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116th Congress      }                                 {         Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session        }                                 {         116-20
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                                                                       

                              R E P O R T

                                 OF THE

                    SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                          covering the period

                            JANUARY 3, 2017

                                   TO

                            JANUARY 3, 2019













[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]












                 March 28, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                   ______
		 
                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
		 
89-010                    WASHINGTON : 2019                 












                    SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE

                 RICHARD BURR, North Carolina, Chairman
                MARK R. WARNER, Virginia, Vice Chairman
JAMES E. RISCH, Idaho                DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California
MARCO RUBIO, Florida                 RON WYDEN, Oregon
SUSAN M. COLLINS, Maine              MARTIN HEINRICH, New Mexico
ROY BLUNT, Missouri                  ANGUS S. KING, Jr., Maine
TOM COTTON, Arkansas                 KAMALA HARRIS, California
JOHN CORNYN, Texas                   MICHAEL BENNET, Colorado
BEN SASSE, Nebraska

              Mitch McConnell, Kentucky, Ex Officio Member
            Charles E. Schumer, New York, Ex Officio Member
              James M. Inhofe, Oklahoma, Ex Officio Member
               Jack Reed, Rhode Island, Ex Officio Member
                 Christopher A. Joyner, Staff Director
                 Michael Casey, Minority Staff Director
                   Kelsey Stroud Bailey, Chief Clerk

During the period covered by this report, the composition of the Select 
Committee on Intelligence was as follows:

                 RICHARD BURR, North Carolina, Chairman
                MARK R. WARNER, Virginia, Vice Chairman
JAMES E. RISCH, Idaho                DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California
MARCO RUBIO, Florida                 RON WYDEN, Oregon
SUSAN M. COLLINS, Maine              MARTIN HEINRICH, New Mexico
ROY BLUNT, Missouri                  ANGUS S. KING, Jr., Maine
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             JOE MANCHIN III, West Virginia
TOM COTTON, Arkansas                 KAMALA HARRIS, California
JOHN CORNYN, Texas

              Mitch McConnell, Kentucky, Ex Officio Member
            Charles E. Schumer, New York, Ex Officio Member
  John McCain, Arizona (deceased)/James Inhofe, Oklahoma, Ex Officio 
                                 Member
               Jack Reed, Rhode Island, Ex Officio Member
                 Christopher A. Joyner, Staff Director
                 Michael Casey, Minority Staff Director
            Desiree Sayle/Kelsey Stroud Bailey, Chief Clerk
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
                                PREFACE

    The Select Committee on Intelligence submits to the Senate 
this report on its activities from January 3, 2017, to January 
3, 2019. This report also includes references to activities 
underway at the conclusion of the 115th Congress that the 
Committee expects to continue into the future.
    Senate Resolution 400 of the 94th Congress charges the 
Committee with oversight responsibility for the programs and 
activities of the United States Intelligence Community (IC). 
The Committee conducts the preponderance of its oversight work 
in secret. Accordingly, much of this information cannot be 
discussed publicly in order to protect sensitive sources and 
methods. Nevertheless, the Select Committee on Intelligence has 
submitted activity reports on a biennial basis since 1977 to 
provide the American public with information about its 
intelligence oversight efforts. We submit this report to the 
Senate in furtherance of this practice.
    We also take this opportunity to thank all of the Members 
of the Committee in the 115th Congress. In particular, we take 
special note to thank both Senator Lankford and Senator Manchin 
for their valuable contributions made during the 115th 
Congress. We also honor Senator McCain who served on the 
Committee in the capacity of an ex officio (non-voting) member 
from the 110th Congress until he passed away on August 25, 
2018. His commitment to the Committee's important work helped 
to ensure an adaptive and capable IC, as well as a secure 
nation amidst a time of global instability.
    We also express our sincerest gratitude for the work of the 
Committee's staff during the 115th Congress. In particular, we 
honor the life and work of Professional Staff Member Matthew 
Young Pollard who passed away suddenly on April 24, 2018. We 
also thank April Doss, Mark Egan, Michael Geffroy, Ryan 
Kaldahl, Hayden Milberg, Desiree Sayle, Kerry Sutten, and Ryan 
Tully for their service to this Committee. The professionalism 
and dedication of both the Members and Staff were essential to 
the Committee's fulfillment of its oversight mandate.
                                   Richard Burr,
                                           Chairman.
                                   Mark R. Warner,
                                           Vice Chairman.
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                            C O N T E N T S

                              ----------                              
                                                                   Page
Preface..........................................................   III
  I. Introduction.....................................................1
 II. Legislation......................................................2
      A. FISA Amendments Act Reauthorization Act of 2017.........     2
      B. Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.....     3
      C. Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018.....     5
      D. Damon Paul Nelson and Matthew Young Pollard Intelligence 
        Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2018 and 2019.........     6
III. Oversight Activities.............................................9
      A. Hearings................................................     9
        1. Worldwide Threat Hearings.............................     9
        2. USA FREEDOM Act.......................................    10
        3. Security Clearance Reform.............................    10
        4. Asia Pacific Region...................................    11
        5. Fifth-Generation (5G) Wireless Telecommunications 
          Technology.............................................    12
        6. Social Media..........................................    12
        7. Syria/Iraq............................................    12
        8. Counterproliferation..................................    12
        9. Russia................................................    13
        10. Western Hemisphere...................................    13
        11. Counter-Narcotics....................................    13
        12. Transnational Organized Crime........................    13
        13. Middle East Region...................................    13
        14. Africa...............................................    14
      B. Intelligence Community Issues...........................    14
        1. Intelligence Community Counterterrorism Efforts.......    14
        2. Foreign Investment and National Security..............    14
        3. Space Oversight.......................................    15
        4. Financial Intelligence................................    15
        5. Federal Bureau of Investigation.......................    15
        6. Technical Advisory Group..............................    15
 IV. Nominations.....................................................16
      A. Mike Pompeo.............................................    16
      B. Daniel Coats............................................    16
      C. Courtney Elwood.........................................    17
      D. David James Glawe.......................................    17
      E. Robert P. Storch........................................    17
      F. Isabel Marie Keenan Patelunas...........................    18
      G. Susan M. Gordon.........................................    18
      H. Christopher R. Sharpley.................................    19
      I. John C. Demers..........................................    19
      J. Michael K. Atkinson.....................................    19
      K. Jason Klitenic..........................................    20
      L. William R. Evanina......................................    20
      M. Lieutenant General Paul M. Nakasone.....................    20
      N. Gina Haspel.............................................    20
      O. Ellen E. McCarthy.......................................    21
      P. Joseph Maguire..........................................    21
  V. Support to Senate...............................................21
 VI. Appendix........................................................22
      A. Summary of Committee Actions............................    22
        1. Number of Meetings....................................    22
        2. Bills and Resolutions Originated by the Committee.....    22
        3. Bills Referred to the Committee.......................    22
        4. Committee Publications................................    23
      B. Additional Views of Senators Wyden, Heinrich, and Harris    23


























116th Congress      }                                 {         Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session        }                                 {         116-20

======================================================================



 
                          COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES

                                _______
                                

                 March 28, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

         Mr. Burr, from the Select Committee on Intelligence, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                            I. INTRODUCTION

    The Committee fulfilled its many oversight responsibilities 
by regularly interacting with Intelligence Community (IC) 
senior leaders, conducting numerous hearings and briefings, 
traveling abroad, and visiting domestic IC facilities. The 
Committee also considered numerous nominations to positions in 
the IC.
    As described in Part II of this report, the Committee's 
paramount legislative priority and achievement in the 115th 
Congress was consideration and Senate passage of legislation to 
reauthorize critical intelligence authorities against foreign 
targets, as set forth in Title VII of the Foreign Intelligence 
Surveillance Act of 2008 (most notably against foreigners 
located abroad under Section 702) for six years, through 
December 31, 2023. Additionally, the Committee passed the 
Intelligence Authorization Act of 2017 (Public Law 115-31) 
signed by the President on May 5, 2017, which authorized 
funding for intelligence and intelligence-related activities of 
the U.S. Government and included a number of legislative 
provisions. The Committee also favorably reported out the 
Intelligence Authorization Acts for both 2018 and 2019.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the Committee routinely 
reviewed the IC's efforts to protect our national interests--at 
home and abroad--against the unpredictable and evolving 
terrorism threat, while safeguarding citizens' privacy and 
civil liberties. Similarly, the Committee made the IC's 
preparedness to warn of, and defend against, the cyber 
capabilities of adversary nations and non-state actors, a 
regular point of inquiry in hearings, briefings, and roundtable 
discussions with IC leadership. Finally, by means of hearings, 
staff briefings, site visits, and other interactions with the 
IC, the Committee exercised focused oversight of the IC's 
performance relative to Russia, China, North Korea, Iran, 
Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
    In addition, the Committee continued its bipartisan 
investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. 
elections that began in January 2017. As of the report, 
Committee staff had interviewed over 200 witnesses and reviewed 
more than 300,000 pages of documents from the IC and third 
parties. The Committee has held ten open hearings related to 
the investigation, covering topics ranging from election 
security to online disinformation efforts by foreign 
adversaries. The Chairman and Vice Chairman also released 
unclassified preliminary findings and recommendations on May 8, 
2018, and July 3, 2018, that are available on the Committee 
website.

                            II. LEGISLATION

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee worked with the 
Senate Judiciary Committee and other Senate Committees to 
ensure IC perspectives were represented in development of the 
Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data (CLOUD) Act to promote 
information sharing. This bill, which Chairman Burr and Vice-
Chairman Warner co-sponsored, was enacted into law on March 23, 
2018 (P.L. 115-141). In addition, the Committee worked with 
Senate and House Members on the successful passage of the FISA 
Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017. The Committee also 
completed work on an Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2017 and Fiscal Year 2018.

             A. FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017

    The FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017 (S. 139, 
P.L. 115-118) (hereinafter, ``FISA Act'') was enacted on 
January 19, 2018. The House of Representatives passed the FISA 
Act on January 11, 2018, and the Senate passed the FISA Act on 
January 18, 2018. The FISA Act reauthorized critical 
intelligence authorities against foreign targets, as set forth 
in Title VII of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 
2008, while providing enhanced transparency and privacy 
protections for Americans and individuals in the United States. 
The FISA Act's provisions include:
           A requirement for the IC to provide specific 
        querying procedures to the Foreign Intelligence 
        Surveillance Court (FISC) and to Congress, which the 
        FISC must certify as compliant with the Fourth 
        Amendment;
           A requirement for the Federal Bureau of 
        Investigation (FBI) to obtain a court order for 
        specific U.S. Person queries;
           A requirement for the Department of Justice 
        Inspector General to conduct a review and issue a 
        report on the FBI's querying procedures and practices;
           A limitation on the use of foreign 
        intelligence collected under FISA Section 702 as 
        evidence against U.S. Persons, except as authorized by 
        either a court order or if the Attorney General 
        determines there is a threat to national security or to 
        individuals under certain circumstances, such as death 
        or serious bodily harm;
           A limitation on the IC's collection of 
        communications that reference a non-U.S. person 
        targeted for collection under FISA Section 702, but are 
        not ``to'' or ``from'' that target (also known as 
        ``Abouts'' collection);
           A requirement for amicus representation 
        before the FISC, should the government request further 
        FISC review of Abouts collection;
           Permission for the FISC to compensate legal 
        and technical experts that serve as amici;
           A requirement that the DNI, in consultation 
        with the Attorney General, review and declassify (to 
        the extent possible) the IC's minimization procedures 
        relevant to FISA Section 702;
           Permission for the Privacy and Civil 
        Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) to operate in a 
        manner consistent with classified-based meetings, as 
        well as to hire staff if the PCLOB Chair position is 
        vacant;
           A requirement that certain IC elements 
        maintain privacy and civil liberties officers;
           Protections for IC contractors who report 
        fraud, waste, and abuse;
           Increases the penalty for unauthorized 
        removal and retention of classified documents or 
        material from one year to five years; and
           A sunset of December 31, 2023, thereby 
        ensuring that Congress will revisit the Title VII 
        authorities within six years.

         B. Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017

    In the 115th Congress, the Committee continued to view 
enactment of annual intelligence authorization acts as a 
primary means of its oversight of the IC. The Committee worked 
with the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence 
(HPSCI) to secure passage of a joint Intelligence Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2017. The Committee's budget monitors also 
evaluated the Fiscal Years 2018 and 2019 National Intelligence 
Program and Military Intelligence Program.
    The intelligence entities covered by the annual budget 
reviews included: the Office of the Director of National 
Intelligence (ODNI), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the 
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Security Agency 
(NSA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the 
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the intelligence 
capabilities of the military services and the U.S. Coast Guard, 
and, the intelligence-related components of the Federal Bureau 
of Intelligence (FBI), as well as the Departments of State, 
Treasury, Energy, and Homeland Security, and the Drug 
Enforcement Administration.
    As part of its budget review, the Committee received 
testimony from senior IC officials in closed hearings. 
Additionally, Committee budget monitors evaluated classified 
budget justifications submitted by the Executive Branch. Based 
on those reviews, the Committee prepared a classified annex to 
its annual authorization bill and report. This annex contained 
a classified schedule of authorizations and classified 
direction to IC elements.
    The Committee also reviewed the Administration's 
legislative proposals for the public part of the fiscal year 
2017 bill, which included new or amended legislative authority 
for the IC. In addition to the consideration and inclusion of a 
number of these proposals, the Committee also considered and 
approved other measures based upon the information it gathered 
while performing its oversight duties.
    The Committee favorably reported out the Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (S. 3017) on June 6, 
2016, and an accompanying report (S. Rpt. 114-277) on June 15, 
2016. The House of Representatives passed an Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (H.R. 5077) on May 24, 
2016, by a roll call vote of 371-35. The Committee proceeded to 
work with the HPSCI and other congressional committees on a 
final version of the legislation. The House of Representatives 
passed two amended versions of the Intelligence Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2017: H.R. 6393 on November 20, 2016, by a 
roll call vote of 390-30; and H.R. 6480 on December 8, 2016, 
under suspension of the House Rules.
    The full Senate did not consider S. 3017 for passage before 
the 114th Congress concluded. At the beginning of the 115th 
Congress, the Committee reintroduced the Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, which reflected the 
earlier joint work with the House Permanent Select Committee on 
Intelligence. The committee reported the bill (S. 133) and 
accompanying report on January 20, 2017. It was included as 
Division N of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 (H.R. 
244). The House passed H.R. 244 on May 3, 2017, by a roll call 
vote of 309-118. The Senate passed H.R. 244 on May 4, 2017, by 
a roll call vote of 79-18. The President signed H.R. 244 into 
law on May 5, 2017 (Public Law 115-31).
    As enacted, the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2017 authorizes funding for intelligence and intelligence-
related activities across the U.S. Government and includes a 
classified schedule of authorizations and a classified annex. 
The Act contained a number of legislative provisions, 
including:
           Requiring the DNI to submit a five-year 
        strategy for outreach and recruiting efforts in the 
        fields of science, technology, engineering, and 
        mathematics (STEM);
           Authorizing a higher pay scale for IC 
        employees with STEM experience;
           Requiring the DNI to develop and implement a 
        uniform policy for each identified Inspector General 
        (IG) office in the IC to better ensure their 
        independence;
           Directing the DNI to submit analytic 
        assessments of a review or an investigation of proposed 
        investments into the United States, including national 
        security threat assessments provided to the Committee 
        on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS);
           Requiring the President to establish an 
        interagency committee to counter active measures by the 
        Russian Federation that constitute Russian actions to 
        exert covert influence over peoples and governments;
           Requiring the Secretary of State, in 
        coordination with the Director of the FBI and the DNI, 
        to establish an advance notification regime governing 
        all Russian Federation accredited diplomatic and 
        consular personnel in the United States;
           Requiring the DNI to determine the 
        feasibility of an intelligence sharing arrangement and 
        database among parties to the Open Skies Treaty (OST) 
        with higher frequency, quality, and efficiency and 
        provide an intelligence assessment on Russian 
        Federation warfighting doctrine and the extent to which 
        Russian Federation flights under the OST contribute to 
        its warfighting doctrine;
           Requiring the DNI, in consultation with the 
        Secretary of Defense, to submit a plan to functionally 
        integrate the IC's governance, operations, analysis, 
        collection, policy, and acquisition activities related 
        to space and counterspace;
           Requiring the DNI to review and report on 
        the Government's system for classifying and 
        declassifying national security information to improve 
        the protection of such information, enable information 
        sharing with allies and partners, and support 
        appropriate declassification;
           Requiring the DNI to develop and brief the 
        congressional intelligence committees on a plan, with 
        milestones and benchmarks, to implement a R&D Reserve 
        Corps, as recommended in 2013 by the bipartisan 
        National Commission for the Review of the R&D Programs 
        of the IC;
           Directing the DNI to submit to the 
        congressional intelligence committees a report on 
        foreign fighter flows to and from terrorist safe havens 
        abroad; and
           Directing the Under Secretary of Homeland 
        Security for Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) to submit 
        to the congressional intelligence committees a report 
        on the cybersecurity threats to seaports of the United 
        States and maritime shipping.

         C. Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018

    In early 2017, the Committee began its consideration of the 
President's request for funding levels and legislative 
authority for Fiscal Year 2018. The Committee's budget monitors 
evaluated the budget requests submitted by the Executive 
Branch. Committee staff received a number of briefings, and the 
Committee conducted classified budget hearings.
    The Committee reported the Intelligence Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2018 (S. 1761) on August 18, 2017, and an 
accompanying report (S. Rpt. 115-151) on September 7, 2017. The 
House of Representatives passed an Intelligence Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (H.R. 3180) on July 28, 2017, by a 
roll call vote of 380-35. The Committee proceeded to work with 
the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and other 
congressional committees on a final version of the legislation. 
The full Senate did not bring S. 1761 to the Floor for passage.
    The Committee's Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2018 authorized funding for intelligence and intelligence-
related activities across the U.S. Government and included a 
classified schedule of authorizations and a classified annex. 
The Act contained a number of legislative provisions, 
including:
           Providing an increased yearly cap for STEM 
        employee positions in the IC who perform critical cyber 
        missions;
           Requiring the DNI to establish a task force 
        to standardize information sharing between the IC and 
        the United States Government acquisition community with 
        respect to supply chain and counterintelligence risks;
           Requiring each designated Inspector General 
        (IG) to report on the application of classification and 
        handling markings, to include compartments, including 
        an analysis of compliance with declassification 
        procedures;
           Requiring the DNI to share information 
        related to threats to election systems and to the 
        integrity of the election process with relevant cleared 
        officials;
           Establishing a pilot program with the 
        National Labs and energy sector to protect against 
        security vulnerabilities and a working group to develop 
        a national cyber-informed engineering strategy to 
        defend covered entities;
           Establishing an interagency council to 
        govern processes for security clearances, suitability 
        and fitness for employment, and credentialing;
           Codifying the DNI as the government's 
        Security Executive Agent and the Director of the 
        Officer of Personnel Management as the government's 
        Suitability Executive Agent and the Credentialing 
        Executive Agent, specifying roles and responsibilities 
        for each;
           Directing the DNI to establish a policy on 
        the issuance of interim security clearances and to 
        establish a policy for consistent treatment in the 
        security clearance process for government and 
        contractor personnel;
           Requiring the IC to report on agencies' 
        vulnerabilities equities policies and processes, as 
        well as a strategic plan to implement bug bounty 
        programs at appropriate agencies and departments;
           Directing the IC to assess and report on 
        cyber attacks against U.S. election infrastructure, 
        Russian efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential 
        election, and security vulnerabilities of state 
        election systems;
           Prohibiting the Government from expending 
        funds to establish or support a cybersecurity unit or 
        other cyber agreement between the U.S. and Russia, 
        unless the DNI provides notice;
           Requiring the DNI to report on the threat of 
        Russian money laundering to the United States;
           Requiring notifications on active measures 
        campaigns, as well as Russian diplomatic or consular 
        travel;
           Requiring an IC working group on foreign 
        investment risks, with biennial reporting;
           Requiring the Director of the National 
        Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) to report on the 
        authorities necessary to engage in commercial 
        activities to engage in specified basic and applied 
        research, data transfers, and development projects; and
           Providing a Sense of Congress that WikiLeaks 
        and its senior leadership resemble a non-state hostile 
        intelligence service, often abetted by state actors, 
        and should be treated as such.

      D. Damon Paul Nelson and Matthew Young Pollard Intelligence 
            Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2018 and 2019

    In early 2018, while still pursuing the joint bill for 
Fiscal Year 2018, the Committee considered the President's 
requests for funding levels and legislative authority for 
Fiscal Year 2019. Again, the Committee's budget monitors 
evaluated the budget requests submitted by the Executive 
Branch. Committee staff received a number of briefings, and the 
Committee conducted classified budget hearings.
    The Committee reported the Matthew Young Pollard 
Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2018 and 2019 
(S. 3153) on June 28, 2018, and subsequently reported an 
accompanying report (S. Rpt. 115-298) on July 11, 2018. The 
House of Representatives passed the Matthew Young Pollard 
Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (H.R. 6237) 
on July 12, 2018, by a roll call vote of 363-54. The Committee 
proceeded to work with the House Permanent Select Committee on 
Intelligence and other congressional committees on a final 
version of the legislation. The full Senate did not consider S. 
3153 for passage.
    The Committee's Matthew Young Pollard Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2018 and 2019 authorized 
funding for intelligence and intelligence-related activities 
across the U.S. Government and included a classified schedule 
of authorizations and a classified annex. The Act contained a 
number of legislative provisions, including:
           Providing an increased pay scale for STEM 
        and cyber mission-specific IC employees;
           Requiring the DNI to establish a task force 
        to standardize information sharing between the IC and 
        the Government acquisition community with respect to 
        supply chain and counterintelligence risks;
           Requiring the IC, when entering into foreign 
        intelligence sharing agreements, to consider the 
        pervasiveness of telecommunications and cybersecurity 
        infrastructure, equipment, and services provided by 
        United States adversaries or entities thereof;
           Permitting the DNI to provide cyber 
        protection support for the personal technology devices 
        and personal accounts of certain IC personnel;
           Extending certain IC procurement authorities 
        to manage and protect against supply chain risks;
           Prohibiting an IC officer who is nominated 
        to a Senate-confirmed position from making certain 
        classification determinations posing potential 
        conflicts of interest regarding that nominee;
           Requiring the DNI to submit a plan for each 
        IC element's efforts in recruitment from rural and 
        underrepresented regions;
           Authorizing the Director of the CIA to 
        support personnel assigned to an austere overseas 
        location, and to provide enhanced injury benefits to a 
        covered employee or qualifying dependents who suffer an 
        injury overseas due to war, insurgency, hostile act, or 
        terrorist activities;
           Requiring the Secretary of Defense and the 
        DNI to jointly develop a framework for the roles, 
        missions, and functions of the Defense Intelligence 
        Agency as an intelligence community element and combat 
        support agency;
           Requiring the DNI to submit a report on the 
        Director's review of the IC's posture to collect 
        against and analyze Russian efforts to interfere with 
        the 2016 United States presidential election;
           Requiring the DNI to begin assessments of 
        security vulnerabilities of State election systems one 
        year before regularly scheduled Federal elections;
           Requiring the DNI to develop a whole-of-
        government strategy for countering Russian cyber 
        threats against United States electoral systems and 
        processes, and to provide an assessment of past and 
        ongoing Russian influence campaigns against foreign 
        elections and referenda;
           Requiring the DNI to publish regular public 
        advisory reports on foreign counterintelligence and 
        cybersecurity threats to federal election campaigns 
        before those elections take place;
           Requiring the DNI to sponsor security 
        clearances for each eligible chief election official of 
        a State, territory, or the District of Columbia (and 
        additional eligible designees), up to the Top Secret 
        level;
           Requiring the DNI to designate a national 
        counterintelligence officer within the National 
        Counterintelligence and Security Center to lead, 
        manage, and coordinate election security-related 
        counterintelligence matters;
           Holding the executive branch accountable for 
        transforming a security clearance process that has 
        largely not changed in 70 years;
           Taking steps necessary to reduce the 
        background investigation backlog, ensuring SECRET 
        clearances are processed within 30 days and TOP SECRET 
        clearances within 90 days;
           Requiring policies to ensure government and 
        contract employees are treated the same; clearances are 
        recognized across agencies more readily; and interim 
        clearances are granted in a consistent manner;
           Strengthening oversight by codifying the DNI 
        as the government's Security Executive Agent and 
        requiring transparent reporting of the costs of 
        clearances;
           Requiring greater use of automation, 
        publicly available data, and innovative practices in 
        the clearance process;
           Prohibiting the Government from expending 
        funds to establish or support a cybersecurity unit or 
        other cyber agreement by the U.S. and Russia, unless 
        the DNI provides notice;
           Requiring the IC to submit reports on the 
        intelligence risks of returning the diplomatic 
        compounds taken from Russia as a reprisal for Russian 
        meddling in the 2016 United States presidential 
        election;
           Requiring the DNI to submit an assessment of 
        Russian threat finance activities to include global 
        nodes and entry points for Russian money laundering and 
        resulting counterintelligence threats;
           Requiring the DNI to provide notice each 
        time the DNI has determined there is credible 
        information that a foreign power has attempted, is 
        attempting, or will attempt to employ a covert 
        influence or active measures campaign with regard to 
        the modernization, employment, doctrine, or force 
        posture of the nuclear deterrent or missile defense;
           Requiring the Secretary of State, in 
        coordination with the Director of the FBI and the DNI, 
        to establish an advance notification regime governing 
        all Russian Federation accredited diplomatic and 
        consular personnel in the United States;
           Requiring the DNI to submit a report on 
        known attempts by foreign governments to exploit 
        cybersecurity vulnerabilities in U.S. 
        telecommunications networks to surveil U.S. persons, 
        and actions that the IC has taken to protect U.S. 
        agencies and personnel from such surveillance;
           Requiring the DNI to establish an IC working 
        group and submit a biennial report on foreign 
        investment risks;
           Requiring the DNI, within 72 hours after a 
        covered foreign intelligence officer is designated as 
        persona non grata, to submit a notification of that 
        designation and justification for the expulsion;
           Requiring the DNI to submit a report every 
        five years on the implications of global water 
        insecurity on the United States' national security 
        interests;
           Expanding IC reporting requirements on the 
        diversity of IC personnel;
           Reauthorizing the Public Interest 
        Declassification Board through 2028;
           Providing a Sense of Congress that WikiLeaks 
        and its senior leadership resemble a non-state hostile 
        intelligence service, often abetted by state actors, 
        and should be treated as such.

                       III. OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES


                              A. Hearings


1. Worldwide Threat Hearings

    The Committee has held annual open hearings to review the 
IC's assessment of the current and projected national security 
threats to the United States since 1994. These ``Worldwide 
Threat'' hearings cover national security concerns in all 
geographic regions, as well as transnational threats such as 
terrorism and the malicious cyber activity of non-state actors.
    On May 11, 2017, the Committee held an open Worldwide 
Threat hearing on the current and projected threats the United 
States faces around the world. The Director of National 
Intelligence, Daniel Coats, was the principal witness and was 
joined by Mike Pompeo, Director of the CIA; Admiral Michael 
Rogers, Director of the NSA; Lieutenant General Vincent 
Stewart, Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency; Robert 
Cardillo, Director the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency; 
and Andrew McCabe, Acting Director of the FBI. Director Coats's 
unclassified prepared statement for the record is available in 
the Hearings section of the Committee's website, along with a 
video recording of the full open hearing.
    At the hearing, Director Coats characterized the threat 
environment as ``ever expanding,'' and noted that the 
complexity of the threat landscape ``has challenged the IC to 
stay ahead of the adversary.'' Director Coats offered IC 
topline assessments concerning several adversary nations, 
remarking that Russia was likely to be ``more aggressive in 
foreign and global affairs, more unpredictable in its approach 
to the United States, and more authoritarian in its approach to 
domestic policies and politics,'' adding that China would 
``pursue efforts aimed at fulfilling its ambitious `One Belt, 
One Road' initiative to expand their strategic influence and 
economic role across Asia through infrastructure projects.'' On 
cyber threats, Director Coats noted that U.S. adversaries are 
becoming ``bolder, more capable, and more adept at using cyber 
space to threaten our interests and shape real-world 
outcomes.''
    On February 13, 2018, in the second session of the 115th 
Congress, the Committee again held an open Worldwide Threat 
hearing. Director Coats presented an opening statement on 
behalf of the IC, and was joined at the witness table by Mike 
Pompeo, Director of the CIA; Admiral Michael Rogers, Director 
of the NSA; Lieutenant General Robert Ashley, Director of the 
DIA; Robert Cardillo, Director of the NGA; and Christopher 
Wray, Director of the FBI. Director Coats's unclassified 
prepared statement for the record is available in the Hearings 
section of the Committee's website, along with a video 
recording of the full open hearing, and submitted responses to 
Questions for the Record.
    Speaking to a threat environment that was characterized as 
``complex, volatile, and challenging,'' Director Coats noted 
that the risk of inter-state conflict was ``higher than at any 
time since the end of the Cold War.'' Director Coats also noted 
that U.S. adversaries as well as other malign actors are 
``using cyber and other instruments of power to shape societies 
and markets, international rules and institutions, and 
international hot spots to their advantage.'' Director Coats 
continued the assessment by describing the U.S. as having 
``entered a period that can best be described as a race for 
technological superiority against our adversaries, who seek to 
sow division in the United States and weaken U.S. leadership.''
    Concerning East Asia, Director Coats indicated that North 
Korea ``continues to pose an ever more increasing threat to the 
United States and its interests,'' adding that ``Pyongyang has 
repeatedly stated that it does not intend to negotiate its 
nuclear weapons and missiles away, because the regime views 
nuclear weapons as critical to its security. North Korean 
Chairman Kim also probably sees nuclear ICBMs as leverage to 
achieve his long-term strategic ambition to end Seoul's 
alliance with Washington and to eventually dominate the 
peninsula.''

2. USA FREEDOM Act

    Committee staff have continued to monitor implementation of 
the USA FREEDOM Act (H.R. 2048, P.L. 114-23), as enacted on 
June 2, 2015 and, particularly, the modifications to the 
``business records'' program authorized under Section 215, to 
assess its utility as a counterterrorism tool. Committee staff 
also began the preliminary consideration of the Committee's 
response to the upcoming sunset of these authorities in 2019.

3. Security Clearance Reform

    The Committee addressed the security clearance process 
during the 115th Congress to assess its effectiveness, 
timeliness, and cost. The process has remained largely 
unchanged since 1947 and suffers from an increase in the 
background investigation inventory with timelines for 
processing clearance requests that far exceed timeliness 
targets set in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention 
Act of 2004. The Committee held an open hearing on the topic on 
March 7, 2018 featuring Mr. Charles Phalen, Director of the 
National Background Investigation Bureau; Mr. Daniel Payne, 
Director of the Department of Defense's Defense Security 
Service; Mr. Brian Dunbar, Deputy Director of the National 
Counterintelligence and Security Center; Mr Garry Reid of the 
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence; Ms. 
Brenda Farrell of the Government Accountability Office; Mr. 
Kevin Phillips of the ManTech International Corporation; Mr. 
David Berteau of the Professional Services Council, and Ms. 
Jane Chappell of the Raytheon Corporation. Witness testimony 
and the hearing transcript are available on the Committee's 
website. The Committee also held a closed hearing on this topic 
in 2017 with representatives from the Intelligence Community.
    The Committee hosted quarterly briefings with principals 
from the Office of Management and Budget-led interagency 
Performance Accountability Council from the OMB, Office of the 
DNI, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, and Office of 
Personnel Management. Staff from the House and Senate 
intelligence, armed services, and appropriations committees, as 
well as the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, 
and the Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs 
Committee attended these briefings. The Committee hosted these 
briefings to monitor the executive branch's efforts to reform 
the clearance process. Committee staff also hosted more than 20 
briefings on security clearance reform with representatives 
from the IC, including the DNI, other IC elements, DHS, the 
Office of Personnel Management, DoD, and industry. The 
Intelligence Authorization Acts for Fiscal Year 2018 and 2019 
provided a framework for holding the executive branch 
accountable for reducing the number of background 
investigations, consolidating the National Background 
Investigation Bureau within in the Department of Defense, 
maintaining transparency in costs, and ensuring prompt 
reciprocity in recognizing clearances among agencies.
    The Act also implemented a number of practical reforms. It 
set goals for timelines to process applications for SECRET 
clearances within 30 days and TOP SECRET clearances within 90 
days. It also strengthened oversight by codifying the role of 
the Director of National Intelligence as the government's 
Security Executive Agent. Finally, it spawned innovation by 
calling for a reduction in the clearance system's complexity 
and examination of a ``clearance in person'' concept.
    Committee staff also held many meetings with the executive 
branch regarding the potential creation of a new agency in the 
Defense Department to handle counterintelligence and security 
matters, as well as a DNI-led interagency initiative called 
Trusted Workforce 2.0, which endeavors to reform the personnel 
security vetting enterprise. These efforts will continue into 
the 116th Congress.

4. Asia Pacific Region

    The Asia Pacific Region was a focus of considerable 
Committee time and attention which included travel to the 
region, numerous briefings to staff, and twelve Committee 
hearings and briefings on topics such as military modernization 
efforts, nuclear weapons capability, and the leadership 
intentions of regional actors. These activities were central to 
the fulfillment of the Committee's oversight mandate vis-a-vis 
the IC's role in informing the national-level policymaking 
process, with particular focus on North Korea's development of 
new intercontinental ballistic missiles, conventional, and 
nuclear capabilities, the advanced and critical technology 
transfer campaign that China continues to conduct at the 
expense of the U.S., and other national security concerns in 
the region.

5. Fifth-generation (5G) Wireless Telecommunications Technology

    The Committee collected expert insights from an array of 
private sector, allied nation, and U.S. Government actors, 
including representatives from the IC, the Government 
Accountability Office, the telecommunications industry, and the 
component supply side of 5G network deployment to closely study 
the policies and national security risks associated with the 
advent of a domestic 5G network. Committee staff will continue 
to examine the security risks related to 5G and work with 
public and private stakeholders to mitigate potential 
vulnerabilities.

6. Social Media

    The Committee vigorously examined the exploitation of 
social media platforms by foreign actors to enable influence 
operations against the United States. The Committee held four 
separate open hearings on an array of subjects ranging from the 
ability of state and state-sponsored actors to manipulate 
public discourse using social media platforms, to the corporate 
response to the use of social media platforms by agents linked 
to Russia to conduct information operations in the United 
States during the 2016 U.S. elections. The Committee worked 
closely with industry partners to conduct this work, and 
benefitted significantly from the insights, expertise, and 
advanced analytic capabilities of digital media researchers and 
technical experts who provided assistance to the Committee.

7. Syria/Iraq

    The Committee held multiple hearings and briefings on the 
continued fighting in Syria and Iraq. As operations to defeat 
terrorist groups such as ISIL and al-Qa'ida continue, the 
Committee focused on the outlook for regional stability and 
reviewed the activities of Turkish, Iranian, Russian, and 
Kurdish forces in the region. The Committee also considered the 
Assad regime's brutal tactics in Syria, including the reported 
use of chemical weapons and the U.S. response. Finally, the 
Committee examined the political and security situation in 
Iraq.

8. Counterproliferation

    The Committee held multiple hearings and briefings to 
discuss the IC's counterproliferation efforts, illicit transfer 
of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and missile technology by 
nation states, and the threat of terrorist use of WMD with a 
renewed emphasis on chemical and biological threats. In 
particular, the Committee assessed the IC's ability to detect 
and rapidly share intelligence to facilitate the interdiction 
of dangerous materials. The Committee also challenged the IC to 
enhance collaboration across the U.S. Government on chemical 
and biological threats, recognizing the unusual and 
extraordinary threat they pose to U.S. national security. These 
efforts were central to the fulfillment of the IC's role in the 
National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. The 
Committee also engaged the IC and the cleared scientific 
research community in order to assess the next generation of 
biological threats--particularly where the deliberate misuse of 
biotechnologies in the private sector may result in emerging 
national security challenges.

9. Russia

    In addition to the Committee's extensive activities 
examining Russia's interference in the 2016 U.S. elections, the 
Committee continued to focus on the threat posed by Russia's 
malign activities. The Committee held open and closed hearings 
addressing the threat from Russia and provided oversight of the 
IC's analysis and reporting on this threat. Hearings focused 
on, among other topics, Russian cyber-, asymmetric-, and 
counterintelligence threats; Russia's national security 
calculus and decision-making processes; Russian ``active 
measures,'' to include disinformation and misinformation, as 
well as threats to election systems and processes. 
Additionally, Committee Members and staff engaged with allied 
nations to exchange best practices about countering these 
threats.

10. Western Hemisphere

    The Committee focused on the transition of power and 
elections in several key Latin American countries; continued to 
monitor illicit narcotics trafficking; the threat posed by 
violent transnational criminal organizations to the United 
States and the stability of the region; the military and 
intelligence activities of U.S. adversaries in Latin America; 
and focused considerable time on mystery illnesses contracted 
by U.S. Government Embassy personnel in Havana, Cuba. Oversight 
activities included three hearings, numerous staff briefings, 
and multiple visits to the region.

11. Counter-Narcotics

    The Committee focused on oversight of the worldwide 
counter-narcotics effort, devoting time during the worldwide 
threats open and closed hearings to discuss the disruptive 
effect the illegal narcotics industry has on stability in the 
Western Hemisphere and the rising number of drug related deaths 
within the United States. Members and staff visited the Joint 
Interagency Task Force-South in Key West, Florida and staff 
visited locations around the world to assess IC efforts to 
combat the illegal drug trade. The Committee has highlighted 
the increase in trafficking of fentanyl and synthetic opioids 
and will continue to pursue specific measures to counter the 
flow of those drugs into the U.S.

12. Transnational Organized Crime

    Transnational organized crime (TOC) is a serious threat to 
U.S. national security and was the focus of a significant 
amount of the Committee's time. The Committee placed particular 
attention on the IC's ability to track TOC engaged in 
activities including trafficking-in-persons, financial crimes, 
and illicit drug trade; concluding their trafficking networks 
are commodity agnostic. The Committee held six briefings that 
covered such topics as state-sponsorship and support to TOC and 
terrorist groups' reliance on TOC for finances, weapons, or 
other forms of assistance.

13. Middle East Region

    The Middle East remained a critical priority for the 
Committee. Developments throughout the region that most likely 
will prove historic continue to shift security dynamics for the 
United States and have required considerable, ongoing member 
attention and focus. Committee members have traveled throughout 
the region, have engaged in at least monthly briefings and 
discussions, and have pressed the IC to remain vigilant and 
creative in collecting against and assessing this challenging 
target set. Committee priority issues have included the 
persistent and evolving threat posed by Iran to U.S. national 
security interests throughout the region; the war in Yemen and 
the subsequent humanitarian crisis; Saudi Arabia's role in the 
region and its new leadership; the implications of the gradual 
roll back of ISIS-held territory; and the ongoing violence in 
Syria and Iran's role there.

14. Africa

    Committee activities related to the African continent 
included travel to the region, numerous staff level briefings 
on a range of issues and multiple hearings. The engagement has 
primarily focused on the areas of counterterrorism, 
counterintelligence, and regional stability. The Committee 
placed particular emphasis on foreign investment and 
development on the continent and its impact on the region.

                    B. Intelligence Community Issues


1. Intelligence Community Counterterrorism Efforts

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee continued its 
oversight of the IC's role in U.S. counterterrorism efforts, in 
part, by continuing its practice of conducting regularly 
scheduled hearings, roundtables, and meetings with IC personnel 
related to counterterrorism. The Committee also devoted 
significant time and attention to the IC's role in tracking 
terrorist travel and, specifically, cross-border movement. 
Committee staff held numerous in-depth oversight meetings with 
government officials to review counterterrorism processes, 
procedures, and technological capabilities. The Committee also 
reviewed the IC's integration of data sets related to screening 
and vetting foreign travelers. The Committee conducted multiple 
oversight meetings with IC personnel to assess the evolving 
nature of homegrown violent extremism inspired by foreign 
terrorist organizations. Finally, Committee staff traveled to 
multiple field locations to assess the effectiveness of the 
IC's counterterrorism efforts as well as counterterrorism 
cooperation between the IC and foreign liaison partners.

2. Foreign Investment and National Security

    The Committee held one hearing during the 115th Congress on 
foreign investments and national security risks, including 
studying the processes and jurisdiction of the Committee on 
Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), as well as 
several hearings on closely related topics. These hearings 
directly informed the drafting and consideration of the Foreign 
Investment Risk Review Modernization Act (FIRRMA). FIRMMA was 
enacted into law in August 2018, as part of the National 
Defense Authorization Act and included a provision that will 
improve the IC's ability to monitor threats in this space.

3. Space Oversight

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee continued its 
oversight of the space domain. The Committee's efforts focused 
on ensuring reliable and resilient access to--and operation 
in--space for intelligence purposes. The Committee held 
hearings on IC space management and worked to ensure effective 
collaboration with the Department of Defense. Hearings and 
roundtables also examined key budget issues, cross-cutting 
technology developments, analytic challenges, and space system 
acquisitions. In addition to hearings, the Committee and its 
staff engaged frequently on overhead architecture topics with 
the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), NGA, and other IC and 
government officials, and conducted site visits to government 
facilities and commercial companies to meet with government 
officials and industry leaders.

4. Financial Intelligence

    The Committee conducted a series of briefings with relevant 
IC components to understand the U.S. Government's approach to 
threat finance analysis and assess any gaps in the current 
collection authorities. With the rise of sophisticated cyber 
and financial attacks and increasing demand for accurate and 
actionable threat finance analysis, the Committee explored how 
the IC might increase its threat finance capacity and bolster 
information sharing. The Committee also met with a range of 
industry stakeholders to examine information sharing best 
practices.

5. Federal Bureau of Investigation

    The Committee continued its ongoing oversight of the FBI 
through briefings, hearings, and site visits. It also offered 
legislation on topics of oversight focus, including: 
counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and cyber 
investigations. Of particular interest to the Committee was 
ensuring that the FBI is well positioned to investigate and 
defend against foreign intelligence services' activities in the 
United States--including election tampering, influence 
operations on social media, and theft of sensitive intellectual 
property from U.S. companies.

6. Technical Advisory Group

    In the 115th Congress, the Committee continued to engage 
and leverage its Technical Advisory Group (TAG). The TAG is 
comprised of consultants, prominent scientists, technical 
experts, and former Intelligence Community officials who engage 
in specialized work on behalf of the committee. Teams of TAG 
consultants at Data for Democracy, Graphika, and the Oxford 
Internet Institute leveraged specialized expertise in digital 
data and social media intelligence, as well as data analytic 
capabilities otherwise unavailable to the Committee, to analyze 
millions of individual pieces of information provided to the 
Committee by U.S. social media companies Facebook, Twitter, and 
Google. The resulting analysis yielded two published reports, 
titled ``The Tactics and Tropes of the Internet Research 
Agency'' and ``The IRA and Political Polarization in the United 
States, 2015-2017,'' which were released on December 17, 2018. 
They provided essential information on the role social media 
platforms play in the execution of foreign influence and 
disinformation campaigns.

                            IV. NOMINATIONS

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee received and 
considered sixteen nominations from President Trump.
    Section 17 of S. Res. 400 of the 94th Congress (as amended) 
and a 2009 Senate unanimous consent agreement govern referrals 
of nominations to the Committee. S. Res. 445, which amended S. 
Res. 400 in 2004, required all nominations to positions in the 
IC requiring the Senate's advice and consent be reported by the 
Select Committee on Intelligence, even when they are positions 
within departments that are primarily under the jurisdiction of 
other Senate committees, though the committee overseeing the 
given department or agency may hold hearings and interviews on 
the nomination. Notwithstanding that general guidance, the 
resolution directed the Assistant Attorney General for National 
Security be reported by the Judiciary Committee and referred to 
the Select Intelligence Committee. The Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 made the directors and 
inspectors general of the NRO and National Security Agency 
(NSA) Senate-confirmed positions. The Senate subsequently 
adopted S. Res. 470 on July 7, 2014 which directed that, if the 
nominee were a civilian, the Intelligence Committee would 
report the nomination and refer it to the Armed Services 
Committee and, if the nominee were a member of the Armed Forces 
on active duty, the reverse.
    A unanimous consent agreement of January 7, 2009, refers 
all nominations for inspectors general to the committees of 
primary jurisdiction and then sequentially to the Senate 
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. The 
exception to this consent agreement is the inspector general 
for the CIA, which is handled exclusively by the Senate Select 
Committee on Intelligence. Under this consent agreement, the 
nominations for the NRO and NSA inspectors general are thus 
also referred to the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
Committee.
    The following nominations were referred to the Committee 
during the 115th Congress:

      A. Mike Pompeo, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency

    On January 20, 2017, President Trump nominated Mike Pompeo 
to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. At that 
time, Mr. Pompeo was serving as a United States Representative 
from Kansas.
    After receiving Mr. Pompeo's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on January 12, 2017. The Committee reported 
the nomination favorably on January 20, 2017. Mr. Pompeo's 
hearing materials are posted on the Committee's website. The 
Senate approved the nomination on January 23, 2017 by a vote of 
66-32.

           B. Daniel Coats, Director of National Intelligence

    On January 20, 2017, President Trump nominated former 
Senator and Select Intelligence Committee member Daniel Coats 
to be the Director of National Intelligence. At that time, Mr. 
Coats was a private citizen, having concluded his Senate term 
at the end of the 114th Congress.
    After receiving Mr. Coats's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on February 28, 2017. Mr. Coats's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
March 9, 2017. The Senate approved the nomination by a vote of 
85-12 on March 15, 2017.

 C. Courtney Elwood, General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency

    On March 21, 2017, President Trump nominated Courtney 
Elwood to be the General Counsel of the Central Intelligence 
Agency. At that time, Ms. Elwood was serving as a partner at 
the law firm of Kellogg, Hansen, Todd, Figel & Frederick, PLLC.
    After receiving Ms. Elwood's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as her responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on April 26, 2017. Ms. Elwood's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on May 
4, 2017. The Senate moved to proceed to Ms. Elwood's nomination 
by voice vote on May 23, 2017. The Senate approved the 
nomination by a vote of 67-33 on June 6, 2017.

D. David James Glawe, Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis at 
                  the Department of Homeland Security

    On April 24, 2017, President Trump nominated David James 
Glawe to be the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis 
at the Department of Homeland Security. At that time, Mr. Glawe 
was serving on the National Security Council as a Special 
Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Homeland 
Security.
    After receiving Mr. Glawe's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on June 28, 2017. Mr. Glawe's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
July 11, 2017. The nomination was referred sequentially to the 
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee and 
discharged following a hearing on July 11, 2017. The Senate 
approved the nomination by voice vote on August 3, 2017.

 E. Robert P. Storch, Inspector General of the National Security Agency

    On January 4, 2017, President Obama, before leaving office, 
renominated Robert P. Storch to be Inspector General of the 
National Security Agency to be considered in the 115th 
Congress; President Obama previously nominated him in the 114th 
Congress. On February 28, 2017, President Trump withdrew Mr. 
Storch's nomination.
    Subsequently, on June 19, 2017, the President nominated Mr. 
Storch to serve as Inspector General of the National Security 
Agency. At that time, Mr. Storch was the Deputy Inspector 
General of the Department of Justice, and served as the 
Whistleblower Ombudsman in the Office of the Inspector General 
there, and as Chair of the Council of the Inspectors General on 
Integrity and Efficiency Whistleblower Ombudsman Working Group.
    After receiving Mr. Storch's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on July 19, 2017. Mr. Storch's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
July 25, 2017. The nomination was reported to the Armed 
Services and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
committees and discharged. The Senate confirmed the nomination 
by voice vote on December 21, 2017.

F. Isabel Marie Keenan Patelunas, Assistant Secretary for Intelligence 
             and Analysis at the Department of the Treasury

    On June 19, 2017, President Trump nominated Isabel Marie 
Keenan Patelunas to be the Assistant Secretary for Intelligence 
and Analysis at the Department of the Treasury. At that time, 
Ms. Patelunas was an Intelligence Officer at the Central 
Intelligence Agency.
    After receiving Ms. Patelunas's responses to the 
Committee's standard questionnaire, as well as her responses to 
the Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on July 19, 2017. Ms. Patelunas's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
July 25, 2017. The full Senate did not vote on Ms. Patelunas's 
nomination in 2017, and her nomination was returned to the 
President under Senate Rule XXXI, paragraph 6 of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate.
    On January 8, 2018, President Trump renominated Ms. 
Patelunas to be the Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and 
Analysis at the Department of the Treasury. The Committee 
reported the nomination favorably on March 1, 2018. The Senate 
confirmed the nomination by a vote of 75-20 on August 28, 2018.

 G. Susan M. Gordon, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence

    On June 29, 2017, President Trump nominated Susan M. Gordon 
to be the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence. 
At that time, Ms. Gordon was serving as the Deputy Director of 
the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
    After receiving Ms. Gordon's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as her responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on July 19, 2017. Ms. Gordon's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
July 25, 2017. The Senate confirmed the nomination by voice 
vote on August 3, 2017.

     H. Christopher R. Sharpley, Inspector General of the Central 
                          Intelligence Agency

    On September 5, 2017, President Trump nominated Christopher 
R. Sharpley to be the Inspector General of the Central 
Intelligence Agency. At that time, Mr. Sharpley was serving as 
the Acting Inspector General of the Central Intelligence 
Agency.
    After receiving Mr. Sharpley's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on October 17, 2017. Mr. Sharpley's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. The Committee 
did not act on the nomination. On July 23, 2018, the Senate 
received notice that the President had withdrawn the 
nomination.

I. John C. Demers, Assistant Attorney General of the National Security 
                 Division at the Department Of Justice

    On September 5, 2017, President Trump nominated John C. 
Demers to be the Assistant Attorney General of the National 
Security Division at the Department of Justice. At that time, 
Mr. Demers was the Vice President and Assistant General Counsel 
of Boeing.
    Upon primary referral, the Senate Committee on the 
Judiciary held a hearing on October 4, 2017, and reported the 
nomination favorably on October 19, 2017. Upon sequential 
referral, after receiving Mr. Demers's responses to the 
Committee's standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to 
the Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on October 31, 2017. Mr. Demers's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
November 7, 2017. The Senate confirmed the nomination by voice 
vote on February 15, 2018.

     J. Michael K. Atkinson, Inspector General of the Intelligence 
   Community, at the Office of the Director of National Intelligence

    On November 16, 2017, President Trump nominated Michael K. 
Atkinson to be the Inspector General of the Intelligence 
Community. At that time, Mr. Atkinson was serving as an Acting 
Deputy Assistant Attorney General and Senior Counsel to the 
Assistant Attorney General of the National Security Division at 
the Department of Justice.
    After receiving Mr. Atkinson's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on January 17, 2018. Mr. Atkinson's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
February 15, 2018. The nomination was referred sequentially to 
the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee and 
reported favorably on February 28, 2018. The Senate confirmed 
the nomination by voice vote on May 14, 2018.

  K. Jason Klitenic, General Consel of the Office of the Director of 
                         National Intelligence

    On November 14, 2017, President Trump nominated Jason 
Klitenic to be the General Counsel of the Office of the 
Director of National Intelligence. At that time, Mr. Klitenic 
was serving as a partner at Holland & Knight.
    After receiving Mr. Klitenic's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on January 17, 2018. Mr. Klitenic's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
February 15, 2018. The Senate approved the nomination by voice 
vote on August 1, 2018.

L. William R. Evanina, Director of the National Counterintelligence and 
 Security Center at the Office of the Director of National Intelligence

    On February 5, 2018, President Trump nominated William R. 
Evanina to be the Director of the National Counterintelligence 
and Security Center. At that time, Mr. Evanina was serving in 
that same position.
    After receiving Mr. Evanina's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on May 15, 2018. Mr. Evanina's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on May 
22, 2018. The Senate did not take up his nomination in the 
115th Congress.

   M. Lieutenant General Paul M. Nakasone, Director of the National 
                            Security Agency

    On February 8, 2018, President Trump nominated Lieutenant 
General Paul M. Nakasone to be the Director of the National 
Security Agency. At that time, Lieutenant General Nakasone was 
serving as Commanding General, United States Army Cyber 
Command.
    Upon primary referral, the Senate Committee on Armed 
Services held a hearing on March 1, 2018, and reported the 
nomination favorably on March 6, 2018. Upon sequential 
referral, after receiving Lieutenant General Nakasone's 
responses to the Committee's standard questionnaire, as well as 
his responses to the Committee's prehearing questions, the 
Committee held a nomination hearing on March 15, 2018. 
Lieutenant General Nakasone's hearing materials are posted on 
the Committee's website. Following the hearing, the Committee 
reported the nomination favorably on March 22, 2018. The Senate 
confirmed the nomination by voice vote on April 24, 2018.

      N. Gina Haspel, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency

    On April 17, 2018, President Trump nominated Gina Haspel to 
be the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. At that 
time, Ms. Haspel was serving as the Deputy Director of the 
Central Intelligence Agency.
    After receiving Ms. Haspel's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as her responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on May 9, 2018. Ms. Haspel's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on May 
16, 2018. The Senate approved the nomination by vote of 54-45 
on May 17, 2018.

 O. Ellen E. McCarthy, Assistant Secretary of State, Intelligence and 
                                Research

    On June 18, 2018, President Trump nominated Ellen E. 
McCarthy to be Assistant Secretary of State, Intelligence and 
Research. At that time, Ms. McCarthy was serving as Vice 
President for intelligence and analytics at an independent, 
nonprofit science and technology organization.
    After receiving Ms. McCarthy's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as her responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on July 25, 2018. Ms. McCarthy's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
July 31, 2018. The Senate confirmed the nomination by voice 
vote on January 2, 2019.

 P. Joseph Maguire, Director of the National Counterterrorism Center, 
            Office of the Director of National Intelligence

    On June 25, 2018, President Trump nominated Admiral Joseph 
Maguire (ret.) to be the Director of the National 
Counterterrorism Center. At that time, Mr. Maguire was serving 
as President and CEO of the Special Operations Warrior 
Foundation.
    After receiving Mr. Maguire's responses to the Committee's 
standard questionnaire, as well as his responses to the 
Committee's prehearing questions, the Committee held a 
nomination hearing on July 25, 2018. Mr. Maguire's hearing 
materials are posted on the Committee's website. Following the 
hearing, the Committee reported the nomination favorably on 
July 31, 2018. The Senate confirmed the nomination by voice 
vote on December 19, 2018.

                          V. SUPPORT TO SENATE

    Under S. Res. 400, which established the Committee in 1976, 
the Select Committee on Intelligence has an important role in 
assuring that the IC provides ``informed and timely 
intelligence necessary for the executive and legislative 
branches to make sound decisions affecting the security and 
vital interests of the Nation.'' The Committee fulfills this 
responsibility by providing to the U.S. Senate access to IC 
information and officials.
    The Committee facilitated access to intelligence 
information for senators and staff outside the Committee by 
inviting them to participate in briefings and hearings on 
issues of shared jurisdiction or interest. Further, the 
Committee provided intelligence briefings by its professional 
staff to senators outside the Committee, and assisted senators 
in resolving issues with intelligence agencies. The Committee 
also offered its expertise with regard to arms control matters, 
to include the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.

                              VI. APPENDIX


                    A. Summary of Committee Actions


1. Number of Meetings

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee held numerous 
meetings and briefings, to include off-the-record briefings. 
The Committee held a total of 150 hearings of which 27 were 
open to the public and 123 were closed to the public in order 
to protect classified information pursuant to Senate rules. A 
total of 16 of the 150 hearings were devoted to the review of 
nominees for positions requiring the advice and consent of the 
Senate. Finally, the Committee also held 23 business meetings, 
including mark-ups of legislation.

2. Bills and Resolutions Originated by the Committee

    S. Res. 48--An original resolution authorizing expenditures 
by the Select Committee on Intelligence.
    S. 133--An original bill to authorize appropriations for 
fiscal year 2017 for intelligence and intelligence-related 
activities of the United States Government, the Community 
Management Account, and the Central Intelligence Agency 
Retirement and Disability System, and for other purposes.
    S. 1761--An original bill to authorize appropriations for 
fiscal year 2018 for intelligence and intelligence-related 
activities of the United States Government, the Community 
Management Account, and the Central Intelligence Agency 
Retirement and Disability System, and for other purposes.
    S. 3153--An original bill to authorize appropriations for 
fiscal years 2018 and 2019 for intelligence and intelligence-
related activities of the United States Government, the 
Community Management Account, and the Central Intelligence 
Agency Retirement and Disability System, and for other 
purposes.

3. Bills Referred to the Committee

    S. 141--To improve understanding and forecasting of space 
weather events, and for other purposes.
    S. 291--To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to 
modify the requirements for membership to the National Security 
Council and cabinet-level policy forum, and for other purposes.
    S. 2002--To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to 
provide whistleblower protections for employees of contractors 
of elements of the intelligence community, and for other 
purposes.
    S. 2010--To extend the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 for 8 
years, and for other purposes.
    S. 3658--A bill to require the Director of National 
Intelligence to submit to Congress a report on the death of 
Jamal Khashoggi, and for other purposes.
    S. 3724--To improve the processing and oversight by the 
Federal Government of security clearances and background 
investigations, and for other purposes.
    H.R. 3180--A bill to authorize appropriations for fiscal 
year 2018 for intelligence and intelligence-related activities 
of the United States Government, the Community Management 
Account, and the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and 
Disability System, and for other purposes.

4. Committee Publications

    Report 115-2--Report to accompany the Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (S. 133).
    Report 115-151--Report to accompany the Intelligence 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (S. 1761).
    Report 115-182--Report to accompany the FISA Amendments 
Reauthorization Act of 2017.
    Report 115-298--Report to accompany the Matthew Young 
Pollard Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2018 
and 2019 (S. 3153).

      B. Additional Views of Senators Wyden, Heinrich, and Harris

    The report's description of the FISA Amendments 
Reauthorization Act of 2017 is not fully consistent with our 
views of the legislation. Rather, we refer readers to our 
Minority Views included in Senate Report 115-182 to accompany 
S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017, as 
well as to our floor statements and other public statements in 
connection with the Senate's consideration of S. 139.

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