domains is not codified in statute. S. 2749 increases 
awareness to the .gov domain by defining the purpose of the 
.gov internet domain program and codifying CISA's provision of 
.gov domain name registration services, and supporting 
services, to any Federal, SLTT government, or other publicly-
controlled entity that complies with the registration 
requirements.

Improves security for those utilizing .gov

    As previously mentioned, the vast majority of county and 
local governments are not currently utilizing the .gov domain. 
As a result, cybercriminals are targeting these governments, as 
well as small businesses and individuals, to obtain sensitive 
information. One phishing campaign was uncovered earlier this 
year that involved an effort to impersonate hundreds of local 
government websites and prey on small businesses.\15\ According 
to Lookout Phishing AI,
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \15\Jeremy Richards, Too Close to Home: Local Business Targeted by 
Phishing Attacks, Lookout Blog (May 29, 2019), https://
blog.lookout.com/local-businesses-phishing-attacks.

          [t]he threat actor has registered more than 200 
        domains with the same email address since 2015, and is 
        now averaging about seven to ten per week. And 
        recently, the actor has created a series of fake local 
        government websites, impersonating the likes of Dallas 
        County, Polk County, the City of San Mateo, the City of 
        Tampa, and the City of North Las Vegas.\16\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\Id.

    The fake sites were almost a perfect replica of the 
legitimate websites, but contained a ``Vendor Registration 
Form'' to compromise personally identifiable information and 
other credentials.\17\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \17\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    While there are current security and verification processes 
in place for U.S. Government entities to apply for and obtain a 
.gov domain, individuals have recently attempted and 
successfully acquired a .gov domain.\18\ In November 2019, a 
computer researcher submitted to Krebs on Security evidence 
that they ``got a .gov domain simply by filling out and 
emailing an online form, grabbing some letterhead off the 
homepage of a small U.S. town that only has a `.us' domain 
name, and impersonating the town's mayor in the 
application.''\19\ Although the researcher did this as an 
experiment, there are malicious actors who will attempt this to 
create false websites and emails, and circulate fabricated news 
stories.\20\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \18\DotGov Portal, supra note 6; See also Krebs, supra note 12.
    \19\Id.
    \20\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This bill will improve cybersecurity for government 
websites by increasing the utilization of a trusted and secured 
.gov domain by Federal and SLTT governments, and other 
publicly-controlled entities. In addition, S. 2749 directs CISA 
to develop a security enhancement strategy and implementation 
plan to improve the cybersecurity benefits of the .gov domain. 
The strategy will include: a modernization plan for the 
information systems that support.gov domain operations; a 
modernization plan for the .gov program office and contracts to 
leverage and exploit emerging technologies; and, specific 
cybersecurity enhancements for the domain.

Ensures an effective transition from GSA to DHS

    The GSA's Office of Information Integrity and Access 
currently manages the .gov internet domain program.\21\ 
However, in consultation with the Office of Management and 
Budget (OMB) and other Executive Branch agencies, the Committee 
believes that the .gov internet domain program should be moved 
from GSA to DHS's CISA.\22\ S. 2749 ensures the .gov internet 
domain program is effectively transferred from GSA to CISA by 
laying out a transition timeline, requiring CISA to submit a 
plan to Congress for the program transition, begin operational 
control of the .gov internet domain program, and publicly 
publish .gov domain registration policies. GSA shall rescind 
its existing .gov domain requirements, which will count towards 
the ``one in, two out'' rule under the Presidential Executive 
Order on Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory 
Costs.\23\ During this transition period, and for a five-year 
period starting on the date of enactment, any fees for new 
registrations or annual renewals of .gov domains shall not be 
more than the amount of the fees charged as of October 1, 2019. 
The annual fee for the .gov domain as of that date was $400 per 
year.\24\ It is not the Committee's intent to limit or define 
how the Executive Branch develops processes or policies for the 
coordination of the assignment of .gov domain names for 
Executive Branch agencies.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \21\U.S. Gen. Serv's Admin., DotGov Domain Services (May 31, 2019), 
https://www.gsa.gov/policy-regulations/policy/information-integrity-
and-access/dotgov-domain-services.
    \22\E-mail from Office of Mgmt. & Budget, Exec. Office of the 
President, to Staff of S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. and Gov'l Affairs 
(Sep. 10, 2019) (on file with the Committee).
    \23\Exec. Order No. 13771, 82 FR 9339 (Jan. 30, 2017), https://
www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-executive-order-
reducing-regulation-controlling-regulatory-costs/.
    \24\Zahra, supra note 1.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        III. Legislative History

    On October 30, 2019, Ranking Member Gary Peters (D-MI) 
introduced S. 2749, DOTGOV Online Trust in Government Act of 
2019, which was referred to the Committee on Homeland Security 
and Governmental Affairs. Chairman Ron Johnson (R-WI), Senator 
Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), Senator James Lankford (R-OK), Senator 
Roy Blunt (R-MO), and Senator Margaret Wood Hassan (D-DH) are 
cosponsors.
    The Committee considered S. 2749 at a business meeting on 
November 6, 2019. During the business meeting, Ranking Member 
Peters offered an amendment and Senator Rick Scott offered an 
amendment as modified.
    Peters Amendment 1 made three technical changes to the 
bill, including clarifying requirements for domain registrants. 
Scott Amendment 1 as modified added oversight language on the 
fees for making the .gov domain name registration and any 
supporting services available. This included adding additional 
language to the bill's findings that the .gov internet domain 
should be available at no cost or at a negligible cost; 
clarifying that the total fees collected shall not exceed the 
direct operational expenses to maintain the .gov internet 
domain program; adding to the reporting requirement on how CISA 
is developing, assessing, and determining .gov domain fees; and 
ensuring that any fees for .gov domains shall not be more than 
the amount of the fees charged as of October 1, 2019 for a five 
year period.
    The Committee adopted Peters Amendment 1 and Scott 
Amendment 1 as modified en bloc by voice vote. Senators present 
for the votes on the amendments were: Johnson, Portman, Paul, 
Lankford, Romney, Scott, Enzi, Hawley, Peters, Carper, Hassan, 
Sinema, and Rosen.
    The Committee favorably reported the bill en bloc, as 
amended by Peter Amendment 1 and Scott Amendment 1, by voice 
vote. Senators present for the vote were: Johnson, Portman, 
Paul, Lankford, Romney, Scott, Enzi, Hawley, Peters, Carper, 
Hassan, Sinema, and Rosen.
    Consistent with Committee rules, the Committee reports the 
bill with technical amendments by mutual agreement of the 
Chairman and Ranking Member.

        IV. Section-by-Section Analysis of the Bill, as Reported


Section 1. Short title

    This section provides the bill's short title, the ``DOTGOV 
Online Trust in Government Act of 2019'' or the ``DOTGOV Act of 
2019.''

Section 2. Findings

    This section includes findings by Congress regarding the 
.gov domain, including that the .gov domain is a unique 
American resource based on its role in creating the Internet. 
It also recognizes that the .gov domain improves the public's 
safety and security because it is recognized as a safe and 
official resource, and difficult to impersonate. This section 
also states that the .gov should be made available at no cost 
or at a negligible cost to all levels of government in the 
United States. Finally, it states that the .gov internet domain 
provides a critical service and should be operated in a 
transparent manner.

Section 3. Definitions

    This section defines several terms, including 
``Administrator,'' ``Director,'' ``online service,'' and 
``State.''

Section 4. Duties of Department of Homeland Security

    This section defines that the purpose of the .gov internet 
domain program is to legitimize and improve the public's trust 
in government entities and their online services; enable 
reliable connections to and from government entities; provide 
the registration of .gov internet domains in a simple and 
secure manner; improve the security for the .gov namespace the 
services provided; and to assist the public and domain 
registrants in discovering available government services.
    Section 4(b)(1) amends Title XXII of the Homeland Security 
Act of 2002 by adding a new paragraph on carrying out the 
duties and authorities relating to the .gov domain. The 
paragraph then adds a new section at the end on the duties and 
authorities relating to the .gov domain.
    Subsection (a) of the new section codifies that CISA shall 
offer .gov domain name registration services, and supporting 
services, to any Federal, SLTT government, or other publicly-
controlled entity that complies with the requirements for 
registration developed by CISA, without requiring these 
entities to share unnecessary data with the federal government 
or requiring them to participate in any other federal programs.
    Subsection (b) of the new section codifies that CISA, in 
consultation with OMB, shall establish and publicly publish the 
registration and operation policies of the .gov domains 
necessary to minimize the risk of .gov names that may mislead 
or confuse the public; shall not permit .gov domains to be used 
for commercial or campaign purposes; and, shall certify domains 
are registered and retained only by authorized people. It also 
limits CISA from sharing unnecessary information with other DHS 
components and Federal agencies.
    Subsection (c) of the new section codifies that in addition 
to .gov domains, CISA may offer supporting services 
specifically intended to increase the security, privacy, 
reliability, accessibility, and speed of those .gov domains. 
Nothing shall be construed to limit CISA's authorities to 
provide services or technical assistance, or to establish new 
authorities for services, other than those authorities that 
support the operation of the .gov domain or registrants' needs.
    Subsection (d) of the new section also allows CISA to 
charge entities fees, if needed, to recover the costs of 
providing .gov domain services. However, the total amount of 
fees for new registrants or annual renewals of .gov domains 
cannot surpass the direct operational costs of maintaining the 
.gov internet domain.
    Subsection (e) of the new section requires that CISA 
consult with OMB, GSA, other appropriate civilian Federal 
agencies, and representatives of state, local, tribal, or 
territorial governments on the strategic direction and 
requirements of the .gov domain, specifically on matters of 
privacy, accessibility, transparency, and technology 
modernization.
    Subsection (f) of the new section directs CISA to inventory 
all .gov domain hostnames and services, and provide that data 
to all .gov users at no cost. This data can be obtained via the 
analysis of public and non-public sources, which include 
commercial data sets. CISA shall share all unique hostnames and 
services discovered within domain registrants' zones with 
Federal and non-federal domain registrants. CISA is further 
directed to share data collected or used by the program about 
Federal executive branch agencies as necessary with OMB in 
support of OMB's role overseeing Federal technology and 
cybersecurity under the Federal Information Security Management 
Act. CISA is further directed to publish the publicly 
accessible Federal website information online. CISA may also 
publicly publish analyses and data relating to compliance with 
industry best practices and Federal mandates. Additionally, 
CISA is directed to collect information on the use of non-.gov 
Federal domains and to collect information from SLTT 
governments on non-.gov domain use. This information is also to 
be published online.
    Section 4(b)(2)sets forth additional duties of CISA that 
are not codified in the Homeland Security Act. Section 
4(b)(2)(A) directs CISA to develop a strategy to utilize the 
information collected under this subsection to counter 
malicious cyber activities, and to submit this strategy within 
180 days of enactment to the Senate Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs, the Senate Committee on 
Rules and Administration, the House Homeland Security 
Committee, and the Committee on House Administration. Within 
one year of enactment, CISA, in consultation with GSA and with 
entities representing SLTT governments, is required to develop 
an outreach strategy, and to submit this strategy to the Senate 
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the 
Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, the House 
Homeland Security Committee, and the Committee on House 
Administration. This outreach strategy will require specific 
engagement plans and information explaining the benefits, 
including security benefits, of moving to the .gov domain for 
these governments.
    Section 4(b)(2)(B) directs CISA, in consultation with GSA 
and with entities representing SLTT governments, to develop and 
publish a public reference guide within one year of enactment 
on transitioning online services to the .gov domain. The guide 
will include process and technical information in carrying out 
a migration; cybersecurity best practices relating to 
registration and operation of a .gov domain; and CISA-vetted 
private sector resources and references to contract vehicles 
that may assist in performing the migration.
    Section 4(b)(2)(C) directs CISA to develop a security 
enhancement strategy and implementation plan within one year 
after enactment to improve the cybersecurity benefits of the 
.gov domain over the next five years, and to submit the 
strategy to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and 
Governmental Affairs, the Senate Committee on Rules and 
Administration, the House Homeland Security Committee, and the 
Committee on House Administration. The strategy will include a 
modernization plan for the information systems that support the 
operation of the .gov domain, a modernization plan for the 
structure of the .gov program office and contracts to best take 
advantage of emerging technologies, and specific cybersecurity 
enhancements.
    Finally, section 4(b)(3) amends Section 2008(a) of the 
Homeland Security Act of 2002 and adds a new subsection that 
makes .gov migration costs an allowable expense under the Urban 
Area Security Initiative and State Homeland Security Grant 
Program.

Section 5. Report

    This section requires CISA to submit a report or a detailed 
briefing one year after enactment, and again at three years and 
five years after enactment to the Senate Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs, the Senate Committee on 
Rules and Administration, the House Homeland Security 
Committee, and the Committee on House Administration. The 
report or detailed briefing shall include information on the 
status of the required outreach strategy, security enhancement 
strategy and implementation plan, .gov inventory, supporting 
services, and the development, assessment, and determination of 
the fees for new registrations or annual renewals of .gov 
domain registrants.

Section 6. Transition

    This section lays out a transition timeline for 
transferring the .gov internet domain program from GSA to CISA. 
Within 30 days of enactment, it requires CISA to submit a plan 
for transitioning the program to the Senate Committee on 
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Senate 
Committee on Rules and Administration, the House Homeland 
Security Committee, and the Committee on House Administration. 
Not later than 120 days after enactment, CISA shall begin 
operational control of the .gov internet domain program and 
shall publicly publish .gov domain registration policies, at 
which time GSA shall rescind its existing .gov domain 
requirements. In addition, this section states that for a five-
year period starting on the date of enactment, any fees for new 
registrations or annual renewals of .gov domains shall not be 
more than the amount of the fees charged as of October 1, 2019.

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to the requirements of paragraph 11(b) of rule 
XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee has 
considered the regulatory impact of this bill and determined 
that the bill will have no regulatory impact within the meaning 
of the rules. The Committee agrees with the Congressional 
Budget Office's statement that the bill contains no 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would impose no costs 
on state, local, or tribal governments.

             VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                 Washington, DC, November 21, 2019.
Hon. Ron Johnson,
Chairman, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. 
        Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 2749, the DOTGOV 
Online Trust in Government Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Aldo 
Prosperi.
            Sincerely,
                                         Phillip L. Swagel,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

    
    

    S. 2749 would codify the process through which federal and 
nonfederal entities request internet domain names specifically 
for governmental users (i.e. domain names ending in .gov). The 
bill would transfer the responsibility for overseeing the 
current process from the General Services Administration (GSA) 
to the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). 
The bill also would permit state and local entities to apply 
for homeland security grants to help fund the costs of 
transitioning to those governmental domain names.
    GSA spends about $5 million each year to manage the 
program. CBO expects that under the bill, CISA would pay for 
those operating expenses instead; thus, any change in spending 
subject to appropriation would be insignificant.
    GSA currently charges a $400 fee for each domain name 
request to recover the amount it pays vendors to process the 
transaction. S. 2749 would permit CISA to provide that service 
with or without reimbursement. A reduction in fee collections 
from nonfederal entities would be recorded as an increase in 
direct spending. CBO does not expect that CISA would waive the 
current fee; thus, any increase in direct spending would be 
insignificant over the 2020--2029 window, CBO estimates.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Aldo Prosperi. 
The estimate was reviewed by Leo Lex, Deputy Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

       VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows: (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in brackets, new matter is 
printed in italic, and existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) * * *
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act 
is as follows:
Sec. 1. * * *
     * * * * * * *

      TITLE XXII--CYBERSECURITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY

     * * * * * * *
2215. Duties and Authorities Relating To .Gov Domain.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE XX--HOMELAND SECURITY GRANTS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle A--Grants to States and High-Risk Urban Areas

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 2008. USE OF FUNDS

    (a) * * *
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (13) any activity permitted under the Fiscal Year 
        2007 Program Guidance of the Department for the State 
        Homeland Security Grant Program, the Urban Area 
        Security Initiative (including activities permitted 
        under the full-time counterterrorism staffing pilot), 
        or the Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program; 
        [and]
          (14) migrating any online service (as defined in 
        section 3 of the DOTGOV Online Trust in Government Act 
        of 2019) to the .gov domain; and
          [(14)] (15) any other appropriate activity, as 
        determined by the Administrator.

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TITLE XXII--CYBERSECURITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY

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Subtitle A--Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security

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SEC. 2202. CYBERSECURITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY

    (a) *  *  *
    (b) *  *  *
    (c) *  *  *
    (1) *  *  *

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          (10) carry out cybersecurity, infrastructure 
        security, and emergency communications stakeholder 
        outreach and engagement and coordinate that outreach 
        and engagement with critical infrastructure Sector-
        Specific Agencies, as appropriate; [and]
          (11) carry out the duties and authorities relating to 
        the .gov domain, as described in section 2215; and
          [(11)] (12) carry out such other duties and powers 
        prescribed by law or delegated by the Secretary.

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SEC. 2215. DUTIES AND AUTHORITIES RELATING TO .GOV DOMAIN

    (a) Availability of .gov Domain.--The Director shall make 
.gov domain name registration services, as well as any 
supporting services described in subsection (c), generally 
available--
          (1) to any Federal, State, local, or territorial 
        government entity, or other publicly controlled entity, 
        including any Tribal government recognized by the 
        Federal Government or a State government, that complies 
        with the requirements for registration developed by the 
        Director as described in subsection (b);
          (2) without conditioning registration on the sharing 
        of any information with the Director or any other 
        Federal entity, other than the information required to 
        meet the requirements described in subsection (b); and
          (3) without conditioning registration on 
        participation in any separate service offered by the 
        Director or any other Federal entity.
    (b) Requirements.--The Director, in consultation with the 
Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall 
establish and publish on a publicly available website 
requirements for the registration and operation of .gov domains 
sufficient to--
          (1) minimize the risk of .gov domains whose names 
        could mislead or confuse users;
          (2) establish that .gov domains may not be used for 
        commercial or campaign purposes;
          (3) ensure that domains are registered and maintained 
        only by authorized individuals; and
          (4) limit the sharing or use of any information 
        obtained through the administration of the .gov domain 
        with any other Department component or any other agency 
        of the Federal Government for any purpose other than 
        the administration of the .gov domain, the services 
        described in subsection (c), and the requirements for 
        establishing a .gov inventory described in subsection 
        (f).
    (c) Supporting Services.--
          (1) In general.--The Director may provide services to 
        the entities described in subsection (a)(1) 
        specifically intended to support the security, privacy, 
        reliability, accessibility, and speed of registered 
        .gov domains.
          (2) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in paragraph (1) 
        shall be construed to--
                  (A) limit other authorities of the Director 
                to provide services or technical assistance to 
                an entity described in subsection (a)(1); or
                  (B) establish new authority for services 
                other than those the purpose of which expressly 
                supports the operation of .gov domains and the 
                needs of .gov domain registrants.
    (d) Fees.--
          (1) In general.--The Director may provide any service 
        relating to the availability of the .gov internet 
        domain program, including .gov domain name registration 
        services described in subsection (a) and supporting 
        services described in subsection (c), to entities 
        described in subsection (a)(1) with or without 
        reimbursement.
          (2) Limitation.--The total fees collected for new 
        .gov domain registrants or annual renewals of .gov 
        domains shall not exceed the direct operational 
        expenses of maintaining the .gov internet domain.
    (e) Consultation.--The Director shall consult with the 
Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the 
Administrator of General Services, other civilian Federal 
agencies as appropriate, and entities representing State, 
local, Tribal, or territorial governments in developing the 
strategic direction of the .gov domain and in establishing 
requirements under subsection (b), in particular on matters of 
privacy, accessibility, transparency, and technology 
modernization.
    (f) .gov Inventory.--
          (1) In general.--The Director shall, on a continuous 
        basis--
                  (A) inventory all hostnames and services in 
                active use within the .gov domain; and
                  (B) provide the data described in 
                subparagraph (A) to domain registrants at no 
                cost.
          (2) Requirements.--In carrying out paragraph (1)--
                  (A) data may be collected through analysis of 
                public and non-public sources, including 
                commercial data sets;
                  (B) the Director shall share with Federal and 
                non-Federal domain registrants all unique 
                hostnames and services discovered within the 
                zone of their registered domain;
                  (C) the Director shall share any data or 
                information collected or used in the management 
                of the .gov domain name registration services 
                relating to Federal executive branch 
                registrants with the Director of the Office of 
                Management and Budget for the purpose of 
                fulfilling the duties of the Director of the 
                Office of Management and Budget under section 
                3553 of title 44, United States Code;
                  (D) the Director shall publish on a publicly 
                available website discovered hostnames that 
                describe publicly accessible Federal agency 
                websites, to the extent consistent with the 
                security of Federal information systems but 
                with the presumption of disclosure;
                  (E) the Director may publish on a publicly 
                available website any analysis conducted and 
                data collected relating to compliance with 
                Federal mandates and industry best practices, 
                to the extent consistent with the security of 
                Federal information systems but with the 
                presumption of disclosure; and
                  (F) the Director shall--
                          (i) collect information on the use of 
                        non-.gov domain suffixes by Federal 
                        agencies for their official online 
                        services;
                          (ii) collect information on the use 
                        of non-.gov domain suffixes by State, 
                        local, Tribal, and territorial 
                        governments; and
                          (iii) publish the information 
                        collected under clause (i) on a 
                        publicly available website.
          (3) Strategy.--Not later than 180 days after the date 
        of enactment of this section, the Director shall 
        develop and submit to the Committee on Homeland 
        Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on 
        Rules and Administration of the Senate and the 
        Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on 
        House Administration of the House of Representatives a 
        strategy to utilize the information collected under 
        this subsection for countering malicious cyber 
        activity.

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