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                                                        Calendar No. 358
                                                        
                                                       
116th Congress  }                                             {    Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session     }                                             {   116-202

======================================================================



 
           SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

                January 9, 2020.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Ms. Murkowski, from the Committee on Energy and National Resources, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 2668]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was 
referred the bill (S. 2668) to establish a program for 
research, development, and demonstration of solar energy 
technologies, and for other purposes, having considered the 
same, reports favorably thereon with an amendment in the nature 
of a substitute and recommends that the bill, as amended, do 
pass.

                               Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research and 
Development Act of 2019''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
          (1) Economically distressed area.--The term ``economically 
        distressed area'' means an area described in section 301(a) of 
        the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 (42 
        U.S.C. 3161(a)).
          (2) Eligible entity.--The term ``eligible entity'' means--
                  (A) an institution of higher education;
                  (B) a National Laboratory;
                  (C) a Federal research agency;
                  (D) a State research agency;
                  (E) a research agency associated with a territory or 
                freely associated state;
                  (F) a tribal energy development organization;
                  (G) an Indian tribe;
                  (H) a tribal organization;
                  (I) a Native Hawaiian community-based organization;
                  (J) a nonprofit research organization;
                  (K) an industrial entity;
                  (L) any other entity, as determined by the Secretary; 
                and
                  (M) a consortium of 2 or more entities described in 
                subparagraphs (A) through (L).
          (3) Indian tribe.--The term ``Indian tribe'' has the meaning 
        given the term in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination 
        and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 5304).
          (4) Institution of higher education.--The term ``institution 
        of higher education'' has the meaning given the term in section 
        101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).
          (5) National laboratory.--The term ``National Laboratory'' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 2 of the Energy 
        Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801).
          (6) Native hawaiian community based organization.--The term 
        ``Native Hawaiian community-based organization'' has the 
        meaning given the term in section 6207 of the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7517).
          (7) Photovoltaic device.--The term ``photovoltaic device'' 
        means--
                  (A) a device that converts light directly into 
                electricity through a solid-state, semiconductor 
                process;
                  (B) the photovoltaic cells of a device described in 
                subparagraph (A); and
                  (C) the electronic and electrical components of a 
                device described in subparagraph (A).
          (8) Program.--The term ``program'' means the program 
        established under section 3(a)(1).
          (9) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of 
        Energy.
          (10) Solar energy.--The term ``solar energy'' means--
                  (A) thermal or electric energy derived from radiation 
                from the Sun; or
                  (B) energy resulting from a chemical reaction caused 
                by radiation recently originated in the Sun.
          (11) Territory or freely associated state.--The term 
        ``territory or freely associated state'' has the meaning given 
        the term ``insular area'' in section 1404 of the Food and 
        Agriculture Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103).
          (12) Tribal energy development organization.--The term 
        ``tribal energy development organization'' has the meaning 
        given the term in section 2601 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 
        (25 U.S.C. 3501).
          (13) Tribal organization.--The term ``tribal organization'' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 4 of the Indian Self-
        Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 5304).

SEC. 3. SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM.

    (a) Establishment.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall establish a program to 
        conduct research, development, testing, evaluation, 
        demonstration, and commercialization of solar energy 
        technologies in accordance with this section.
          (2) Purposes.--The purposes of the program are the following:
                  (A) To improve the energy efficiency, cost 
                effectiveness, reliability, resilience, security, 
                integration, manufacturability, and recyclability of 
                solar energy technologies.
                  (B) To optimize the performance and operation of 
                solar energy components, cells, and systems, and 
                enabling technologies, including through the 
                development of new materials, hardware, and software.
                  (C) To optimize the design and adaptability of solar 
                energy systems to the broadest practical range of 
                geographic and atmospheric conditions.
                  (D) To support the integration of solar energy 
                technologies with the electric grid and complementary 
                energy technologies.
                  (E) To create and improve the conversion of solar 
                energy to other useful forms of energy or other 
                products.
                  (F) To reduce and mitigate any potential negative 
                impacts of solar energy technologies on humans, 
                wildlife, and wildlife habitats.
                  (G) To address barriers to the commercialization and 
                export of solar energy technologies.
                  (H) To support the domestic solar industry, 
                workforce, and supply chain.
          (3) Targets.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall establish targets 
        for the program to address near-term (up to 2 years), mid-term 
        (up to 7 years), and long-term (up to 15 years) challenges to 
        the advancement of solar energy systems.
    (b) Activities.--
          (1) Types of activities.--In carrying out the program, the 
        Secretary shall carry out research, development, demonstration, 
        and commercialization activities, including--
                  (A) awarding grants and awards, on a competitive, 
                merit-reviewed basis;
                  (B) performing precompetitive research and 
                development;
                  (C) establishing or maintaining demonstration 
                facilities and projects, including through stewardship 
                of existing facilities;
                  (D) providing technical assistance;
                  (E) entering into contracts and cooperative 
                agreements;
                  (F) providing small business vouchers;
                  (G) establishing prize competitions;
                  (H) conducting education and outreach activities; and
                  (I) conducting analyses, studies, and reports.
          (2) Subject areas.--The Secretary shall carry out research, 
        development, testing, evaluation, demonstration, and 
        commercialization activities in the following subject areas:
                  (A) Advanced solar energy technologies, including--
                          (i) new materials, components, designs, and 
                        systems, including perovskites;
                          (ii) advanced photovoltaic and thin-film 
                        devices;
                          (iii) concentrated solar power;
                          (iv) solar heating and cooling; and
                          (v) enabling technologies for solar energy 
                        systems, including hardware and software.
                  (B) Solar energy technology performance, operations, 
                and security.
                  (C) Integration of solar energy technologies with--
                          (i) the electric grid, including 
                        transmission, distribution, microgrids, and 
                        distributed energy systems;
                          (ii) other energy technologies, including--
                                  (I) other generation sources;
                                  (II) demand response technologies; 
                                and
                                  (III) energy storage technologies; 
                                and
                          (iii) other nonelectric applications, such as 
                        in the agriculture, transportation, industrial, 
                        and fuels sectors.
                  (D) Advanced solar energy manufacturing technologies 
                and practices, including materials, processes, and 
                design.
                  (E) Methods to improve the lifetime, maintenance, 
                recycling, and reuse of solar energy components and 
                systems.
                  (F) Solar energy forecasting, modeling, and 
                atmospheric measurement systems, including for small-
                scale, large-scale, and aggregated systems.
                  (G) Hybrid solar energy systems that incorporate 
                diverse--
                          (i) generation sources;
                          (ii) loads; and
                          (iii) storage technologies.
                  (H) Reducing market barriers to the adoption of solar 
                energy technologies, including impacts on, or 
                challenges relating to--
                          (i) distributed solar technologies, including 
                        the development of best practices, models, and 
                        voluntary streamlined processes for local 
                        permitting of distributed solar energy systems 
                        to reduce costs;
                          (ii) local communities;
                          (iii) wildlife and wildlife habitats; and
                          (iv) any other appropriate matter, as 
                        determined by the Secretary.
                  (I) Transformational technologies for harnessing 
                solar energy.
                  (J) Other research areas that advance the purposes of 
                the program, as determined by the Secretary.
          (3) Prioritization.--In carrying out activities under the 
        program, the Secretary shall give priority to projects that--
                  (A) are located in a geographically diverse range of 
                eligible entities;
                  (B) support the development or demonstration of 
                projects--
                          (i) in collaboration with tribal energy 
                        development organizations, Indian tribes, 
                        tribal organizations, Native Hawaiian 
                        community-based organizations, or territories 
                        or freely associated states; or
                          (ii) in economically distressed areas;
                  (C) can be replicated in a variety of regions and 
                climates;
                  (D) include business commercialization plans that 
                have the potential for--
                          (i) domestic manufacturing and production of 
                        solar energy technologies; or
                          (ii) exports of solar energy technologies; 
                        and
                  (E) satisfy any other priority that the Secretary 
                determines to be appropriate.
          (4) Coordination.--To the maximum extent practicable, the 
        Secretary shall coordinate activities under the program with 
        other relevant programs and capabilities of the Department of 
        Energy and other Federal research programs.
          (5) Use of funds.--To the extent that funding is not 
        otherwise available through other Federal programs or power 
        purchase agreements, funding awarded under this subsection may 
        be used for additional nontechnology costs, as determined to be 
        appropriate by the Secretary, such as engineering or 
        feasibility studies.
    (c) Advanced Solar Energy Manufacturing Initiative.--
          (1) Grants.--In addition to the program activities described 
        in subsection (b), in carrying out the program, the Secretary 
        shall award multiyear grants to eligible entities for research, 
        development, and demonstration projects to advance new solar 
        energy manufacturing technologies and techniques.
          (2) Priority.--In awarding grants under paragraph (1), to the 
        extent practicable, the Secretary shall give priority to solar 
        energy manufacturing projects that--
                  (A) increase efficiency and cost effectiveness in--
                          (i) the manufacturing process; and
                          (ii) the use of resources.
                  (B) support domestic supply chains for materials and 
                components;
                  (C) identify and incorporate nonhazardous alternative 
                materials for components and devices;
                  (D) operate in partnership with tribal energy 
                development organizations, Indian tribes, tribal 
                organizations, Native Hawaiian community-based 
                organizations, or territories or freely associated 
                states; or
                  (E) are located in economically distressed areas.
          (3) Evaluation.--Not later than 3 years after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, and every 4 years thereafter, the 
        Secretary shall conduct, and make available to the public and 
        the relevant committees of Congress, an independent review of 
        the progress of the grants awarded under paragraph (1).
    (d) Solar Energy Technology Recycling Research, Development, and 
Demonstration Program.--
          (1) In general.--In addition to the program activities 
        described in subsection (b), in carrying out the program, the 
        Secretary shall award multiyear grants to eligible entities for 
        research, development, and demonstration projects to create 
        innovative and practical approaches to increase the reuse and 
        recycling of solar energy technologies, including--
                  (A) by increasing the efficiency and cost 
                effectiveness of the recovery of raw materials from 
                solar energy technology components and systems, 
                including enabling technologies such as inverters;
                  (B) by minimizing environmental impacts from the 
                recovery and disposal processes;
                  (C) by addressing any barriers to the research, 
                development, demonstration, and commercialization of 
                technologies and processes for the disassembly and 
                recycling of solar energy devices;
                  (D) by developing alternative materials, designs, 
                manufacturing processes, and other aspects of solar 
                energy technologies and the disassembly and resource 
                recovery process that enable efficient, cost effective, 
                and environmentally responsible disassembly of, and 
                resource recovery from, solar energy technologies; and
                  (E) strategies to increase consumer acceptance of, 
                and participation in, the recycling of photovoltaic 
                devices.
          (2) Dissemination of results.--The Secretary shall make 
        available to the public and the relevant committees of Congress 
        the results of the projects carried out through grants awarded 
        under paragraph (1), including any educational and outreach 
        materials.
    (e) Solar Energy Technology Materials Physical Property Database.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than September 1, 2021, the 
        Secretary shall establish a comprehensive physical property 
        database of materials for use in solar energy technologies, 
        which shall identify the type, quantity, country of origin, 
        source, significant uses, and physical properties of materials 
        used in solar energy technologies.
          (2) Coordination.--In establishing the database described in 
        paragraph (1), the Secretary shall coordinate with--
                  (A) the Director of the National Institute of 
                Standards and Technology;
                  (B) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection 
                Agency;
                  (C) the Secretary of the Interior; and
                  (D) relevant industry stakeholders, as determined by 
                the Secretary.
    (f) Solar Energy Technology Program Strategic Vision.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than September 1, 2021, and every 
        6 years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a 
        report on the strategic vision, progress, goals, and targets of 
        the program, including assessments of solar energy markets and 
        manufacturing.
          (2) Preparation.--The Secretary shall coordinate the 
        preparation of the report under paragraph (1) with--
                  (A) existing peer review processes;
                  (B) studies conducted by the National Laboratories; 
                and
                  (C) the multiyear program planning required under 
                section 994 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 
                16358).
    (g) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program $270,000,000 for 
each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.

SEC. 4. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS.

    (a) The Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act 
of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5551 et seq.) is repealed.
    (b) Section 6(b)(3) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and 
Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5905(b)(3)) is amended--
          (1) by striking subparagraph (L); and
          (2) by redesignating subparagraphs (M) through (S) as 
        subparagraphs (L) through (R), respectively.
    (c) The Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and 
Demonstration Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 5581 et seq.) is repealed.
    (d) Section 4 of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency 
Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (42 U.S.C. 12003) is amended--
          (1) in the section heading, by striking ``photovoltaics, and 
        solar thermal'' and inserting ``alcohol from biomass, and other 
        technology'';
          (2) in subsection (a)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by 
                striking ``photovoltaics, and solar thermal energy'' 
                and inserting ``alcohol from biomass, and other energy 
                technology'';
                  (B) by striking paragraphs (2) and (3); and
                  (C) by redesignating paragraphs (4) and (5) as 
                paragraphs (2) and (3), respectively; and
          (3) in subsection (c)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by 
                striking ``the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program, the 
                Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program,'';
                  (B) in paragraph (1)--
                          (i) by striking subparagraph (A); and
                          (ii) by redesignating subparagraphs (B) and 
                        (C) as subparagraphs (A) and (B), respectively; 
                        and
                  (C) in paragraph (2)--
                          (i) by striking subparagraph (A); and
                          (ii) by redesignating subparagraphs (B) and 
                        (C) as subparagraphs (A) and (B), respectively.
    (e) Section 931 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16231) 
is amended--
          (1) in subsection (a)(2)--
                  (A) by striking subparagraph (A); and
                  (B) by redesignating subparagraphs (B) through (E) as 
                subparagraphs (A) through (D), respectively;
          (2) by striking subsection (d); and
          (3) by redesignating subsections (e) through (g) as 
        subsections (d) through (f), respectively.
    (f) Sections 606 and 607 of the Energy Independence and Security 
Act of 2007 (42 U.S.C. 17174, 17175) are repealed.

SEC. 5. SAVINGS PROVISION.

    The repeal of the Solar Energy Research, Development, and 
Demonstration Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5551 et seq.) under section 4(a) 
shall not affect the authority of the Secretary to conduct research and 
development on solar energy.

                                Purpose

    The purpose of S. 2668 is to establish a program for 
research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of solar energy 
technologies.

                          Background and Need

    Solar energy is a renewable energy source with zero 
emissions that captures the radiant light and heat of the sun 
to create useful energy, including electricity, heat, and 
chemicals. The most prevalent uses of solar energy are 
photovoltaic cells (PV), in which solar energy is used to 
dislodge electrons for use as electricity. Other common forms 
of solar energy include concentrating solar power (CSP) in 
which light from the sun is focused on a pipe or tower of 
liquid until it reaches high temperatures and can be used for 
electricity or heat, and solar thermal in which direct light 
and heat from the sun is used for heating.
    The United States has significant solar energy resource 
potential of up to 193,000 gigawatts (GW) of capacity according 
to resource assessments. As of 2019, solar energy represented 
over two percent of the U.S. electricity mix but is expected to 
grow to 15 percent of domestic electricity generation in 2050. 
The vast majority of current and projected solar electricity is 
generated by utility-scale PV.
    RD&D has been an integral part of solar energy's steep cost 
decline over the last several decades. As solar has rapidly 
commercialized, many previous areas of government research 
within the Department of Energy (DOE), such as silicon-based 
photovoltaics, have been taken on by the private sector. Much 
recent research and innovation in solar energy is focused on 
avoiding the value deflation inherent in variable renewable 
energy technologies. These areas include continued cost 
reduction, increasing the availability factor of solar, and 
financial innovation.
    The DOE has historically made significant investments into 
solar energy R&D, beginning in 1975 with the Flat-Plate Solar 
array project and culminating in the SunShot Initiative that 
aimed to reduce solar module costs to $1 per watt of capacity, 
a goal that was reached in 2017. DOE's Solar Energy 
Technologies Office (SETO) continues to conduct R&D programs 
and has announced a new 2030 goal of achieving average PV costs 
of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for utility scale and 5 
cents for residential scale. SETO also set a goal of 5 cents 
per kWh by 2030 for CSP plants operating as baseload power 
facilities, which would be a 75 percent price decline from 2010 
costs.
    S. 2668 would modernize the solar energy R&D programs of 
DOE to better reflect current needs, such as extremely low cost 
alternatives to silicon PV, methods to restore solar 
manufacturing in the United States, and technologies to improve 
the recycling of materials and systems used in solar energy, 
including PV cells and modules. It would also replace previous 
solar energy R&D authorizations. The Secretary of Energy 
(Secretary) is also directed to support wildlife impact 
mitigation to the maximum extent practicable.

                          Legislative History

    S. 2668 was introduced by Senator Sinema on October 22, 
2019. Senator McSally was later added as a cosponsor. The 
Subcommittee on Energy held a hearing on the measure on 
November 6, 2019.
    Similar legislation, H.R. 3597, was introduced in the House 
of Representatives by Representative McAdams on June 28, 2019, 
and was referred to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology. The House Committee on Space, Science, and 
Technology favorably reported the bill with an amendment on 
July 24, 2019, by a vote of 21-13.
    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources met in 
open business session on November 19, 2019, and ordered S. 2668 
favorably reported, as amended.

                        Committee Recommendation

    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, in 
open business session on November 19, 2019, by a majority voice 
vote of a quorum present, recommends that the Senate pass S. 
2668, if amended as described herein. Senator Lee asked to be 
recorded as voting no.

                          Committee Amendment

    During its consideration of S. 2668, the Committee adopted 
an amendment in the nature of a substitute.
    In section 2 the substitute amendment modifies the 
definition of the term ``Indian tribe'' and adds definitions 
for the terms ``solar energy,'' ``territory or freely 
associated state,'' ``tribal energy development organization,'' 
and ``tribal organization.'' It also adds research agencies 
associated with a territory or freely associated state, tribal 
energy development organizations, and tribal organizations to 
the list of eligible entities.
    In section 3(a) the substitute amendment adds additional 
program purposes and specifies that program targets must be 
developed within 180 days of enactment. The substitute also 
deletes paragraphs (4) and (7) and incorporates paragraphs (5) 
and (6) as types of activities and subject areas of the program 
under subsection (c).
    The substitute renames subsection (b) as ``Activities,'' 
and moves the grant subject areas to paragraph (2) in that 
subsection. It further specifies activities under the program 
as the new paragraph (1) and consolidates the subject areas 
within the new paragraph (2) from 20 areas to 10. It adds 
prioritization criteria for grants under this subsection, as 
well as clarifications regarding coordination and use of funds.
    The substitute amendment incorporates demonstration grants 
as a subject area in subsection (b) and accordingly deletes 
subsection (c) as introduced.
    The substitute moves subsection (d) to be subsection (c), 
and changes ``Next Generation'' to ``Advanced.'' It also 
reduces the list of priorities in subsection (c) and moves the 
strategic vision study in paragraph (3) to be a new subsection 
(f).
    The substitute moves subsection (e) to be subsection (d), 
and reduces the number of program purposes. It also eliminates 
specific application requirements for the grant program, and 
reduces the specifications under dissemination of results.
    The substitute moves subsection (f) to be subsection (e), 
and requires that priorities for the physical property database 
established under that subsection be developed with private 
industry by September 1, 2020.
    The substitute amendment authorizes $270 million annually 
for five years instead of such sums.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

    Section 1 sets forth the short title of the bill.

Sec. 2. Definitions

    Section 2 sets forth the definitions of the bill.

Sec. 3. Solar energy technology program

    Section 3(a) directs the Secretary to establish a solar 
energy technology program and outlines the purposes of the 
program. The Secretary is required to address near-term, mid-
term and long-term challenges in advancing solar energy 
development.
    Subsection (b) outlines the types of activities and subject 
areas the Secretary may undertake and focus on in meeting the 
purposes on the program. The types of activities include: 
awarding competitive grants; precompetitive R&D establishing 
demonstration facilities; providing technical assistance; 
entering into contracts and agreements; providing small 
business vouchers; establishing prize competitions; conducting 
education and outreach; and conducting analyses, studies, and 
reports.
    The subject areas include: advanced solar energy 
technologies; solar energy technology performance; operations 
and security; integration of solar energy with other energy 
technologies and other nonelectric applications; advanced solar 
manufacturing technologies; methods to improve the lifetime and 
recycling of solar energy technologies; solar energy 
forecasting and modeling; hybrid energy systems; reducing 
market barriers; and transformational technologies for 
harnessing solar energy.
    Subsection (b) further specifies the prioritization of 
solar energy grants and directs the Secretary to coordinate 
activities with other Federal R&D programs.
    Subsection (c) requires the Secretary to award multiyear 
grants to eligible entities for RD&D projects to advance new 
solar manufacturing technologies and techniques. The Secretary 
is required to evaluate the progress of grants given for next 
generation manufacturing three years after enactment, and every 
four years thereafter.
    Subsection (d) requires the Secretary to award multiyear 
grants to eligible entities for RD&D projects to create 
innovative and practical approaches to increase the reuse and 
recycling of solar energy technologies. The subsection includes 
instructions for the content of an application to the grant 
program and on the dissemination of results.
    Subsection (e) directs the Secretary to, not later than 
September 1, 2021, establish a comprehensive physical property 
database of materials for use in solar energy technologies. The 
Secretary is directed to develop a plan to establish priorities 
and requirements for the database in collaboration with the 
private sector. The Secretary is further directed to coordinate 
with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection 
Agency, and the Secretary of the Interior to incorporate the 
database with any existing database relevant for electronic 
materials manufacturing and recycling.
    Subsection (f) directs the Secretary to develop a strategic 
vision of SETO's activities for Congress not later than 
September 1, 2021, and every six years thereafter.
    Subsection (g) authorizes $270 million annually for fiscal 
years 2020 through 2024.

Sec. 4. Conforming amendments

    Section 4 makes conforming changes to existing law.

Sec. 5. Savings provision

    Section 5 contains a savings provision stipulating that 
nothing in the bill shall affect the authority of the Secretary 
to conduct R&D on solar energy.

                   Cost and Budgetary Considerations

    The following estimate of the costs of this measure has 
been provided by the Congressional Budget Office:




    S. 2668 would authorize the appropriation of $270 million 
annually through 2024 for the Department of Energy (DOE) to 
research, develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate solar energy 
technologies. The bill would recodify existing DOE activities 
related to those technologies and would direct the department 
to establish new programs. Under S. 2668, DOE would:
           Award grants and provide technical 
        assistance for entities to research, develop, and 
        demonstrate various solar energy technologies;
           Perform precompetitive research and 
        development activities;
           Maintain or establish demonstration 
        facilities;
           Establish prize competitions;
           Conduct education and outreach activities;
           Create a solar energy technologies database 
        in coordination with other federal agencies; and
           Submit reports and analyses.
    In 2019, the Congress appropriated $246 million for DOE to 
conduct activities related to solar energy. Because CBO scores 
continuing resolutions on an annualized basis, in 2020 CBO 
assumes that the same amount of funds will be available under 
the current continuing resolution (Public Law 116 69). As a 
result, CBO estimates that S. 2668 would authorize an increase 
in spending subject to appropriation in 2020 of $24 million, 
the difference between the authorized amount and the annualized 
amount under the continuing resolution.
    CBO estimates that implementing S. 2668 would cost $658 
million over the 2020 2024 period and $446 million after 2024, 
assuming appropriation of the specified amounts and that the 
bill is enacted near the end of 2019. Estimated outlays are 
based on historical spending patterns for similar programs. The 
costs of the legislation, detailed in Table 1, would fall 
within budget function 270 (energy).

                                    TABLE 1.--ESTIMATED INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION UNDER S. 2668
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                       By fiscal year, millions of dollars--
                                                         -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                           2020-   2020-
                                                           2020    2021    2022    2023    2024    2025    2026    2027    2028    2029    2024    2029
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Authorizationa..........................................      24     270     270     270     270       0       0       0       0       0   1,104   1,104
Estimated Outlays.......................................       5      61     141     206     245     209     135      67      27       8     658   1,104
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\S. 2668 would authorize the appropriation of $270 million in 2020 for DOE to conduct activities related to solar energy research, development, and
  demonstration. However, CBO estimates that $246 million has been allocated on an annualized basis from funds made available under the current
  continuing resolution (Public Law 116 69), which provided appropriations through December 20, 2019. Thus, the estimated authorization for 2020 ($24
  million) is equal to the specified amount ($270 million) minus the annualized amount from the continuing resolution ($246 million).

    On August 28, 2019, CBO transmitted a cost estimate for 
H.R. 3597, the Solar Energy Research and Development Act of 
2019, as ordered reported by the House Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology on July 24, 2019. The two pieces of 
legislation are similar, but CBO's cost estimates are different 
because of differences in the authorized amounts. The cost 
estimate for S. 2668 also reflects enactment of the continuing 
resolution for 2020.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Aaron Krupkin. 
The estimate was reviewed by H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                      Regulatory Impact Evaluation

    In compliance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee makes the following 
evaluation of the regulatory impact which would be incurred in 
carrying out S. 2668. The bill is not a regulatory measure in 
the sense of imposing Government-established standards or 
significant economic responsibilities on private individuals 
and businesses.
    No personal information would be collected in administering 
the program. Therefore, there would be no impact on personal 
privacy.
    Little, if any, additional paperwork would result from the 
enactment of S. 2668, as ordered reported.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    S. 2668, as ordered reported, does not contain any 
congressionally directed spending items, limited tax benefits, 
or limited tariff benefits as defined in rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate.

                        Executive Communications

    The testimony provided by the Department of Energy at the 
November 6, 2019, hearing on S. 2668 follows:

   Testimony of Assistant Secretary Daniel Simmons, Office of Energy 
       Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy


                              introduction


    Chairman Cassidy, Ranking Member Heinrich, and Members of 
the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee on Energy and Natural 
Resources, thank you for the opportunity to testify today on 
legislation pertinent to the Department of Energy now pending 
in the Senate. My name is Daniel Simmons, and I am the 
Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and 
Renewable Energy (EERE).
    As the Assistant Secretary, I am responsible for overseeing 
a broad portfolio of energy efficiency and renewable energy 
programs. The technologies in my portfolio advance America's 
economic growth and energy security while enhancing the 
reliability and resilience of the U.S. energy system. The 
Department of Energy supports improving the energy efficiency 
and reducing energy costs, while at the same time ensuring 
important performance standards are met or exceeded. For 
instance, we want to ensure schools and other buildings are 
sufficiently bright to ensure safety, and that water flow from 
faucets is strong enough to clean dirty hands. Today, I would 
like to share what relevant work my office has done and is 
doing in the areas that these bills address.
    I have been asked to testify on eleven (11) bills today, 
addressing a range of important energy issues. The 
Administration continues to review all of these bills. I 
appreciate the ongoing bipartisan efforts to address our 
Nation's energy challenges and I look forward to working with 
the Committee.


                                 bills


S. 2668--Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Program 
        Act of 2019
    S. 2668, the Solar Energy Research, Development, and 
Demonstration Program Act of 2019 reauthorizes the activities 
of EERE's Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO). The bill 
outlines several research priority areas, such as improving the 
energy efficiency, reliability, and security of solar energy 
technologies, while also focusing on reducing the overall costs 
of solar energy systems. The bill authorizes additional work to 
be carried out by SETO, such as providing technical assistance, 
supporting workforce development and training activities, and 
the awarding of grants to carry out both research and 
development and demonstration projects to advance the 
development of solar technologies.
    Work currently underway in SETO to address near-term, mid-
term, and long-term challenges to the advancement of solar 
energy technologies includes: the American-Made Solar Prize, a 
prize competition designed to revitalize U.S. solar 
manufacturing; photovoltaics and concentrating solar power 
research; and systems integration research, which works to 
improve situational awareness of solar energy systems on the 
grid.
    The Department will continue to review the legislation and 
looks forward to working with Congress as the legislative 
process moves forward.


                               conclusion


    Thank you again for the opportunity to testify before the 
Subcommittee today. The Department appreciates the ongoing 
bipartisan efforts to address our Nation's energy challenges, 
and looks forward to working with the Committee on the 
legislation on today's agenda and any future legislation. I 
would be happy to answer your questions.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the changes in existing law made 
by S. 2668, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
 1.  Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974, 
    Public Law 93-473................................................12
 2.  Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, 
    Public Law 93-577................................................21
 3.  Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration 
    Act of 1978, Public Law 95-90....................................23
 4.  Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness 
    Act of 1989, Public Law 101-218..................................33
 5.  Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58, as Amended........35
 6.  Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Public Law 110-140, 
    as Amended.......................................................38

   SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION ACT OF 1974

Public Law 93-473, as Amended

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                  [DECLARATION OF FINDINGS AND POLICY

    [Sec. 2. (a) The Congress hereby finds that--
          [(1) the needs of a viable society depend on an ample 
        supply of energy;
          [(2) the current imbalance between domestic supply 
        and demand for fuels and energy is likely to persist 
        for some time;
          [(3) dependence on nonrenewable energy resources 
        cannot be continued indefinitely, particularly at 
        current rates of consumption;
          [(4) it is in the Nation's interest to expedite the 
        long-term development of renewable and nonpolluting 
        energy resources, such as solar energy;
          [(5) the various solar energy technologies are today 
        at widely differing stages of development, with some 
        already near the stage of commercial application and 
        others still requiring basic research;
          [(6) the early development and export of viable 
        equipment utilizing solar energy, consistent with the 
        established preeminence of the United States in the 
        field of high technology products, can make a valuable 
        contribution to our balance of trade;
          [(7) the mass production and use of equipment 
        utilizing solar energy will help to eliminate the 
        dependence of the United States upon foreign energy 
        sources and promote the national defense;
          [(8) to date, the national effort in research, 
        development, and demonstration activities relating to 
        the utilization of solar energy has been extremely 
        limited; therefore
          [(9) the urgency of the Nation's critical energy 
        shortages and the need to make clean and renewable 
        energy alternatives commercially viable require that 
        the Nation undertake an intensive research, 
        development, and demonstration program with an 
        estimated Federal investment which may reach or exceed 
        $1,000,000,000.
    [(b) The Congress declares that it is the policy of the 
Federal Government to--
          [(1) pursue a vigorous and viable program of research 
        and resource assessment of solar energy as a major 
        source of energy for our national needs; and
          [(2) provide for the development and demonstration of 
        practicable means to employ solar energy on a 
        commercial scale.

                              [DEFINITIONS

    [Sec. 3. For the purposes of this Act--
          [(1) the term ``solar energy'' means energy which has 
        recently originated in the Sun, including direct and 
        indirect solar radiation and intermediate solar energy 
        forms such as wind, sea thermal gradients, products of 
        photosynthetic processes, organic wastes, and others;
          [(2) the term ``byproducts''' includes, with respect 
        to any solar energy technology or process, any solar 
        energy products (including energy forms) other than 
        those associated with or constituting the primary 
        product of such technology or process;
          [(3) the term ``insolation'' means the rate at which 
        solar energy is received at the surface of the Earth;
          [(4) the term ``Project'' means the Solar Energy 
        Coordination and Management Project; and
          [(5) the term ``Chairman'' means the Chairman of the 
        Project.

           [SOLAR ENERGY COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    [Sec. 4. (a) There is hereby established the Solar Energy 
Coordination and Management Project.
    [(b)(1) The Project shall be composed of six members as 
follows:
          [(A) an Assistant Director of the National Science 
        Foundation;
          [(B) an Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban 
        Development;
          [(C) a member of the Federal Power Commission;
          [(D) an Associate Administrator of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration;
          [(E) the General Manager of the Atomic Energy 
        Commission; and
          [(F) a member to be designated by the President.
    [(2) The President shall designate one member of the 
Project to serve as Chairman of the Project.
    [(3) If the individual designated under paragraph (1)(F) is 
an officer or employee of the Federal Government, he shall 
receive no additional pay on account of his service as a member 
of the Project. If such individual is not an officer or 
employee of the Federal Government, he shall be entitled to 
receive the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in 
effect for level IV of the Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5315) 
for each day (including traveltime) during which he is engaged 
in the actual performance of duties vested in the Project.
    [(c) The Project shall have overall responsibility for the 
provision of effective management and coordination with respect 
to a national solar energy research, development, and 
demonstration program, including--
          [(1) the determination and evaluation of the resource 
        base, including its temporal and geographic 
        characteristics;
          [(2) research and development on solar energy 
        technologies; and
          [(3) the demonstration of appropriate solar energy 
        technologies.
    [(d)(1) The Project shall carry out its responsibilities 
under this section in cooperation with the following Federal 
agencies:
          [(A) the National Science Foundation, the 
        responsibilities of which shall include research;
          [(B) the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration, the responsibilities of which shall 
        include the provision of management capability and the 
        development of technologies;
          [(C) the Atomic Energy Commission, the 
        responsibilities of which shall include the development 
        of technologies;
          [(D) the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
        the responsibilities of which shall include fostering 
        the utilization of solar energy for the heating and 
        cooling of buildings, pursuant to the Solar Heating and 
        Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974; and
          [(E) the Federal Power Commission, the 
        responsibilities of which shall include fostering the 
        utilization of solar energy for the generation of 
        electricity and for the production of synthetic fuels.
    [(2) Upon request of the Chairman, the head of any such 
agency is authorized to detail or assign, on a reimbursable 
basis or otherwise, any of the personnel of such agency to the 
Project to assist it in carrying out its responsibilities under 
this Act.
    [(e) The Project shall have exclusive authority with 
respect to the establishment or approval of programs or 
projects initiated under this Act, but the agency involved in 
any particular program or project shall be responsible for the 
operation and administration of such program or project.
    [(f) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is 
authorized to undertake and carry out those programs assigned 
to it by the Project.

                 [RESOURCE DETERMINATION AND ASSESSMENT

    [Sec. 5. (a) The Chairman shall initiate a solar energy 
resource determination and assessment program with the 
objective of making a regional and national appraisal of all 
solar energy resources, including data on insolation, wind, sea 
thermal gradients, and potentials for photosynthetic 
conversion. The program shall emphasize identification of 
promising areas for commercial exploitation and development. 
The specific goals shall include--
          [(1) the development of better methods for predicting 
        the availability of all solar energy resources, over 
        long time periods and by geographic location;
          [(2) the development of advanced meteorological, 
        oceanographic, and other instruments, methodology, and 
        procedures necessary to measure the quality and 
        quantity of all solar resources on periodic bases;
          [(3) the development of activities, arrangements, and 
        procedures for the collection, evaluation, and 
        dissemination of information and data relating to solar 
        energy resource assessment.
    [(b) The Chairman, acting through the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, and other appropriate agencies, shall--
          [(1) develop and carry out a general plan for 
        inventorying all forms of solar energy resources 
        associated with Federal lands and (where consistent 
        with property rights) non-Federal lands;
          [(2) conduct regional surveys based upon such general 
        plan, using innovative meteorological, oceanographic, 
        and space-related techniques, in sufficient numbers to 
        lead to a national inventory of solar energy resources 
        in the United States;
          [(3) publish and make available maps, reports, and 
        other documents developed from such surveys to 
        encourage and facilitate the commercial development of 
        solar energy resources; and
          [(4) make such recommendations for legislation as may 
        appear to be necessary to establish policies for solar 
        resources involving Federal lands and waters, 
        consistent with known inventories of various resource 
        types, with the state of technologies for solar energy 
        development, and with evaluation of the environmental 
        impacts of such development.

                   [RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    [Sec. 6. (a) The Chairman shall initiate a research and 
development program for the purpose of resolving the major 
technical problems inhibiting commercial utilization of solar 
energy in the United States.
    [(b) In connection with or as a part of such program, the 
Chairman shall--
          [(1) conduct, encourage, and promote scientific 
        research and studies to develop effective and 
        economical processes and equipment for the purpose of 
        utilizing solar energy in an acceptable manner for 
        beneficial uses;
          [(2) carry out systems, economic, social, and 
        environmental studies to provide a basis for research, 
        development and demonstration planning and phasing; and
          [(3) perform or cause to be performed technology 
        assessments relevant to the utilization of solar 
        energy.
    [(c) The specific solar energy technologies to be addressed 
or dealt with in the program shall include--
          [(1) direct solar heat as a source for industrial 
        processes, including the utilization of low-level heat 
        for process and other industrial purposes;
          [(2) thermal energy conversion, and other methods, 
        for the generation of electricity and the production of 
        chemical fuels;
          [(3) the conversion of cellulose and other organic 
        materials (including wastes) to useful energy or fuels;
          [(4) photovoltaic and other direct conversion 
        processes;
          [(5) sea thermal gradient conversion;
          [(6) windpower conversion;
          [(7) solar heating and cooling of housing and of 
        commercial and public buildings; and
          [(8) energy storage.

                             [DEMONSTRATION

    [Sec. 7. (a) The Chairman is authorized to initiate a 
program to design and construct, in specific solar energy 
technologies (including, but not limited to, those listed in 
section 6(c), facilities or powerplants of sufficient size to 
demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing 
the various forms of solar energy. The specific goals of such 
programs shall include--
          [(1) production of electricity from a number of power 
        plants, on the order of one to ten megawatts each;
          [(2) production of synthetic fuels in commercial 
        quantities;
          [(3) large-scale utilization of solar energy in the 
        form of direct heat;
          [(4) utilization of thermal and all other byproducts 
        of the solar facilities;
          [(5) design and development of hybrid systems 
        involving the concomitant utilization of solar and 
        other energy sources; and
          [(6) the continuous operation of such plants and 
        facilities for a period of time.
    [(b) For each of the technologies for which a successful 
and appropriate development program is completed, the Chairman 
shall make a determination to proceed to demonstration based on 
criteria including, but not necessarily limited to, the 
following:
          [(1) the technological feasibility of the project;
          [(2) the costs and benefits of the project, as 
        determined by an economic assessment;
          [(3) the immediate and the potential uses of the 
        solar energy utilized in the project;
          [(4) long-term national need for the technology;
          [(5) environmental impact;
          [(6) potential for technology transfer to other 
        applications; and
          [(7) the nature and extent of Federal participation, 
        if any, in the project.
    [(c) In carrying out his responsibilities under this 
section, the Chairman, acting through the appropriate Federal 
agencies, may provide for the establishment of one or more 
demonstration projects utilizing each form of solar energy, 
which shall include, as appropriate, the specific research, 
development, pilot plant construction and operation, 
demonstration plant construction and operation, and other 
facilities and activities which may be necessary to show 
commercial viability of the specific solar technology.
    [(d) The Chairman, acting through the appropriate Federal 
agencies, is authorized to investigate and enter into 
agreements for the cooperative development of facilities to 
demonstrate solar technologies. The responsible Federal agency 
may consider--
          [(1) cooperative agreements with non-Federal entities 
        for construction of facilities and equipment to 
        demonstrate solar energy technologies; and
          [(2) cooperative agreements with other Federal 
        agencies for the construction of facilities and 
        equipment and operation of facilities to produce energy 
        for direct Federal utilization.
    [(e) The Chairman, acting through appropriate Federal 
agencies is authorized to construct and operate demonstration 
projects without entering into cooperative agreements with 
respect to such projects, if the Chairman finds that--
          [(1) the nature of the resource, the geographical 
        location, the scale and engineering design of the 
        facilities, the techniques of production, or any other 
        significant factor of the specific demonstration 
        project offers opportunities to make important 
        contributions to the general knowledge of solar 
        resources, the techniques of its development, or public 
        confidence in the technology; and
          [(2) there is no opportunity for cooperative 
        agreements with any non-Federal entity willing and able 
        to cooperate in the demonstration project under 
        subsection (d)(1), and there is no opportunity for 
        cooperative agreements with other Federal agencies 
        under subsection (d)(2).
    [(f) If the estimate of the Federal investment with respect 
to construction and operation costs of any demonstration 
project proposed to be established under this section exceeds 
$20,000,000, no amount may be appropriated for such project 
except as specifically authorized by legislation hereafter 
enacted by the Congress.
    [(g) (1) At the conclusion of any demonstration project 
established under this section, or as soon thereafter as may be 
practicable, the responsible Federal agencies shall, by sale, 
lease, or otherwise, dispose of all Federal property interests 
which they have acquired pursuant to this section in accordance 
with existing law and the terms of the cooperative agreements 
involved.
    [(2) The agency involved shall, under appropriate 
agreements or other arrangements, provide for the disposition 
of electricity, synthetic fuels, and other byproducts of the 
project administered by such agency.

                  [SOLAR ENERGY INFORMATION DATA BANK

    [Sec. 8. (a)(1) In carrying out his functions under this 
Act the Chairman, utilizing the capabilities of the National 
Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, the Department of Commerce, the Atomic Energy 
Commission, and other appropriate Federal agencies to the 
maximum extent possible, shall establish and operate a Solar 
Energy Information Data Bank (hereinafter in this subsection 
referred to as the ``bank'') for the purpose of collecting, 
reviewing, processing, and disseminating information and data 
in all of the solar energy technologies referred to in section 
7(c) title in a timely and accurate manner in support of the 
objectives of this Act.
    [(2) Information and data compiled in the bank shall 
include--
          [(A) technical information (including reports, 
        journal articles, dissertations, monographs, and 
        project descriptions) on solar energy research, 
        development, and applications;
          [(B) similar technical information on the design, 
        construction, and maintenance of equipment utilizing 
        solar energy;
          [(C) general information on solar energy applications 
        to be disseminated for popular consumption;
          [(D) physical and chemical properties of materials 
        required for solar energy activities and equipment; and
          [(E) engineering performance data on equipment and 
        devices utilizing solar energy.
    [(3) In accordance with regulations prescribed under 
section 5561 of this title, the Chairman shall provide 
retrieval and dissemination services with respect to the 
information described under paragraph (2) for--
          [(A) Federal, State, and local government 
        organizations that are active in the area of energy 
        resources (and their contractors);
          [(B) universities and colleges in their related 
        research and consulting activities; and
          [(C) the private sector upon request in appropriate 
        cases.
    [(4) In carrying out his functions under this subsection, 
the Chairman shall utilize, when feasible, the existing data 
base of scientific and technical information in Federal 
agencies, adding to such data base any information described in 
paragraph (2) which does not already reside in such base. He 
shall coordinate or merge this data bank with other Federal 
energy information data banks as necessary to assure efficient 
and effective operation.
    [(b) In carrying out his functions under this Act the 
Chairman shall perform or cause to be performed studies and 
research on incentives to promote broader utilization and 
consumer acceptance of solar energy technologies.
    [(c) The Chairman shall enter into such arrangements and 
take such other steps as may be necessary or appropriate to 
provide for the effective coordination of solar energy 
technology utilization with all other technology utilization 
programs within the Federal Government.

              [SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    [Sec. 9. The Chairman, acting through the National Science 
Foundation, is authorized and directed to support programs of 
education in the sciences and engineering to provide the 
necessary trained personnel to perform the solar energy 
research, development, and demonstration activities required 
under this Act. Such support may include fellowships, 
traineeships, technical training programs, technologist 
training programs, and summer institute programs.

                    [SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    [Sec. 10. (a) There is established a Solar Energy Research 
Institute, which shall perform such research, development, and 
related functions as the Chairman may determine to be necessary 
or appropriate in connection with the Project's activities 
under this Act or to be otherwise in furtherance of the purpose 
and objectives of this Act.
    [(b) The Institute may be located (as designated by the 
Chairman) at a new or existing Federal laboratory (including a 
non-Federal laboratory performing functions under a contract 
entered into with the Project or with any of the agencies 
represented in the Project as well as a laboratory whose 
personnel are Federal employees).

                       [INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    [Sec. 11. (a) The Chairman, in furtherance of the 
objectives of this Act, is authorized to cooperate and 
participate jointly with other nations, especially those with 
agreements for scientific cooperation with the United States, 
in the following activities:
          [(1) interinstitutional, bilateral, or multilateral 
        research projects in the field of solar energy; and
          [(2) agreements and programs which will facilitate 
        the exchange of information and data relating to solar 
        energy resource assessment and solar energy 
        technologies.
    [(b) The National Science Foundation is authorized to 
encourage, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent 
with the other objectives of this Act, international 
participation and cooperation in the development and 
maintenance of programs of education to carry out the policy 
set forth in section 9.

                              [REGULATIONS

    [Sec. 12. The Chairman, in consultation with heads of the 
Federal agencies having functions under this Act and with other 
appropriate officers and agencies, shall prescribe such 
regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out 
this Act promptly and efficiently. Each such officer or agency, 
in consultation with the Chairman, may prescribe such 
regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out his 
or its particular functions under this Act promptly and 
efficiently.

                            [ANNUAL REPORTS

    [Sec. 13. A summary of all actions taken under the 
provisions of this Act and action planned for the ensuing year 
shall be included in the annual report required by section 657 
of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7267).

                        [INFORMATION TO CONGRESS

    [Sec. 14. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
Chairman (or the head of any agency which assumes the functions 
of the Project pursuant to section 16) shall keep the 
appropriate committees of the House of Representatives and the 
Senate fully and currently informed with respect to all 
activities under this Act.

                   [COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM DEFINITION

    [Sec. 15. (a) The Chairman is authorized and directed to 
prepare a comprehensive program definition of an integrated 
effort and commitment for effectively developing solar energy 
resources. The Chairman, in preparing such program definition, 
shall utilize and consult with the appropriate Federal 
agencies, State and local government agencies, and private 
organizations.
    [(b) The Chairman shall transmit such comprehensive program 
definition to the President and to each House of the Congress. 
An interim report shall be transmitted not later than March 1, 
1975. The comprehensive program definition shall be transmitted 
as soon as possible thereafter, but in any case not later than 
June 30, 1975.

                         [TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

    [Sec. 16. Within sixty days after the effective date of the 
law creating a permanent Federal organization or agency having 
jurisdiction over the energy research and development functions 
of the United States (or within sixty days after October 26, 
1974, if the effective date of such law occurs prior to the 
date of the enactment of this Act), all of the authorities of 
the Project and all of the research and development functions 
(and other functions except those related to scientific and 
technical education) vested in Federal agencies under this Act 
along with related records, documents, personnel, obligations, 
and other items, to the extent necessary or appropriate, shall, 
in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Office of 
Management and Budget, be transferred to and vested in such 
organization or agency.

                    [AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    [Sec. 17. To carry out the provisions of this Act, there 
are authorized to be appropriated--
          [(1) for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, 
        $75,000,000;
          [(2) for subsequent fiscal years, only such sums as 
        the Congress hereafter may authorize by law;
          [(3) such amounts as may be authorized for the 
        construction of demonstrations pursuant to section 7(f) 
        of this Act; and
          [(4) to the National Science Foundation for the 
        fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, not to exceed 
        $2,000,000 to be made available for use in the 
        preparation of the comprehensive program definition 
        under section 15.]

     FEDERAL NONNUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974

Public Law 93-577, as Amended

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                 COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING

    Sec. 6. (a) Pursuant to the authority and directions of 
this Act and the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 
93-438), the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 
7101 et seq.), and titles XX through XXIII of the Energy Policy 
Act of 1992, the Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory 
Board established under section 2302 of the Energy Policy Act 
of 1992, shall transmit to the Congress, on or before June 30, 
1975, a comprehensive plan for energy research, development, 
and demonstration. This plan shall be appropriately revised 
annually as provided in section 15(a). Such plan shall be 
designed to achieve--
          (1) solutions to immediate and short-term (the period 
        up to 5 years after submission of the plan or its 
        annual revision) energy supply system and associated 
        environmental problems;
          (2) solutions to middle-term (the period from 5 years 
        to 10 years after submission of the plan or its annual 
        revision) energy supply system and associated 
        environmental problems; and
          (3) solutions to long-term (the period beyond 10 
        years after submission of the plan or its annual 
        revision) energy supply system and associated 
        environmental problems.
    (b)(1) Based on the comprehensive energy research, 
development, and demonstration plan developed under subsection 
(a), the Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Board 
established under section 2302 of the Energy Policy Act of 
1992, shall develop and transmit to the Congress, on or before 
June 30, 1975, a comprehensive nonnuclear energy research, 
development, and demonstration program to implement the 
nonnuclear research, development, and demonstration aspects of 
the comprehensive plan. Such program shall be updated and 
transmitted to the Congress annually as part of the report 
required under section 15.
    (2) This program shall be designed to achieve solutions to 
the energy supply and associated environmental problems in the 
immediate and short-term, middle-term, and long-term time 
intervals described in subsection (a)(1) through (3). In 
formulating the nonnuclear aspects of this program, the 
Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Board established 
under section 2302 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, shall 
evaluate the economic, environmental, and technological merits 
of each aspect of the program.
    (3) The Secretary shall assign program elements and 
activities in specific nonnuclear energy technologies, to the 
short-term, middle-term, and long-term time intervals, and 
shall present full and complete justification for these 
assignments and the degree of emphasis for each. These program 
elements and activities shall include, but not be limited to, 
research, development, and demonstrations designed--
          (A) to advance energy conservation technologies, 
        including but not limited to--
                  (i) productive use of waste, including 
                garbage, sewage, agricultural wastes, and 
                industrial waste heat;
                  (ii) reuse and recycling of materials and 
                consumer products;
                  (iii) improvements in automobile design for 
                increased efficiency and lowered emissions, 
                including investigation of the full range of 
                alternatives to the internal combustion engine 
                and systems of efficient public transportation; 
                and
                  (iv) advanced urban and architectural design 
                to promote efficient energy use in the 
                residential and commercial sectors, 
                improvements in home design and insulation 
                technologies, small thermal storage units and 
                increased efficiency in electrical appliances 
                and lighting fixtures;
          (B) to accelerate the commercial demonstration of 
        technologies for producing low-sulfur fuels suitable 
        for boiler use;
          (C) to demonstrate improved methods for the 
        generation, storage, and transmission of electrical 
        energy through (i) advances in gas turbine 
        technologies, combined power cycles, the use of low 
        British thermal unit gas and, if practicable, 
        magnetohydrodynamics; (ii) storage systems to allow 
        more efficient load following, including the use of 
        inertial energy storage systems; and (iii) improvement 
        in cryogenic transmission methods;
          (D) to accelerate the commercial demonstration of 
        technologies for producing substitutes for natural gas, 
        including coal gasification: Provided, That the 
        Secretary shall invite and consider proposals from 
        potential participants based upon Federal assistance 
        and participation in the form of a joint Federal-
        industry corporation, and recommendations pursuant to 
        this clause shall be accompanied by a report on the 
        viability of using this form of Federal assistance or 
        participation;
          (E) to accelerate the commercial demonstration of 
        technologies for producing syncrude and liquid 
        petroleum products from coal: Provided, That the 
        Secretary shall invite and consider proposals from 
        potential participants based upon Federal assistance 
        and participation through guaranteed prices or purchase 
        of the products, and recommendations pursuant to this 
        clause shall be accompanied by a report on the 
        viability of using this form of Federal assistance or 
        participation;
          (F) in accordance with the program authorized by the 
        Geothermal Energy Research, Development, and 
        Demonstration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-410), to 
        accelerate the commercial demonstration of geothermal 
        energy technologies;
          (G) to demonstrate the production of syncrude from 
        oil shale by all promising technologies including in 
        situ technologies;
          (H) to demonstrate new and improved methods for the 
        extraction of petroleum resources, including secondary 
        and tertiary recovery of crude oil;
          (I) to demonstrate the economics and commercial 
        viability of solar energy for residential and 
        commercial energy supply applications in accordance 
        with the program authorized by the Solar Heating and 
        Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-409);
          (J) to accelerate the commercial demonstration of 
        environmental control systems for energy technologies 
        developed pursuant to this chapter;
          (K) to investigate the technical and economic 
        feasibility of tidal power for supplying electrical 
        energy;
          [(L) to commercially demonstrate advanced solar 
        energy technologies in accordance with the Solar Energy 
        Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974 
        (Public Law 93-473) ;]
          [(M)] (L) to determine the economics and commercial 
        viability of the production of synthetic fuels such as 
        hydrogen and methanol;
          [(N)] (M) to commercially demonstrate the use of fuel 
        cells for central station electric power generation;
          [(O)] (N) to determine the economics and commercial 
        viability of in situ coal gasification;
          [(P)] (O) to improve techniques for the management of 
        existing energy systems by means of quality control; 
        application of systems analysis, communications, and 
        computer techniques; and public information with the 
        objective of improving the reliability and efficiency 
        of energy supplies and encourage the conservation of 
        energy resources;
          [(Q)] (P) to improve methods for the prevention and 
        cleanup of marine oil spills;
          [(R)] (Q) to implement the Renewable Energy and 
        Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 
        1989 (42 U.S.C. 12001 et seq.); and
          [(S)] (R) to implement titles XX through XXIII of the 
        Energy Policy Act of 1992. (c) Based upon the 
        comprehensive plan developed under subsection (a), the 
        Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Board 
        established under section 2302 of the Energy Policy Act 
        of 1992, shall develop and transmit to the Congress, on 
        or before September 1, 1978, a comprehensive 
        environment and safety program to insure the full 
        consideration and evaluation of all environmental, 
        health, and safety impacts of each element, program, or 
        initiative contained in the nuclear and nonnuclear 
        energy research, development, and demonstration plans. 
        Such program shall be updated and transmitted to the 
        Congress annually as part of the report required under 
        section 15.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION ACT 
                                OF 1978

Public Law 95-590

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                          FINDINGS AND POLICY

    Sec. 2. (a) The Congress hereby finds that--
          (1) the United States of America is faced with a 
        finite and diminishing resource base of native fossil 
        fuels, and as a consequence must develop as quickly as 
        possible a diversified, pluralistic national energy 
        capability and posture;
          (2) the current imbalance between supply and demand 
        for fuels and energy in the United States is likely to 
        grow for many years;
          (3) the early demonstration of the feasibility of 
        using solar photovoltaic energy systems for the 
        generation of electricity could help to relieve the 
        demand on existing fuel and energy supplies;
          (4) the national security and economic well-being of 
        the United States is endangered by its dependence on 
        imported energy supplies which are subject to resource 
        limitations, artificial pricing mechanisms which do not 
        accurately reflect supply and demand relationships, and 
        supply interruptions;
          (5) the early development and widespread utilization 
        of photovoltaic energy systems could significantly 
        expand the domestic energy resource base of the United 
        States, thereby lessening its dependence on foreign 
        supplies;
          (6) the establishment of sizable markets for 
        photovoltaic energy systems will justify private 
        investment in plant and equipment necessary to realize 
        the economies of scale, and will result in significant 
        reductions in the unit costs of these systems;
          (7) the use of solar photovoltaic energy systems for 
        certain limited applications has already proved 
        feasible;
          (8) there appear to be no insoluble technical 
        obstacles to the widespread commercial use of solar 
        photovoltaic energy technologies;
          (9) an aggressive research and development program 
        should solve existing technical problems of solar 
        photovoltaic systems; and, supported by an assured and 
        growing market for photovoltaic systems during the next 
        decade, should maximize the future contribution of 
        solar photovoltaic energy to this Nation's future 
        energy production;
          (10) it is the proper and appropriate role of the 
        Federal Government to undertake research, development, 
        and demonstration programs in solar photovoltaic energy 
        technologies and to supplement and assist private 
        industry and other entities and thereby the general 
        public, so as to hasten the general commercial use of 
        such technologies;
          (11) the high cost of imported energy sources impairs 
        the economic growth of many nations which lack sizable 
        domestic energy supplies or are unable to develop these 
        resources;
          (12) photovoltaic energy systems are economically 
        competitive with conventional energy resources for a 
        wide variety of applications in many foreign nations at 
        the present time, and will find additional applications 
        with continued cost reductions;
          (13) the early development and export of solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems, consistent with the 
        established preeminence of the United States in the 
        field of high technology products, can make a valuable 
        contribution to the well-being of the people of other 
        nations and to this Nation's balance of trade;
          (14) the widespread use of solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems to supplement and replace conventional methods 
        for the generation of electricity would have a 
        beneficial effect upon the environment;
          (15) to increase the potential application of solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems in remote locations, and to 
        minimize the need for backup systems depending on 
        fossil fuel, programs leading to the development of 
        inexpensive and reliable systems for the storage of 
        electricity should be pursued as part of any solar 
        photovoltaic energy research, development, and 
        demonstration program;
          (16) evaluation of the performance and reliability of 
        solar photovoltaic energy technologies can be expedited 
        by testing of prototypes under carefully controlled 
        conditions;
          (17) commercial application of solar photovoltaic 
        energy technologies can be expedited by early 
        commercial demonstration under practical conditions;
          (18) photovoltaic energy systems are currently 
        adaptable on a life cycle, cost-justified basis for 
        certain of the energy needs of the Federal Government, 
        and will find additional applications as continued 
        refinements improve performance and reduce unit costs;
          (19) the Federal Government can stimulate innovation 
        and economic efficiency in the production of 
        photovoltaic energy systems through the development and 
        implementation of policies to promote diversity and 
        maximum competition between firms engaged in the 
        research, manufacture, installation, and/or maintenance 
        of these systems;
          (20) innovation and creativity in the development of 
        solar photovoltaic energy components and systems can be 
        fostered through encouraging direct contact between the 
        manufacturers of such systems and the architects, 
        engineers, developers, contractors, and other persons 
        interested in utilizing such systems; and
          (21) it is contemplated that the ten-year program 
        established by this Act will require the expenditure of 
        $1,500,000,000 by the Federal Government.
    (b) It is therefore declared to be the policy of the United 
States and the purpose of this Act to establish during the next 
decade an aggressive research, development, and demonstration 
program involving solar photovoltaic energy systems and in the 
long term, to have as an objective the production of 
electricity from photovoltaic systems cost competitive with 
utility-generated electricity from conventional sources. 
Further, it is declared to be the policy of the United States 
and the purpose of this Act that the objectives of this 
research, development, and demonstration program are--
          (1) to double the production of solar photovoltaic 
        energy systems each year during the decade starting 
        with fiscal year 1979, measured by the peak generating 
        capacity of the systems produced, so as to reach a 
        total annual United States production of solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems of approximately two 
        million peak kilowatts, and a total cumulative 
        production of such systems of approximately four 
        million peak kilowatts by fiscal year 1988;
          (2) to reduce the average cost of installed solar 
        photovoltaic energy systems to $1 per peak watt by 
        fiscal year 1988; and
          (3) to stimulate the purchase by private buyers of at 
        least 90 per centum of all solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems produced in the United States during fiscal 
        year 1988.

                              DEFINITIONS

    Sec. 3. For purposes of this Act--
          (1) a ``solar photovoltaic energy system'' is a 
        system of components which generates electricity from 
        incident sunlight by means of the photovoltaic effect, 
        and which shall include all components, including 
        energy storage devices where appropriate, necessary to 
        provide electricity for individual, industrial, 
        agricultural, or governmental use;
          (2) the term ``solar photovoltaic energy system'' may 
        be used interchangeably with the term ``photovoltaic 
        system'';
          (3) a ``hybrid solar photovoltaic energy system'' is 
        a system of components that generates electricity from 
        incident sunlight by means of the photovoltaic effect 
        and, in conjunction with electronic and, if 
        appropriate, optical, thermal and storage devices, 
        provides electricity, as well as heat and/or light for 
        individual, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or 
        governmental use;
          (4) ``photovoltaic effect'' refers to the physical 
        phenomenon exhibited under certain circumstances by 
        some materials in which a portion of the light energy 
        striking the material is directly converted to 
        electrical energy;
          (5) ``facility'' means any building, agricultural, 
        commercial or industrial complex or other device 
        constructively employing photovoltaic systems; and
          (6) ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of Energy.

 RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY 
                                SYSTEMS

    Sec. 4. The Secretary is directed to establish immediately 
and carry forth such research, development, and demonstration 
programs as may be necessary to meet the objectives of this Act 
as set forth in section 2(b), and as a part of any such program 
shall--
    (a) conduct, and promote the coordination and acceleration 
of, research, development, and demonstrations relating to solar 
photovoltaic energy systems and components thereof, and
    (b) conduct, and promote the coordination and acceleration 
of, research, development, and demonstrations for systems and 
components to be used in applications that are dependent for 
their energy on solar photovoltaic energy systems.
    Sec. 5. (a) In carrying out the provisions of section 4, 
the Secretary is authorized--
          (1) to establish procedures whereby any public or 
        private entity wishing to install solar photovoltaic 
        components and systems in any new or existing facility 
        may apply for Federal assistance in purchasing and 
        installing, in such facility, photovoltaic components 
        or systems;
          (2) to select, as soon as he deems it feasible, a 
        number of the applicants under paragraph (1) and enter 
        into agreements with them for the design, purchase, 
        fabrication, testing, installation, and demonstration 
        of photovoltaic components and systems. Such selection 
        shall be based on the need to obtain scientific, 
        technological, and economic information from a variety 
        of such systems under a variety of circumstances and 
        conditions; and
          (3) to arrange, as part of any agreement entered into 
        under paragraph (2), to provide up to 75 per centum of 
        the purchase and installation costs of photovoltaic 
        components or systems, taking into account relevant 
        considerations involving the relative stage of consumer 
        and industry interest and development at the time of 
        the financial assistance action. Such arrangements 
        shall be contingent upon terms and conditions 
        prescribed by the Secretary, including an express 
        agreement that the entity with whom the agreement is 
        entered into shall, in such manner and form and on such 
        terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, 
        observe and monitor (or permit the Secretary or his 
        agents to observe and monitor) the performance and 
        operation of such system for a period of five years, 
        and that such entity (including any subsequent owner of 
        the property) shall regularly furnish the Secretary 
        with such reports thereon as the agreement may require.
    (b) The Secretary shall, as he deems appropriate, undertake 
any projects or activities (including demonstration projects) 
to further the attainment of the objectives of this section.
    Sec. 6. (a) The Secretary is authorized to select on the 
basis of open competitions--
          (1) a number of readily available photovoltaic 
        components and systems;
          (2) a number of design concepts for various types of 
        applications which demonstrate adaptability to the 
        utilization of photovoltaic components and systems; and
          (3) a number of designs for applications selected 
        under paragraph (2), so that each design includes 
        specific provisions for the utilization of solar 
        photovoltaic components and systems selected under 
        paragraph (1).
    (b) The Secretary, in accordance with the applicable 
provisions of sections 7, 8, and 9 of the Federal Nonnuclear 
Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5901 et 
seq.) and with such program guidelines as the Secretary may 
establish, shall--
          (1) enter into such contracts and grants as may be 
        necessary or appropriate for the development for 
        commercial production and utilization of photovoltaic 
        components and systems, including any further planning 
        and design which may be required to conform with the 
        specifications set forth in any applicable criteria;
          (2) select, as being compatible with the design 
        concepts chosen under subsection (a)(2) of this 
        section, a reasonable number of photovoltaic components 
        and systems; and
          (3) enter into contracts with a number of persons or 
        firms for the procurement of photovoltaic components 
        and systems, including adequate numbers of spare and 
        replacement parts for such systems.
    (c) The Secretary is authorized to award contracts for the 
design integration between the application concepts and the 
photovoltaic systems procured by the Secretary under subsection 
(b)(3), and for the demonstration of prototype solar 
photovoltaic systems, and, when appropriate, for the 
utilization of such systems in existing facilities. Title to 
and ownership of the facilities so constructed and of 
photovoltaic systems installed hereunder may be conveyed to 
purchasers of such facilities under terms and conditions 
prescribed by the Secretary, including an express agreement 
that any such purchaser shall, in such manner and form and on 
such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, 
observe and monitor (or permit the Secretary to observe and 
monitor) the performance and operation of such systems for a 
period of five years, and that such purchaser (including any 
subsequent owner) shall regularly furnish the Secretary with 
such reports thereon as the agreement may require.
    (d) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator 
of General Services or the Secretary of Defense or both (as may 
be appropriate) shall enter into arrangements with appropriate 
Federal agencies concurrently with the conduct of the programs 
under this section and section 5586 of this title, to carry out 
such projects and activities (including demonstration 
projects), with respect to Federal buildings and facilities, as 
may be appropriate for the demonstration of photovoltaic 
systems suitable and effective for use in such applications.
    (e) The Secretary shall, as he deems appropriate, undertake 
any projects or activities (including demonstration projects) 
to further the attainment of the objectives of this section.

                TEST PROCEDURES AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

    Sec. 7. (a) The Secretary shall conduct a testing program 
for photovoltaic systems to assist in the development and 
demonstration of prototype photovoltaic systems, including 
collectors, controls, power conditioning, and energy storage 
systems.
    (b) Data obtained from the testing program under subsection 
(a) shall be evaluated and used in establishing performance 
criteria. These performance criteria shall be used in the 
demonstration program described in sections 4, 5, and 6 of this 
Act.
    (c) The Secretary shall determine, prescribe, and publish 
in the Federal Register, at a time which he determines to be 
feasible and justified--
          (1) performance criteria for photovoltaic components 
        and systems to be used in appropriate applications, and 
        procedures whereby manufacturers of photovoltaic 
        components and systems shall have their products tested 
        in order to provide certification that such products 
        conform to the performance criteria established under 
        this paragraph; and
          (2) revised performance criteria for photovoltaic 
        components and systems to be used in appropriate 
        applications, and procedures whereby manufacturers of 
        photovoltaic components and systems shall have their 
        products tested in order to provide certification that 
        such products conform to the performance criteria 
        established under this paragraph. Such criteria may be 
        annually revised by the Secretary, as he deems 
        appropriate.
    (d) Any photovoltaic component or system procured or 
installed by the Federal Government or procured or installed 
with Federal assistance under section 5 or section 6 of this 
Act shall meet appropriate performance criteria prescribed 
under this section, if such performance criteria have been 
prescribed.

                  COORDINATION MONITORING, AND LIAISON

    Sec. 8. (a) The Secretary, in coordination with such 
Government agencies as may be appropriate, shall--
          (1) monitor the performance and operation of 
        photovoltaic systems installed under this Act;
          (2) collect and evaluate data and information on the 
        performance and operation of photovoltaic systems 
        installed under this Act; and
          (3) from time to time carry out such studies and 
        investigations and take such other actions, including 
        the submission of special reports to the Congress when 
        appropriate, as may be necessary to assure that the 
        programs for which the Secretary is responsible under 
        this Act effectively carry out the policy of this Act.
    (b) In the development of the performance criteria and test 
procedures required under section 7 of this Act, the Secretary 
shall work closely with the appropriate scientific, technical, 
and professional societies and industry representatives in 
order to assure the best possible use of available expertise in 
this area.
    (c) The Secretary shall also maintain continuing liaison 
with related industries and interests, and with the scientific 
and technical community, during and after the period of the 
programs carried out under this Act, in order to assure that 
the projected benefits of such programs are and will continue 
to be realized.

              SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Sec. 9. (a) There is hereby established a Solar 
Photovoltaic Energy Advisory Committee, which shall study and 
advise the Secretary on--
          (1) the scope and pace of research and development 
        with respect to solar photovoltaic energy systems;
          (2) the need for and timing of solar photovoltaic 
        energy systems demonstration projects;
          (3) the need for change in any research, development, 
        or demonstration program established under this Act; 
        and
          (4) the economic, technological, and environmental 
        consequences of the use of solar photovoltaic energy 
        systems.
    (b) The Committee shall be composed of thirteen members, 
including eleven members appointed by the Secretary from 
industrial organizations, academic institutions, professional 
societies or institutions, and other sources as he sees fit, 
and two members of the public appointed by the President. The 
Chairman of the Committee shall be elected from among the 
members thereof.
    (c) The heads of the departments, agencies, and 
instrumentalities of the executive branch of the Federal 
Government shall cooperate with the Committee in carrying out 
the requirements of this section, and shall furnish to the 
Committee such information as the Committee deems necessary to 
carry out this section.
    (d) Section 624 of the Department of Energy Organization 
Act shall be applicable to the Committee, except as 
inconsistent with this section.

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND OTHER ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE PRACTICAL 
                 USE OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Sec. 10. (a) The Secretary shall take all possible steps to 
assure that full and complete information with respect to the 
demonstrations and other activities conducted under this Act is 
made available to Federal, State, and local authorities, 
relevant segments of the economy, the scientific and technical 
community, and the public at large, both during and after the 
close of the programs under this Act, with the objective of 
promoting and facilitating to the maximum extent feasible the 
early and widespread practical use of photovoltaic energy 
throughout the United States. Any trade secret or other 
proprietary information shall be exempted from such mandatory 
disclosure, as otherwise specified in law applicable to 
research, development and demonstration programs of the 
Department of Energy, including, but not limited to, section 17 
of the Federal Non-Nuclear Energy Research and Development Act 
of 1974, Public Law 93-577, as amended.
    (b) The Secretary shall--
          (1) study the effect of the widespread utilization of 
        photovoltaic systems on the existing electric utility 
        system at varying levels of photovoltaic contribution 
        to the system;
          (2) study and investigate the effect of utility rate 
        structures, building codes, zoning ordinances, and 
        other laws, codes, ordinances, and practices upon the 
        practical use of photovoltaic systems;
          (3) determine the extent to which such laws, codes, 
        ordinances, and practices should be changed to permit 
        or facilitate such use and the methods by which any 
        such changes may best be accomplished; and
          (4) determine the necessity of a program of 
        incentives to accelerate the commercial application of 
        photovoltaic technologies.
    (c) The Secretary is authorized and directed, within one 
year of the date of enactment of this Act, to make 
recommendations to the President and to the Congress for 
Federal policies relating to barriers to the early and 
widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems in order to 
realize the goals set forth in section 2. These recommendations 
shall include but not be limited to--
          (1) the potential for integration of electricity 
        derived from photovoltaic energy systems into the 
        existing national grid system, including the potential 
        of photovoltaic-generated electricity to meet the peak-
        load energy needs of electric utilities, load 
        management and reliability implications of the 
        utilization of photovoltaic electricity by utilities, 
        the implications of utility ownership of photovoltaic 
        components leased to others primarily for decentralized 
        applications, the impacts of utility use of electricity 
        derived from photovoltaic energy systems on utility 
        rate structures, and the potential for reducing or 
        obviating the need for energy storage components for 
        photovoltaic energy systems through utility interface;
          (2) the extent of competition between firms currently 
        engaged in the fabrication and installation of 
        photovoltaics components and systems as it affects the 
        character and growth potential of the American 
        photovoltaics industry, and the likelihood that small 
        photovoltaic firms will have reasonable opportunities 
        to compete and participate in the various programs 
        authorized by this Act;
          (3) the need to identify legal alternatives to ensure 
        access to direct sunlight for photovoltaic energy 
        systems, the appropriate methods of encouraging the 
        adoption of such alternatives, and the implications of 
        widespread utilization of photovoltaic energy systems 
        for land use and urban development;
          (4) the availability of private capital at reasonable 
        interest rates for individuals, businesses and others 
        desiring to establish commercial enterprises to 
        manufacture, market, install, and/or, maintain 
        photovoltaic components and systems, or purchase and 
        install such systems for private, industrial, 
        agricultural, commercial or other uses;
          (5) the need for industry-wide warranty and 
        reliability standards for photovoltaic energy 
        components and systems for private sector applications, 
        and, if appropriate, the mechanisms for establishing 
        such standards; and
          (6) the attainability of the goals specified in 
        subsection 2(b), and any modification of such goals 
        which the Secretary proposes for consideration by 
        Congress, with supporting analyses.
    (d) In carrying out his functions under this section, the 
Secretary shall consult with the appropriate government 
agencies, industry representatives, and members of the 
scientific and technical community having expertise and 
interest in this area. The Secretary also shall ensure that any 
study or report prepared pursuant to this section is fully 
coordinated with and reflective of any analyses or reports 
prepared pursuant to the requirements in section 5556a of this 
title, and in the President's Solar Energy Domestic Policy 
Review. The Secretary, as appropriate, may merge any continuing 
or on-going studies under section 5556a of this title or the 
Domestic Policy Review with those required by this section or 
avoid any unnecessary duplication of effort or funding. The 
separate report requirements of section 5556a of this title and 
this section, however, shall remain in force.

              INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION AND COOPERATION

    Sec. 11. (a) Within one year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of 
State, the Administrator of the Agency for International 
Development, the Director of the Export/Import Bank and other 
appropriate Federal officials, shall submit to the House 
Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate Committee on 
Energy and Natural Resources a plan for demonstrating 
applications of solar photovoltaic energy systems and 
facilitating their widespread use in other nations, especially 
those with agreements for scientific cooperation with the 
United States.
    (b) The Secretary is authorized to encourage, to the 
maximum extent practicable, international participation and 
cooperation in the development and maintenance of programs 
established under this plan. The Secretary, in consultation and 
cooperation with the Federal officials specified in subsection 
(a), shall insure to the maximum extent possible that the plan 
submitted under subsection (a) and any other international 
activities under this section are consistent with and 
reflective of any similar activities or requirements under any 
other Federal statute, specifically including any of the 
several programs under other agencies and Departments involving 
United States international cooperation and assistance in 
nonnuclear energy technology, and will not duplicate activities 
under such programs. The plan required in subsection (a) shall 
specifically identify all such programs and statutes and 
describe how the activities under this section will be 
consistent with such programs, will be coordinated with them, 
and will avoid duplication of activities under such programs.

             ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF SMALL BUSINESS

    Sec. 12. In carrying out his functions under this Act, the 
Secretary shall take steps to assure that small-business 
concerns will have realistic and adequate opportunities to 
participate in the programs under this Act to the maximum 
extent practicable, and the Secretary is directed to set aside 
at least 10 per centum of the funds authorized and appropriated 
for the participation of small business concerns.

                               PRIORITIES

    Sec. 13. The Secretary shall set priorities, as far as 
possible consistent with the intent and operation of this Act, 
in accordance with the following criteria:
          (1) The applications utilizing photovoltaic systems 
        which will be part of the research, development, and 
        demonstration program and testing and demonstration 
        programs referred to in sections 4, 5, 6, and 7 shall 
        be located in a sufficient number of different 
        geographic areas in the United States to assure a 
        realistic and effective demonstration of the use of 
        photovoltaic systems and of the applications 
        themselves, in both rural and urban locations and under 
        climatic conditions which vary as much as possible.
          (2) The projected costs of commercial production and 
        maintenance of the photovoltaic systems utilized in the 
        testing and demonstration programs established under 
        this Act should be taken into account.
          (3) Encouragement should be given in the conduct of 
        programs under this Act to those projects in which 
        funds are appropriated by any State or political 
        subdivision thereof for the purpose of sharing costs 
        with the Federal Government for the purchase and 
        installation of photovoltaic components and systems.
    Sec. 14. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to negate, 
duplicate, or otherwise affect the provisions of title V 
(Federal Initiatives), part 4 (Federal Photovoltaic 
Utilization), National Energy Conservation Policy Act, H.R. 
5037, 95th Congress, if and when that Act becomes enacted by 
the Ninety-fifth Congress, and such part 4 shall be exempted 
fully from the provisions of this Act and any regulations, 
guidelines, or criteria pursuant thereto.

                    AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    Sec. 15. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated to 
the Secretary, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979, 
$125,000,000, inclusive of any funds otherwise authorized for 
photovoltaic programs, (1) to carry out the functions vested in 
the Secretary by this Act, (2) to carry out the functions in 
fiscal year 1979, vested in the Secretary by part 4 of title V 
of H.R. 5037, 95th Congress, if enacted by the 95th Congress, 
and (3) for transfer to such other agencies of the Federal 
Government as may be required to enable them to carry out their 
respective functions under this Act. Funds appropriated 
pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended: 
Provided, That any contract or agreement entered into pursuant 
to this Act shall be effective only to such extent or in such 
amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts. 
Authorizations of appropriations for fiscal years after fiscal 
year 1979 shall be contained in the annual authorization for 
the Department of Energy, except for those funds authorized for 
fiscal years 1980 and 1981 contained in part 4 of title V of 
H.R. 5037, Ninety-fifth Congress, if by the Ninety-fifth 
Congress,.]

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY COMPETIVENESS ACT OF 
                                  1989

Public Law 101-218, as Amended

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 4. NATIONAL GOALS AND MULTI YEAR FUNDING FOR FEDERAL WIND, 
                    [PHOTOVOLTAICS, AND SOLAR THERMAL] ALCOHOL FROM 
                    BIOMASS, AND OTHER TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS

    (a) National Goals.--The following are declared to be the 
national goals for the wind, [photovoltaics, and solar thermal 
energy] alcohol from biomass, and other energy technology 
programs being carried out by the Secretary:
          (1) Wind.--(A) In general, the goals for the Wind 
        Energy Research Program include improving design 
        methodologies and developing more reliable and 
        efficient wind turbines to increase the cost 
        competitiveness of wind energy. Research efforts shall 
        emphasize--
                  (i) activities that address near-term 
                technical problems and assist private sector 
                exploitation of market opportunities of the 
                wind energy industry;
                  (ii) developing technologies such as advanced 
                airfoils and variable speed generators to 
                increase wind turbine output and reduce 
                maintenance costs by decreasing structural 
                stress and fatigue;
                  (iii) increasing the basic knowledge of 
                aerodynamics, structural dynamics, fatigue, and 
                electrical systems interactions as applied to 
                wind energy technology; and
                  (iv) improving the compatibility of 
                electricity produced from wind farms with 
                conventional utility needs.
          (B) Specific goals for the Wind Energy Research 
        Program shall be to--
                  (i) reduce average wind energy costs to 3 to 
                5 cents per kilowatt hour by 1995;
                  (ii) reduce capital costs of new wind energy 
                systems to $500 to $750 per kilowatt of 
                installed capacity by 1995;
                  (iii) reduce operation and maintenance costs 
                for wind energy systems to less than one cent 
                per kilowatt hour by 1995; and
                  (iv) increase capacity factors for new wind 
                energy systems to 25 to 35 percent by 1995.
          [(2) Photovoltaics.--(A) In general, the goals of the 
        Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program shall include 
        improving the reliability and conversion efficiencies 
        of and lowering the costs of photovoltaic conversion. 
        Research efforts shall emphasize advancements in the 
        performance, stability, and durability of photovoltaic 
        materials.
          (B) Specific goals of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems 
        Program shall be to--
                  (i) improve operational reliability of 
                photovoltaic modules to 30 years by 1995;
                  (ii) increase photovoltaic conversion 
                efficiencies by 20 percent by 1995;
                  (iii) decrease new photovoltaic module direct 
                manufacturing costs to $800 per kilowatt by 
                1995; and
                  (iv) increase cost efficiency of photovoltaic 
                power production to 10 cents per kilowatt hour 
                by 1995.
          [(3) Solar thermal.--(A) In general, the goal of the 
        Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program shall be to 
        advance research and development to a point where solar 
        thermal technology is cost-competitive with 
        conventional energy sources, and to promote the 
        integration of this technology into the production of 
        industrial process heat and the conventional utility 
        network. Research and development shall emphasize 
        development of a thermal storage technology to provide 
        capacity for shifting power to periods of demand when 
        full insolation is not available; improvement in 
        receivers, energy conversion devices, and innovative 
        concentrators using stretch membranes, lenses, and 
        other materials; and exploration of advanced 
        manufacturing techniques.
          (B) Specific goals of the Solar Thermal Energy 
        Systems Program shall be to--
                  (i) reduce solar thermal costs for industrial 
                process heat to $9.00 per million Btu by 1995; 
                and
                  (ii) reduce average solar thermal costs for 
                electricity to 4 to 5 cents per kilowatt hour 
                by 1995.]
          [(4)] (2) Alcohol from biomass.--(A) In general, the 
        goal of the Alcohol From Biomass Program shall be to 
        advance research and development to a point where 
        alcohol from biomass technology is cost-competitive 
        with conventional hydrocarbon transportation fuels, and 
        to promote the integration of this technology into the 
        transportation fuel sector of the economy.
          (B)(i) Specific goals for producing ethanol from 
        biomass shall be to--
                  (I) reduce the cost of alcohol to 70 cents 
                per gallon;
                  (II) improve the overall biomass carbohydrate 
                conversion efficiency to 91 percent;
                  (III) reduce the capital cost component of 
                the cost of alcohol to 23 cents per gallon; and
                  (IV) reduce the operating and maintenance 
                component of the cost of alcohol to 47 cents 
                per gallon.
          (ii) Specific goals for producing methanol from 
        biomass shall be to
                  (I) reduce the cost of alcohol to 47 cents 
                per gallon; and
                  (II) reduce the capital component of the cost 
                of alcohol to 16 cents per gallon.
          [(5)] (3) Other technologies.--The Secretary shall 
        submit to the Congress, as part of the first report 
        submitted under section 9, recommendations for specific 
        cost goals and other pertinent goals for 1995 for 
        Department of Energy research, development, and 
        demonstration programs in Biofuels Energy Systems, 
        Biodiesel Energy Systems, Hydrogen Energy Systems, 
        Solar Buildings Energy Systems, Ocean Energy Systems, 
        Geothermal Energy Systems, Low-Head Hydro, and Energy 
        Storage Systems.
    (b) Amended Goals.--Whenever the Secretary determines that 
any of the goals established under this section is no longer 
appropriate, the Secretary shall notify Congress, as part of a 
report submitted under section 9, of the reason for the 
determination and provide an amended goal that is consistent 
with the purpose stated in section 2(b).
    (c) Authorizations.-- There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary for the following renewable 
energy research, development, and demonstration programs: the 
Wind Energy Research Program, [the Photovoltaic Energy Systems 
Program, the Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program,] the 
Biofuels Energy Systems Program, the Hydrogen Energy Systems 
Program, the Solar Buildings Energy Systems Program, the Ocean 
Energy Systems Program, and the Geothermal Energy Systems 
Program--
          (1) not to exceed $113,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, 
        of which--
                  [(A) not to exceed $39,000,000 shall be 
                available for the Photovoltaic Energy Systems 
                Program;]
                  [(B)] (A) not to exceed $19,000,000 shall be 
                available for the Geothermal Energy Systems 
                Program; and
                  [(C)] (B) not to exceed $4,000,000 shall be 
                available for the Hydrogen Energy Systems 
                Program; and
          (2) not to exceed $121,000,000 for fiscal year 1992, 
        of which--
                  [(A) not to exceed $40,000,000 shall be 
                available for the Photovoltaic Energy Systems 
                Program;]
                  [(B)] (A) not to exceed $20,500,000 shall be 
                available for the Geothermal Energy Systems 
                Program; and
                  [(C)] (B) not to exceed $5,000,000 shall be 
                available for the Hydrogen Energy Systems 
                Program.
    Each of the President's annual budget requests submitted to 
Congress after the date of enactment of this Act shall include 
as separate line items each of the categories of renewable 
energy programs described in this subsection.

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                       ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005

Public Law 109-58, as Amended

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                   TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


                      Subtitle C--Renewable Energy


SEC. 931. RENEWABLE ENERGY.

    (a) In General.--
          (1) Objectives.--The Secretary shall conduct programs 
        of renewable energy research, development, 
        demonstration, and commercial application, including 
        activities described in this part. Such programs shall 
        take into consideration the following objectives:
                  (A) Increasing the conversion efficiency of 
                all forms of renewable energy through improved 
                technologies.
                  (B) Decreasing the cost of renewable energy 
                generation and delivery.
                  (C) Promoting the diversity of the energy 
                supply.
                  (D) Decreasing the dependence of the United 
                States on foreign energy supplies.
                  (E) Improving United States energy security.
                  (F) Decreasing the environmental impact of 
                energy-related activities.
                  (G) Increasing the export of renewable 
                generation equipment from the United States.
          (2) Programs.--
                  [(A) Solar energy.--The Secretary shall 
                conduct a program of research, development, 
                demonstration, and commercial application for 
                solar energy, including--
                          (i) photovoltaics;
                          (ii) solar hot water and solar space 
                        heating;
                          (iii) concentrating solar power;
                          (iv) lighting systems that integrate 
                        sunlight and electrical lighting in 
                        complement to each other in common 
                        lighting fixtures for the purpose of 
                        improving energy efficiency;
                          (v) manufacturability of low cost, 
                        high quality solar systems; and
                          (vi) development of products that can 
                        be easily integrated into new and 
                        existing buildings.]
                  [(B)] (A) Wind energy.-- The Secretary shall 
                conduct a program of research, development, 
                demonstration, and commercial application for 
                wind energy, including--
                          (i) low speed wind energy;
                          (ii) offshore wind energy;
                          (iii) testing and verification 
                        (including construction and operation 
                        of a research and testing facility 
                        capable of testing wind turbines); and
                          (iv) distributed wind energy 
                        generation.
                  [(C)] (B) Geothermal.--The Secretary shall 
                conduct a program of research, development, 
                demonstration, and commercial application for 
                geothermal energy. The program shall focus on 
                developing improved technologies for reducing 
                the costs of geothermal energy installations, 
                including technologies for--
                          (i) improving detection of geothermal 
                        resources;
                          (ii) decreasing drilling costs;
                          (iii) decreasing maintenance costs 
                        through improved materials;
                          (iv) increasing the potential for 
                        other revenue sources, such as mineral 
                        production; and
                          (v) increasing the understanding of 
                        reservoir life cycle and management.
                  [(D)] (C) Hydropower.--The Secretary shall 
                conduct a program of research, development, 
                demonstration, and commercial application for 
                cost competitive technologies that enable the 
                development of new and incremental hydropower 
                capacity, adding to the diversity of the energy 
                supply of the United States, including:
                          (i) Fish-friendly large turbines.
                          (ii) Advanced technologies to enhance 
                        environmental performance and yield 
                        greater energy efficiencies.
                  [(E)] (D) Miscellaneous projects.--The 
                Secretary shall conduct research, development, 
                demonstration, and commercial application 
                programs for--
                          (i) ocean energy, including wave 
                        energy;
                          (ii) the combined use of renewable 
                        energy technologies with one another 
                        and with other energy technologies, 
                        including the combined use of wind 
                        power and coal gasification 
                        technologies;
                          (iii) renewable energy technologies 
                        for cogeneration of hydrogen and 
                        electricity; and
                          (iv) kinetic hydro turbines.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out renewable 
energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial 
application activities, including activities authorized under 
this subtitle--
          (1) $632,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;
          (2) $743,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
          (3) $852,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and
          (4) $963,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.
    (c) Bioenergy.--From the amounts authorized under 
subsection (b), there are authorized to be appropriated to 
carry out section 932--
          (1) $213,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, of which 
        $100,000,000 shall be for section 932(d);
          (2) $377,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which 
        $125,000,000 shall be for section 932(d);
          (3) $398,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which 
        $150,000,000 shall be for section 932(d); and
          (4) $419,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which 
        $150,000,000 shall be for section 932(d).
    [(d) Solar Power.--From amounts authorized under subsection 
(b), there is authorized to be appropriated to carry out 
activities under subsection (a)(2)(A)--
          (1) $140,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, of which 
        $40,000,000 shall be for activities under section 935;
          (2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which 
        $50,000,000 shall be for activities under section 935; 
        and
          (3) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which 
        $50,000,000 shall be for activities under section 935.]
    [(e)] (d) Administration.--Of the funds authorized under 
subsection (c), not less than $5,000,000 for each fiscal year 
shall be made available for grants to--
          (1) part B institutions;
          (2) Tribal Colleges or Universities (as defined in 
        section 316(b) of the Higher Education Act of 1965); 
        and
          (3) Hispanic-serving institutions.
    [(f)] (e) Rural Demonstration Projects.--In carrying out 
this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary 
of Agriculture, shall demonstrate the use of renewable energy 
technologies to assist in delivering electricity to rural and 
remote locations including--
          (1) advanced wind power technology, including 
        combined use with coal gasification;
          (2) biomass; and
          (3) geothermal energy systems.
    [(g)] (f) Analysis and Evaluation.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct analysis 
        and evaluation in support of the renewable energy 
        programs under this part. These activities shall be 
        used to guide budget and program decisions, and shall 
        include--
                  (A) economic and technical analysis of 
                renewable energy potential, including resource 
                assessment;
                  (B) analysis of past program performance, 
                both in terms of technical advances and in 
                market introduction of renewable energy; and
                  (C) any other analysis or evaluation that the 
                Secretary considers appropriate.
          (2) Funding.--The Secretary may designate up to 1 
        percent of the funds appropriated for carrying out this 
        part for analysis and evaluation activities under this 
        subsection.

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              ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY ACT OF 2007

Public Law 110-140, as Amended

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



             TITLE VI--ACCELERATED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


                        Subtitle A--Solar Energy


SEC. 601. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``Solar Energy Research 
and Advancement Act of 2007.''

SEC. 602. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

    (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a program 
of research and development to provide lower cost and more 
viable thermal energy storage technologies to enable the 
shifting of electric power loads on demand and extend the 
operating time of concentrating solar power electric generating 
plants.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this 
section $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, $7,000,000 for fiscal 
year 2009, $9,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, $10,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2011, and $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.

SEC. 604. SOLAR ENERGY CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND CERTIFICATION GRANTS.

    (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish in the 
Office of Solar Energy Technologies a competitive grant program 
to create and strengthen solar industry workforce training and 
internship programs in installation, operation, and maintenance 
of solar energy products. The goal of this program is to ensure 
a supply of well-trained individuals to support the expansion 
of the solar energy industry.
    (b) Authorized Activities.--Grant funds may be used to 
support the following activities:
          (1) Creation and development of a solar energy 
        curriculum appropriate for the local educational, 
        entrepreneurial, and environmental conditions, 
        including curriculum for community colleges.
          (2) Support of certification programs for individual 
        solar energy system installers, instructors, and 
        training programs.
          (3) Internship programs that provide hands-on 
        participation by students in commercial applications.
          (4) Activities required to obtain certification of 
        training programs and facilities by an industry-
        accepted quality-control certification program.
          (5) Incorporation of solar-specific learning modules 
        into traditional occupational training and internship 
        programs for construction-related trades.
          (6) The purchase of equipment necessary to carry out 
        activities under this section.
          (7) Support of programs that provide guidance and 
        updates to solar energy curriculum instructors.
    (c) Administration of Grants.--Grants may be awarded under 
this section for up to 3 years. The Secretary shall award 
grants to ensure sufficient geographic distribution of training 
programs nationally. Grants shall only be awarded for programs 
certified by an industry-accepted quality-control certification 
institution, or for new and growing programs with a credible 
path to certification. Due consideration shall be given to 
women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with 
disabilities.
    (d) Report.--The Secretary shall make public, on the 
website of the Department or upon request, information on the 
name and institution for all grants awarded under this section, 
including a brief description of the project as well as the 
grant award amount.
    (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this 
section $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 
2012.

SEC. 605. DAYLIGHTING SYSTEMS AND DIRECT SOLAR LIGHT PIPE TECHNOLOGY.

    (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a program 
of research and development to provide assistance in the 
demonstration and commercial application of direct solar 
renewable energy sources to provide alternatives to traditional 
power generation for lighting and illumination, including light 
pipe technology, and to promote greater energy conservation and 
improved efficiency. All direct solar renewable energy devices 
supported under this program shall have the capability to 
provide measurable data on the amount of kilowatt-hours saved 
over the traditionally powered light sources they have 
replaced.
    (b) Reporting.--The Secretary shall transmit to Congress an 
annual report assessing the measurable data derived from each 
project in the direct solar renewable energy sources program 
and the energy savings resulting from its use.
    (c) Definitions.--For purposes of this section--
          (1) the term ``direct solar renewable energy'' means 
        energy from a device that converts sunlight into 
        useable light within a building, tunnel, or other 
        enclosed structure, replacing artificial light 
        generated by a light fixture and doing so without the 
        conversion of the sunlight into another form of energy; 
        and (2) the term ``light pipe'' means a device designed 
        to transport visible solar radiation from its 
        collection point to the interior of a building while 
        excluding interior heat gain in the nonheating season.
    (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this 
section $3,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 
2012.

[SEC. 606. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

    (a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a 
research, development, and demonstration program to promote 
less costly and more reliable decentralized distributed solar-
powered air conditioning for individuals and businesses.
    (b) Authorized Activities.--Grants made available under 
this section may be used to support the following activities:
          (1) Advancing solar thermal collectors, including 
        concentrating solar thermal and electric systems, flat 
        plate and evacuated tube collector performance.
          (2) Achieving technical and economic integration of 
        solar-powered distributed air-conditioning systems with 
        existing hot water and storage systems for residential 
        applications.
          (3) Designing and demonstrating mass manufacturing 
        capability to reduce costs of modular standardized 
        solar-powered distributed air conditioning systems and 
        components.
          (4) Improving the efficiency of solar-powered 
        distributed air-conditioning to increase the 
        effectiveness of solar-powered absorption chillers, 
        solar-driven compressors and condensors,\1\ and cost-
        effective precooling approaches.
          (5) Researching and comparing performance of solar-
        powered distributed air conditioning systems in 
        different regions of the country, including potential 
        integration with other onsite systems, such as solar, 
        biogas, geothermal heat pumps, and propane assist or 
        combined propane fuel cells, with a goal to develop 
        site-specific energy production and management systems 
        that ease fuel and peak utility loading.
    (c) Cost Sharing.--Section 988 of the Energy Policy Act of 
2005 (42 U.S.C. 16352) shall apply to a project carried out 
under this section.
    (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary for carrying out this 
section $2,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 
2012.

[SEC. 607. PHOTOVOLTAIC DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary shall establish a program of 
grants to States to demonstrate advanced photovoltaic 
technology.
    (b) Requirements.--
          (1) Ability to meet requirements.--To receive funding 
        under the program under this section, a State must 
        submit a proposal that demonstrates, to the 
        satisfaction of the Secretary, that the State will meet 
        the requirements of subsection (f).
          (2) Compliance with requirements.--If a State has 
        received funding under this section for the preceding 
        year, the State must demonstrate, to the satisfaction 
        of the Secretary, that it complied with the 
        requirements of subsection (f) in carrying out the 
        program during that preceding year, and that it will do 
        so in the future, before it can receive further funding 
        under this section.
    (c) Competition.--The Secretary shall award grants on a 
competitive basis to the States with the proposals the 
Secretary considers most likely to encourage the widespread 
adoption of photovoltaic technologies. The Secretary shall take 
into consideration the geographic distribution of awards.
    (d) Proposals.--Not later than 6 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, and in each subsequent fiscal year for 
the life of the program, the Secretary shall solicit proposals 
from the States to participate in the program under this 
section.
    (e) Competitive Criteria.--In awarding funds in a 
competitive allocation under subsection (c), the Secretary 
shall consider--
          (1) the likelihood of a proposal to encourage the 
        demonstration of, or lower the costs of, advanced 
        photovoltaic technologies; and
          (2) the extent to which a proposal is likely to--
                  (A) maximize the amount of photovoltaics 
                demonstrated;
                  (B) maximize the proportion of non-Federal 
                cost share; and
                  (C) limit State administrative costs.
    (f) State Program.--A program operated by a State with 
funding under this section shall provide competitive awards for 
the demonstration of advanced photovoltaic technologies. Each 
State program shall--
          (1) require a contribution of at least 60 percent per 
        award from non-Federal sources, which may include any 
        combination of State, local, and private funds, except 
        that at least 10 percent of the funding must be 
        supplied by the State;
          (2) endeavor to fund recipients in the commercial, 
        industrial, institutional, governmental, and 
        residential sectors;
          (3) limit State administrative costs to no more than 
        10 percent of the grant;
          (4) report annually to the Secretary on--
                  (A) the amount of funds disbursed;
                  (B) the amount of photovoltaics purchased; 
                and
                  (C) the results of the monitoring under 
                paragraph (5);
          (5) provide for measurement and verification of the 
        output of a representative sample of the photovoltaics 
        systems demonstrated throughout the average working 
        life of the systems, or at least 20 years; and
          (6) require that applicant buildings must have 
        received an independent energy efficiency audit during 
        the 6-month period preceding the filing of the 
        application.
    (g) Unexpended Funds.--If a State fails to expend any funds 
received under this section within 3 years of receipt, such 
remaining funds shall be returned to the Treasury.
    (h) Reports.--The Secretary shall report to Congress 5 
years after funds are first distributed to the States under 
this section--
          (1) the amount of photovoltaics demonstrated;
          (2) the number of projects undertaken;
          (3) the administrative costs of the program;
          (4) the results of the monitoring under subsection 
        (f)(5); and
          (5) the total amount of funds distributed, including 
        a breakdown by State.
    (i) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary for the purposes of 
carrying out this section--
          (1) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
          (2) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
          (3) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
          (4) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and
          (5) $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.]

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